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B O O K O F A B S T R A C T S

SYMPOSIUM ON THE REHABILITATION OF DRYLAND FORESTS IN ETHIOPIA: ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT

21-24 September 2004 Mekelle, Ethiopia

Mekelle University

K.U.Leuven

VLIR Flemish Inter-University Council Belgium

Bart MUYS, KINDEYA GEBREHIWOT and Sofie BRUNEEL (Eds.)

Bibliographical reference: Muys, B., Kindeya Gebrehiwot and S. Bruneel (Eds.), 2004. Symposium on the rehabilitation of dryland forests in Ethiopia: ecology and management. Mekelle, Ethiopia, 21-24 September 2004. Book of abstracts.

SESSION 1 PROBLEM STATEMENT AND RESOURCE ASSESSMENT PAPERS 1. Tewolde Berhan Gebre Egziabher. The role of forest rehabilitation in poverty alleviation in drylands 2. J. Nyssen. Land degradation and restoration in the Ethiopian highlands: the importance of vegetation POSTERS 1. Engida Mersha. The extent of desertification in Ethiopia 2. Takele Mitiku. Achieving sustainable development in the presence of climate variability 3. Wolde Mekuria and E. Veldkamp. Impact of land use changes on dynamic soil properties and water erosion control in Tigray, Ethiopia

SESSION 2 FOREST RELICS: ISLANDS OF BIODIVERSITY AND FOCAL POINTS OF FOREST RESTORATION PAPERS 1. Alemayehu Wassie, F. Bongers and F. Sterck. Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church forests: opportunities and challenges for restoration 2. Sarah Tewolde-Berhan, R. Mitloehner, B. Muys and Mitiku Haile. Species composition and restoration potential of forest relic in the highlands of Tigray 3. Mateos Ersado and Taye Bekele. Conservation status and regeneration of woody species in the dry lowland Juniperus forest of Yabello area, Oromiya 4. Simon Shibru and Zerihun Woldu. Comparative floristic study on Mt. Alutu and Mt. Chubbi along an altitudinal gradient POSTERS 1. R. Aerts, E. November, I. Van der Borght, W. Maes, Melaku Tafere and B. Muys. Survival limitation of African wild olive seedlings by browsing livestock in the highlands of Tigray, Ethiopia 2. M. Heyn, J. Valckx, B. Reubens, Mintesinot Behailu, J. Deckers, M. Hermy and B. Muys. Dry tropical forest relics and closed areas in the Northern highlands of Tigray: insights in typology and rehabilitation 3. Kumelachew Yeshitel and Girma Blacha. Woody species composition and structure of Lake Tana Forests: consideration for conservation 4. Getachew Berhan, Simon Shibru and Mateos Ersado. Floristic composition, conservation status and recommended genetic conservation measures of the lowland woodland species in Harotatesa resettlement area, Bedele, Western Oromia 5. F. Sterck, C. Couralet, U. Sass-Klaassen and Tesfaye Bekele. Growth and population dynamics of Juniperus Procera in an Ethiopia dry forest, analysed with dendrochronology and matrix models

SESSION 3 RESTORATION ECOLOGY OF DRYLAND FORESTS PAPERS 1. M. Hermy. An assessment of effects of forest fragmentation on species diversity in the Ethiopian highlands: an overview 2. R. Aerts, E. November, W. Maes, I. Van der borght, Behailu Mintesinot, M. Hermy and B. Muys. Criticial phases in the natural regeneration of African wild olive in Northern Ethiopia 3. Demel Teketay. Seed and regeneration ecology in dry afromontane forests of Ethiopia: with special reference to woody plants 4. M. Heyn, B. Reubens, J. Valckx, Kindeya Gebrehiwot, J. Deckers, M. Hermy and B. Muys. The soil seed bank: a support or a threat to forest restoration in the Northern highlands of Ethiopia? POSTERS 1. K. Descheemaeker, B. Muys, J. Nyssen, J. Poesen, Mitiku Haile and S. Deckers. Litter production in exclosures in the Tigray highlands, Ethiopia 2. Yigremachew Seyoum and Masresha Fetene. Seed source variation in drought tolerance of Cordia africana Lam. Seedlings 3. Zebene Asfaw. Managing mycorrhizal associations in dry land forest rehabilitation: significance and potentials 4. Desalegn Tadelle. Growth and establishment of seedlings of indigenous species inside plantations and the adjacent natural forest 5. C. Ky-Dembl, M. Tigabu, J. Bayala, S.J. Oudraogo and P.C. Odn. The relative importance of different regeneration modes for the restoration of selectively cut savannawoodland in Burkina Faso, West Africa

SESSION 4 MANAGEMENT PRACTICE FOR FOREST RESTORATION PAPERS 1. Bashir Jama, Eyasu Elias and Kebadire Mogotsi. Role of agroforestry in improving food security and natural resource management: a regional overview 2. Kindeya Gebrehiwot, B. Muys, Mitiku Haile and R. Mitloehner. Natural regeneration of a flagship species, Boswellia papyrifera (the frankincense tree), for forest rehabilitation in the lowland of Ethiopia 3. G. van Wyk, D. Pepler and B. Muys. The potential and risks of using exotics for the rehabilitation of Ethiopian dryland forests 4. Mulugeta Lemenih. Expediting ecological restoration with the help of tree plantations in Ethiopia 5. Abrham Abiyu, H. Vacik and G. Glatzel. Population viability risk management (PVRM) applied to in-situ management of Boswellia papyrifera (Del.) Hochst in North-Eastern Ethiopia 6. A. Horst. Rehabilitation of urban forests in Addis Ababa

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POSTERS 1. K. Van Overtveld, R. Aerts, Mintesinot Behailu, B. Muys and J. Deckers. Possibilities for future forest expansion in the Geba River Watershed, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia 2. Berhane Kidane and Agaje Tesfaye. Agroforestry practices and tree planting constraints and opportunities in Sekota district of the Amhara regional state 3. Dechasa Jiru. Natural regeneration and spacing of open Acacia tortilis woodland as part of the Pastoralist extension package: the case of Central Rift Valley 4. Dechasa Jiru. Dodonea viscosa subsp. angustifolia: A potential species for dry and fire prone sites identification, potential uses and limitations in marginal sites 5. T. Rijkers, F. Bongers, F. Sterck and Freerk Wiersum. Frankincense, myrrh and gum Arabic: sustainable use of dry woodland resources in Ethiopia 6. Girma Amente, J. Huss and T. Tennigkeit. Forest regeneration without planting: the case of community managed forests in the Bale Mountains of Ethiopia 7. K. Waeldele. The rehabilitation of dryland forests in Ethiopia: a short problem focus for Tigray region

SESSION 5 ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS AND RISKS OF FOREST RESTORATION EFFORTS PAPERS 1. Masresha Fetene and E. Beck. Comparison of water use and whole-plant transpiration in dry forest tree species in Munessa forest 2. Jiregna Gindaba. Water and nutrient relations of selected indigenous and exotic tree species of Ethiopia and the implications for their use in land rehabilitation 3. K. Descheemaeker, H. Quaeyhaegens, Addisu Assefa, J. Nyssen, D. Raes, S. Deckers, J. Poesen, Mitiku Haile. The effect of regenerating forests on water balance components in the Tigray highlands, Ethiopia 4. Emiru Birhane. Actual and potential contributions of enclosures to enhance biodiversity in drylands of Eastern Tigray, with particular emphasis on woody plants 5. Abiyot Berhanu and Getachew Tesfaye. The prosopis dilemma: impacts on dryland biodiversity and some controlling methods 6. Dechasa Jiru. Regeneration threat and induced range management system. The case of Borana Pastoralists in Southern Ethiopia 7. Ben Irwin. Establishing new forest management systems for the Dry Evergreen Forests of Borana, South Ethiopia An examination of SOS Sahels Borana Collaborative Forest Management Project. Learning and Achieving POSTERS 1. K. Descheemaeker, J. Nyssen, J. Rossi, J. Poesen, Mitiku Haile, J. Moeyersons and S. Deckers. Sediment deposition and pedogenesis in exclosures in the Tigray highlands, Ethiopia 2. Ermias Aynekulu. Soil-vegetation interaction in relation to soil carbon sequestration. A case study at Serowe, Botswana 3. Adefires Worku, Taye Tessema and Getu Engda. Biological impact assessment of selected invasive alien plant species on native species on native species biodiversity, Rift Valley, Ethiopia

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SESSION 6 SOCIO-ECONOMIC BENEFITS AND RISKS OF FOREST RESTORATION EFFORTS PAPERS 1. Bedru Babulo, B. Muys and E. Matthijs. Economic valuation methods for forest rehabilitation in exclosures 2. F.J. Jacobs. Scope for non-wood forest products income generation from rehabilitation areas focus on beekeeping 3. J. Obua, J.G. Agea, S. Namirembe, S.P. Egadu and P. Mucunguzi. The potential of Acacia senegal for dryland agroforestry and gum Arabic production in Uganda 4. Tefera Mengistu, D. Teketay, Y. Yemshaw and H. Hulten. Alternative strategy for rural landcare and economic benefits in degraded lands of Ethiopia POSTERS 1. G. Baert, B. Muys and S. Cleemput. Biomass estimation of herbaceous and woody vegetation in closed areas of Northern Ethiopia 2. Lemlem Aregu and Fassil Demeke. Socio-economic survey of Arbaminch riverine and woodland forest 3. Fitsum Hagos, S. Holden and A. Angelsen. Rural household fuel consumption in Northern Ethiopia: implications for forest development 4. Mesfin Tilahun. Economic analysis of closing Boswellia papyrifera dominated dry forest in Tigray, Ethiopia 5. Girma Kelboro. Community participation in dryland forest management: an emphasis on pastoral communities 6. Zenebe Gebreegziabher. Adoption and diffusion of improved stoves and the rehabilitation of dryland forests in Ethiopia

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SESSION 1 PROBLEM STATEMENT AND RESOURCE ASSESSMENT PAPERS

Session 1

Papers

THE ROLE OF FOREST REHABILITATION IN POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN DRYLANDS Tewolde Berhan Gebre Egziabher Environmental Protection Authority, P.O. Box 12760, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Corresponding author: esid@telecom.net.et

Though poverty exists also in urban areas, it is perhaps most prevalent in rural areas. Of all rural areas, it is the drylands that experience destitution the most. This is so because droughts are the most frequent and intense in these areas, though because of global warming, these vagaries of nature are now globally more common. Forest rehabilitation helps mitigate the impact of drought for several reasons. Afforestation attracts more rain and improves the microclimate of a dry area. It also decreases both wind and rain erosion. It builds up soil organic matter, increases soil fertility, moisture holding capacity and resistance to erosion. Consequently, both crop and animal production increase in good years. The impact of droughts also decreases making some production possible even in bad years. The improved woody biomass and animal and cop production provide cash income to both farmers and pastoralists. This enables them to buy food when droughts strike. It also enables them to send their children to school and to obtain medical care. Afforestation, therefore, helps alleviate poverty directly by yielding cash, and indirectly by improving both crop and animal production.

Session 1

Papers

LAND DEGRADATION AND RESTORATION IN THE ETHIOPIAN HIGHLANDS: THE IMPORTANCE OF VEGETATION Jan Nyssen Department of Land Resources Management and Environmental Protection, Mekelle University, P.O.Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia Institute for Land and Water Management, K.U.Leuven, Vital Decosterstraat 102, B - 3000 Leuven, Belgium Corresponding author: jan@freemail.net.et / jan.nyssen@agr.kuleuven.ac.be

In the Northern Ethiopian Highlands, a period with abundant and well spread rains existed between 12 000 and 4000 years ago, as suggested by the importance of arboreal pollen, high river and lake levels, low river turbidities and soil formation. Some 4000 years ago, there was a shift to more arid conditions and more soil erosion. Many phenomena that were previously interpreted as climate-driven might however well be of anthropic origin. Thick sediment deposits on pediments as well as an increase of secondary forest, scrub and ruderal species in pollen diagrams are witnesses of this human impact, which found its expression in changes in land use and land cover. Deforestation is an old, non-linear process in Ethiopia. Studies on land use and land cover change show however a tendency, over the last decades, of increasing removal of remnant vegetation, both on steep slopes and in between cropped plots. Processes, rates, causes and remedies of land degradation in the Tigray Highlands have been studied during the last 10 years; some outcomes, related to vegetation are presented here. The decreased vegetative cover in catchments, together with eucalyptus plantations in Vertisol valley bottoms and road building are important factors in the gully development of the second part of the 20th century, when the impact of climatic events such as dry spells could not be buffered anymore. Currently, land degradation is slowed down or reversed in Northern Ethiopia by an active soil and water conservation policy, including physical and biological measures. The reestablishment of forest strips on steep slopes, enhanced by the predominance of a subhorizontal structural relief, results in important buffer strips where the trapped sediment and runoff result in boosting vegetation. Such areas are the key piece of integrated watershed management in the study area, with improved spring discharge and decreased sediment load in rivers, but also a temporary increase in landslide risk as off-side effects. The exclosure policy is highly appreciated by local farmers; the new challenge, more than 10 years after the establishment of the first exclosures, is to define management strategies in which critical amounts of trees are removed to allow a sustained production of grass, essential in the agricultural system.

SESSION 1 PROBLEM STATEMENT AND RESOURCE ASSESSMENT POSTERS

Session 1

Posters

THE EXTENT OF DESERTIFICATION IN ETHIOPIA Engida Mersha Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organisation, P.O. Box 2003, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Corresponding author: iar@telecom.net.et

In Ethiopia the rainfall is highly variable both temporally and spatially and it is erratic in its nature. The rainfall variability in Ethiopia generally affects the rainfed crop production significantly on which most of the rural population depends for its livelihood. Hence if there is a failure of rain in one season, the farmer is unable to satisfy his needs. This indicates that the rural population in Ethiopia, which feeds all the population, is in the bottom line of poverty. He is leading a risky life. Moreover, in Ethiopia due to climate change and other human induced factors, areas affected by desertification are increasing. Hence, a study to identify parts of the country that are susceptible to the effects of desertification is undertaken. The methodology used in this study is the rainfall: PET ratio as recommended by UNEP. Based on this methodology, five desertification zones that range from moist to hyper arid zones are identified. The dry sub humid, semi arid, arid and hyper arid zones cover about 69% of the country and are located mostly over the lowlands and eastern parts of the country. The dry sub humid and moist zones those are located mostly over the western half of the country and cover about 42% of the area. From the results of this study it is concluded that the areas covered by dry semi arid, arid and hyper arid zones have increased by about 8% during the recent years. This is a good indication that desertification in Ethiopia is progressively extending. Appropriate measures should be taken to combat desertification in the country.

Session 1

Posters

ACHIEVING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE PRESENCE OF CLIMATE VARIABILITY Takele Mitiku Agrometeorology Research Division, Melkassa Agricultural Research Center. P.O. Box 436, Nazareth, Ethiopia Corresponding author: takele@freemail.et / narc@telecom.net.et

Since some part of Ethiopia is located in semi-arid zone, it is subjected to the vagaries of climatic extremes and changes. It is therefore essential to clearly understand the climatic conditions of the country and its relation to agriculture. Literatures on the impact of climatic variability & change on agriculture and its suitable measures in how to attain sustainable production in the existence of climate variability are too small and the rest are not compiled in usable format. Ironically, while many recent models and analyses are focusing on the impacts of future climatic variability, which may indeed get worse under conditions of climate change, are here today. The consequences are not hypothetical, but are real and known. We have been observing many impacts of climatic variability in our world. Flooding & drought are the majour observable consequence of climate variability. Leaving climate variability as it is, our way of tackling its consequence is yet behind the speed of its impact. Surprisingly, still under this conspicuous condition and where the variability is a recurrent phenomenon, we need every resource of climate (especially rainfall) in our planned time, amount & place. But based on the existing situation this will be a dream. So, what shall be done? If we understand that only a jackass will wait a rain in his choice place, amount & time in this existing condition, what can be done? The other amazing thing in our country is, we suffer one year for climatic drought & in the next year we will complain for the flood. So does life, production & management of the ecology be sustainable in such gambling environment? We have generally two options for the problem associated with climate variability (which is mainly yield loss/decline & disturbance of the ecology). These are: Developing recent technology, which appropriately forecast the climate for readiness to wait the climate resource on a track based on which technological options from a basket can be selected, &/or To be always ready to utilize the climatic resource (mainly rainfall) at any place, amount & time it comes by developing different technologies or mechanisms (e.g. water harvesting technology). The purpose of this term paper is that to present the problems associated with climate variability and the possible solutions that help to mitigate consequences arise from climate variability. Moreover palatable solutions for achieving sustainable development based on the experience of the other country and the existing resource we have will be recommended. It also serves as a base line for further study.

Session 1

Posters

IMPACT OF LAND USE CHANGES ON DYNAMIC SOIL PROPERTIES AND WATER EROSION CONTROL IN TIGRAY, ETHIOPIA Wolde Mekuria1* and Ed Veldkamp2
1

Georg-August University of Goettingen, Germany; Department of Land Resource Management and Environmental Protection, Mekelle University 2 Georg-August University of Goettingen, Institute of soil Science
*

Corresponding author: wolde_mekuria@yahoo.com

In the Ethiopian highlands, land use and land cover change have been going on for millennia. Characterizing spatial variability of soil nutrients and erosion in relation to site properties, including climate, land use, landscape position and other variables, is important for understanding how ecosystems work and assessing the effects of future land use change on soil nutrients and erosion. In order to asses the effects of land use and landscape position on soil nutrients consisting of soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen (TN) and available phosphorous (AP) and exchangeable bases, soil samples were collected in March 2004 from area closure and free grazing lands in Dega Temben, Tigray, Ethiopia. The Revised Universal Soil Lose Equation (RUSLE) was also used to determine the influence of land use and other environmental factors on soil erosion. Moreover, to understand local communities and experts perception on the link between soil erosion and land use changes, individual interview using structured questionnaires was undertaken. Significant difference (at p < 0.05) between land uses were found for SOM, TN and AP and exchangeable bases except magnesium. Five and ten years area closures had the higher levels for SOM, TN and AP compared to free grazing lands. The highest levels in SOM, TN and AP were observed at foot slope position on area closure. An increasing trend from upper slope to foot slope position for soil nutrients were also found in area closure. However, no clear trend was found in free grazing lands. The mean soil erosion rate varied between land uses: five years area closure (65 t/ha/yr), ten years area closure (8.5 t/ha/yr) and free grazing lands (55.2 and 81 t/ha/yr). The differences between area closure and free grazing lands were not significantly different (at p < 0.05) but the mean value of soil loss from free grazing lands was higher by 47% compared to area closure. Simulations of different land use configurations indicate, if land use in all unprotected areas of the study sites was entirely ten years area closure, soil erosion would reduce by 77% (52 t/ha/yr-12 t/ha/yr). In contrast, if the entire study sites were free grazing lands, erosion would be increased by 41.5% (52 t/ha/yr 89 t/ha/yr). The important link between soil loss and low agricultural production or soil productivity seems to be established, as is the relationship between land use related factors and erosion. Moreover, the positive effect of area closure in rehabilitating degraded lands and reducing soil erosion caused by water seems to be established in the study area. From the technical point of view, under the present land use management and climate conditions of the study area, free grazing areas in hilly lands must be changed to area closure before soil organic matter and other nutrient contents are depleted below their critical values. Because they are too low to sustain economic yield of livestock feeds and erosion processes may be very active resulting further degradation. It is also important to create awareness within the rural communities concerning the link between uncontrolled population growth, environmental degradation and poverty. Because the majority of the respondents (59.7%) do not consider the alarming population growth as a cause for accelerated soil erosion.

Session 1

Posters

Key words:

land use, land cover, area closure, free grazing area, soil nutrients, soil erosion, Dega Temben, Tigray, Ethiopia.

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SESSION 2 FOREST RELICS: ISLANDS OF BIODIVERSITY AND FOCAL POINTS OF FOREST RESTORATION PAPERS

Session 2

Papers

ETHIOPIAN ORTHODOX TEWAHIDO CHURCH FORESTS: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FOR RESTORATION Alemayehu Wassie, Frans Bongers* and Frank Sterck Wageningen Agricultural University, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands *Corresponding author: frans.bongers@wur.nl

In the northern highlands of Ethiopia, patchy remnants of ancient Afromontane forests can be found around the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Churches (EOTC). Vegetation and socioeconomic surveys were carried out in eight of the church forests in North Gonder Administrative Zone, Northern Ethiopia. The churches covered total areas ranging between 1.6 and 100 ha. The species richness of woody species recorded in these forests ranged between 22 and 42. Existence of these church forests is attributed to the commitment of the church based on strong theological thoughts and a biblical basis. It was found that the local community respects and protects church forests, and considers the church as a central institution and platform. Church forests can serve as stepping stones in restoring the forest ecosystem. On the other hand the effectiveness of these church forests in providing ecosystem functions for the landscape and serve as stepping stones for restoration will depend on their long-term sustainability. If these forest remnants are not self-sustaining, restoration and conservation measures will be essential. Therefore, an understanding of the factors that led to forest degradation in church forests, as well as the development of forest restoration alternatives, is vital. A PhD project started with the following objectives: (a) To collect more ecological information about the church forest resources as a function of agro-ecological distribution. (b) To investigate the status of the ecological function of church forests by analysing the ecological processes vital to this forest function. Hence, this objective is further focused to identifying factors that may predominantly affect regeneration of some of the tree species.

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Session 2

Papers

SPECIES COMPOSITION AND RESTORATION POTENTIAL OF FOREST RELIC IN THE HIGHLANDS OF TIGRAY Sarah Tewolde-Berhan1*, Ralph Mitloehner2, Bart Muys3, and Mitiku Haile1 Department of Land Resource Management and Environmental Protection, Mekelle University, P.O. Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia 2 Institute of Silviculture, Section II, Tropical Silviculture, Georg-August- University of Goettingen, Buesgenweg 1, 37077 Goettingen, Germany 3 Laboratory for Forest, Nature and Landscape Research, K. U. Leuven, Vital Decosterstraat 102, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
* 1

Corresponding author: saratbge@yahoo.com

Agricultural production in northern Ethiopia, specifically in Tigray has a long history, resulting in extensive anthropogenic influences on the natural vegetation. The ever increasing need for arable and grazing land has meant that forests have been limited to marginal lands. It has now come to the level where even the more accessible marginal lands have been cleared of forests. Apart from the highly inaccessible marginal lands, forest can now only be found around churches. These Church forests now provide an insight into the original vegetation of Tigray. In the Church forests there are primary forest species, and a large proportion of secondary forest species. The species composition of one such Church forest near Hagereselam, central Tigray was studied. The forest is classified as a dry single-dominant Afromontane forest with Juniperus procera in the canopy and Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata in the understorey. The adult and regeneration species composition was analysed showing that the future specie composition in the Church forest will change towards

Key words: species composition, relic forests

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Session 2

Papers

CONSERVATION STATUS AND REGENERATION OF WOODY SPECIES IN THE DRY LOWLAND JUNIPERUS FOREST OF YABELLO AREA, OROMIYA Mateos Ersado* and Taye Bekele Institute of Biodiversity Conservation and Research, P.O. Box 30726, Addis Ababa
*

Corresponding author: mateoser@yahoo.com

The structure, species composition and regeneration status of the woody species in the dry lowland Juniper forest of the Yabello area in Oromia National Regional State was studied. A total of 16 sample plots, each measuring 10 m by 50 m were established at every 50 m drop in altitude along two transect lines, laid perpendicular to the contour lines. 49 plant specimens of woody species were collected and recorded. Diameter and height measurements were taken for all trees and shrubs, with diameter at breast height (DBH) and/or at stump height (DSH) exceeding 2.5 cm. The analysis of vertical structure and frequency class distribution revealed that highest density of stems ha-1 and the highest number of species is found in the lower story and that more than 10% of the trees/shrubs species shows regular horizontal distribution. The distribution of the importance value indices (IVI) and relative dominance values among the 48 tree/shrub species indicated positive correlation (r=0.54; p<0.01). Assessment of the regeneration status indicated that less than 50% (i.e. only 23 species) of the total number of species was represented by their own regeneration (i.e. seedlings and saplings taken together). The overall regeneration index of the woody species in the area showed a positive but weak correlation with the IVI (r=0.19; p<0.01). It is concluded that high importance/dominance values do not necessarily reflect high ecological/conservation status and vice versa. A total of 15 species combining high importance values with poor conservation status are recommended to be given top priority for conservation using in situ and ex situ methods.

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Session 2

Papers

COMPARATIVE FLORISTIC STUDY ON MT. ALUTU AND MT. CHUBBI ALONG A. ALTITUDINAL GRADIENT Simon Shibru1* and Zerihun Woldu2
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GTZ- Support for the Biodiversity Institute-Forest Genetic Resources Conservation Project, P.O. Box 30726, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 2 The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, P O Box 3434, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
*

Corresponding author: simonshibru@yahoo.com

A comparative study of the dry land forest floristic composition on Mt. Alutu and Mt. Chubbi along altitudinal gradient was performed in the main rift valley of central Ethiopia. Seventyone, 20m x 20m sample plots, thirty-seven from Mt. Alutu and thirty-four from Mt Chubbi were selected systematically and presence/absence of all plants in the stands were recorded. Cover-abundance (%?) value for trees, shrubs, and herbs was estimated. In addition trees and shrubs were counted. Environmental factors including altitude, slope and aspect were measured. The vegetation data from both mountains were merged and analysed using the program SYNTAX. A utility program was employed to analyse species diversity. Eight homogenous clusters of stands were recognized. The resulting clusters were interpreted as community types and given provisional names after two or three dominant species. The clusters of the stands were compared for their averaged environmental factors using Tukeys family error rate test. The clusters of sample plots were found to show the highest degree of contrast due to variation in altitude. In the present study sites altitude and slope to a lesser extent were found to be the major determinants of vegetation variation, whereas, aspect was less important. Recovery of the dry land forest vegetation in the area seems to be possible if appropriate land use systems and area closure approach are applied. Keywords: Average linkage clustering, Community, Dry land forest, Rift Valley, species diversity

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SESSION 2 FOREST RELICS: ISLANDS OF BIODIVERSITY AND FOCAL POINTS OF FOREST RESTORATION POSTERS

Session 2

Posters

SURVIVAL LIMITATION OF AFRICAN WILD OLIVE SEEDLINGS BY BROWSING LIVESTOCK IN THE HIGHLANDS OF TIGRAY, ETHIOPIA Raf Aerts1*, Eva November2, Ives Van der Borght1, Wouter Maes1, Melaku Tafere3 and Bart Muys1 Laboratory for Forest, Nature and Landscape Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Vital Decosterstraat 102, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium 2 Laboratory for Soil and Water, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Vital Decosterstraat 102, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium 3 Faculty of Veterinary Science, Mekelle University, P.O. Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia
* 1

Corresponding author: raf.aerts@agr.kuleuven.ac.be

An experimental grazing plot in Central-Tigray, Ethiopia, was enriched with simulated seedlings of African wild olive (Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata) under two earlysuccessional shrubs (Euclea schimperi and Acacia etbaica) and in open areas. Then this plot was subjected to controlled grazing by goats. Seedling survival curves were calculated from grazing pressure (LSUhha-1) and corrected/uncorrected seedling survival ratios (LSU = Livestock Unit). Results indicate that both Euclea and Acacia shrubs offer adequate protection for Olea recruits against browsing animals. However, if a certain grazing pressure threshold is exceeded, both seedlings in open areas and under shrubs will be detected and predated by goats resulting in a rapid decline of survival and finally in 100% mortality. Single browsing events in regenerating forest land or recently closed rangeland should not exceed a grazing pressure of 45 goat-hours per hectare. In forest rehabilitation areas, large herds of goats should be kept out at all times. Keywords: African wild olive, Ethiopia, goat herbivory, Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata, seedling survival, livestock unit

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Session 2

Posters

DRY TROPICAL FOREST RELICS AND CLOSED AREAS IN THE NORTHERN HIGHLANDS OF TIGRAY: INSIGHTS IN TYPOLOGY AND REHABILITATION Mora Heyn1*, Jan Valckx1, Bert Reubens1, Mintesinot Behailu2, Jozef Deckers3, Martin Hermy1 and Bart Muys1* Laboratory for Forest, Nature and Landscape Research, University of Leuven, Vital Decosterstraat 102, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium 2 Land Resources Management and Environmental Protection Department, Mekelle University, P.O. Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia 3 Laboratory for Soil and Water, University of Leuven, Vital Decosterstraat 102, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium
* 1

Corresponding authors: moira.heyn@agr.kuleuven.ac.be; bart.muys@agr.kuleuven.ac.be

The Ethiopian forest degradation is most severe in the Northern highlands of Tigray. The original widespread climax forest only remains in sparse relics, mostly as small sacred groves. Since 20 years, the local communities are seeking a solution in the establishment of closed areas where no grazing nor cultivation is allowed, hoping that the forest will naturally regenerate. The vegetation was studied in 8 forest resources (8-40 ha) of the relatively moist highlands (2000-2700 meter above sea level), receiving yearly 800 mm rain on average, concentrated in the main rainy season of June- September. Circa 400 vascular plant species were noted. Presence data were analyzed using different multivariate techniques. Two types of sacred groves were found. The first type can be typified as degraded Dry singledominant Afromontane forest (sdAmF). The typical Juniperus procera is however merely absent. Instead, the canopy is dominated by Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata and other lower storey species. The second type consists of slightly larger, less disturbed patches where more moisture is available. With the complete absence of Podocarpus falcatus, it is hard to classify them as Undifferentiated Afromontane forest (uAmF), although they exhibit the rather welldeveloped stratum of small to medium-sized species found elsewhere for this type. On the other hand they also possess riverine and sdAmF elements. This type is surrounded by woodland which can be considered as transition (TW) towards East African (semi-)evergreen bushland. The analysis shows a clear progress of the closed areas to TW over time. Forests and woodlands probably have coexisted for centuries, forming a natural mosaic. Due to the general land degradation the forest looses its habitat in favor of the woodland. Rehabilitation efforts should aim at strategies where both are linked and receive adapted land use management.

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Session 2

Posters

WOODY SPECIES COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF LAKE TANA FORESTS: CONSIDERATION FOR CONSERVATION Kumelachew Yeshitela* and Girma Balcha Institute of Biodiversity Conservation, P.O. Box 30726, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
*

Corresponding author: kumeyesh@yahoo.com

Studies on the woody species composition and structure were conducted in Kibran Gabriel, Daga Estifanos and Zege forests using systematic sampling. Sample plots of 500 m2 were laid out and at 50 m altitudinal drop along transect line. All woody species encountered in the plots were recorded. Diameter and height were measured for every individual tree and shrub having DBH >2.5 cm. Fifty-seven species belonging to 32 families were recorded from Zege forest. Similarly, 31 species belonging to 23 families were recorded from Daga Estifanos forest and 17 species belonging to 14 families were recorded from Kibran Gabriel forest. Comparison of the three forests based on species composition showed that Kibran Gabriel and Zege forests were more similar to each other than Daga Estifanos forest to them. The analysis of vertical structure of the three forests revealed that the highest stem and species number in Daga Estifanos and Zege forests were found in the lower storey. In Kibran Gabriel forest, the highest species and stem numbers were found in the lower and upper stories respectively. Zege forest had the highest stem density followed by Daga Estifanos and Kibran Gabriel forests had the lowest density. Daga Estifanos forest had the highest density > 10 cm DBH, followed by Zege while Kibran Gabriel forest had the lowest density. Kibran Gabriel forest had the highest density > 20 cm DBH followed by Daga Estifanos while Zege forest had the lowest density > 20 cm DBH. Analysis of the population structure of selected species revealed patterns of species population structure varies between each forest. Most species common to dry and moist montane forest are also found to occur in these forests. They represent different provenances which might have adapted to extreme environments of the island and peninsula and thus, emphasize the conservation values.

21

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FLORISTIC COMPOSITION, CONSERVATION STATUS AND RECOMMENDED GENETIC CONSERVATION MEASURES OF THE LOWLAND WOODLAND SPECIES IN HAROTATESA RESETTLEMENT AREA, BEDELE, WESTERN OROMIA Getachew Berhan1*, Simon Shibru1 and Mateos Ersado2
1

GTZ- Support for the Biodiversity Institute -Forest Genetic Resources Conservation Project 2 Institute of Biodiversity Conservation P. O. Box 30726, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
*

Corresponding author: getachewb1@yahoo.com

To assess the genetic conservation status of the lowland broadleaved woodland tree/shrub species a study was conducted in Harotatesa resettlement area, Bedele, Western Oromia in November 2003. A systematic sampling technique was employed. A total of 48, 10m x 50m (500m2) quadrats was established for the vegetation assessment, while the same number but 10mx20m (40m2) quadrats were established for regeneration assessment. Diameter and height were measured for all tree and shrub individuals having a diameter at breast height above 2.5cm. Also that individuals appeared as seedling or sapling were counted. Population structure, density, frequency and regeneration status were used to evaluate the conservation status of the species. A total of 92 woody species, out of which 72 were identified to the species level, 17 to genus level and 3 left unidentified were recoded. The result of the analysis revealed that Cordia africana, Entada abyssinica, Syzygium guineense, Ehretia abyssinica and Diospyros abyssinica were found in high risk because of cutting of the trees/shrubs for agricultural land, house construction and fuelwood. Recognizing the risk of loosing these species from the area due to habitat destruction and fragmentation the following four in-situ conservation options were recommended: retaining 10mx50m (500m2) land from 2 ha farmland allocated for each family head; maintaining and enhancing the natural vegetation rehabilitation of Kollosire hill using enclosure approach; sustainably using all the trees and shrubs in the home garden of all the settlers and finally retaining the natural vegetation of the riverside. The local community and the administrative body from Woreda to the regional level accepted all the recommended in-situ conservation options. Key words: Density; Frequency; Conservation; In-situ, Lowland dry forest

22

Session 2

Posters

GROWTH AND POPULATION DYNAMICS OF JUNIPERUS PROCERA IN AN ETHIOPIAN DRY FOREST, ANALYSED WITH DENDROCHRONOLOGY AND MATRIX MODELS Frank Sterck*, Camille Couralet, Ute Sass-Klaassen and Tesfaye Bekele Wageningen Agricultural University, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands Corresponding author: frank.sterck@wur.nl

Highland forests in Ethiopia are essential from a social, economically, ecological and cultural perspective. However they have suffered degradation for thousands of years, with an exponential increase since the middle of the 20th century. Nowadays there is a need and will for sustainable management of the remaining woodlands and for restoration of the degraded ones. Dominant indigenous species of dry afromontane forests, like Juniperus procera, deserve paramount attention for this purpose. We studied the growth and population dynamics of this species in the Adaba-Dodola forest priority area, south of the country. From an inventory we assessed the present status of Juniperus procera in the Adaba-Dodola forest. Then we evaluated the dendrochronological potential of the species. Eventually, from these two investigations we built a matrix model, to project the dynamics of the Juniperus population into the future and to obtain indications for a sustainable forest use. We found out two Juniperus population types in the study area, without being able to explain the difference. Juniperus procera forms annual tree rings in response to precipitation. Apparently it also grows in response to intra-annual precipitation variations and expresses this anatomically by variations in cell-wall density. Matrix-model output was not influenced by methodological changes, but its interpretation remains delicate. Model predictions suggest that the population growth is most sensitive to harvesting trees of intermediate size (DBH 1060 cm). For wood supply we recommend the use of big and fully-grown trees, instead of intermediate size trees.

23

SESSION 3 RESTORATION ECOLOGY OF DRYLAND FORESTS PAPERS

Session 3

Papers

AN ASSESSMENT OF EFFECTS OF FOREST FRAGMENTATION ON SPECIES DIVERSITY IN THE ETHIOPIAN HIGHLANDS: AN OVERVIEW Martin Hermy Laboratory for Forest, Nature and Landscape Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Vital Decosterstraat 102, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium Corresponding author: martin.hermy@agr.kuleuven.ac.be

The Ethiopian highlands have a long history of human impact on the natural vegetation at least going back to about 500 BC, as suggested by recent palynological work. After a period of forest expansion until about 1700, deforestation and soil erosion has again intensified. Although really accurate estimates are lacking the current forest cover is only about 2.3%. In Tigray it drops even to about 1.6%. Yet it should be stressed that in some deforested areas many trees and shrubs remained present both on arable and scrubland. These may function as ghost forests. The land cover development has created a highly critical situation in which the remaining forests, often around churches and in closed areas, are highly fragmented and respond like islands surrounded by a sea of other land uses. Fragmentation leads to increasing spatial isolation and decreasing patch size of forest habitats. Fragmentation not only results in a loss of (forest) habitat, but also in the increase of edge effects, resulting from the surrounding land use. The loss of forest habitat yields a direct and significant loss of (plant) species richness, as there is positive relationship between habitat size and species diversity. Most of this effect is deterministic, yet also stochastic species extinction processes linked to small population sizes of many species - may result in species loss. However, effects of shrinking forest patch sizes on species diversity may be postponed as plant species may temporarily survive because of their longevity (species relaxation). Yet, given the long history of deforestation in the highlands of Ethiopia, it may be assumed that species relaxation is complete, so that the diversity of species in the remaining forest habitat patches is in equilibrium with their size. Increase in isolation means that exchange of species between forest patches no longer becomes possible. For plant species this is more pronounced than for more mobile, animal species. In Europe, the typical forest plant species - with their short distant dispersal mechanisms (mainly ants, barochory) and their lack of a persistent seed bank - therefore are really restricted to these forest patches. There are no arguments to assume something different under Ethiopian conditions. Forests serve as prisons for highly immobile species. A network of small landscape elements (from individual trees to hedges around fields) may both serve as a refuge and eventually as a corridor connecting forest patches, surely for those species which are dispersed through wind or animal vectors (e.g. Olea spp., Euclea spp.). An important aspect of the forest fragmentation process is the relative increase of edge habitat. The edge effects depend on the penetration of fluxes of matter, energy and species from the landscape matrix into the forest interior. In the Ethiopian highlands this is connected to a growing impact of grazing and other human disturbances within the last 300 years. Edge width may be defined as the part of the forest fragment where environmental conditions differ significantly from those of the interior of the fragment, and hence where species composition and abundance also differ. Naturally occurring environmental edge gradients like soil temperature, air temperature, photosynthetic active radiation, air humidity create gradients in species abundance and composition separating edge species from forest interior species. Apart from these, also human induced edge gradients do occur, e.g. grazing effects or in some areas

27

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with intensive agriculture also high atmospheric ion deposition rates have been observed (e.g. the increase of nitrogen deposition). Within the Ethiopian situation grazing and other human induced disturbance (fire wood collection) surely will go deeper into the forest interior than most natural edge effects, resulting in a selective pressure on certain species and probably also in an increase of alien species. The effects of fragmentation may only be counterbalanced with new afforestation, particularly expanding existing forests may prove to be more beneficial than isolated afforestation. Whether this will result in a resurrection of the original highland forest is perhaps unlikely, as many of the original species cortege probably has become extinct. Yet the Ethiopian highlands are capable of supporting forest (probably) different from the one that existed before - under the actual environmental conditions under appropriate land management. But this is only feasible when basic human needs are being fulfilled. It offers a huge challenge for the coming decades for both the local (national-regional) and international community.

28

Session 3

Papers

CRITICAL PHASES IN THE NATURAL REGENERATION OF AFRICAN WILD OLIVE IN NORTHERN ETHIOPIA Raf Aerts1,3, Eva November2,3, Wouter Maes1, Ives Van der Borght1, Behailu Mintesinot3, Martin Hermy1 and Bart Muys1* Laboratory for Forest, Nature and Landscape Research, University of Leuven, Vital Decosterstraat 102, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium 2 Laboratory for Soil and Water, University of Leuven, Vital Decosterstraat 102, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium 3 Land Resources Management and Environmental Protection Department, Mekelle University, P.O. Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia
* 1

Corresponding author: bart.muys@agr.kuleuven.ac.be

Earlier studies have shown that recruitment of Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata is facilitated by shrubs, in particular by the non-dominant evergreen shrub Euclea racemosa subsp. schimperi, both in open grazing land and protected areas. A series of experiments was carried out in Central Tigray to identify the critical processes in O. europaea regeneration that make E. racemosa shrubs better recruitment foci than other shrubs or open areas. Open field to open field movement caused by runoff is the only form of secondary dispersal of olive seeds. Post-dispersal seed predation is limited and concentrated in narrow strips (<1m) along stone bunds, independent of shrubs. Mulch chemical properties have no significant effect on germination. However, seeds under E. racemosa are two times more likely to germinate than seeds under Acacia etbaica or in the open field. Dense crowns and better physical mulch properties offer higher moisture availability and a better protection against desiccation. Seedlings below E. racemosa have a higher survival rate and vitality compared to seedlings in the open field. Seedling survival rate did not differ significantly under Euclea and Acacia shrubs. Goats actively feed on O. europaea seedlings while cattle only induce trampling. Seedlings are better protected against goat browsing under shrubs than in the open field. E. racemosa and A. etbaica offer equal protection. These results suggest that O. europaea regeneration is subject to passive and active facilitation in the germination stage leading to the conclusion that initial recruitment patterns are defined by disperser-mediated facilitation rather than herbivore-mediated recruitment limitation. Efforts to restore African wild olive woodlands should therefore concentrate on increasing facilitation for seedlings and reducing competition for saplings. Keywords: Euclea racemosa, facilitation, forest rehabilitation, nurse plant, Olea europaea, succession

29

Session 3

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SEED AND REGENERATION ECOLOGY IN DRY AFROMONTANE FORESTS OF ETHIOPIA: WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO WOODY PLANTS Demel Teketay P. O. Box 22578 Code 1000, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Corresponding author: d.tekatay@fsc.org (Office); dmekdem@telecom.net.et or dteketay@yahoo.com (private)

A series of events occur in the process of regeneration, namely flowering, seed production and dispersal, incorporation of seeds into the soil, seed predation or germination, seedling establishment and growth and formation of seedling banks. Forests are subjected to both natural and anthropogenic disturbances, which disrupt the process of plant regeneration. In response to these disturbances, succession is triggered in which different plants use varying strategies to regenerate themselves. For instance, tropical forest plants regenerate from one or more pathways, namely seed rain, soil seed bank, seedling bank or advance regeneration, coppice and/or root suckers. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of the available information on seed and regeneration ecology in dry Afromontane forests (DAF) of Ethiopia. The review focuses on: (i) seed production and dispersal; (ii) soil seed banks: incorporation of seeds into the soil, species richness and densities, spatial and temporal variation and depletion of seeds in the soil; (iii) seed dormancy and germination, requirements for seed germination: light, temperature, interaction between light and temperature, scarification, moisture and dry storage; and (iv) seedling banks, seedling survival, seedling growth and population structures of woody plants; (v) forest disturbances and succession, i.e. types of disturbances; species richness, densities, spatial distribution of soil seed banks and succession in cleared, cultivated and abandoned DAF; (vi) forest fire and response of plant communities to fire; and (vii) regeneration of native woody plants in tree plantations established after clearing DAF or after clearing DAF and planting of crops. Thematic areas for future research are recommended.

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THE ROLE OF THE PERMANENT SOIL SEED BANK FOR FOREST RESTORATION IN THE ETHIOPIAN HIGHLANDS Mora Heyn1*, Jan Valckx1, Bert Reubens1, Demel Teketay2, Kindeya Gebrehiwot3, Jozef Deckers4, Martin Hermy1 and Bart Muys1* Laboratory for Forest, Nature and Landscape Research, University of Leuven, Vital Decosterstraat 102, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium 2 P. O. Box 22578 Code 1000, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 3 Land Resources Management and Environmental Protection Department, Mekelle University, P.O. Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia 4 Laboratory for Soil and Water Management, University of Leuven, Vital Decosterstraat 102, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium
* 1

Corresponding authors: moira.heyn@agr.kuleuven.ac.be; bart.muys@agr.kuleuven.ac.be

There is a strong need to gain knowledge about the ecological variables that determine natural forest rehabilitation in Northern Ethiopia. In that aspect, research on the regeneration sources is crucial. Knowledge of the species richness, distribution and abundance of the permanent soil seed bank in dry tropical forests is critical to understanding its role in forest preservation and regeneration. Twelve forest resources were selected as study sites in the relatively moist highlands (20002700 meter above seal level), receiving yearly 800 mm rain on average, concentrated in the main rainy season of June- September. In each site 3 liter soil samples were taken in four 10x10 m2 plots. After wet sieving they were submitted to a germination test. A total of 5962 seedlings germinated from the soil samples belonging to circa 150 species, showing a remarkable species diversity. Seed bank density and seed bank composition seem to be linked with land use impact, nutrient status and water availability. Overall, the seed bank is dominated by herbs; woody species are only found in low numbers, mainly under forest relic canopies. Therefore the permanent seed bank cannot be considered as a manageable regeneration source for woody species. However, the development of an (herbaceous) understorey vegetation after disturbance can play an important role in the regulation of water and nutrients, delivery of organic material and limitation of erosion. On the other hand, herbs can hinder the development of key species in the natural forest rehabilitation. To distinguish between advantage or threat, more information is needed on the vegetation strategy of the occurring species.

31

SESSION 3 RESTORATION ECOLOGY OF DRYLAND FORESTS POSTERS

Session 3

Posters

LITTER PRODUCTION IN EXCLOSURES IN THE TIGRAY HIGHLANDS, ETHIOPIA Katrien Descheemaeker a*, Bart Muys a, Jan Nyssena, c, Jean Poesenb, Mitiku Hailec, Jozef Deckers a
a

Institute for Land and Water Management, K.U.Leuven, Vital Decosterstraat 102, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium b Laboratory for Experimental Geomorphology, K.U.Leuven, Redingenstraat 16, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium c Department of Land Resource Management and Environmental Protection, Mekelle University, PO Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia
*

Corresponding author: katrien.descheemaeker@agr.kuleuven.ac.be

In the Tigray highlands, exclosures have become an important measure to combat land degradation and increase biomass production. In view of high land pressure and scarcity of fuel wood and grazing land, it is important to obtain profound knowledge about the effects of the set-aside policy on different aspects of the natural environment. The objective of this study is to investigate litter production in exclosures of different regeneration stages and of naturally regenerating species. 330 cans with diameter 16.5 cm were used as littertraps and placed randomly in 24 plots, which represent the different exclosure types and systematically in 9 transects running through these. Litter was harvested monthly and separated according to species. After drying, leaf, woody, and reproductive litter was weighed separately. Annual litterfall varies from 107.6 g/m2/yr up to 574.9 g/m2/yr going from young exclosures to the church forest in May Baati, while in Kunale values of 123.7 g/m2/yr for young and 403.6 g/m2/yr for old exclosures were recorded. In both sites, leaf litter accounts for 75% of total litter, while woody debris and reproductive litter contribute 16 and 9 % respectively. The temporal pattern of litter production shows clear seasonality, with a peak of litter production after the main rainy season. Most important contributing species vary according to site, but also depending on the age of the exclosure. Species have their own temporal behaviour of litter production and partition between litter types, which can deviate substantially from the average. In regenerating forests, litter production significantly increases, which entails an increased nutrient input and soil fertility buildup. Keywords: Exclosures, litter production, temporal production pattern

35

Session 3

Posters

SEED SOURCE VARIATION IN DROUGHT TOLERANCE OF CORDIA AFRICANA LAM. SEEDLINGS Yigremachew Seyoum1* and Masresha Fetene2
1

Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization, Pawe Agricultural Research Center, P.O. Box 25, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 2 Department of Biology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
*

Corresponding author: yigremachewseyoum@yahoo.com

Drought tolerance of Cordia africana seedlings from three distinct areas were studied to examine variations among provenances/seed sources/ under increasing water stress. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse by exposing eight month old seedlings to three levels of water stress, i.e. at field capacity, 60% of field capacity and 25% of field capacity, for three months from December 2003 to February 2004. Seeds from Arjo, Dembi and Melka Oda, collected by the Forestry Research Center were used in the study. Water relation parameters/leaf water potential, relative water content, relative drought index etc.; growth parameters/above and below ground biomass, fine root, root to shoot ratio, diameter, height, leaf area, relative growth rate, specific leaf area, leaf area ratio and leaf weight ratio/; stomatal conductance and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured three times during the whole period of the experiment. Stomatal conductance and leaf area revealed significant variation among provenances under increasing water stress. Distinctions in relative drought indices were also detected among provenances. The main effect analysis of provenances illustrated significant variation in leaf area, collar diameter, root to shoot radio, dry weight to turgid weight ratio and turgid weight to dry weight ratio. Increasing water stress resulted in significant variation in relative water content, leaf water potential and stomatal conductance, in which each provenance reacted differently. From this study, Arjo was noted to be fast growing provenance with less water conservation strategy indicating good performance in high rainfall areas while Dembi showed characteristics that indicate its suitability to sites with moderate precipitation and short-term drought prevalence. Melka Oda showed the best drought tolerance characteristics, which make it a good candidate to dry areas in which long-term moisture deficit is recurrent. Moreover, leaf area, stomatal conductance, relative water content, leaf water potential, relative drought indices, root to shoot ratio, specific leaf area, leaf weight ratio, dry weight biomass, diameter and height are recommended as selection parameters for breeding programs launched to improve drought tolerance of Cordia africana. Key words: Cordia africana, drought tolerance, relative drought index, water relation, water stress, provenance test

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Session 3

Posters

MANAGING MYCORRHIZAL ASSOCIATIONS IN DRY LAND FOREST REHABILITATION: SIGNIFICANCE AND POTENTIALS Zebene Asfaw Wondo Genet College Forestry, P.O. Box 128, Shashemane, Ethiopia Corresponding author: wgcf@telecom.net.et

This paper attempts to provide the overlooked key concepts and experiences of mycorrhizal associations (MA) in forest regeneration at degraded sites. Mycorrhizal fungi are soil fungi, which form a symbiosis with the roots of plants, of the various groups of mycorrhizal fungi; the Ectomycrrhizal and Arbuscular mycorrhizal groups are associated with a wide range of tree species in the tropics. A variety of benefits to the host and the ecosystems have been ascribed to MA namely improved uptake of nutrient elements especially those with low mobile ions, enhanced diversity of plant community, nutrient cycling, quality of soil structure, tolerance to stress. In addition, the most ecological significance of MA is the transfer of CO2 between tree seedlings and large trees and between other green plants indicating that reduced competition, reduced dominance of aggressive species and promoting coexistence and greater biodiversity. In order to generate information against which to assess the extent of disruption that may be attributable to extent of degradation or different methods of site preparation, it is necessary to understand events of MA in undisturbed soil. The first part of the paper discusses how the mycorrhizal associations contribute to plant species diversity. Because most tropical tree species seem to be obliquely microscopic, their growth and survival depends upon the establishment of MA, which depend on level disturbance. The extent of degradation or site preparation influences the quality and diversity of mycorrhizal fungus. An understanding of the impacts of forest degradation or cultivation upon these fungi would help to ensure an opportunity for the utilization of the symbiosis and contribute to the success of regeneration of the forest. The second part of the paper discusses the effect of disturbance on the mycorrhizal-plant-soil relationships (e.g. Acacia spp. and Cordia africana). A number of studies made on regeneration aspects of dry land forest species and/or forest so far, give little or no attention to the hidden-half of the plant systems including MA. Seedlings that are unable to obtain adequate nutrient element and moisture are handicapped by reduced level of native mycorrhizal in degrade soil. In less degraded or disturbed sites, adequate mycorrhizal fungi can be established on seedlings and contribute to high survival and growth. On drastically highly degraded sites, however, reestablishment of MA through seedling inoculation is a necessity. The third part of the paper deals with the existing ample opportunities to significantly regulate forest productivity through matching right tree with the right mycorrhizal fungi (acacia regeneration through inoculation will be presented). Key words: Ectomycorrhizal, Arbuscular, diversity, regeneration, degradation, inoculation

37

Session 3

Posters

GROWTH AND ESTABLISHMENT OF SEEDLINGS OF INDIGENOUS SPECIES INSIDE PLANTATIONS AND ADJACENT NATURAL FOREST Desalegn Tadele* and Masresha Fetene Addis Ababa University, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 11 76, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia *Corresponding author: desalegn64@yahoo.com

The conclusion that tree plantations have played important roles in the restoration of degraded or deforested tropical forests derived mainly from the investigation of floristic diversity under their canopies. But research on successional processes such as germination potential, seedling establishment and growth and physiological parameters within plantation forests is not much touched. At present we measured density, distance from the tree boles of plantation species, seedling architecture, distance from seed sources, population structure, transpiration and photosynthetic responses of regenerated indigenous species (Podocarpus falcatus, Bersama abyssinica and Croton macrostachyus) to examine growth and establishment of indigenous seedlings inside exotic tree plantations. Four stands of Eucalyptus globulus, E. saligna and Pinus patula plantations, the adjacent natural forest and open area (clearfelled) in Munessa Shashemene For est, southern Ethiopia were studied. All species exhibited variations in their establishment inside plantations and adjacent natural forest. Plantations supported higher natural regeneration development (stem/ha) of indigenous species than natural forest (1950 vs 1260). The study species had denser regeneration and closer distance to the tree boles of plantation species inside Eucalyptus plantation indicating its better nursing effect than Pinus plantation. They had higher density along the edge than center of Eucalyptus plantation. Density of P. falcatus in Eucalyptus stands significantly declined with increasing distance from seed source. The population structure of regeneration showed a reverse J shaped curve. Both P. falcatus and B. abyssinica seedlings had stem growth and lateral growth in Pinus and Eucalyptus plantation, respectively. The result from chlorophyll a fluorescence measurem ent showed similarity in the actual photosynthetic capacity of study species across sites which prove that plantations did not limit light environment for the growth of indigenous seedlings. Species also had similar potential photosynthetic performances inside plantations and adjacent natural forest reflecting that they were exposed to almost similar light environment. Moreover, seedlings of P. falcatus in the clearfelled exhibited reduction in quantum efficiency suggesting the protective function of plantation forests from high light stress. Inside Eucalyptus plantation P. falcatus and E. saligna had same photosynthetic performance. And seedlings of P. falcatus and B. abyssinica transpired less under increasing vapor pressure deficit (VPD) than those of E. saligna. The study supported the suggestion that plantations had nursing effects for the development of indigenous flora under their canopies. Keywords: Chlorophyll fluorescence, photosystem II, transpiration, plantations, indigenous plants, nursing effect

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Session 3

Posters

THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF DIFFERENT REGENERATION MODES FOR THE RESTORATION OF SELECTIVELY CUT SAVANNA-WOODLAND IN BURKINA FASO, WEST AFRICA Ky-Dembl, C., Tigabu, M.*, Bayala, J., Oudraogo, S.J., Odn, P.C Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Silviculture
*

Corresponding author: Mulualem.Tigabu@ssko.slu.se

Savanna plant species are capable of regenerating both sexually and asexually. The importance of each regeneration mode depends on the species, the type and the intensity of disturbance. This paper describes a field survey investigating the relative importance of sexual and asexual regeneration for the restoration of selectively cut savannah woodland in Burkina Faso. Sexual and vegetative recruits were determined by excavation of the below ground system and assessing basal and aerial sprouts within 144 quadrats along transects in 2, 5, 10 year-cut and uncut plots. Resprouting was the dominant mode of regeneration for 54 woody species recorded in the present study. Seedling sprouts were predominant (83%) compared to root sucker (4%), coppice (5%), water sprout (2%) and layering (less than 1%). True seedlings constituted a minor component (5%) of the recruit population. Twelve species were found regenerating from both seeds and root buds; and Dichrostachys cinerea, Pteleopsis suberosa and Detarium microcarpum had the highest number of seedlings. Feretia apodanthera was the only layering species in the study area. Coppices, root suckers and water sprouts showed higher height and bigger collar diameter compared to seedling sprouts and true seedlings. Although seedling density did not show a significant difference between plots, the density of root suckers in cut plots showed an increasing tendency compared to seedling sprouts. The results show that sexual reproduction is the dominant mechanism of seedling recruitment in disturbed savannah woodland, and the success relies on the ability of seedlings of seed origin to resprout. Key words: root suckers, regeneration, resprouting, savanna

39

SESSION 4 MANAGEMENT PRACTICE FOR FOREST RESTORATION PAPERS

Session 4

Papers

ROLE OF AGROFORESTRY IN IMPROVING FOOD SECURITY AND NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: A REGIONAL OVERVIEW Bashir Jama*, Eyasu Elias and Kebadire Mogotsi World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), P O Box 30677, Nairobi, Kenya
*

Corresponding author: b.jama@cgiar.org

Various agroforestry technologies are finding enormous application in the East and Central Africa (ECA) region and are lifting many out of poverty and mitigating declining agricultural productivity and natural resources. Notable examples are: a) fertilizer trees that when integrated with inorganic fertilizers can double or triple crops yields in degraded lands, b) fodder trees that can be used in smallholder zero-grazing systems in ways that supplement or substitute commercial feeds, c) improved varieties of temperate and tropical fruits that can used to supplement household incomes and nutrition, d) medicinal trees that are utilized on farm and conserved in-situ, and d) fast-growing timber and fuelwood trees that can be grown in various niches within the farm and in commercial woodlots and plantations. While thousands of smallholder farmers are using these technologies, we are yet to reach the millions that need them. To achieve this goal, the key challenges that we must address include supply of quality germplasm, responsive extension services, policies that provide adequate incentives for investments in planting trees and natural resource management, and access to markets. This paper presents promising institutional innovations for overcoming these challenges that could be used to scale up impact of agroforestry for managing better the complex nexus between poverty, food security, and natural resource management in ECA countries such as Ethiopia.

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Papers

NATURAL REGENERATION OF A FLAGSHIP SPECIES, BOSWELLIA PAPYRIFERA (THE FRANKINCENSE TREE), FOR FOREST REHABILITATION IN THE LOWLANDS OF ETHIOPIA Kindeya Gebrehiwot1*, Bart Muys2, Mitiku Haile1 and Ralph Mitloehner3 Mekelle University, Department of Land Resources Management and Environmental Protection, P.O.Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia 2 Laboratory for Forest, Nature and Landscape Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Vital Decostraat 102, B-3000 Belgium 3 Institute of Silviculture, Section II: Tropical Silviculture, Buesgenweg 1, 37077 Goettingen, Germany
* 1

Corresponding author: kindeya@softhome.net / kindeyag@mu.edu.et

Many tree species in the drylands of Ethiopia hold a great potential for yielding economically valuable products. One of such species is Boswellia papyrifera, known for the production of frankincense. Nowadays, the species is declining at an alarming rate due to agricultural expansion, overgrazing, fire, poor incense harvesting practices, shifting cultivation, termite and other infestations. Recently, closed areas have been established to facilitate the rehabilitation of degraded sites and regeneration of important flag species such as B. papyrifera. Such efforts appear to be successful, but have not been quantified so far. This study attempts to analyse the effectiveness of closed areas on the natural regeneration, the population trend of B. papyrifera and associated dominant species in the dry forests of Ethiopia. Results show that, though there is significant rehabilitation of degraded sites due to recent closures, the regeneration of dominant species and importantly B. papyrifera is still not satisfactory. Hence, more concerted efforts are needed to revive the genetic resources that provide valuable products in dry forests of Ethiopia while maintining the biodiversity of the ecosystem . Key words: dryforests, Boswellia papyrifera, closed area, Ethiopia, natural regeneration, Tigray

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Session 4

Papers

THE POTENTIAL AND RISKS OF USING EXOTICS FOR THE REHABILITATION OF ETHIOPIAN DRYLAND FORESTS Gerrit van Wyk1*, Dave Pepler2 and Bart Muys3
1

Department of Forest Science, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, 7602 Matieland, Stellenbosch, South Africa 2 Department of Conservation Ecology, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, 7602 Matieland, Stellenbosch, South Africa 3 Laboratory for Forest, Nature and Landscape Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Vital Decosterstraat 102, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium
*

Corresponding author: gvwyk@sun.ac.za

Trees normally would fulfill the ultimate function at the end of the succession chain when land is rehabilitated. In the natural forest such trees would eventually be the climax veterans of the primary forest that usually replace pioneer trees of the secondary forests. Exotic trees, when used for plantations, usually fill the role of pioneers because they capture a (degraded) site easily. Such capturing of the site would depend on the site conditions as well as the adaptation of the species being used. Once the species grow well, it may be a deliberate decision not to replace such pioneers with climax forest species, the reason being the useful role that exotic species could play in the economy of the region concerned. However, there also may be risks involved in using exotic species in such an interrupted succession chain. Case studies from South Africa are discussed to, firstly, illustrate the potential of exotics, especially eucalypts, in providing much needed timber while also protecting the natural forest. These species, when genetically improved, can reach yields of more than 20 m3ha-1a-1, even under relatively dry conditions. Secondly, the risk of using exotics, such as eucalypts and Australian Acacias, is discussed and examples are given of management procedures to manage the risks. Finally, some suggestions are proposed on strategies to be followed in the use of exotics. It is pointed out that, with sufficient control, including policy and legislation, exotic species could play an enormous role in filling economic and social demands that need not be in conflict with environmental objectives.

45

Session 4

Papers

EXPEDITING ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION WITH THE HELP OF TREE PLANTATIONS IN ETHIOPIA Mulugeta Lemenih Wondo Genet College of Forestry, P. O. Box 128, Shashamane, Ethiopia Corresponding author: wgcf@telecom.net.et

Apparently, several reports are available on the biophysical degradation of land and its formidable impediment to sustainable rural and economic development in Ethiopia. What is required is to devise and implement scientific solutions to the problem. In a country like Ethiopia where there exists vast degraded ecosystems and a rapidly growing human population, yet all livelihood and economic development should continue to emerge from agriculture and biological resources, the restoration of the productive capacity of the degraded ecosystems will have a valid and crucial role to bring about sustainable development. An ecological management tool that is receiving considerable attention in recent years for ecological restoration in the tropics is the use of tree plantations as foster ecosystem. Reforestation/afforestation of degraded lands with fast growing tree species have been shown to expedite the recovery of soil fertility as well as diverse native flora and fauna on heavily degraded lands faster than sites that are left bare or unplanted. This paper presents ample empirical evidences from wide geographical areas, both outside Ethiopia and from Ethiopia, to substantiate this potential of tree plantations, and argue that afforestation/reforestation is a potential restoration strategy capable of reversing soil, biomass and biodiversity degradations in Ethiopia. Several factors related to (i) the design and management of plantation forests, and (ii) the degraded site characteristics affect the usefulness of tree plantations in restoration ecology. These issues that require special attention in using tree plantations in restoration ecology are analysed and presented. The paper concludes that supported with sound silvicultural management, tree plantations can be employed as one effective method to reverse land degradation and provide diverse socio-economic and ecological services including wood supply in Ethiopia.

Key words: Biodiversity, biomass, ecological restoration, land degradation, soil restoration, species selection, tree plantation, silvicultural decisions,

46

Session 4

Papers

POPULATION VIABILITY RISK MANAGEMENT (PVRM) APPLIED TO IN-SITU MANAGEMENT OF BOSWELLIA PAPYRIFERA (DEL.) HOCHST IN NORTHEASTERN ETHIOPIA Abrham Abiyu*, Harald Vacik, Gerhard Glatzel Institute of Silviculture, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, A-1190 Vienna, Peter Jordanstr. 70
*

Corresponding author: abrhamabiyu@yahoo.com

Boswellia papyrifera (Del.) Hochst is an ecologically and economically important tree species found in the arid lowlands of Ethiopia. As Ethiopia is one of the worlds largest producer of Frankincense (olibanum), the exploitation of olibanum is one of the top employment generating activities in the remotest parts of Ethiopia and therefore a very important source of income for the rural people residing there. Due to this exploitation the potential range of forest communities with Boswellia is greatly reduced and is classified as an endangered species. In Amhara region, there is a large reserve of this forest in Tekeze and Abay (Nile) catchments, cohabiting the same niche with Acacia and Commiphora forests with a total area of 604,000 ha. Based on this background the framework of a Population viability risk management (PVRM) is used for the design and evaluation of in-situ conservation strategies for the Boswellia population in the Amhara region. As part of the PVRM the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) is used to evaluate the conservation strategies with regard to viability of Boswellia. The viability of B. papyrifera is described based on the results of an analysis of the current environmental, social and economical state and a characterization of the ecological parameters of its population. The most significant risk factors such as successful regeneration, pressures like grazing and tapping or the kind of ownership are compared and prioritized against their impact on the viability of the Boswellia population. Effects of different conservation strategies (e.g. change of tapping frequency, grazing regime) are determined through a qualitative assessment of the probability of a decrease of B. papyrifera population along with scenarios at different environmental conditions. In this context strategies combining silvicultural measures that increase regeneration and growth of Boswellia and measures that consider ownership and benefit sharing seems to be the most effective. The rational and pitfalls using the concept of population viability risk management is discussed along with the results of the scenario analysis. Key words: B. papyrifera, population viability risk management, analytical hierarchy process, conservation strategy, nature conservation

47

Session 4

Papers

REHABILITATION OF URBAN FORESTS IN ADDIS ABABA Alexander Horst Department of Forest Development & Soil Conservation, City Government of Addis Ababa, P.O. Box 62751, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Corresponding author: ahorst@telecom.net.et

Urban forestry in developing countries is a concept which has received limited attention. Over 3 million people live in Addis Ababa which is one of the fastest growing cities in Africa. Urban sprawl is demanding its toll on urban forests and green spaces which provide a wide array of benefits for urban dwellers. Particularly the urban poor depend on forests for livelihood, and they are most seriously affected by environmental disasters. The paper will give an overlook of a new urban forestry approach which is expected to lead to the rehabilitation of urban forests in Addis Ababa. The paper is primarily based on literature review and analysis of experiences. It will analyze what factors have led to deforestation in Addis Ababa and why previous efforts to rehabilitate the forests were not successful. Ultimately, the way forward will be described. The paper will show that the environment has significantly deteriorated since the 1970s. It will provide evidence that deforestation was caused by absence of policy and law enforcement, insecure land and tree tenure, rapid urbanization, uncoordinated institutional framework, public dominance, lack of stakeholder involvement, and lack of integration of forestry issues in urban planning. The rehabilitation of forests in an urban setting is particular challenging due to population pressure, rural-urban migration, urban poverty, landlessness, commercialization of economy, competing land uses and high demand for construction material and cheap fuels. It is suggested that an isolated, traditional government-dominated approach to forest conservation and rehabilitation is doomed to fail. The way forward will be based on a holistic and integrated urban forest ecosystem approach which will include policy development, law enforcement, institutional reform, public-private partnerships, improved service delivery, capacity building and innovative urban forestry pilot activities.

48

SESSION 4 MANAGEMENT PRACTICE FOR FOREST RESTORATION POSTERS

Session 4

Posters

POSSIBILITIES FOR FUTURE FOREST EXPANSION IN THE GEBA RIVER WATERSHED, TIGRAY, NORTHERN-ETHIOPIA Koen Van Overtveld1*, Raf Aerts2, Mintesinot Behailu3, Bart Muys2 and Jozef Deckers1
1

Laboratory for Soil and Water, University of Leuven, Vital Decosterstraat 102, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium 2 Laboratory for Forest, Nature and Landscape Research, University of Leuven, Vital Decosterstraat 102, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium 3 Land Resources Management and Environmental Protection Department, Mekelle University, P.O. Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia
*

Corresponding author: koen.vanovertveld@agr.kuleuven.ac.be

In the Ethiopian highlands, forest degradation has been going on since ancient times up till recently, leading to an enormous decline in forest area. Today the present forest cover of the study area is only 0.81 %, which is dramatically low. Over the past decades however, efforts have been made to rehabilitate deforested and degraded areas through planting actions and natural regeneration in closed areas. Knowledge is scarce though about potential forest types which are to be expected in these closed areas and therefore no guidelines are available for the promotion or management of these natural forest types. In this paper the possibilities for future expansion in area of forest types in the Geba River watershed of Central-Tigray, is highlighted. Based on the results of a previous study about the classification of forest remnants in this area, potential natural vegetation distribution and potential forest expansion were extrapolated in a GIS-environment. A high discrepancy seems to exist between the present area of 4 present forest types and their potential natural area. The area of High Forests has diminished most, whereas the Degraded Montane Savannah has become the dominant forest type. Future forest expansion seems to be only possible in the present closed areas (4 %) due to land use restrictions. If however an extra 3 % of the land area is closed and forest regeneration is allowed, the present forest cover of 0.81 % could rise to a less dramatic 8 %.

51

Session 4

Posters

AGROFORESTRY PRACTICES AND TREE PLANTING CONSTRAINTS AND OPPORTUNITIES IN SEKOTA DISTRICT OF THE AMHARA REGIONAL STATE Berhane Kidane* and Agaje Tesfaye Holetta Agricultural Research Center, P.O.Box 58532, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia *Corresponding author: berhanekid19@yahoo.com

Informal Survey was conducted in Sekota district in the year 2000. The objectives of the surveys were to describe agroforestry practices, to characterize major tree species in the wereda, and to identify and prioritize major constraints related to tree planting. To conduct the informal survey, the districts were first divided in to two homogenous target groups (TGs): TG-I and TG-II. To identify target groups, criteria like vegetation cover, types of crops grown, soil type, livestock production, etc were used. In the survey, PRA tools like individual and group discussions, and transect walk and observations were employed. A total of 20 and 12 different tree/shrub species were identified in TG-I and TG-II, respectively. The common agroforestry practices at both target areas are scattered trees on farmlands, along rivers and around home gardens. Among the agroforestry practices, the most widely practiced in TG-I is leaving deliberately of naturally grown trees on cropland. Farmers prefer to have Zizyphus spp. on croplands as compared to other tree species, as it is easy to manage and does not have considerable negative impact on yield of the crops grown beneath the tree. In TG-II, farmers are not willing either to plant or to leave trees on croplands except Zizyphus though they know some benefits of trees like shading. Farmers believe that trees on cropland serve as the home for birds, which damages their crops. In both TGs farmers, moisture stress, theft, population pressure, termite, woodborers and livestock are the most important factors that affect tree planting practices and /or that contribute for forest resource degradation. Due to moisture stress in the area the survival of most seedlings were very low. Therefore, it is important to gear research to select the best adaptable species under moisture stressed condition and also that are preffered by most farmers. Moreover developing appropriate moisture-conserving techniques that improve the survival of most of the seedlings are necessary.

52

Session 4

Posters

NATURAL REGENERATION AND SPACING OF OPEN ACACIA TORTILIS WOODLAND AS PART OF THE PASTORALIST EXTENSION PACKAGE: THE CASE OF CENTRAL RIFT VALLEY Dechasa Jiru Forestry Research Center, P.O. Box 3070 , Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Corresponding author: Agrofrep@telecom.net.et

Acacia tortilis is one of the economically important multipurpose dryland species in Ethiopia. The leaves are important feed supplement and pods are equally important. Since it has access to the deeper profile of the soil reaching most types of major and minor nutrients, the browser animals have better chance of getting a complete diet, which can be reflected on their respective milk or meat products. Camel milk has similar advantages for the very reason of being a browser. Under extreme cold and high temperature animals of almost all classes need to be sheltered and shaded by Acacia tortilis shade tree for the provision of comfort temperature for farm animal. The flower is used as honey bee forage at off season and the pod is a protein rich animal feed supplement at the time of critical feed shortage in dry season. Under the canopy vegetation are predominantly herbs and usually weeds compared to open which is mostly grassed. Thus choice is determined by the objectives a developer needs. In view of multiple use production and services, the balance between trees and grass needs to be stroked towards determining the density of trees in the range land. Trees from thinnings are used for fuel wood and charcoal production. This paper highlights some principles and models of determining spacing in promoting a technological package. Such disadvantage leads one to reduce the acacia woodland density. Fire has a degrading role and thus can cause a substantial conversion of herbs vegetation population to grasses. This process will enable to increase tree density in the range land. All these complex issues will be discussed to give several options in vegetation composition on the basis of economic, environmental and social needs for sustainable range land management of the pastoralists.

53

Session 4

Posters

DODONEA VISCOSA SUBSP. ANGUSTIFOLIA: A POTENTIAL SPECIES FOR DRY AND FIRE PRONE SITES IDENTIFICATION, POTENTIAL USES AND LIMITATIONS IN MARGINAL SITES Dechasa Jiru Forestry Research Center, P.O. Box 30708, Addis Ababa Corresponding author: Agrofrep@telecom.net.et

Dodonaea viscosa subsp. angustifolia is an inland species found all over the dry, moist rocky and degraded sites in Ethiopia. It is a small thornless tree up to 8(-10) m tall. In total there are 50 Dodonea species in the World, with 94% of the species found in Australia. The fruit, which is the major distinguishing character of the genus, is mostly red-tinged or mottled or crimson to purplish but can be white, brown or reddish green. It is predominantly 2-winged but often it has 3 (or even 4) wings. The species in Ethiopia is an inland species. The coastal species with the variety viscosa is not reported. It has a tremendous potential in restoring degraded marginal sites and is therefore a. potential species for marginal land reclamation. The species is common in Tigray and the,fire prone zone of Borana in South Ethiopia, in most degraded dry warm environmentsI where it invades sites after fire. In deforested and degraded highlands of Ethiopia where most species of trees fail to establish Dodonea viscosa subsp. angustifolia is one of the species used in land reclamation. It does not only produce good fuel wood, but it will gradually create a forest environment. It is a C4 species, thus once it is overshadowed by other species it will be dominated or reach a stage of extinction or suppression. Therefore, it can be considered as a useful pioneer for marginal land reclamation.

54

Session 4

Posters

FRANKINCENSE, MYRRH, AND GUM ARABIC: SUSTAINABLE USE OF DRY WOODLAND RESOURCES IN ETHIOPIA Toon Rijkers*, Frans Bongers, Frank Sterck and Freerk Wiersum Wageningen Agricultural University, P.O. Box 27, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
*

Corresponding author: toon.rijkers@wur.nl

More than half of the total land area in Ethiopia is arid to semiarid with marginal or no agricultural potential. Overexploitation of natural resources is common, and the degradation of natural resources further limits local livelihood options. This negative trend may be further intensified due to climate change. In reality the dry lands in Ethiopia are not as resource poor as perceived. They host several woody species that hold economically well recognized aromatic products such as gum arabic, frankincense and myrrh, which are widely used locally and in several of todays commercial industries, such as cosmetic, pharmacologic and food industries. Gum/resin production could significantly contribute towards sustainable development of these marginal dry lands. However, improper land use (overgrazing, over-harvesting of gum/resins and wood) threatens the sustainability of the woody vegetation, and as a result of that also the long-term gum/resin production. The often dominating perspective of poverty forcing local communities to overexploit their forests resources has gradually been complemented by a perspective of local communities maintaining forest resources on the basis of their forest-related values and indigenous knowledge systems. Resource degradation and sustainable use of resources should therefore be considered as referring to a continuum in people forest interactions characterized by partly overlapping processes of degradation, resource conservation, and resource enrichment. As a result, often a mosaic in forested landscape units is created, each having its specific ecological conditions. The presented research program addresses the following main research question: in what way dry land forests in Ethiopia can be made productive while maintaining ecosystem integrity in terms of sustainability of production and vegetation cover, with special attention to resin and gum resources?

55

Session 4

Posters

FOREST REGENERATION WITHOUT PLANTING: THE CASE OF COMMUNITY MANAGED FORESTS IN THE BALE MOUNTAINS OF ETHIOPIA Girma Amente1,2*, Juergen Huss1 and Timm Tennigkeit1
2

Freiburg University, Institute of Silviculture CGTZ supported integrated forest management project Adaba-Dodola
*

Corresponding author: girma_an@yahoo.com

The livelihood of people in rural Ethiopia is closely linked to utilization of natural resources, particularly forests. However, absence of appropriate forest use and benefit sharing mechanisms resulted in a situation that local people were forced to utilize the forest resource illegally and that they do not feel responsible for the forest condition. In the Adaba-Dodola forest priority area the forest management approach adopted by forest dwellers association called WAJIB in local language offers a challenging model to reverse this trend. The WAJIBs received exclusive user rights for the multiple products and services from the forests. Transparent land-use arrangements and bylaws have been adopted as a pre-condition for sustainable forest management. Subsequently, WAJIBs are now striving to optimize the production capacity of their forests. The poster presents selected research results of an ongoing study to enhance the forest productivity by integrating different forest production goals, based on the local knowledge and management capacity. In the past enrichment planting with exotic tree species was one of the main attempts to regenerate degraded forests in the area. However, the impact of this costly procedure was limited mainly because grazing could not be controlled. Attempts to facilitate the establishment of natural regrowth have been perceived to be time consuming and none rewarding due to the high grazing pressure. But, it was recognized that there are some young trees >2 m in height who obviously managed to escape the danger of grazing and can be considered as potential crop trees. The present study was challenging this perception considering the potential crop tree concept. This concept focuses management intervention on these trees. The number of potential crop trees is determined by the desired harvestable dimension and the tree species-specific growing space demand. Respective inventories revealed that an unevenaged forest could accommodate around 400 trees of different species and age per hectare. Considering, that the WAJIBs are interested to establish a silvopastoral type of management, where 50 % of the area is not covered by forest, around 200 trees per hectare can be maintained. Accordingly, at a rotation length of 100 years 20 recruits/ha per decade are sufficient. A regeneration survey revealed that more than 30 % of the total area had more than 20 potential crop trees per hectare. In this area forest rehabilitation seems to be feasible without replanting. However, a rotating grazing system, protecting 10 % of the area until the regrowth is established, has to be introduced to enable the establishment of threatened species like Hagenia abyssinica. Ongoing research aims to develop resource assessment and management tools for and together with the WAJIBs. A training and capacity building program is required to strengthen and to disseminate this successful approach.

56

Session 4

Posters

THE REHABILITATION OF DRY LAND FORESTS IN ETHIOPIA A SHORT PROBLEM FOCUS FOR TIGRAY REGION Karl Waeldele Social Forestry Project Tigray (SFTP), P.O. box 931, Mekelle, Ethiopia Corresponding author: sfpt@telecom.net.et

In Tigray Highlands with its severe erosion problems (mostly by water, 500-1,000mm), a big effort to establish physical SWC measures during the last 25 years was made; complementary enormous amounts of tree seedlings were/are produced every year in state nurseries and being planted. But the ever-present livestock devastates all, first the seedlings and the natural regeneration, secondly the physical SWC structures, which are bar of stabilizing vegetation, through trampling. So the presence of gullies and general signs of land degradation, conspicuous by denuded hillsides, and the absence of stable vegetation cover continues because permanent uncontrolled livestock interference is allowed. This is a clear sign of livestock overstocking, aggravated by the traditional uncontrolled grazing (descript also in Tigray Forest Action Plan 12/1996 under 5.2 h Free grazing). The problem identified is not alone the existing number of livestock; the real problem is the wrong management of this livestock. If the natural vegetation including selected enrichment planting, in the available rangeland, could unfold in an undisturbed way its full biomass, enough fodder fresh and as hay would be available for the livestock. But that asks for understanding, change of traditional habits and additional work by the livestock holders; and a clear livestock policy backed by a decree or a law. Technical Possibilities: Cut and Carry Oxen Closure Rotational Grazing System

57

SESSION 5 ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS AND RISKS OF FOREST RESTORATION EFFORTS PAPERS

Session 5

Papers

COMPARISON OF WATER USE AND WHOLE-PLANT TRANSPIRATION IN DRY FOREST TREE SPECIES IN MUNESSA FOREST Masresha Fetene1* and Erwin Beck2
2

Addis Ababa University, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa Ethiopia Lehrstuhl fr Pflanzenphysiologie, Universitt Bayreuth, Universittsstrasse 30, D 95440 Bayreuth, Germany
*

Corresponding author: mfetene@bio.aau.edu.et

Whole-plant tree transpiration was estimated using stem-flux measurements for two indigenous (Podocarpus falcatus (Thunb.) Endl., Croton macrostachys Hochst. ex Del.) and for two exotic tree species (Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Cupressus lusitanica Miller) growing in the same location in the montane Munessa State Forest, southern Ethiopia. Stem flow was measured with Granier type thermal dissipation probes. Sap flux, normalized per unit sapwood area and the total sapwood areas of the particular trees were used to estimate daily transpiration. Maximum daily transpiration values (60 kg water) were recorded for Croton when at full foliage. After shedding most of its leaves in the dry season transpiration was reduced to 8 kg per day. Eucalyptus had the next highest transpiration (55 kg), in this case at the peak of the dry season. It transpired four to five times more than Podocarpus and Cupressus trees of similar size. Maximum stem flux density was tree-size dependent only in Croton. Diurnal patterns of stem flux indicated that Croton, Eucalyptus and Podocarpus, in contrast to Cupressus, responded more directly to light than to atmospheric water pressure deficit. At high VPD (>1.0 kPa) stem flux plateaued in Croton and Podocarpus indicating stomatal limitation. Per unit leaf area Croton had the highest and Podocarpus and Cupressus the lowest daily transpiration rates. In summary, the pioneer tree Croton had the lowest and Podocarpus the highest water use efficiency. The contribution of the study to the understanding of the role of each tree species in the hydrology of the natural forest and the plantations, respectively, is discussed. Keywords: Whole tree water relations; tropical montane forest; stem flux; Croton; Cupressus; Eucalyptus; Podocarpus

61

Session 5

Papers

WATER AND NUTRIENT RELATIONS OF SELECTED INDIGENOUS AND EXOTIC TREE SPECIES OF ETHIOPIA AND THE IMPLICATIONS FOR THEIR USE IN LAND REHABILITATION Jiregna Gindaba Department of Horticultural Science, Stellenbosch University, P/Bag X1 Matieland 7602, South Africa Corresponding author: jgindaba@sun.ac.za

Considering the need for planting trees to rehabilitate dry and nutrient deficient sites in Ethiopia, the current paper compares and discusses the water and nutrient relations of three indigenous deciduous tree species of Ethiopia: Cordia africana Lam., Croton macrostachyus Del. and Millettia ferruginea (Hochst.) Baker and two widely used exotic tree species: Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Glasshouse experiments show that the deciduous species grow comparable to the eucalypts provided that moisture is available. Growth of the eucalypts exceeds that of the deciduous species under prolonged water stress. However, eucalypts are more vulnerable to drought compared to the deciduous species at least at the seedling stage. Leaves of C. macrostachyus and C. africana have higher transpiration rates and plants have less water use efficiency compared to M. ferruginea and the eucalypts. All the deciduous species shed their leaves to reduce water loss when moisture is limiting, which inevitably reduces photosynthetic surface area and hence overall growth. M. ferruginea reorients its leaves to avoid direct solar irradiance, which enables it use water conservatively under water stress. Whereas the deciduous species accumulate more N and P in stem, leaves and roots compared to the eucalypts, the latter show higher growth performance in both N and P-deficient soils. Both field and glasshouse studies show that C. macrostachyus and C. africana produce extensive root systems which may enhance their survival in water and nutrient stressed conditions. Regardless of their extensive roots, field studies show positive impacts on soil nutrients due to their short leaf lifespan, high leaf nutrient content and rapid decomposition to release nutrients. In the field, E. camaldulensis produces extensive roots with negative impact on adjacent croplands suggesting that planting this species in the immediate proximity or together with agricultural crops is not desirable. However, M. ferruginea with much less extensive roots and less demand for water and nutrients promises to be more suitable for growing in combination with agricultural crops. Keywords: Drought, Eucalyptus, Growth, Nitrogen, Phosphorus

62

Session 5

Papers

THE EFFECT OF REGENERATING FORESTS ON WATER BALANCE COMPONENTS IN THE TIGRAY HIGHLANDS, ETHIOPIA Katrien Descheemaeker a*, Hans Quaeyhaegens a, Addisu Assefa b, Jan Nyssen a,b, Dirk Raes a, Jozef Deckers a, Jean Poesen c, Mitiku Haileb Institute for Land and Water Management, K.U.Leuven, Vital Decosterstraat 102, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium b Department of Land Rehabilitation and Environmental Protection, Mekelle University, PO Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia c Laboratory for Experimental Geomorphology, K.U.Leuven, Redingenstraat 16, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium
* a

Corresponding author: katrien.descheemaeker@agr.kuleuven.ac.be

In the Tigray highlands, exclosures have become an important measure to combat land degradation and increase biomass production. In view of high land pressure and scarcity of fuel wood and grazing land, it is important to obtain profound knowledge about the effects of the set-aside policy on different aspects of the natural environment. The objective of this study is to determine effects of exclosures on different components of the soil water balance. In 30 experimental plots in three study sites, all components of the water balance have been determined. Rainfall was measured by a network of automatic and daily rain gauges. Runoff was determined daily in closed runoff plots of 10 m2 and soil moisture at different depths was recorded weekly by TDR equipment. Daily evapotranspiration was budgeted using the FAO method (Allen et al. 1998). Water balance components were modeled and validated with the soil moisture model BUDGET (Raes, 2002). Soil hydrophysical variables (moisture retention, saturated hydraulic conductivity, bulk density and texture) have been determined for all horizons of 11 representative soil types. Results indicate that under influence of the regenerating vegetation, runoff is significantly reduced, infiltration and evapotranspiration are increased, soil moisture retention is improved and bulk density is lowered. Water running onto well-vegetated areas rapidly infiltrates and contributes to the inputs of the water balance. Modeling the water balance indicates that under better developed vegetation deep percolation and contribution to deeper water reserves is favored compared to degraded situations. From this study it can be concluded that thanks to exclosures water regimes on a broader landscape scale are improved. Keywords: Exclosures, water balance modelling, runoff, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, infiltration, hydrophysical soil variables

63

Session 5

Papers

ACTUAL AND POTENTIAL CONTRIBUTIONS OF EXCLOSURES TO ENHANCE BIODIVERSITY IN DRYLANDS OF EASTERN TIGRAY, WITH PARTICULAR EMPHASIS ON WOODY PLANTS Emiru Birhane Mekelle University, P.O. Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia Corresponding author: x1biremi@freemail.et Vegetation, soil seed bank and socio-economic settings were studied in protected and open areas in Eastern Tigray, to investigate the role of exclosures in the rehabilitation of degraded drylands. 20 x 20m2 plots were laid out in exclosures (n = 50) and in open area (n = 30). In the exclosure 27 species representing 18 families were recorded compared to 14 species representing 12 families in the open area. Abundance 2659; density 1329 stems/ha; basal area 22 m2/ha; IVI 99.99, Shannon index 1.468; evenness 0.455; and species richness 27 woody species for the exclosure: and Abundance 746; density 621 stems/ha; basal area 9.6 m2/ha; IVI 100, Shannon index 1.514; evenness 0.573; and species richness 14 woody species for the open area was found. Species in the exclosure have an expanding type of population structure compared to an obstructed type of structure in the open area. The population structure showed the direction of succession. Both in the exclosure and open degraded area, no woody species were found in the soil seed bank. Perception and attitude towards the program of exclosures is positive. 84% of respondents support the expansion and conservation of exclosures. Respondents need the local laws (serit) to be improved: it should contribute to the management of enclosures rather than being limited to a punitive role. 52 % of the respondents considers collective management, a threat to the expansion of exclosures supported the subdivision of the exclosures, with care for individual management. Finally, the local people suggest their need to collect dead wood from exclosures and involvement in the management, planning and implementation of exclosures.

64

Session 5

Papers

THE PROSOPIS DILEMMA IMPACTS ON DRYLAND BIODIVERSITY AND SOME CONTROLLING METHODS Abiyot Berhanu* and Getachew Tesfaye Ecosystem Conservation Department, Institute of Biodiversity Conservation, P.O. Box 30726, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
*

Corresponding author: abiyotmulu@yahoo.com

Plant invasions are a serious threat to natural and managed ecosystems worldwide. One of the most common invasive species is Prosopis juliflora. P. juliflora, which belongs to the family Fabaceae and subfamily Mimosoidae, comes originally from Central and/or South America. It has been pantropically introduced as a fast-growing tree and is now establishing, often as a weed. Its distributional ecology ranges from tropical to dry forest ecosystems. In Ethiopia, P. juliflora occurs in the arid and semi-arid regions of Afar and Somali and is expanding at an alarming rate. Its ecology covers altitudinal ranges between 300 1500 m asl in the area. Traditionally, it is employed in medicine, food, charcoal production, firewood, forage, wind break and soil improvement purposes. On the other hand, it is fast growing, drought resistant, and with a remarkable coppicing power. Such unique adaptive biological characteristics of the species have got negative impact for local biodiversity and ecosystems, such as invasion of grazing areas, streams, wetlands, settlement areas, and ecosystems in general, resulting in extinction of plant species. Recently, the Institute of Biodiversity Conservation is undertaking a preliminary ecological survey and pilot experiments in the control of this invasive species in the arid and semiarid regions of Ethiopia. Consequently, mechanical control and prescribed burning were evaluated using two study sites for each method in Afar. Thus, mechanical control (manual clearance and using bulldozers) was found to be effective followed by proper management system. Besides, it was discovered that the number of stems from the coppiced stands was significantly higher than uncoppiced stands (P < 0.05). Hence, cutting individual plants may aggravate the invasion by Prosopis unless proper management such as repeated clearance is employed. Prescribed Fire was evaluated for mature stands (3-4 yrs) and young stands (< 1 yr). The method was destructive for young stands, whereas mature stands were not burnt. Generally, Prosopis continues driving out pastoralists and farmers from their localities and the dilemma remains unsolved for a while. Thus, proper management and control of the species is urgent in the Afar and Somali Regions using the control methods described above in cooperation with the local people. Otherwise, tribal conflict for the remaining few grazing and farm areas free from Prosopis may turn into unexpected political crisis!

65

Session 5

Papers

REGENERATION THREAT AND INDUCED RANGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM THE CASE OF BORANA PASTORALISTIS IN SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA Dechasa Jiru Forestry Research Center, P.O. Box 30708, Addis Ababa Corresponding author: Agrofrep@telecom.net.et

The Boran range land is found in an arid and semiarid harsh environment in southern Ethiopia. Currently the rangeland is invaded by native bush which may be poisons or unpalatable. It may replace grassland permanently. Rainfall varies from 300-800mm in the area. In a fragile, moisture stressed harsh environment, the Boran Oromo use to live in land of plenty through careful understanding of a resource base and its interaction with the production system. Traditional range land management is based on knowledge of natural growth habit of the plant and manipulative culturing to meet human needs. The paper presents a review of secondary data and more importantly information obtained from participatory farmers interview made in those areas where the scale of invasion is extremely high namely around Yabello, Arero and Moyale. The causes for bush encroachment are manyfold: 1) Fire ban which would have burnt bushy undesirable plants and at the same time promote grass growth. 2) Human and animal density increase which is caused by area shrinkage and conventional population increase. 3) Decrease in rainfall amount and shift in timing 4) Introduction of a browser/Camel which in nature favours bush growth at the expense of grassland elimination and 5) Interference of the stable and sustainable traditional range management system that has been compromised with the new technology. This new technology in general is not compatible, environmental sound and is socially more of destructive however valued in general. The objective of the paper is to share information on the complex phenomena of plant growth habit and system interaction. Light is shed on probable risks in developments which result from failure in understanding a system. This paper is seen as an early warning for those whose concept of vegetation regeneration is skewed to positive out put in any project.

66

Session 5

Papers

ESTABLISHING NEW FOREST MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR THE DRY EVERGREEN FORESTS OF BORANA, SOUTH ETHIOPIA - AN EXAMINATION OF SOS SAHELS BORANA COLLABORATIVE FOREST MANAGEMENT PROJECT. LEARNING AND ACHIEVING Ben Irwin* and Tiksa Mitiku SOS Sahel, P.O. Box 3262, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
*

Corresponding author: sos.sahel@telecom.net.et

The destruction of the Dry Evergreen forests in Borana, South Ethiopia can be traced back at least hundred years. The loss of these rare Juniper procera and Olea africana forest, characterised by floral and faunal endemism, is now understood to be due to complex processes which are influenced by a combination of political, economic and social factors. In order to address the forest loss situation SOS Sahel International (UK) Ethiopia Programmes Borana Collaborative Forest Management Project (BCFMP) was asked to join Oromiya Region, Department of Agriculture, Forestry Department in the search for new forest management systems. Presented in this paper is an examination of the Collaborative Forest Management systems introduced by the SOS Sahel Project. The Project experience is shared in terms of what has been learnt and what has been achieved over the last five years of implementation (1999 2004). The paper presents the challenges and potential of introducing new forest management in to Ethiopia; the understanding of causes of forest destruction, the new roles and responsibilities of communities and foresters in new forest management; the emergence of community based institutions as forest management groups; and the sharing and building of skills for the formulation and implementation of forest management plans for these ecologically unique forests. The paper concludes with examples of practical forest management operations being developed and undertaken by the community forest management groups themselves. The examples not only show the functionality of the new forest management system, but also the use of traditional knowledge of local environments and ecology to develop appropriate dry land forest management actions.

67

SESSION 5 ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS AND RISKS OF FOREST RESTORATION EFFORTS POSTERS

Session 5

Posters

SEDIMENT DEPOSITION AND PEDOGENESIS IN EXCLOSURES IN THE TIGRAY HIGHLANDS, ETHIOPIA Katrien Descheemaeker a*, Jan Nyssena, c, Joni Rossi a, Jean Poesenb, Mitiku Hailec, Jan Moeyersonsd, Jozef Deckers a
a

Institute for Land and Water Management, K.U.Leuven, Vital Decosterstraat 102, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium b Laboratory for Experimental Geomorphology, K.U.Leuven, Redingenstraat 16, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium c Department of Land Resource Management and Environmental Protection, Mekelle University, PO Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia d Royal Museum of Africa, Tervuren, Belgium
*

Corresponding author: katrien.descheemaeker@agr.kuleuven.ac.be

In the Tigray highlands, the establishment of exclosures has become an important measure to combat land degradation and increase biomass production. In view of high land pressure and scarcity of fuel wood and grazing land, it is important to obtain profound knowledge about the benefits and effects of the set-aside policy on different aspects of the natural environment. The objective of this study is to investigate sediment deposition processes and sediment trapping capacity of exclosures and how factors like slope gradient, vegetation cover, and slope length influence sediment deposition. In three study sites on different geological formations, soils in different land use types but in comparable landscape locations were described and chemically analysed to determine characteristics of baseline and sediment horizons. Based on this knowledge, sediment depths were determined in a transect study in each of the land use types, in which also vegetation cover and slope gradient was recorded. Under influence of vegetation and sediment deposition Phaeozems are developing. Total sediment depth turned out to be related to vegetation cover and in some cases slope gradient. Recent sediment deposited since closure was found to be strongly related to distance from the top of the area, slope gradient and sediment source area characteristics. Sediment deposition rates amounted to values of 26 to 123 ton/ha/yr or 0.26 to 1.37 cm/yr. Soil fertility and soil physical parameters were found to improve significantly in exclosures. Because of their high sediment trapping capacity, exclosures are very efficient soil conservation measures in the Tigray Highlands. Keywords: Exclosures, sediment deposition, soil fertility, Phaeozems, vegetative sediment buffer

71

Session 5

Posters

SOIL-VEGETATION INTERACTION IN RELATION TO SOIL CARBON SEQUESTRATION. A CASE STUDY AT SEROWE, BOTSWANA Ermias Aynekulu Mekelle University, P.O. Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia Corresponding author: ermias8@yahoo.com

Estimating SOC stock indirectly from biomass and up-scaling the estimation using remotely sensed data can be taken as a means of reducing the cost of carbon stock inventory. By considering vegetation as a major source of SOC, this study aimed at evaluating the extent to which the variability in SOC can be explained by above ground woody biomass. Another objective was to investigate the possibilities of up-scaling the estimation of biomass and SOC stock using vegetation indices obtained through remote sensing. The study was conducted around Serowe village, Botswana. Following a stratified random sampling design, 75 sample plots were indicated. Ankle height basal area was measured in the field and converted to biomass using the existing regression equations developed by Tietema (1993). SOC in the top 30cm was estimated by determing bulk density, % course fragments and % carbon. NDVI2, SAVI3 and LAI4 were derived form Landsat TM 7(October 2001), ASTER (August, 2001) and MODIS (March, 2002). The regression analysis results indicated that biomass poorly explains the SOC variability in the Arenosols (R2 = 13%), but did better in hardveld (R2 = 49%), where the variability of soil is relatively high. Of all vegetation indices NDVI was the best estimator for biomass and for SOC biomass (R2=0.35) and SOC (R2=0.23) around the escarpment where Combretum apiculatum is the dominant species with greater density and biomass. The average carbon stock in biomass and soil was estimated to be 20.6 1.82 t/ha-1 and 4.51 0.55 t/ha-1 respectively with 95% confidence interval. Generally, SOC was poorly explained by biomass and vegetation indices were found to have poor application in estimating biomass and SOC in the area. Keywords: biomass, soil organic carbon, remote sensing, Botswana

SOC: Soil Organic Carbon NDVI: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index 3 SAVI: Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index 4 LAI: Leaf Area Index
2

72

Session 5

Posters

BIOLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF SELECTED INVASIVE ALIEN PLANT SPECIES ON NATIVE SPECIES BIODIVERSITY, RIFT VALLEY, ETHIOPIA Adefires Worku1*, Taye Tessema2 and Getu Engda3
1

Forestery Research Center, Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 2 Holltra Research Center, Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization 3 Melkasa Research Center, Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization
*

Corresponding author: adefires@yahoo.com

Ethiopias biological diversity was badly suffering firstly because of degradation and secondly due to invasive alien species introduced intentionally or unintentionally to the country from other countries through food aid, development activities e.c.t. Owing to the ever-increasing risk of biodiversity loss in the country, a project entitled as biological impact assessment of selected invasive alien plant species on native species biodiversity, in rift valley areas, Ethiopia was initiated and implemented. The objective of the study was to assess the impact due to the Invasive Alien Pants on native biological diversity and to recommend a control and management techniques so as to contribute for the protection of ecosystem, species, and genetic diversity from invasive alien species/IAS, for global, national and community benefit. In a selected quadrate of varying size for each invaders a Comparative and Cover methods were used as a tools in order to see the impact of Prosopis juliflora, Lantana camara and Parthenium hysterophorus on the native biodiversity. In all the selected IAS cases, the result of native species composition and abundance between the invaded and un invaded plots showed a significant difference. In the invaded plots most of the native plant species were absent or represented by a minimum number of individuals and even the remaining were diseased and exhibited stunted growth. This happens because of the rampant invasion nature of the IAS. For the Prosopis case, valuable tree species like Acacia nilotica, Acacia tortulis, Acacia senegal and a number of grass and shrubs species were gone from and the problem is serious specially in the Afar region. For example in invaded and Elimination experimental plots of this study about 23 Acacia nilotica trees were completely dead and those trees out of the invasion area are living. Lantana was also reported to be abrasively invaded all the rocky land of eastern Harerrge and this study proved that a number of native species were also suffering from its invasion in the study plots. In line with this in plots infested with Prosopis and Lantana it was proved that, it was hard to see the regeneration of native species. In a relative term better number of plant species has been seen to co exist with Parthenium and yet better composition and abundance were registered at no/lightly-infested plots of the experiment. This small scale study assisted by its Socio-economic results, proved that unless and otherwise a serious management and control measures will implemented soon, because of the invasive nature of the species on one hand and their prolific seed production nature, their wide range of dispersal mechanism and ability, their fast growth nature in minimal moisture availability and small sized and dormant seeds production nature, they will extend and invade a wide range of agro-ecology and harm production and productivity, the biological diversity of the country and human welfare in general. Key words: Impact, native, biodiversity, invention, and composition/abundance

73

SESSION 6 SOCIO-ECONOMIC BENEFITS AND RISKS OF FOREST RESTORATION EFFORTS PAPERS

Session 6

Papers

ECONOMIC VALUATION METHODS FOR FOREST REHABILITATION IN EXCLOSURES Bedru Babulo1*, Bart Muys2 and Erik Mathijs1
1

Centre for Agricultural and Food Economics, K.U.Leuven, de Croylaan 42, 3001 Heverlee, Belgium 2 Laboratory for Forest, Nature and Landscape Research, K.U.Leuven, Vital Decosterstraat 102, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
*

Corresponding author: benat95@yahoo.com

Besides regeneration of the vegetation cover, exclosures potentially have tremendous economic benefits in terms of production of wood and non wood forest products, restoration of water resources, soil protection, etc. But exclosures also involve opportunity costs as they exclude the land from alternative uses. In principle, these trade-offs must be evaluated to put a piece of land in its optimal use. This implies the economic analysis of alternative land uses. The aim of this paper is to identify the best available methods for cost/benefit analysis of exclosures in the highlands of Ethiopia. Following the total economic value (TEV) approach of nature (resource) valuation, the economic value of closed areas could be categorized into two broad headings: use and nonuse values. After careful identification of various functions/uses of closed areas in the study area, appropriate valuation methods are selected to capture the economic values of those functions. Mainly the following valuation methods will be presented and discussed in the framework of exclosures: a) Market prices method: use of the prevailing market prices for goods and services traded in the domestic or international markets. b) Efficiency (shadow) price method: use of adjusted prices for market imperfections and policy distortions or for non-marketed goods. c) Production function method: estimation of the value of non-marketed resource or ecological function in terms of changes in economic activity by modeling the physical contribution of the resource function to economic output. d) Related/substitute good method: use of information about the relationship between a non-marketed good or service and a marketed product to infer value. e) Cost based method: use of variants of a cost-based approach such as replacement cost, relocation cost, preventive expenditure, damage costs avoided, and opportunity cost to estimate environmental functions based on the assumption that the cost of maintaining an environmental benefit is a reasonable estimate of its value. The value estimates obtained from the above methods will be subject to further cost-benefit, econometric, and/or statistical analysis.

77

Session 6

Papers

SCOPE FOR NON-WOOD FOREST PRODUCTS INCOME GENERATION FROM REHABILITATION AREAS FOCUS ON BEEKEEPING Frans Jacobs University of Gent, Laboratory for Zoophysiology, Krijgslaan, 281, S33, B 9000 Gent, Belgium Corresponding author: frans.jacobs@ugent.be

Apiculture is recognised by the FAO as an agro-industry which provides great promise for income-generating activities in developing countries. A truly sustainable agriculture is a diversified one, because it is much less vulnerable to unpredictable, variable economic and climatic conditions. In this sense, apiculture in all its aspects is an integral part of a truly sustainable economy, on the national level, as well as the individual farmers level. Bee keeping can increase the annual income of a farmer by 30-50%. Beekeeping is so appropriate and worthwhile for developing countries because of the following aspects: Honey and beeswax are useful and valuable commodities. Pollination by honeybees means good harvests of nearby crops. Expensive equipment is not necessary. Requirements for hives and basic equipment can stimulate business for local trades. Bees feed on pollen and nectar in flowers. They therefore do not require other food supplies. The nectar and pollen that bees collect are not used by any other livestock and represent a resource which would otherwise not be exploited. Bees collect from cultivated and wild flowering plants. Even wasteland areas can therefore have value for beekeeping. Basic beekeeping techniques are easy to learn. Bees do not require daily attention. Bees do not take up valuable land. Hives are placed in trees, on wasteland, or on flat rooftops. This makes beekeeping feasible for small-holders and landless people. Beekeeping can be practiced by males and females of all age groups. Beekeeping helps to generate self-reliance. The formation of beekeeping associations or co-operatives can encourage contacts between a group of people.

In Ehiopia, honey is widely used as food and as an important component of traditional medicine. Up to now, honey is mainly collected in the wild. Recently, modern techniques have been introduced. Trunk holes are replaced by artificial hives, which are in fact boxes made by carpenters. They are placed in the natural vegetation or plantations in order to be colonised by wild honey bees. Honey harvest leaves the bees and the hives untouched. The new method does not harm the environment and guarantees higher yields. The recently introduced modern techniques are not yet widespread and do not address all problems and needs farmers are faced with. It should be pointed out to the farmers that a little investment can be very remunerative, and that the cost/benefit ratios are to their advantage. The main problems to be solved are the following: Lack of knowledge on bee races

78

Session 6

Papers

Primitive equipment and bee management Need for processing methods Lack of knowledge on local wild bees and plants and the role of bees in pollination of the local vegetation

Studies, as proposed in this project, may reveal new multipurpose crops. Plantations of bee plants could enable the production of monoflora honey. Low external input agriculture (LEIA) provides a wealth of possibilities to introduce bee plants. Pollination by bees will lead to improved crop yields. Government-driven reforestation programmes could plant nectar and pollen producing trees and shrubs. Based on a flowering calendar, the honey harvest season could be extended to the entire year (whereas now it is often limited to the rainy season).

79

Session 6

Papers

THE POTENTIAL OF ACACIA SENEGAL FOR DRYLAND AGROFORESTRY AND GUM ARABIC PRODUCTION IN UGANDA Joseph Obua1*, Jacob Godfrey Agea1, Sara Namirembe1, Simon Peter Egadu2 and Patrick Mucunguzi2
1

Faculty of Forestry and Nature Conservation, Makerere University, P.O/ Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda 2 Department of Botany, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062 Kampala, Uganda
*

Corresponding author: obua@forest.mak.ac.ug

Studies were undertaken to determine the agroforestry and gum Arabic production potential of Acacia senegal in the drylands of Luwero and Nakasongola in central Uganda and the Karamoja region in north-eastern Uganda respectively. In the Luwero-Nakasongola drylands, farm-transect walks were used to assess the proportion of farmland under A. senegal. A structured questionnaire and interviews using Participatory Rural Appraisal were used to collect data on the socio-economic profile of the farmers, their willingness to plant and manage A. senegal on their farms. The gum Arabic production potential of A. senegal in the Karamoja region was assessed by establishing 135 sample plots each measuring 20 x 20 m in undisturbed land, grazed land and cultivated land in Dodoth, Jie, Bokora, Matheniko, Pian, Chekwi and Pokot counties. All trees in the sample plots were identified, counted and measured at diameter breast height (DBH). SPSS was used to analyze the questionnaire responses and Logistic regression to show the relationship between the socio-economic variables and peoples willingness to plant A. senegal trees. In the Luwero-Nakasongola rangelands, the proportion of farmland under A. senegal and other tree species was 16.78 %. There is a potential for development of Acacia senegal as an agroforestry tree species because as it is a source of firewood, fodder, fencing poles, medicine, gum and replenishes soil nutrients. Education, farm size, gender, occupation and ownership of domestic animals significantly influenced the local peoples willingness to plant A. senegal trees in Luwero and Nakasongola. In the Karamoja region, gum Arabic producing Acacia species (Acacia senegal, Acacia seyal, Acacia sieberiana, Acacia nilotica and Acacia gerrardii) were the most abundant (92.8% of 5,535 trees). Although there were few trees in the gum producing age of 15-25 years, there is a potential for gum Arabic production from A. senegal. Key words: Acacia senegal, agroforestry, drylands, gum Arabic, Uganda

80

Session 6

Papers

ALTERNATIVE STRATEGY FOR RURAL LANDCARE AND ECONOMIC BENEFITS IN DEGRADED LANDS OF ETHIOPIA Tefera Mengistu*, Demel Teketay, Yonas Yemshaw and Hkan Hulten *Debub University, Wondo Genet College of Forestry, P.O. Box 128, Shashemene, Ethiopia
*

Corresponding author: Teferamengistu@yahoo.com

Much of the earth is degraded, is being degraded or is at risk of degradation. Dry afromontane forests of Ethiopia are one of the ecosystems affected by this phenomenon. This study focuses on assessment of community perceptions, experiences and benefits from enclosure practices, which are meant to circumvent land degradation. Communities around Biyo-Kelala and Tiya enclosure case-areas, central and northern Ethiopia respectively are used for the study. The assessment was made through questionnaire survey and focus group discussion. Results indicated that 93.7% of the respondents have positive attitude towards the practice. 82.5% of the respondents confirmed that they have gained benefits from enclosures but they prefer not to secure private ownership rather community (village level) management system. This proves that groups emerge to manage common property when they live close to the resource. Success of enclosures is closely related to the issue of benefits and their equitable distribution among community members, which has helped to develop sense of ownership security. The emergence of enclosure as an alternative strategy is a relatively convenient management option to counteract degradation of the environment, while at the same time providing economic benefits for the local community. The study has an indication that, the rehabilitation of deforested lands provides socio-economic benefits by supplying raw material for the local wood industry, reducing the pressure on the remaining forests. Nevertheless, it is found impossible to design national model for the management of this practice, rather it is the local people and associated stakeholders that should design local management rules for their localities. Key Words: Enclosures, Rehabilitation, Benefit Sharing, Ownership, Participation, Attitude

81

SESSION 6 ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS AND RISKS OF FOREST RESTORATION EFFORTS POSTERS

Session 6

Posters

BIOMASS ESTIMATION OF HERBACEOUS AND WOODY VEGETATION IN CLOSED AREAS OF NORTHERN ETHIOPIA Geert Baert1, Bart Muys2, Stijn Cleemput1*
2

Hogeschool Gent, Jozef Kluyskensstraat, 9000 Gent, Belgium Laboratory for Forest, Nature and Landscape Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Vital Decosterstraat 102, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium
*

Corresponding author: stijncleemput@hotmail.com

For centuries, land degradation triggered by deforestation has occurred in Ethiopia, in particular in the northern regional state Tigray, the area under study. In order to change this situation, the local government started to establish closed areas. In these sites, grazing is no longer permitted so that forest can naturally regenerate. In order to develop sustainable yield planning for forest rehabilitation areas in Tigray, one has to know the effect of closing areas on biomass accumulation. In a closed area aboveground dry weight of herbaceous and woody species was estimated Allometric equations were developed to predict by comparing destructive and non-destructive methods. Best-fit least-square regression models were developed using diameter, height, or both, as the independent variables and dry weight as the dependent variable. Coefficients of determination for the selected total biomass models ranged from 0.64 to 0.99 for woody species from the destructive study and from 0.20 to 0.90 for the woody species from the non-destructive study. Equations for foliage biomass generally had lower coefficients of determination than did equations for either stem or total biomass of woody species. Non-woody biomass was measured in different closed areas in order to estimate the biomass production in function of management technique. 98% of the total herbaceous biomass of the grass plots sampled in the closed area belonged to Hyperrhenia hirta. While in the partly closed land near by Gahe, only 11% of the total herbaceous biomass of the sampled plots was originated from this species.

Keywords: biomass yield, closed areas, destructive study, non-destructive study, Hyperrhenia hirta

85

Session 6

Posters

SOCIO-ECONOMIC SURVEY OF ARBAMINCH RIVERINE AND WOODLAND FOREST Lemlem Aregu* and Fassil Demeke Forest Genetic Resource Conservation Project (FGRCP), GTZ for the support of Institute of Bio-diversity (IBC), P.O. Box 30726, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
*

Corresponding author: lemlem627@yahoo.com

The socio-economic survey carried out on Arba-Minch riverine and woodland forest in August 2003 using PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal). In addition market and consumers were surveyed and assessments made in three markets and four institutions respectively. People who live around Arba-Minch natural forest identified about 32 and 23 tree and shrub species respectively together with their use, phenology, regeneration capacity and degree of threats. It is recognized that there is irresponsible forest resource depletion in Arba-Minch riverine forest. The forest is known to have contributed in keeping down the temperature of ArbaMinch town. Eyewitness and people living around Arba-Minch noticed that there is climatic change due to high rate of forest destruction of Arba-Minch riverine and woodland forest. The higher demand of fuel wood and construction materials inspired by the population growth and physical expansion of the town encourage many people to secure the supply of forest resources and engage in forest resource extraction of Arba-Minch riverine and wood-land forest. No work has been done to promote energy saving stoves and advocacy work on using alternative energy source and wise utilization of forest resources. This will directly or indirectly affect the life of thousands of people in the surrounding area. The town will face problem of potable water and suffer from high temperature. Even the daily income of many individuals from the forest diminish up at some point in the near future. Therefore, the current situation of Arba-Minch forest depletion calls for urgent efforts to design integrated approach for sustainable forest resource management and utilization with the participation of the community that could help to combat the situation.

86

Session 6

Posters

RURAL HOUSEHOLD BIOMASS FUEL CONSUMPTION IN NORTHERN ETHIOPIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR FOREST DEVELOPMENT Fitsum Hagos1*, Stein Holden2 and Arild Angelsen2 Dept. of Natural Resources Economics and Management, Mekelle University, Ethiopia, P.O.Box 231 2 Department of Economics and Resource Management Agricultural University of Norway, P.O.Box 5033, 1432 s, Norway
* 1

Corresponding author: fitsumh@mu.edu.et

Biomass fuels are the most important source of energy in developing countries. Fuelwood shortage is regarded as a major cause of deforestation and land degradation. There is a conjecture that promotion of tree-based systems may help alleviate the growing fuelwood problem. However, this requires, among others, a proper understanding of the factors that influence households choice of energy sources among different sources. The paper addresses factors that determine rural households dependence on different sources of fuel. We focus on two major types of energy namely woody biomass and animal dung. We also disaggregated energy types into those harvested from communal areas and private woodlots (self production) to examine whether different factors influence households choice of fuel sources from these sources. We applied econometric models with different assumptions on the correlation of the error terms in the individual consumption regressions. Moreover, we accounted for the fractional nature of the dependent variable in the equationby-equation estimation. Regression results indicate the importance of cross price effects, transaction costs caused by wood scarcity, institutional factors and household endowments in terms of labour and livestock holdings and level of labour and non-labour income in determining the choice on and/or the mix of fuel types. Policy implications for forest development strategies are drawn. Key terms: fuel consumption, shadow wage of labour, shadow price of fuelwood, fractional response model, seemingly unrelated regression (SUR), Northern Ethiopia, Africa.

87

Session 6

Posters

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF CLOSING BOSWELLIA PAPYRIFERA DOMINATED DRY FOREST IN TIGRAY-ETHIOPIA Mesfin Tilahun Georg-August University of Goettingen, Germany Corresponding author: mesfintila@yahoo.com

Environmental degradation and deforestation are among the serious problems in Ethiopia. Increasing demand for agricultural land and fuel wood are major contributors to lose of many economically important tree species. Boswellia papyrifera is among such tree species, which are highly degraded. Closing degraded forest from free grazing, fuel wood collection and other human interference, to assist natural rehabilitation is practiced in Tigray. Sustainability of this management will depend, among other things, on the tangible economic benefits from the managed resource. This study aims at comparing the NPVs (net present values) per hectare of three land uses (closed and non-closed Boswellia dominated forest, and agricultural production) of the study sites in Abergelle Woreda . From 32 permanent plots of closed and non-closed sites with 2500 m2 size/plot, a total of 96 random sample trees are selected to collection, measurement, grade and estimate the per hectare frankincense yields. Three random sub-plots with each 1m2 area are selected randomly per plot of the closed site and grasses in the sub plots will be harvested and measured in kilograms to estimate the annual per hectare grass production. To estimate net agriculturalincome/hectare, costs of incense production and grass harvesting, systematic random samples of 104 households near the study sites are selected to collect related data through questionnaire. The market prices of all outputs and inputs of the three land uses are collected from respective organizations and local markets. The NPV investment criteria will be applied and it is expected that the NPV from closed Boswellia forest will be the highest of the three land uses in the study site. It is also expected that the annual frankincense yield/hectare from closed site will be higher than from nonclosed site. Key Words: Closed areas, Boswellia papyrifera, Tangible net economic benefits (NPV) and frankincense

88

Session 6

Posters

COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN DRYLAND FOREST MANAGEMENT: AN EMPHASIS ON PASTORAL COMMUNITIES Girma Kelboro Debub University, Wondo Genet College of Forestry, P. O. Box 128, Shashemene, Ethiopia Corresponding author: Girma75@yahoo.com

In theory, participation has typologies that reflect the degree to which the direct beneficiaries of a development project or programme (the local people) are involved in planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. The major typologies identified, from the highest level of involvement to the lowest, include local peoples control, self-mobilization, interactive participation, functional participation, participation for material incentives, participation by consultation, passive participation and manipulative participation. The degree of empowerment of the local people decreases as one moves from local peoples control to manipulative participation. In Ethiopia, the last four typologies are the dominant ones in rural development projects and programmes. In a case study conducted at Yanassie sub-catchment of the Lake Awassa Watershed shows that more than 50% of the local community did not recognize the objectives of a participatory forestry development project of the Sidama Zone Bureau of Agriculture in Southern Region. They engaged in the soil and water conservation and tree planting activities, for the most part, to get the material incentives. This is also the experience from the different parts of the country. Most of the experience the country has is based on working more with other communities than the pastoral communities. However, in sustainable management of dryland forests and woodlands, the country should focus on ways of facilitating involvement of the pastoral communities since they are living in drier parts. The needs of the communities should be identified and the resource management activities should be geared towards providing appropriate incentives for the local people. Their life style and indigenous natural resource management should also serve as a spring board to have success in the resource management intervention.

89

Session 6

Posters

ADOPTION AND DIFFUSION OF IMPROVED STOVES AND THE REHABILITATION OF DRYLAND FORESTS IN ETHIOPIA Zenebe Gebreegziabher Agricultural Economics and Rural Policy Group, Wageningen University Bureau of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Tigray Region, Ethiopia Corresponding author: zenebeg2002@yahoo.com

Land degradation in general and deforestation in particular should not be viewed as a one way street, but as the result of an imbalance between the various forces acting positively and negatively, in which both human and natural factors are involved. As in Angelsen, [1999] and Wright and Yeshinigus [1984] land clearing in search of arable land and tree felling for fuel wood, appear to be the two most important causes for the degradation of tropical/ dryland forests. Besides the stove technologies that are in use (cf. the traditional open fire tripods) have a very low efficiency and about 85 to 90 percent of potential energy is wasted. This implied an increased demand for biomass fuels and, hence, an increased pressure on the natural resources. The solution to this problem could be either on the supply or the demand side or on a combination of both. On the supply-side, encouraging/ promoting private property and community based arrangements such as private tree planting, farm-forestry, establishment of closed areas, etc. might be seen as options. On the demand-side, promoting fuel efficient stoves (technologies) could be envisaged. In light of this, there have been attempts to introduce and disseminate improved stoves in Ethiopia [UNDP and World Bank, 1984]. The results achieved, however, appear to be far from being sufficient. The choice of appropriate instrument(s) also requires a clear understanding of the behavioral factors underlying the adoption and diffusion of fuel efficient stoves/ technologies. The motivations in here are, therefore, to explore the economic/ behavioral factors underlying the adoption and diffusion of improved stove in Ethiopia, by way of establishing the link between adoption and diffusion of stoves and the rehabilitation of dryland forests. For empirical analysis we used a cross-section dataset of 200 farm households from the highlands of Tigrai. Technology adoption and the extent to which the technology is used efficiently was modeled as two stage decisions. Preliminary findings suggest the need for agro-ecology based interventions as well as better orientation/ streamlining of improved stove extension and R&D, so as to achieve meaningful results.

90

Index of authors

INDEX OF AUTHORS

Abiyot Berhanu Abrham Abiyu Addisu Assefa Adefires Worku Aerts Raf Agaje Tesfaye Alemayehu Wassie Angelsen Arild Baert Geert Bashir Jama Bayala J. Beck Erwin Bedru Babulo Berhane Kidane Bongers Frans Cleemput Stijn Couralet Camille Dechasa Jiru Deckers Jozef Demel Teketay Desalegn Tadele Descheemaeker Katrien Egadu Peter Simon Emiru Birhane

65 47 63 73 19,29,51 52 13 87 85 43 39 61 77 52 13,55 85 23 53,54,66 20,31,35,51,63,71 30,31,81 38 35,63,71 80 64

91

Index of authors

Engida Mersha Ermias Aynekulu Eyasu Elias Fassil Demeke Fitsum Hagos Getachew Berhan Getachew Tesfaye Getu Engda Girma Amente Girma Balcha Girma Kelboro Glatzel Gerhard Godfrey Agea Jacob Hermy Martin Heyn Mora Holden Stein Horst Alexander Hulten Hkan Huss Juergen Irwin Ben Jacobs Frans Jiregna Gindaba Kebadire Mogotsi Kindeya Gebrehiwot Kumelachew Yeshitela

7 72 43 84 85 22 65 73 56 21 89 47 80 20,27,29,31 20,31 87 48 81 56 67 78 62 43 31,44 21

92

Index of authors

Ky-Dembl C. Lemlem Aregu Maes Wouter Masresha Fetene Mateos Ersado Mathijs Erik Melaku Tafere Mesfin Tilahun Mintesinot Behailu Mitiku Haile Mitloehner Ralph Moeyersons Jan Mucunguzi Patrick Mulugeta Lemenih Muys Bart Namirembe Sara November Eva Nyssen Jan Obua Joseph Odn P.C. Oudraogo S.J. Pepler Dave Poesen Jean Quaeyhaegens Hans Raes Dirk

39 86 19,29 36,38,61 15,22 77 19 88 20,29,51 14,35,44,63,71 14,44 71 80 46 14,19,20,29,31,35,44,45,51,77,85 80 19,29 4,35,63,71 80 39 39 45 35,63,71 63 63

93

Index of authors

Reubens Bert Rijkers Toon Rossi Joni Sass-Klaassen Ute Shibru Simon Sterck Frank Takele Mitiku Taye Bekele Taye Tessema Tefera Mengistu Tennigkeit Timm Tesfaye Bekele Tewolde Berhan Gebre Egziabher Tewolde-Berhan Sarah Tigabu M. Vacik Harald Valckx Jan Van der Borght Ives Van Overtveld Koen van Wyk Gerrit Veldkamp Ed Waeldele Karl Wiersum Freerk Wolde Mekuria Yemshaw Yonas

20,31 55 71 23 16,22 13,23,55 8 15 73 81 56 23 3 14 39 47 20,31 19,29 51 45 9 57 55 9 81

94

Index of authors

Yigremachew Seyoum Zebene Asfaw Zenebe Gebreegziabher Zerihun Woldu Tiksa Mitiku

36 37 90 16 67

95