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METALS (KEY POINTS THAT YOU NEED TO KNOW) 1.

Physical properties of Metals


Good conductors of electricity (* main property to differentiate metal and non metal) Malleable (can be bent and beaten into different shapes) Ductile (can be stretched to form wires) Lustrous (shiny surface) Good conductors of heat High melting and boiling points (except Group I metals) High densities (except Group I metals)

2.

An alloy is a mixture of a metal with another element. (Note: can be metal or non metal) Steel / Mild Steel iron and carbon Stainless Steel iron, carbon, nickel and chromium Brass copper and zinc (Zn) Bronze copper and tin (Sn)
Note: Both brass and bronze contains copper. Brass (with s) contains zinc (with z); Bronze (with z) contains tin (with s, in Sn)

3.

Alloys are much stronger, harder and tougher than pure metals.
In pure metals, the atoms are of the same size and are packed regularly in layers. Pure metals are soft because the layers of atoms can slide over each other easily. In an alloy, the atoms of different elements have different sizes. This disrupts the orderly arrangement of atoms and makes it more difficult for the layers of atoms to slide over each other. Hence, alloys are much harder and stronger than pure metals.

4.

Reactivity Series Of Metals Potassium Sodium Calcium Magnesium Aluminium Zinc Iron Lead Hydrogen Copper Silver (K) (Na) (Ca) (Mg) (Al) (Zn) (Fe) (Pb) (H) (Cu) (Ag) Please Stop Calling Me A Zebra I Love Him / Her Calling Sweet / Suave Note: Metals above hydrogen will react with acids to produce hydrogen Note: K to Al are extracted by electrolysis of their molten ores. Note: Only metals from K to Mg will react with cold water Note: Gold is the only metal that remains

5.

Gold (Au) Girl / Guy uncombined as an element Chemical Properties Of Metals (Note: Chemical Properties refer to the reactions)
Metal + Water Metal hydroxide + Hydrogen Metal + Steam Metal oxide + Hydrogen Metal + Hydrochloric Acid Metal chloride + Hydrogen Metal + Oxygen Metal oxide (Note: the metal oxide is basic oxide or amphoteric oxide) Summary of Reactions of Metals with Cold Water, Steam and Hydrochloric Acid

Metal Potassium

Sodium

Calcium Magnesium

Cold Water Very vigorously / Explosively (Hydrogen gas catches fire and burns / explodes with a lilac flame) Vigorously / Very fast -- (Too explosive) Sometimes with a flame (Hydrogen gas produced may catch fire and burn with a yellow flame) Readily -- (Too explosive) Very slowly

Reaction of Metal With Steam -- (Too explosive)

Hydrochloric Acid Explosively (DO NOT carry out this reaction in the school laboratory) Explosively (DO NOT carry out this reaction in the school laboratory) Very fast / Vigorously Very fast / Rapidly (slower than calcium) Moderately fast

Zinc

No reaction (Does not react) No reaction No reaction

Iron Lead Copper Silver

Burns / Vigorously (A white powder and a bright white glow are produced) Burns / Readily, though less vigorously than Mg (Zinc oxide is yellow when hot and white when cold) Slowly (Black iron (II, III) oxide, Fe3O4, is produced) No reaction

Slowly Very Slowly (with warm HCl) No reaction No reaction

No reaction with water under any condition No reaction with water under any condition

* * * To describe the reactions, if any, of a metal with water / steam / hydrochloric acid: (Metal) reacts (explosively / vigorously / very fast / rapidly / readily / slowly / very slowly) with (cold water / steam / hydrochloric acid) to form (metal hydroxide / metal oxide / metal chloride) and hydrogen gas. Note: Choose the appropriate word in each bracket or state the name of the metal as required.

6. OR

Explain why metals like zinc and iron can be extracted from their metal ores by reduction by carbon, but metals like sodium cannot. Explain why carbon can be used to obtain iron from iron oxide but not to obtain calcium from calcium oxide. [See Qn 6 below]

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Displacement reactions A more reactive metal will displace a less reactive metal out from its aqueous solution. Example: Iron + Copper (II) sulfate Copper + Iron (II) sulfate Fe (s) + CuSO4 (aq) Cu (s) + FeSO4 (aq) Fe (s) + Cu2+ (aq) Cu (s) + Fe2+ (aq)

State, and explain, what takes place when some iron is added to copper (II) sulfate. A displacement reaction takes place. Iron is more reactive than copper (i.e. Iron gives up electrons to form positive ions more readily than copper), so iron displaces copper out of copper (II) sulfate solution. State the observations made in the reaction. o A reddish brown / pink solid (Cu) is deposited / formed. o The blue copper (II) sulphate solution turns pale green [colourless]. (due to iron (II) sulphate solution [zinc sulfate solution] produced) o Iron becomes smaller in size as it reacts and dissolves in copper (II) sulphate.

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Extraction of Iron Raw materials: Haematite / Iron ore / Iron (III) oxide / Fe2O3 Limestone / Calcium carbonate / CaCO3 Coke / Carbon / C Gas fed in at the top : Hot air [Note: It is air, not oxygen] Products formed at the bottom: Molten slag on top of molten iron Waste gases: Nitrogen (from hot air, oxygen used up), carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide (from burning of fossil fuels) Describe how iron is manufactured from its ore Write out 5 sentences. Describe, with the aid of equations, how iron is extracted from a named ore. Name the ore haematite; Write out 5 sentences and 5 chemical eqautions. Include the chemical equations for the extraction of iron and decomposition of limestone Fe2O3 + 3 CO 2 Fe + 3 CO2 CaCO3 CaO + CO2

9.

Reycling of metals [Refer to 2007 O Level Qn 3 (c), 2005 O Level Qn 11 (c)]. (What?) Recycling is the process of reusing materials to make new objects. (Why?) Metal ores are finite, which will be eventually used up, if we keep mining / extracting new metal from their metal ores. Recycling metals help to save the finite / limited resource of metal ore. (Why?) Recycling is normally cheaper than mining / extracting. Recycling metals save the cost of extracting new metals from metal ores. (Why?) Recycling usually needs less energy / is more energy - saving than mining / extracting new metals from metal ores. Recycling metals saves the energy requirements of extracting new metals from metal ores. Reasons for concentrating on recycling of copper rather than iron: (Why?) Greater scarcity of copper ores Copper ores are more scarce / less abundant than iron ores, so copper ores will be used up at a faster rate than iron ores. (Why?) Greater cost of copper Coper is more expensive / has a greater cost than iron, so it is more economical to recycle copper. (Why?) Iron will rust away on its own accord, if left for some time Copper will accumulate when disposed as it does not get correded easily. Recycling copper helps to save land space needed for landfills.

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Rusting Of Iron Conditions needed for rusting: Oxygen and Water Methods of Preventing Rusting (1) Coating with a layer of oil / grease / paint / less reactive metal, e.g. tin - plating. The layer of (oil / tin / grease / metal) prevents oxygen and water from coming into contact with the iron underneath it. (2) (3) Galvanizing / galvanized iron iron coated with a layer of zinc The more reactive metal, zinc, corrodes preferentially in place of the iron. Sacrificial protection Attaching a more reactive metal to iron

(e.g. Mg to iron water pipes; Zn blocks to iron ship hulls) The more reactive metal (Mg or Zn) corrodes preferentially in place of iron. (COMMON QUESTIONS AND ANSWER THAT YOU CAN MEMORIZE) 1. Explain why steel is much harder and stronger than pure iron. [Refer to Mock Exam Qn 6(d)(ii) / MJR 2009 Prelim Qn 9(c)] The different sizes of the different atoms in steel (iron and carbon)disrupts the orderly arrangement of atoms and makes it more difficult for the layers of atoms to slide over each other. Hence, alloys are much harder and stronger than pure metals. 2. Explain why it is important to recycle metals. [Refer to 2007 O Level Qn 3 (c) (i), 2005 O Level Qn 11 (c)] Refer to Point 9 in notes above. 3. Suggest one reason why some countries concentrate more on recycling copper than on recycling iron. [Refer to 2007 O Level Qn 3 (c) (ii)] Refer to Point 9 in notes above. 4. By naming the products formed, describe what you would see if pieces of zinc metal were placed in a solution of copper(II) sulfate. [Refer to MJR 2009 Prelim Qn 9(b)] The products formed are copper and a solution of zinc sulphate. Blue copper(II) sulfate solution turns colourless. Brown solid (copper) deposited. Zinc metal decreases in size. Refer to Point 7 in notes above. 5. A list of metals is given: Calcium Copper Magnesium Zinc Iron Describe how the reactions, if any, of these metals with water or steam may be used to place the metals in order of decreasing reactivity. [Refer to MJR 2009 Prelim Qn 9 (a), MJR 2009 Mid Year Qn 10(b)] Calcium reacts readily with cold water to form calcium hydroxide and hydrogen. Magnesium reacts slowly with cold water to form magnesium hydroxide but burns in steam to form magnesium oxide and hydrogen. Zinc does not react with cold water but burns in steam to form zinc oxide and hydrogen. Iron does not react with cold water but reacts slowly with steam to form iron (II) oxide and hydrogen. Copper does not react with water under any conditions.

6. OR

The metals can be placed in order of decreasing reactivity: Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc, Iron, Copper. Explain why metals like zinc and iron can be extracted from their metal ores by reduction by carbon, but metals like sodium cannot. Explain why carbon can be used to obtain iron from iron oxide but not to obtain calcium from calcium oxide. [Refer to 2007 O Level Qn 3 (b)] Carbon is more reactive than iron (zinc), so carbon is able to replace iron (zinc) from iron oxide (zinc oxide). Carbon is more reactive than iron (zinc), so carbon is able to reduce iron oxide (zinc oxide) to form iron (zinc). Calcium (sodium) is a very reactive metal that forms very strong bonds in its compounds, calcium oxide (sodium oxide). Carbon is less reactive than calcium (sodium), so it is not strong enough to replace calcium (sodium) from calcium oxide (sodium oxide). Carbon is less reactive than calcium (sodium), so carbon is not strong enough to reduce calcium oxide (sodium oxide) to form calcium (sodium). By naming a suitable iron ore, describe how iron can be manufactured from the iron ore using coke, C, and limestone, CaCO 3. Write equations for the decomposition of limestone and the reduction of the ore. [Refer to MJR 2009 Mid Year Exam Qn 10 (a)]
Name ore 5 steps M each 3M

OR

OR

7.

Iron can be manufactured from the iron ore, haematite, in a blast furnace. The iron ore, coke and limestone are fed in at the top of the blast furnace. Blasts of hot air are fed in at the bottom of the blast furnace. Coke reacts with oxygen from the hot air to produce carbon dioxide and heat. Carbon dioxide reacts with more coke and is reduced to carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide is the reducing agent that reduces the iron ore, haematite to produce molten iron, which is run off at the bottom of the furnace. Limestone (calcium carbonate) is decomposed by heat to produce calcium oxide (lime) and carbon dioxide. The basic calcium oxide reacts with acidic silicon dioxide and other impurities in the ore to produce slag, which runs down from the bottom of the furnace and floats on top of the molten iron. The molten iron is tapped off separately from the slag.
CaO + CO 2 Equation for decomposition of limestone: CaCO 3

Equation for reduction of iron ore: Fe2O3 + 3 CO 2 Fe + 3 CO2

Formulae, heating , Formulae, Balancing,