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Beginninr
. lor.!"
Otte!'inas
nuru Yoga
Chenrezig Hedito.tion
.Six
General Practice
pa:ft
o( October 1
(October 25) 12
(October 27) 23
(Or.tobcr 30) 31
1) 48
(November 3) 63
4) 71
Irlporte.nce of Foundations (NoveMber 10) 80
1
DJIARf.IA TAUC 1 ni:.GINNXNG PRACTXCE
All us, ns Budrlhists, are concP.rnad with
the understanding and realizing the pervasive nature
ing in Samsnra and Hre interested in transcending this ocean
which we call samsaric existence, then coming
to realization complete Buddhahood in its omniscience.
This really is our main purpose, our sole purpose for practisinr.
Dharma. This being the case, it's very important, essential
really, that we all come to something about what are
called the Four Thoughts Which Turn the J.lind. This is a aeries
o our contemolations.
Jo'irst, the contemplation of the Precious Human Existence,
so to obtain; the contemplation or Death ond
the contemplation harma, cause and result; the contemplation
or the Failings and the Faults or Samsaric Existence. Unless
one not only hears nnd understands these teachings but also
contemplates und meditates upon them, one will never able
to practice Dharma in the ullest possible way. Many or you,
I am sure, are quite ramiliar.with these ideas already. X knew
many o you have read about them in the small book X wrote
when I was last here in Canada. And some o you, I hope, will
not only read this book but have used it as a guide in contempl"tion
and mP.ditation.
These our are really the oundations o Buddhism
and part the oundations also are a aeries of practices
which are called, simply, The Foundational Practices. The
first o these is doing 100,000 prostrations. In order to be
able to these prostrations, one must understand something
very clearly about what it means to go or reruge. In order
to understand about going or reuge, one needs to know some-
thing about Buddhahood, about Buddha. What is Buddha? Far,
ar in the distant past, an individual gave rise to the
Enlightening Thought, resolving to reach enlightenment or the
welare o others. With this determined motivation, he
accumulated merit and awareness, and having cleared away the
various obscurations or existence over what we traditionally
term "three uncountable eons", it culminated in Fully Awakened
Enlightenment or Buddhahood.
Buddhahood or Fully Awakened Enlightenment embodies three
very great qualities. Buddha is first, the complete renunciation
o everything that needs to be renounced. This is the first
great quality and means that all obscurationaJ obscuration
stemming rom our emotionality, obscurationa stemming from our
undamental ignorance have boon completely removed. There is
no vestige ignorance or emotionality in Awakened
Enlightenment. This is an awakenine rom i,norance, that
is what one syllable of the word BUDDHA means. This is termed
the Great Abandonment or the Great Renunciation wherein all
obscuration have been abandoned. Secondly, with this total
abandonment o all ignorance and emotionality, immediate
knowledge o all phenomena exactly as they are develops. This
knowledge, o course, embodies rreat wisdom and transcending
awareness which embraces all things both as they are and as
they appear. Seeing exactly, without and obscuration,
directly--this is enlightenment, and it is the Great Realization,
2
the second quality Buddhahood. The third quality is the
development or supreme compassion, a compassionate concern
which looks upon every sentient being with the same CQncern
love with which a mother looks upon her only son.
To explain word, "Buddha", etymologically, the irst
syllable means awakening; awakening rom sleep-lil<e ignorance,
and to the spontaneous removal o all obscuration& which
hide the nature Being; obscuration& karma, obscuration&
emotionality, obscuration& ignorance. All these are
removed and there is complete awakening, a rom all
these things which have clouded and hidden the nature
mind and the nature all existence. This is what the
syllable means. The second syllable to enlightenment
in the knowledee o the two things to be known. The two
things to be known are knowledge the internal mind,
and knowledge o all external phenomena. The Awakened Enlight-
ened Hind sees all phenomena exactly as they appear, exactly
as they are without each distinct in and
knows exactly the nature mind itsel; how it is. This
knowledge is enlightening and so we have the term Buddha
as Awakened Enlightenment or the Awakenqd and
Hind. The Awakened Enlightened Hind dev.elops irst rom the
Enlightening Attitude, the resolution to work the
of others. With this Enlightening Attitude, the individual
works at gathering the two accumulations of merit and aware-
ness through the practice of the Six Perrections and over the
course o eons, the gathering of accumulations develops into
the realization of one's fundamental existentiality or Dharma-
kaya, and "the two form of this ultimate nature.
How are these two accumulations gathered? The accumulation
merit or wholesomeness is accumulated with reference to the
Three Jewels; the Buddha, the Dharma, the Sangha as the higher
objects of reference through prayer, devotion and offerings
and also through rererence to the lower objects, to sentient
beings through generosity, kindness and patience. Action
taken with respect to these two references motivated through
faith, morality, vi-rtuous and noble action gathers the
accumulation o1" merit. The accumulation of Transcending
Awareness is accomplished through non-discursive, non-conceptual
meditation of the no-thingness of the individual self and
all phenomena. These two accumulations are not things to be
practiced by two separate people, say, but the single individual
needs to practice both the meditations on the nO-thingness
of reality ns well as engaging in generosity, morality and the
other perections with rer,ard to sentient beings. What kind
of result two accumulations? Ultimately the accumulation
of merit and action which accumulates merit develops into the
two manifestations of enlightenment: communication and
being in the world. The meditation ond realization of the no-
thingness of reality dr.velops into the fundamental existentiality
or the Dharmakaya. Where is Buddha, then? Existentiality or
Dharmakaya pervades all phenomena yet is devoid or form,
tangibility or any mark of origination, cessation or duration
and transcends the three realms of ordinary existence. Very
high level Bodhisattvas, Bodhisattva& resting on the eieht,
ninth or tenth levels of spiritual attainment come into
communication with Buddha through the of
J
ment known os Sambhogakaya or the comntunicotive aspect of'
This is no Crom Dharmakaya. It
is the Corm in wlich these level &odhisattvas are able
to communicate with enlightenment. Jlow does this communication
take place? Well, f'undamental existentiality or Dharmakaya
is endowed with such tremendous qualities, qualities which
shine lil..:e the radiance or the raya of' the sun. The rays of'
the sun are like the communicative aspect of' enli(!htenment.
It is the tremendous merit, the tremendous wholesomeness
of' higher level 8odhisattvaa who have, by and large, cleared
away almost all karmic obscuration& and emotionality; who
have developed their realization and to extremely
high levels. It is the interaction of' this tremendous whole-
aomenesa with the great qualitiea o Full Enlightenment that
makea communication poasible.
In order to be of' direct help to ordinary aentient beinga,
Awalcened Enlightenment manif'esta in the world either as the
perf'ect incarnation or manif'estation such as a Buddha or as
a ,-eat spiritual teacher, a king who rules the land wisely,
aomeone skilled in craf'ts or as a poor man in order to give
people the opportunity to be generous, and in many dirf'erent
ways to be o help and benef'it to aentient beings. In many
dif'f'erent ways Awakened Enlightenaaent manif'esta either through
birth or through craf'ts. But the perf'ect f'orm of' the manif'eatation
of' ref'era to the appearance of' such as Buddha
Sakyamuni, who appeared in India 2500 years ago, ana who,
through the twelve great deeds in his life come to help
aentient beings come into contact with and to practice the
Dharma.
The communicative aspect of' enlightenment and the
manif'estation of enlightenment in the world are termed the
Form or Tangible Manif'estations of' Enlightenment. They are
not diff'erent f'rom what is termed the Formless Manif'estation
nf' Enlightenment, or Dharmalcaya, i.e. existentiality, but
ariae through the power of' bleasing of' f'undamental existentiality.
Contact with them depends upon the development of' the individual
in that a great, hiehly advanced hpiritual person comes into
contact with the direct communicative aspects of' enlightenment,
a lesser would come into contact with the perf'ect f'orm
manif'estation aspect such as Buddha Sakyamuni and other
would come into contact through the other various f'orm
manif'estations aa a &killed craf'tsman or a wise ruler or any
of' these other f'orma. Why, then, if' these three aspects of'
enli,;htenment are in essence the same, does this dit'f'erence
ariae at all? Dharmakaya is understood or beheld when one
has cleared away all obscuration of' conceptualization or
conceptual knowledge. The communicative aspect of' enlightenment
ia beheld when one has cleared away all obscuration due to
emotionality. The perf'ect f'orm manif'estation of'
ment is beheld when one has cleared away the obscuration& due
to karma. And if' one haa cleared away many of' the obscuration&
due to karma, then one comes into contact with the other
f'orm manif'estationa, either thoae through birth or through
craf't.
What is the Awakened Enlightened Mind like? We can
illustrate this a little bit by example, Just considerins our
, ..
oW. aituation nov. For inatance, we are f'ull of" any
puritiea, any obacurfttions; if" we think or ao.e..,lace where
we have been, India or or any or these the
1--c of" that place iediately to ind. V remember
it; we know what vaa like. Imagine that kind of" immediate
knowledge developed to the point that embraces the whole
universe, ao that one i .. ediately and directly everything
in the past, the preaent, the f"uture, everythinr. that ia
.. braced in the term Eziatence, that ia
included in the ter., or the transcendence of" miaery
and everything that ia included in the path fro Samsaric
to the tranHcendence of" isery. The Awakened
Enlightened ttnd a.-es all that as clearly as we can aee the
pal of' our hand; 110 ore conf'usion, no ore lack of'
This i termed the Transcendent Awareness of' Knovleds
Asain, in our very limited and def'iled exiatence, we are
till able to know a little bit of" true compassion or sympAthy
ror omebody else. A 1nother loves and ia extreely concerned
about her child; we can be very, very concerned and ha a
r.reat aJ"f"ection for a close f'riend; and if' we somebody in
a diff"icult and unpleasant situation, we eel aorry Cor him
and wish to help him. Tbia ia aomethinc like compassion. But
vhea all our obscuration are cleared away, we are _no
liited by ienorance, by emotionality and by our ova actiona.
Then the concern, the af'f"ection, the f'or every
aingle aentient being ia i ... ediate and aa deep as the deepest
love and concern that the other has f"or an only child. This
concern, this compassion and love ia not restricted in. any
vay1 not by diatance, not by kind of" race or any kind of'
claaaification. ntis is ter.ed The Supreme Copasaion Through
Love.
In our limited existence, also, we have a certain amount
of" activity. Ve have theability to help a person
i be ia in dif'f'iculty. Ve can do aomething to help hi
cenerally. Ve also have the ability to harm a person, to
ake thinr.s dif'f'ucult Cor hi. Thia ability to act which
arises ia our mind and which we are able to chance into action
is limited, but when we are f"ree f"ro all impurities and
obscuration, mind unf'olda into totally dynamic activity which
ia f"ar, Car greater than anythintr we know nov. Tbia mind
being cleared of all ipurities no longer haa any emotionality,
def"ilement or any kind, or any icnorance. It bas complete
aatery over itself', ao there ia no longer the possibility.
of' acting to burt others or to bring inJury to anything. And
one is able to act immediately, directly to provide a f'riend
f'or a peraon that needa a f'riend, a spouae f"or a person who
needs a spouae, a kine f"or a country that needs a ruler; in
act, in any way whatsoever that a aincl aentient beinc or
"oup of" aentient being ay be benef'ited . Tbia total activity
of' the Enliahtened Mind is called Buddha Activity Through
Action.
One incident illuatrative of" the kind of" Buddha activity
that may go on concerned a f' .. ale domon who conatantly harassed
the countryaide and took the livea of' many people nnd animala.
Chenreaig, aeein that not only waa this particular demon
accu.ulatins a rat deal or evil kar.a ror heraelf', but alao
brlncinc creat harm to others, sent an nation aa a ale
demon, nnd in the course of time the f'emale demon and Chenresir.'s
emanation came to live tor,ethcr. While they were living
togethe-r, Chenresi r:' s cmana ti on would sit quietly and say
mantras all the time, "Om mani padme hung." After a
the demoness said, "What on earth are you saying? What's
the thing you keep saying?" Chenresig
1
s emanation would say,
"Well, it's a very, very f'ine mantra. By repeating it, I
everything I want, as much as I want to eat. Everything
that I want comes to me." The f'emale demoness this
was ,,ui te amazing. She said, "Well, I
1
11 have to do this, too."
So she started repeating the mantra and she didn't worry
about being or thirsty because she was quite confident
in the ef'f'icacy of the mantra, even though she was extremely
hungry and thirsty. A:fter a while, her stomach began to shrink
and she no longer f'elt a craving :for sentient beings, and
through the blessing o:f the mantra, eventually, her mind
began to chanee. She no longer had any wish to kill and eat
people. Her whole mind
1
her whole attitude towards existence
and changed and eventually she came to prattice
Dharma to reach enlightenment.
During the life of Buddha, there was an individual,
Chungawa, who had great :faith, great respect for Dharma;
really wanted to practice it sometimes. He married.
clled
he
His
wif'e was very jealous of her husband's interest in Dharma and
always contrived to prevent him f'rom having any contact
with Buddha or with the Dharma in any way whatsoever; so
much so that she would not let him go out of' the house without
her. Wherever he went, she was'always tagging along. One
day Buddha thoueht to help this person. He went begging.
Chungawa saw Buddha begging and immediately resolved to f'ill
Buddha's ber,ging bowl with f'ood. His wife wouldn't let him
go out. He said, "I'm just going out to give Buddha some
alms. There's nothing wrong with this at all. I'll be right
back." So his wife wet his clothes and said, "You be back
they're dry." He said, "That's OK; that's no trouble."
So he took his of'f'erings to Buddha and :filled his bowl.
Buddha said, "That's f'ine; now f'ollow me." So overcome was
he with Buddha's very commanding presence that he f'ollowed
Buddha and Buddha just started to walk alon8 the path, along
the roads. They walked f'or a long time and Chungawa thought,
Ive eot to get back soon; I've really got to get back now."
He constantly thoueht about that but he just couldn't draw
himself' away f'rom Buddha, so powerfull was Buddha's compassion
and So he kept walkine and eventually, af'ter a long
time, they arrived at the monastery where Buddha was staying
and he followed Buddha into his cluunbers. Then when tb'y sat
down he said, "Ueally, I must go back; my wife will be worrying
about me. I have to go back right now." Buddha replied, "Well,
I have one place to co; I won't be long. While I'm gone, just
sweep up the shrine room, would you?" So Chungawa started to
sweep up the shrine room af'ter Buddha left. When he finished
sweeping up the shrine room, there was more dust than ever
before. So he swept it again, and again it was dustier than
be:fore. So he swept it again. No matter how much he swept it,
the dust seemed to accumulate rather than to be collected.
Eventually, he just gave up and started of:f away from the
monastery and back to his home. There were two ways to go.
6
There was the main road, a broad road. He thought it was
most likely that Buddha would be coming along that road back
to the monnstery, so he took what was just a small path through
t1te Jungle. Well, while he was walking along this jungle path
he saw Buddha approaching on the pa.th ahead. He was just
terrified. he l:ltought, "What am I to do? I've got to
hide somewhere." A short way along the path he noticed a
tree whose branches came right down to the r;round. He thou,..ht,
"Ah, that's a safe to hide; no one will see me
the leaves of the tree." So he hid behing that, and as
Buddha approached, thP. hranchns of the tree lifted up to
expose Chungawa. Buddha said, "Where are you eoing7" He
said, I'm eoinc home or I was going home." Buddha
said, "bell come, .follow me.".
When they arrived back at Buddhn's monastery, Buddha
said, Well, I tlink it's time we wP.nt 1"or a little bit of
sightseeing, so take hold or my robes." As Chungawa took hold
of Buddha's robes, they lew orr into the sky and came on top
of a hir,h mountain. On this mountain there was livirlg a
very old woman with a wrinkled and bent body, haggard and
drawn. Duddha said, "Well what do you think,. Chungawa, who
is more beautiful, this woman or your wife?" Chungawa said,
"Oh, my wife ifl a hundred thousand times o1ore beautiful than
this woman." And Buddha said, "OK. I want to show you some-
thing else now; take hold of my robes." lie did and through
Buddha's miraculous powers they arrived in theJJrd heaven.
And Buddha said, Well, just walk around, have a good look
around see whnt you see." As Chungawa walked around he
saw all these incredibly handsome gods and very beautiful
'-oddesses. All the and splendour the heavens,
everything JUSt amazed him. He tllOUCht it thour:ht it was
the most wonderful! place in which he had ever been. He
continued to walk around around and see all the beautiful and
splendorous things that were there in the J)rd heaven.
he came to a seat which was surrounded by hoards of beautiful
servants and beautiful goddesses end handsome gods, all
making the most perfect, the very best preparations for a
magnificent throne. He went up to one of them and said,
"ahose throne is that?" And the person he asked said, "\lell,
this is no one's right now but it's waiting to be .filled."
"Oh, who's goine to fill it?" "Oh, there's a person called
Chungawa who's r,oinr, to become a mond and he's goine to keep
a very pure moral code and will come to be reborn here, so
we're preparinp, the throne." Chun6awa turned to Buddha and
Buddha said, "Have you seen enough?" lie said, "Yes." So
they retu!ned to Buddha s monastery. Chungawa had completely
dismissad all of his wife by now, having been completely
intoxicatod with the splendour o.f the heavens and asked
Budd'ta f'or the monk's vows. Buddha snid, "Uo you really want
to become a monk?" And Chungawa replied, Oh yes, I very
definitely want to become a monk." So Buddha gave him the
vows.
One day at a gatherine of all Buddha's monks, Buddha said,
"Pretty well all o.f you have taken to become monks
because you wish to achieve the .fullest possible enlightenn1ent.
You wish to transcend the misery of Samsaric Existence. This
is most wonderful, most worthwhile. But there is one of your
7
nun1ber who has taken vows iu ordrr that he mieht be born
in the ))rd heaven. Jtis namA is Chuncawa and I want you to
have to do with him Do not speak to him
in any way whatsoever; have no communication with him; do
not even Rit on the same seat ns he does. All you who
hnve set your sip;hts on the attainment enlir.htenment are
a very path this individual." So
that day none the monks had anything to do with
Chunga'"a Rut Chungawa was still intent on being born in
the )Jrd heaven and preserved his vows most
Well, one day Buddha came to Chuneawa and said, "Do
you want to go a little amone the boll
Take hold my rohe." So Chungawa took hold or his robe and
through Buddha's miraculous powers, they were soon among the
hell beings. Chungawa was just stricken to see how much
how much pain beines could experience and were
as they underwent this incrP.dibly torturous
existence. He it so completely disturbing that
he could almost not bear to look, but he Budaha
wherever he went. Eventually, they came across a large house,
illed with people and Cull implements and
tremendous weapons. In the center this large room, there
was a huge cauldron molten copper. People were bringing
more copper and throwing it into the cauldron. Other people
were stoking the and heating it up to the very highest
temperatures. Unlike the rest o the cauldrons that Chungawa
had seen the hell beings, there was no one in this one
asked one the attendants, "Why is there nobody here?"
"Oh, we're' just preparing it right now. There is a person up
in the continent called Chungawa. He's preserving
his morality very well and he'll be born in the JJrd heaven
ater this; but the ))rd heaven, this will be his throne."
And Chungawa wasJust so morti:f'ied, so completely panic
stricken at the thought that he might be having to experience
swimming in that cauldron o copper that he back to
Buddha and said, "Can we go back to the southern continent
quickly?" And so, he completely gave up any thought being
born in the ))rd heaven. what was the use o being
born in the J)rd heaven if' that is what it turned into a:f'ter-
ward. From then on he devoted himself' purely to practicing
the Dharma in order to reach Cull enlightenment. So strong
and determined was he in his practice that he completely termimat-
ed all desire in every one the senses and his name
became 'The One Who Terminated Desire Through the Five Senses
as he reached This concern Buddha which
is constantly and continuously translated into action helps
an individual come to a better understanding the
o samsaric existence and will lead him to be interested in
and to practice to attain Cull enlightenment. The constant
concern which the Fully Enlir:htened Hind has, which sees
exactly what is needed to help an individual and has the
ability to provide the kind of' action, the kind setting
which will help an individual, is re:f'erred to as the Capability
Reuge; and is the of' the Great Qualities of' Buddha
Mind. So we have these Great Qualities: Transcending
Awareness of' Knowledge, Supreme Compassion Through Love,
Buddha Activity Through Action, and the Capability Re:f'uge
8
which summcrize and explain the Great Qualities of the Fully
Awakened and Enlir,htened Mind.
The prjnciple form of Buddha's activity to help sentient
beings is the teachinr. of the Dharma; the Dharma which has
come down to us to the present day. It is the Dharma which
shows us, teaches us the way which one can transcend
the limits of samsaric existence and reach the full transcendence
of" misery which is Awakened So we have the
jewel of the Dharma. We take refuge in the Dharma too,
O.!'; a way. And thirdly, we learn the Dharma from individuals,
from a spiritual teacher, and from people who have trained in
the Dharma. We lenrn it from people who follow the Dharma,
our own Dharma companions, monks and nuns, all of" these. And
these are termed the Sangha, because they guidt"? and support
us in the lJharma. We tal.;.e in the ::iangha also, the
community of" those that f"ollow the Dharma. These the
three principle sources of" in Buddhism: The Fully
Awakened Enlightened Mind or Buddha, the Dharma shows
the way, and the Sangha which provides the guidance and support
as one travels on the way.
In order to provide sentient beings with the most expedient
And quick means of" reaching full enlightenment, the Fully
Awakened Enliehtened f.lind or Buddha, emanated in f"orms of"
various Yidams or.meditational deities and gave initiations,
ripening the streams of" conciousness of" particular individuals.
Through meditating and practicing meditations concerning these
deities, these individuals came to obtain accomplishment
through which they were able to achieve enlip;htenment. So
it is said that in the Vajrayana, this tradition of" very
powerf"ul teclmiques f"or reachine enliF,htenment, the source of"
the source of" attainment or achievement is
the meditational deity or the yidam. And in order to be able
to practice a yidam meditation such as Dorje Palmo, Chenresig,
Manjusre, Korlo Demchok or any of" these meditational deities,
one must be ripened and this ripening takes place through
the procass of" initiation or empowerment and depends upon the
Lama's blessing. Throueh the Lama's blessing, one's stream of"
conciousness is ripened; through initation and through the
Lama's blessings one receives the and teachings
which will enable one, if" practised, to reach Cull enliehten-
ment. So the Lama in the is termed the Source of"
All Blessings. And because one is practising such powerf"ul
techniques through transformations and perfection, one meets
tremendous obstacles, many conditions which make it dif"f"icult
to practise Vharma, many things which interrupt or potentially
interrupt and impede Dharma practice. In order to clear away
these impediments and to create conditions and suitable
environments so that one's practice can be Cruitf"ul, one relies
upon the activity of" the Dharma Protectors. Through meditation
and prayer concerning theRe protectors, they act to clear
away obstacles and create the good conditions for one's own
devotions. And so it is said that the source Cor all Buddha
Activity are the Protectors. When one practises Vajrayana,
in addition to taking refuge in the Three Jewels: the Buddha,
Dharma and Sangha, one takes refuge in the Three Sources or
the Three Roots: the source of all blessing being the Lama,
9
the source of attainment or accomplishmP.nt being the Yidam
and the sourcA of all activity beinR the Dharma Protectors.
The Three Roots and the Three Jewels are moat potent sources
of power to help one in Dharma practice, most powerful agents
which can confer great blessing and attainment. But without
faith and devotion and prayer on one's own part, one will not
receive any inspiration or through the Three Jewels
or the Three Roots.
In order to receive the full protection of the Three
Jewels and the Three Roots, one goes for refuge which consists
of imaging these six sources in the sky i"l front of one,
everyday bowing before them repeating the refuge prayer and
fostering an intense devotion and respect and yearning
their protection and blessing. This is something that all
of you should do every day. If there are any of you who wish
to engage and practice these Foundational Practices,
the 100,000 prostrations, there is a very definite visualization
and meditation which accompanies the prostrations. consists
of imagining the Sources of Refuge, the Three Jewels and the
Three Roots in the sky in front of one with the Lama in the
center surrounded by yidams, the Buddhas, the Dharma, the
Sangha the Dharma Protectors. Those of you who do want
to practice this should receive these teachings from Lama
Tsewang Gyurmed who is here permanently in Vancouver, and can
give you full instruction in the visualization, the meditation
and the way the practice is carried out. When one takes
refuge and does prostrations, one is making use of one's total
being, one's physical body, one's speech and one's mind. By
joining one's hands in prayer and prostrating with the body,
one is clearing away physical obscuration& and unwholesome
karma accumulated through physical action. verbal
recitation ol' the refuge prayer, one is clearing away the
karma accumulated throueh speech and clearing away obscuration
o speech, and through the devotion and respect that one has
in one's mind, one is clearing away mental obscuration&.
Through the total envolvement of body, speech and mind in the
practice in the practice, one clears away obscuration& in
body, speech and mind and karma accumulated through body,
speech and mind, Hnd gathers accumulations of' merit through
these f'aculties as well.
This visualization is quite complicated. If one can
imagine it very clearly in front of one, it will bring one
great blessine, great inspiration and clear away unwholesome
karma. If' one is not able to imagine it clearly, but is able
to think one pointedly, uruJistractedly that the Sources of
Re.fuge are really in 1'ront of one, then it will have the same
effect of clearing away obscuration& and gathering the

If I were to go into detailed explanations of all of these
meditations, it would take a great deal of time, and since
I am only here for a short time, I wish to cover what is
important and what is essential and Lama Tsewang Gyurmed
can give you full instruction in the actual meditations.
The refuge prayer begins with taking refuge in the Lama
and in Tibetan it is, PAL DEN L.U1A VIPA NAM LA ClUB SU CHIOr
which means, translated, "I go for refuge in all the holy
1()
and splendid Lamas \ ut Gurus)." Each of' tlaese words is endowed
with a particulnr meaning in Tibetan. The f'irst is the word
"PAL" which can routhly be translated as "splendorous or
glorious." Xt means and ref'ers to not only the
things that we kno'4 on our own such as great wealth, long
lif'e, power, but olso the spiritual splendors oC
the Fully Awakened Nind: Transcendent 1\nowledge, Love anu
Compassion, Activity and Capability for Ref'uge of' the
A\iakened l-lind, the po\ier s ,,f' Full Enlip;htenment, all of' these
most splende<.l and wonderous qualities. And the "DEN"
moans simply "topossess." So the f'irst two words mean to
possess the most S!ll.ondid and wonderous things both of'
immediate P.Xistencq ... nd f'ull spiritual developrnent. And this
vhrase modif'ies the word LIA (o1 Guru). The f'irst syllable
of' LAl-lA, "l .. A", particul<!.;:ly me.,,s "supremo, nothing hi.gher.
11
Mnny of' you the canopy above harmapa's throne. This is
termed in Tihetnn, "The Highest Canopy." There is simJly
n.>thing Above this, nobody si1;s above that and this means that

the Guru or the l.rt.l11a is supreme. There is no onr hif?her or
more imuortant than th9 Lame;.. The second syllable, is
the Tibetan word f'or mother, and means that the Lama looks
upon all. sentient beings as a mother does upon an only child,
the same deep compassionate concern. The next word is
t'1e \#ord, which means "holy or pE'rrect," tl:n
very best, The ne-xt word ;_s "NI", which rr.eans ''nll"
nnd this menns that -::nf't taking ref'uge not in ,just one':;
Root Lama, but in all tho Lama!! of' the tran!=mission.
The second line mflan!l, "X takE ref'uge in the whole r.:,thcr-
ie of' deities of' the mandalR" and refers to such deiti.hs
Chnkrasnmbnvra nnd othrr which in meditulior. one
one's mind to. They are with ont- f'or r< c;t of'
one's liCe, and hnve rnro.ny attendant deities. Tid .... is
what the term, "the gathering of' deities" means. So t.,..e-t
one's mind and the deity's mind snmo.
The word "mandala" the c:L.c.:te or disc. Xt is literally
center and the So you can translc:1te it
by the term the of' the deities.
One takes ref'uee in al]. the medi ta tional. deities of' the
mandala.
The thil"d l.inP is, "X take ref'uge in all the AwakPned
and enlightened, Transcendent nnd Conquerors."
A"akened Enlieht.er.r.tent is eJ:"pression :for Buddha, anct means
the sleep-like ignornnce and the
in all f'orm!l of' word "conqueror" ref'erR to
conqucrinc the enen1y of' the The def'ilements
have been The term
means that all r:rert t qualities have been i''ully dnveloped
and attained, all the mnrks of' perfection of' Awakened
Enlif(htenment, aJ.l the verbal ?:f perf'ection nnd 111 the
perf'ect que.li of' the A'#akened EnU.RhtP.ned The term
"transcendent" means that tho Mind has
transcended the limits of' ex:!.RtP.nce 111nd :i..!l f'ree
f'orever f'rom thP. vicissitudes of' misery in
sams::.ra. And one tnkes ref'uee in B.l.l the Hnc!dhaR.
The ne::oct line is, ":I take ref'.tP.e in th" Suprf"me Dhnrma."
Just as and food one
weRrs clothes when one is col.d; and wealth and prooPrty make
11
existP.nce in this lil'o easier; all of these tllinp,s are
very bene.ficial and helpf'ul to uR, but they are not or ultimate
or supremo help. Total or suprem"e help is derived through
the Dharma which describes the way we can transcend the
and misery which we are exposed to in samsara and come
to realize Full and Complete Enlightenment. This is the
greatest possible benerit that we can recetve1 thia is the
greatest possil>le help that can be given.
The next line is, "X take in the noble Sangha."
Just as tl&ose people who have oriented themselves to achieving
enlip;htenment are nobler that ordinary sentient beings, so
those individuals that have come to a realization or the
nuture existence, the empty nature or self, such as the
Arhnts, nre more noble thaa people who are strivine for this
attainment, and similnrly Bodhisattva& who have orientatated
themselves towards acheiving enlightenment ror the
others are nobler that Arhnts and again, higher level
Bodhisattvas are nobler still than lower level
but the people who have orientAted themselves towards enlighten-
ment on whatever level they may have reached, come under the
term "Sangha." These are noble individuals. So one takes
refuge in the noble Sangha. And, finally, one takes
in the protectors: the Dakas and Dakinis and the Dharma
Protectors who clear away nonconducive circumstances, impediments
to Dharma practice and create conducive
X wore to go into a more detailed discussion this, we would
be here all and it's already very late.
When one does prostrations, it must be done with deep
devotion nnd deep accompanied with recitation of the
prayer for reruge. If this mental attitude is not present,
then there is very little point in doing prostrations. When
one as many prostrations as one is doing at a time,
whether it is 100 or 200 or whntever, one sits and imagines
all the Sources Hefuge dissolved into lip,ht; this lieht
is absorbed into one's and one feels great joy,
tremendous happiness that one is receiving the blessings
the blessines all the Three Roots and the Three
Jewels. This is a most and beneficial way
practicing the meditation.
In future talks, I will be tal1<ing about the development
the Enlightening Attitude or Bodhichitta, about the 100
Syllable Mantra, and the meditations concerned with purifying
all unwholesome karma, gathering accumulations
through mandala offerings and prayers to the Guru, of'
Chenr6sig meditation and the transformation and
perrection ns they are applied in this meditation. X woa1
1
t
be coine into tremendous detail because, there
simply iftn
1
t time.
We will conclude with the prayer for Amitabha
1
s Pure l.and
through which '"e dedicate all the merit accumulated through
this discussion of' the Dharma to the of' all sentient
beings.
12
Cctober 25, 1974
As people who ::>.re inte1ested in practicing the Dharma , .,.e
should urde rstand what is wha t is necess ary for
the of Dharma, and is nece ssary t o be done 1n order
to make our p rac tice of Dha rma effective and fruitful. The
sin3le most pra ctice can with , taking
of :rtefuge, has purpos e o! and cul very
deep fa1 th and conf .. dence in the Jel:el'3: in
Enl1gh tenment, D!:larma a nd t he S?.:lgha . And o do tb1 c: , we
make use of the 'P- t e e kno !"1 as the of Re fug?
prostrations, which we re in rrect_ce
we make use of our total being, of ou= body, 3peech and
and "'ork to cul t.i..v::\ f a ith and rle'tt)".,ion t h:":'our,h rhye1cal t\ on ,
through verb 1 and d1sl'os!. tion. We ,; o tb\s
by prostra ting ph.n>lcall v. b j '\.!'g uP.:ur:;e 'r.":'?.e yr r t
and by imag1n.&.n6 the ">!

and thinking of tll


terms of grea t
When one t!Je one
tremendous merit an1 the of a nd
awareness and t')b:::;cur!:", ..,ions; obsct.rat .. ons
which prevent us :'.'ron real j. ?.,.ng tho t:rue n:!.ture of ' Mind. But,
as beneficial a3 ".hcse p:-:.tci .;'; are, 'r:c hh ve been experiencing
samsaric over ._, his vast
unencompassable pn:::-lod of ti'lle a g of
unwholesome karma a nd Our
tendencies are ver: Our cl!.ngi ng "". o dnnli ty is
instinctual and our almost
instinctual. So, 1n order t.o obscure-. t icn'l that
stem from emot1ona! ity
old habits and to t he of
Vajrasattva or Dorjo Se ":lba , "Nhir:r. i s ::lot;t ":: x:; of
clearing away all of
Before we start en the o! tbe
one must clearly unr o: this t r. rm
action or evil ac r- x-e +.h1ngs ' c r.?.l l oo:-;-::t:ra tions?
What doe.s that :ear.'"' Thr roast:'n t :1a. ne ed tl' kno;: what
these two terms m<>rtn . \' DFholeso=""e =1r:t1on :'\;'ld ob s c, is.
w1 thout t ""!em W:! mr. y ter.u to
11
Ch, : no
unwholesome karma, I :'laY'! r.o and such an 'l. ttitude
ls not a go od p:ac" !o:":' the and it is
that will cause us h ve doubt 2nd the
efficacy of such So, we need a t the very to
unders t and clearly wnat 1s and
obscurations are.
13
As I have described before, ever,y sentient being has )find
and this mind is no thing in itself. It is empty. It is clear
and it is unimpeded. It is not com:etent Mind, which recognizes
its own nature to be clear, empty and unimpeded, and is a fully
awakened and enlightened Mind. Not recognizing the nature of
Mind to be empty, clear and unimpeded means ignorance is present
or the Mind is ignorant. And, when the Mind is ignorant, there is
a great deal of confusion.
If you should ask, "What is 'ignorant?", it is Mind does
not know its own nature and therefore knows nothing. This mind
exhibits no determinate characteristics. It exhibits no form or
shape or color. It is ver,r difficult to talk about. But, for
the sake of example, suppose my hand represents Mind just as it is
in itself. Then ignorance is like this of cloth oyer it,
which immediately hides the nature of Mind. It is not seen. It
is not understood. This is the first and deepest obscuration.
Mind, not knowing the nature of emptiness, Mind not understanding
that it is no thing in itself, can think of an I, ot a self, some
thing, and this is the clinging to an I, the clinging to self
identity, which we all experience, which we all do. And because
of this supposition of an I, the clarit7 aspect of Mind, which is
the appearance in the foremind of all of the manifestations about
us. the objects of all the senses are regarded as something
other, something which is not of this I, something alien to it,
and are given a reality of their own. And here we have the two-
fold clinging: clinging to self as an existent entity and to
operational phenomena as other external entities. And this two-
fold clinging to an I and to other is a second obscuration which
further clouds the nature of Mind and is like this second !old of
cloth.
Due to the supposition of I and other, clinging to the concept
of I and the concept of other, there arises emotionality;
specifically the emotions or emotional dispositions of attach-
ment, of aversion and stupidity. !hese emotions themselves
interact and develop. Out of attachment, jeiousy and greed arise;
out of aversion, anger arises; and 'out of stupidity, pride. And
of these six basic emotional dispositions, there is rurthur inter-
action and generall7 we say that there are traditionally twent7-one
thousand kinds of attachment, twenty-one thousand kinds of aversion,
twent7-one thousand kinds of stupidity, and twenty-one thousand
combinations of all three of these together. In other words, we
are replete with emotional dispositions. And all this emotionalit7
is in itself a third obscuration.
Because of the rampant emotionalism, through basically
attachment and stupidity, a great deal of action is perpetrated.
And the kind of action that is perpetrated from these basic
emotional motivations is what ve call unwholesome action, or non-
virtuous action; actions which torment and include such physical
actions as the taking of life, of stealing and of sexual misconduct.
Or then there are the verbal actions of lying or creating disharmony
14
through speech, of harsh language and of gossip. Then there are.
the mental dispositions of coveting, vanity, of and of
wrong views. this constant !low of unwholesome action, of
karma arising !rom emotionality, is a fourth obscuration which
again only further clouds the nature of Mind.
A well-endowed disciple, who has great, or perhaps you should
say, tremendous capability, who meets a compassionate Lama, can
be given what are called the pointing out instructions, which
point out directly the nature of Mind. This disciple can realize
immediately the meaning of Mahamudra, or the great symbol, and in
an instant clear away all of the obscurations and reach
enlightenment. Needless to say, aucb individuals are indeed Vtr.f
very rare. And yet, without clearing away obscurations of these
kind, we simply cannot reach enlightenment. So, for ordinary
people like ourselves, we rely on a complex set of actiona and
practices and techniques. We begin with prostration and the culti-
vation of faith and devotion. We persevere at the one-hundred
syllable mantra of Dorje Semba, through the practices of mandala
offerings and prayers to one's Guru. Stage by stage, bit by bit
these obscuration& of emotionality, the obscuration& of instinctual
clinging and finally the obscurations of ignorance. And with the
removal of this final obscuration, is realized.
Unwholesome karma, such as the taking of life, stealing,
lying etc., or the ten unvirtuous actions and emotional dispositions
of attachment, aversion, stupidity, pride, jealousy and greed;
these are referred to altogether as unwholesome things. The reason
for this is because these emotional dispositions and these partic-
ular actions are the cause of suffering in samsara. It is
through accumulatin,karma and being subject to emotionality that
one gathers unwholesome karma wnicn is experienced as birth aa a
bell-being or as an animal or in any of the great realms or
auffering within samsara.
Obscurations refer to the biding aspect of karma and
emotionality, but particularly the obscuring and clouding aspect
of instinctual clinging and of ignorance itself. And here tne
emphasis is on the fact that things are clouded. They are not
known because they are bidden by ignorance, by emotionality, by
instinctual clinging to a self and others. And, it is not only
the nature of Mind which is obscured, but also compassion. It is
the extent of the obscuration, the totality with which it hides
all the qualities we need to develop, and which emphasizes the
great importance of clearing away these obscurations. And this
is why we need to know something about what constitute obscuration&
and what constitutes unwholesome things, so we know exactly what
we are dealing with.
On the other hand, one might ask, "Are +.he3e obscurat1ons, are
these unwholesome things substantial tbings7 Do they have any
corporality?" Well, they don't. They have no corporality
whatsoever. Ultimately, they are empty, they are no-things in
1.5
themselves. They are empty. And if they are not things in them-
selves, bow can they be so harmful? How can they obscure?
itself is in itself: !rom time immemorial lUnd bas never
been a thing. It s never been some thing. And so all which arises
from lUnd can be no-thing. It's empty. And bow do the::;e obscura-
t1ons harm us? Well, one considers the example of a drP.am. During
a dream one can see things, one does see things, one can talk,
communicate, one is subject to fear, joy, happiness, anger, jealousy.
And yet, none of the::;e emotions that we have in the dream has any
real intrinsic reality. There is no surety or absoluteness about
them And it is exactly tne same thing with obscurations
and unwholesome things now. Ultimately they are no-things in
themselves. But until we are free from instinctual two-fold cling-
ing to I, the concept of I and the concept of other, we'are subject
to action, i.e., the law of karma which can harm and can help us.
fact, the whole effectiveness and the possibility of being able
to clear away such obscurations and unwholesome action is dependent
upon their ecpty nature. It is because they are empty tnat
ultimately speaking they are not sure, corporal or real things. It
makes it possible for them to be cleared away, to be If any
obscuration or unwholesome action was a real thing, be
no way whatsoever of removing it. But, because they ebsentially
no-things in themselves, then through meditation on Dorje Semba,
Vajrasattva, through reel tation of this mantra, we can clear away
all of these obscurations. So, it is in order to clear away unwhole-
some karma and obscurations that we practice the meditation ot
Dorje Semba.
To practice the meditation of Dorje Semba, O!'.e ililagines that
upon one's head there is a white lotus, and above this the flat
of the moen. Above this there sits Dorje Semba or Vajrasattva. In
essence this is one's Lama present on tne top of one's head. In
manifestation it is Vajrasattva. Vajrasattva is white in color and
wears the same jeweled ornaments as Chenresig does: that is a crown,
earings, necklace, armlets, etc. His body is a brilliant
white. He has one face and two hands. His right hand holds a golden
dorje to his heart. His left hand holds a silver bell in his lap,
and !eet rest in what is called Semray Chiltl".lng, .or the posture
of relaxation, which is the left leg drawn in and the right leg
in front. When one meditates on the form of Dorje Semba,
1t is iDJportant to ceditate that it is not a corporal form, that it
is in essence empty. It is no-thing in itself. It appears liKe a
rainrow in the sky, like the moon reflected in water. It is
brilliant in its appearance: brilliant and full of the radiance of
blessings and inspirations. Yet, ultimately it is no-thing, has no
tangibility or corporality. When you meditate on Dorje Semba, the
that one meditates Dorje Semba is entirely arbitrary. Further,
one meditates that on the forehead of Dorje Semba there is a white
Om, at the throat a red Ab and at the heart a blue Hung. In the
centre, right in the heart, there is a white mo:.n, above wb.ich stands
the letter Hung, also and around this stands in the circle
the syllables of the one-hundred syllable mantra. One needs to
16
meditate that all of these thing reall7 are present in the form
of Dorje Semba. At point, Dorje Semba is a projection of one's
mind. That is, it is tnrougb one's own.conceptual thought and
imagination that one is imagining Dorje Semoa to be on one's bead.
It ia a conceptual thing. And tnia is called "the deity which holds
the bond", the bond of one's mind. !hen from the vnite Hung in
the heart and the mantra which the Hung, brilliant light
radiates out in a!! directions, ia offered to all the Buddhas and
draws the attention of all the Buddhas in the Pure Land. The1
send their emanations in the or orje Semba. One meditates
that all of these manifestations of Dorje are absorbed into
the Dorje Semba on one's head. The Dorje Semb, that one imangines
is coming from the Buddhas is called "the aspect of the
deity". By meditating that the transcendent or the awareness aspect
or the deit1 is absorbed with the bonding aspect of the deity, one
joins tnese two. awareness aspect is Joined witn the bonding
aspect of the deity.
If, wnen one at the beginning or the meditation
that Dorje Semba is on ones nea4, ann one nas absolutel1 no doubt,
bas cumplete confidence that Dorje Semba is really present on one'a
head, and one has no doubt or uncertainty one's mind, then
one not need to do this un\fication of the bonding aspect and
the ali.lre!lesa aspect of the del ty. But, we who 'lre practicing
and beginning to practice Dharma nave Yery many doubts and
we are conscious or the fact that.these deities that we
imagine on the top of one's head are simply projections of our mind.
And we think, "well, this is Just a projection of my mind. How
can this be at all effective in clearing away obscurations and iD
clearing g,way unwholesome karma?" If there are any doubts what-
soever, the meditation is not effective, the obscuration& and
defilements will not be cleared away. So in order to remove all
vestige of doubt, one imagines that a brilliant light comes from all
of the Buddha Lands and through this absorbtio:l iuto the bonding
aspect of the deity, the bonding aspect and the awareness aspect of
the deity are Joined together and it really is Dorje Samba on one's
head and one can have complete faith and confidence in this. This
is the main reason for this part of the meditation; this utter
confidence, utter trust that Dorje Semba is present on one's head.
One prays to him with the deepest sincerity, the deepest yearning,
praying that one's self and all other sentient beings be blessed by
the purification, the removal of all unwholesome
unwholesomeness of all obscurations, of all moral failings and f ult-
whatever has been accumulated from the beginning of and
that one's Self and all sentient will bd purified
of all these things.
After this prayer, one that from the white Hung in
the heart, and the mantra Wtlioh it, the elixir of awareness
begins to fall, and eventually p')urs forth in great qua11tity; and
this elixir completely f\lls Dorje Semba's body, and to flow
out of 1t through the pores of Dorje Samba's body; pr1nc1pallt !rom
17
his large toe e-n hts right foot. From lt enters one's own
body through the crown of the heR.1, at'.d as 1 t one's own body,
all of the unwholesomeness, impure defilements, obscurations;
all of these things are from body through the pores
and through the orifices as a black ooze. It is very important to
meditate that the obscurations and unwholesomeness go out as black
ooze. There are definite reasons for meditating that they take the
color black. Ultimately speaking, the obscurations and unwhole-
someness have no reality, are empty, and exhibit no form
or oolor whatsoever, so or.e has to create an association, a condition
or connection through which one can focus one's attention upon them
and the connection used is the color black. The reason black is
chosen is because of the five basic colors of white, yellow, green,
blue and red; presence of black deadens every color,. That 1a,
when black is mlxed with white, the white is gone; when black is
mixed with yellow, the yellow is deadened. The same is true for
red, green and all the other colors. This symbolizes the deadening
effect of unwholesome action with regards to all aspects of our being.
So unwholesome action is present, and those aspects of our person-
ality, of our being deadened and made unwholesome. For this
reason one meditates the and the obscuration& take
the form of a black ooze and completely expelled.
In addition to one also meditates that the corporeal
body which arises as c.. mE'.ulfe station CJf our own delusion, th1 s flesh
and blood body we now experience, also is dissolved by this elixir
of awareness, and all corporality and tan6ibility of this body is
away. flesh, blood, bones, sinews, tendons, everytbing
are also expelled and the body becomes brilliantly clear, brilliantly
luRterous, becomes like a rainbow. It appears as through the in-
divisibility of emptiness and clarity. So when one meditates, one
sits with the body straight, meditating in this way, repeating the
one-hundred syllable mantra over and over again in a soft-spoken
voice. This is the outer practice of Dorje Semba and in the outer
of Dorje Semba, it is illlport.ant to actually say the mantra
spoken. An example that is used to illustrate the ineffectiveness ot
just mouthing the mantra without any vocalization is of a horse
moving his lips as he stands in the sun. In the meditation, one is
making use of one's total being. PhJsically, one is sitting straight
and erect, and using the rosary, vr mala. Verbally one is repeating
the one-hundred syllable mantra, and mentally one is focusing on
the unwholesome karma that one has accumulated in the past, praying
for its removal and doing the of the meditation.
Through the power of these threekinds of action,being connected
with the blessing of Dorje Semba himself and the energy and the
power within the mantra of Dorje Semba, one may have no doubts
whatsoever that through proper meditation one's unwholesome action
and obscurations will be completely cleared away.
16
Q: Is this something which we attune to naturally which one might
say1s immanently present or 1s this something which we project with
our mind?
A: It 1s immanently present in Vajrasattva is present
right from the very beginning, so to speak, and it is also a mental
projection. It 1s through the connection between the immanently
present the mental force of the meditation that obscurations
can be away. This can be described through example.
Suppose that the immanescence of Dorje Semba were represented b7 a
jug o! milk which is present, and one's meditational aspirations
were represented b;t a glass. So, with the jug of milk and the glass
present, milk can be poured into the glass and the glass will be
filled with milk. But, with just the glass and no jug milk, the
glass can vever be filled; and similarly, without the glass and
the pouring, the milk just sits there in its jug. But, witn the
interaction of the two, with the interactions of our own aspirations
and mental meditation, which is symbolized by the glass and the
pouring, and with the presence of the milk and the jug which
symbolize Dorje Sembs
1
s immanescence, then the glass is filled with
milk and our meditation is effective.
In addition, one needs to invoke what are called "the four
forces which clear away unwholesome action". These four forces
are individually powerful apd together they can clear away any
unwholesome action The first is called the force of
the Mind, and is a reliance upon the vow or the attitude of say,
Refuge or Bodhicitta, or lay, monk or nun ordination.
Renewing this attitude because one h3s commited unwholesome action
is the force of the lUnd. The second force is the force of Remedial
Virtue or Remedial Action, means that one undertakes some
particular act to clear away the effects of unwholesome karma; one
does some noble or virtuous In our context, this would
mean Dorje Semba meditation und the of the one-hundred
syllable mantra. The third force tt1e ofcrce of Remorse or Regret,
and is the feeling that one generates by about the effects
of such action; how much it hurts others, how harmful it is to
one's self karmically, and generating the feeling of sincere regret
and remorse that one actually did that The fourth force is
the force of Resolution, 1n which one resolves and vows never again
to do that particular action. To do Dorje Semba meditation in the
fullest possible way, one does one-h.mdred thousand of the one-ilundred.
syllable mantras and six-hundred thousand of the short mantras.
And when one finishes the meditation session, say, one's done one-
hundred or one-thousand of the long m:1ntras, one concludes this with
repeating the short mantra, OM BEN,;A SATO HUNG, a number of times,
contributing towards the accumulation of the six-hundred thousand
repetitions. Mantras which one repeats during the day do not
contribute to the accumulation of the one-hundred thousand or the
six-hundred thousand. It is onll the mantras that one says during
the meditation session.
19
If one should become sick, onP &hould when one is
doing this meditation, that the sickness is being expelled in the
form of blood and pus. The blood and pus comes out of one's body
if one l'epeats the one-hundred syllable mantra and this is purify-
ing one's.self of the sickness. If one is subject to the influences
of demons, then one meditates that these demons are from
the body in the !orm of frogs and snakes and other animals like this.
There are various indications one's meditation ls going
well. The most important indications are a totally different
feeling of physical and mental well-being, perhaps accompanied by a
deepcn1n6 of faith in the Three Jewels or the development of new
deeper ccmpasslon for sentient beings, or a better understanding
of the meaning of emptiness, a feeling that one is coming to under-
stand directly what this refers to, an increase and depth to one's
wisdom and of Dharma, a renewal of the and
revulsion for samsara. These are the best signs that one's medita-
tion is being effective.
At the end of the meditation session, one joins one's bands in
prayer and prays to Dorje Semba, first confessing that through
stupidity and lack of one bas committed a great deal of
unwholesome action and one. is relying on Dorje Semba to clear away
this unwholesome action .. and all the karmic effects of it. One
confesses and admits that one bas broken the fourteen root and
eighteen branch precepts,broken vows, broken resolutions, unwhole-
some karma, non-virtuous action, all the moral failings, subjection
to emotionality; all of these things one confesses and admits and
prays to Dorje Semba for complete purification from all of these
things. At this point, J)orje Semba calls toone and says, "You
have been completely cleared of all unwholesome karma and
obscuration&", and one should think at that "Yes", and be
very, very happy and cultivate a feeling of happiness and joy that
one bas cleared away all of these obscurations. Tbe Dorje Semba,
who is extremely happy to bave helped one clear away all these
obscurations, dissolves into light and his form, the form of light,
dissolves into one's form, like water being into water
and one lets the mind rest for a valle in its natural w4taout
any effort or contrivance. And after this, one dedicates the merit
of the practice, dedicating it to the benefit of all sentient beings.
Q: If one is also doing another Ylddam such as Chenresig or
Manjusri, should one devote more time to Vajrasattva meditation or
do these equally, or what should one do?
A: If one is gathering or accumulating the one-hundred syllable
mantra, then t11ls should form the predominate part of one's practice;
but one should do the Yiddam meditation, whatever Ylddam it is,
regularly every day, even if it is only for a short time.
Q: Would another Yiddam have the same effect as the Dorje Semba
medt.tation?
A: Generally speaking, all of the Ylddams are tbe same in essence
and are equally effective, but the best and most powerful method ot
clearing away obscurations is Vajrasattva meditation.
20
Q: I! one follows the Buddha's precepts and questioned everything
and applies this !or instance to the law of karma, saJing, well,
the law of karma does not seem to be anything, like the self is
no-thing, so perhaps there is no law of karma. Yet one realizes
this is a wrong view. How does one cope with this kind of
situation ..
A: If one tninks that there is no such thing as karma at all, this
is a wrong view. If on the oth'!r hand, one thinks in essence
karma is empty, devoid cf intrinsic being, yet as long as one is
subject to this two-fold clinging, of I and other, one
is subject to the laws o! karma. This is not a wrong view. To
illustrate this empty nature of karma and yet its existence;
aopealing to a parallel. What exactly is it that we have learned
in the course o! our education? Many of us have been edu9ated here
in Canada. Some of us will have gone to school for fifteen or .
twenty years. That's a lot of learning. If this learning were in
any way tangible it wouldn't be able to fit in our bodies whatsoever.
It might fit into B.C. It probably wouldn't fit into Canada actually.
But it's not tangible. It's empty. And so it doesn't take up any
room. It doesn't stay in any place. It doesn't exhibit any
whatsoev$r. Yet, as soon as we want to apply what
we've learned, there it is. We know it immediately. And karma is
like that . is empty. Yet the results of karma are birth
among hell-belnJs, among hungry and thirsty ghosts and animals.
Well, hungry and thirsty ghosts and animals are
ultimately speaking empty, yet they experience tremendous neat and
cold, and pain and misery, hunger and thirst.
Q: ifuat is the difference between love and compassion?
A: In Buddhism, love and affectlon refers to the kind of feeling
that the mother nas for a chtld, a feeling of great affection and
love. Compassicn, en the hand, is a kind o! feeling one
gets when a person doing something which you know is going
to cause thGm let of pain and a lot of hardship. One feels
concerned and and wishes to help them find a way out
ot the difficulty which he is creating for himself. In Buddhism,
compassion is most important, but without the generation of love,
compassion cannot arise.
Q: Is compassion part or the intrinsic nature of Mind?
A: Compassion is an inherent quality of Mind.
Q: The loss of effects o! not saying the mantra out loud; does
that apply to other Yiddam meditations such as Chenresig?
A: It applies also to Chenresig meditation and repeating Chenresig's
mantra, but does not to some on the higher Yiddams such as
K8rlo Demchog or Dorje Palmo. For these meditations it is said
that it should only be the neck.
21
Q: When one is doing Dorje Semba meditation, should one meditate
that all sentient beings are doing Dorje .Semba meditation with
you?
A: At this point, no. One is doing the outer practice and one
does not do this meditation at this uoint.
At the beginning of an initiation the lama and some of the
people will saying the one-hundred syllable mantra as people
are coming in for the initiation. Does thls imply that one should
do the one-hundred syllable mantra before any pract1ceY
A: It is good to do Dorje Semba meditation before any practice,
but it is quite alright not to do the one-hundred syllable mantra
meditation before practice also. The reason that it is used or
said immediately before initiation is that the people wmo come for
initiation, being sentient beings, have a great deal of unwhole-
someness and with them so by repeating the Dorje
Semba mantra right at the one creates a condition
which all the and defilements of all the participants
in the initiation can be mere readily purified.
Qr Does one spend an equal amount to time thinking about evil
actions done in the ,ast and in visualization Rnd interchange of
these two?
A: If one is doing Porje Semba meditation for one or two
hours at a time, it is extremely difficult to think of everyting
the whole time. So during the while one is repeating
the mantra, one sometimes focuses one's attention mainly on Dorje
on one's head, sometimes on one's body being cleansed
through the elixir of awareness, and sometimes on one's unwholesome
actions being expelled as the black ooze from the body. Sometimes
one focuses one's attention on the mantra, sometim1s on an attitude
of remorse and regret as to actions done in the past.
But it is not necessary to think of individual unwholesome actions
that one has done in the past, but to think of them
as engendering great regret and remorse for all of the
that one has done in the past.
Q: Whem is it that the blackness goes?
A: One meditates that it penetrates very deeply under the earth.
One can meditate many different thinBS that hapnen to it, but for
our purposes in this meditation it is sufficient to meditate that
it goes far, far away deep into the earth.
Q: Does Nondro or the pr,actices have to be done in
the traditional order, starting with prostrations, Vajrasattva
meditation, mandala and Nalgor?
A: This is the traditional way of doing lt. First do prostrations
and then Vajrasattva proceed with the other
practices, but if there are particular reasons why it is difficult
to do it in this order, then one can change the order and do, say,
Vajrasattva meditation first or someting like that.
Q: How can one know an enlightened be1ng?
A: In actual fact one can use a bit of discrimination and discern
soce o! the qualities v'rticn enlightenment produces. it. nerson
who has reached enlightenment will be free of a
large extent. He will not be to anger and nor
Jealousy and greed, nor attacrunent and clinging. If on.! examines
people carefully, these kinds o! qualities can be It
is said, one doesn't know who's a thief and who's a so
one keeps one's possessions safe and one fosters faith and devotion
for everybody.
Q: Could you offer some explanation o! the unimpedetness o! mind
and its relationship to i't rman:3.k.aya or a sentient. being. ).n tne
world?
A: Cnimpededness to tne completely unobstructed
!low o! For if door were closed, people
couldn't zo out that would an obstruction or an icpediment.
But with the door C'lpeft, pee>ple Just go out of the door very easily.
As to it refers to the completely unimpeded
natu!"e of thoug,lt , o:te tt1ought after anotner after another with-
out any break. If there's any break, that would be an
Mind exhibits these three aspects of emptiness, clarity and
or unobstructedness. The emptiness or the empty
nature of mlnd is absolutely formless, without any corporality or
tangibility ot it so it is never seen in any way whatsoever. Tne
clarity is a finer aspect of mind, and the unimpededness a still
finer aspect. So the real1zaticn of emptiness Dharmakaya
or existentiality, and is not seen or nercieved but is directly
realized. The finer aspects of mind, clarity, through
the interaction of the tremendous merit aud aw':lreness of the
with the potentially inapirational blessings of
Dbarmak.ayd. And th':lt is Sambhagakaya, which ia the clarity aspect
of mind. The still finer aspects of mind become Nirmanakaya or a
sentient being in the world which is a manifestation of enlighten-
ment, in such a form which can be percieved by a person of great
merit, such as the people who came in contact with Sakyamuni
Buddha. One does not need.to examine carefully whetner ether
people nave realized emptiness or not. What is most important is
to examine oneself as to whether one's self has realized
or not.
Q: do you mean by finer aspects?
A: Well, that's sl:nply what was said- finer, nobler. It could
even be more subtle - that idea.
2)
MANDALA OFFERINGS
October 27, 1974
In the Buddhist tradition, the arising of the physical form
is not due to creation by any agent. That is to say, we do not
become human because of the activity of worldly deities or because
of serpent kings. We take whatever form of existence that our own
actions, that our own karma determines. Right now we all experience
birth as a human being "in this country, in this world; this
human existence is the result, the karmic effect of actions that
have been accumulated in the past. The kind of actions would be
those actions which do produce the human existence.
In the past we have accumulated a great deal of wholesomeness
and a great deal of unwholesome action, but some time or other in
the past every single one of us must have accumulated a great deal
of action which directly developed into the present experience of
the human existence. Because we all experience the same basic
environment, the same basic setting, the actions that we have done
in the past must have been very similar. This kind o.f relation-
ship between actions in the past and the similarity of environment
is called Karma Which Agrees ln Euvironment. In addition to the
general karmic framework which produces the similarity in environ-
ment which we all experience, there is also the differences in the
particular karma which each of us has accumulated. For instance:
some of us now experience a life which is short, there is much
sickness, there is difficulty, and a lot of frustration. So
even though have a form of human exis-tence, it is still a
very difficult form of existence. This kind of result means we
must have taken life or hurt other beings. Or in another example:
someone who in the past was very subject to greed, who stole a lot,
say, will find himself now, though human, being very poor without
much wealth and always in need. Another person who accumulated
karma through life in the past will. find that the
present human existence is very long, full of physical well-being,
free !rom sickness and disease. These particular differences that
arise are called the Special Aspects of Which Differentiate
the Experience of the Individual. So we have the two aspects of
karma: the general karmic picture which gives rise to the
in environment, and the special aspects of karma which give rise
to the differences in individual exnerience.
In particular, in our own very special case, we have currently
the very good fortune to be able to practise the Holy Dharma. This
means we have what is called the Precious Human Existence, which
is the term for describing the human existence which is endowed
with eight freedoms and ten special fortunes or blessings. It
?.4
is a very difficult form of the human existence to obtain; it is
very, very rare and is only accumulated through
of ftholesome karma in the past. The unique aspect of the human
existence is its Lreat potential, because it can be as a
to direct our long texm future either to deepen our
involvement in samuaric existence or to improve our positlon within
samsaric existence or to set out on the road to freedom and even-
tually full enlightenment. are all the possibilities with
which we are presented in the frecious Human Existence.
Feople who are interested in practising Buddhism must first
orient themselves Full Enlightenment by developing and
cultivating a deep faith and confidence 1-n Buddhahood or in the
Awakened Enlightened In practicing Dharma, one to
foster a great deal of faith and confidence in tt1e Fully Awakened
Mind, in Buddhahood. This faith is further developed through taking
refuge and prostration practices which we discussed before. There
are people who have done these practices and there are people here
who definitely intend to do these nractices. This is very, very
wonderful, indeed, because for individuals, they will not
only come to realize much morP deeply it means to have faith
in full enlightenment, in Buddhahcod, but also through contantly
generating the motivation for refuge, the yearning for refuge,
such individuals come under the power and protection of Awakened
Enlightenment and will be able to proceed in their Dharma practice
without interru;.ticn, without impediment, without obstruction, and
use the refuge and prostration practices as a basis for gathering
the accumulations and clearing away the obscurations.
The main purpose of being human, the objective for which we
can use tht human existence is to realize enlightenment. We do
this by first making use of this very fine existence that we have
now to take refuge and to make prostrations. In this way we
generate faith and confidence in the practices of Buddnism. Also
to make full use, to make the human existence truly meaningful, we
need to use it to realize and to understand exactly what is meant
by unwholesome activity or and what is meant by
wholesomeness or wholesome activity. We have to be able to recognize
the difference between these two things and to be able to use this
recognition as a basis for abandoning what is unwholesome and
practicing what is wholesome. If we do this, the human existence
becomes truly meaningful. It is for this reason that I a
great deal of tin1e yesterday evening discussing Vajrasattva
meditation or the meditation of Dorje SPmba and the
syllable mantra. Through this you are acquainted with
what obscurations are, what unwholesomeness means and how these
things can be remedied, how they can be how through invok-
ing the Four of Purification: the Power of Reliance, the
Power of Resolution, Fewer of Remorse, and the Power of Remedial
Activity one can rid one's self completely of all unwholesomeness
25
and obscurations. Through Dorje Semba meditation, one is able to
remove all unwholesomeness and obscurations; but having removed all
unwholesomeness and obscurations, one then relies upon what is
called Mandala Offerings to gather the accumulations of merit and
awareness. These accumulations are extremely important and they're
so powerful that if one effectively does gather the accumulations
of merit and awareness, one simply must become enlightened; there
is no other alternative.
In order to offer mandalas, what kind of visualization, what
kind of meditation does one do? Initially, one begins by imagining
that in front of one in the sky, there is a heavenly palace, a
beautiful castle in the sky with four sides and four doors:
brilliant, resplendent, beautiful, magnificent. In the center of
this castle there is a lion throne which a lotut and then
the sun and moon. Above this ther sits one s Root Lama manifest-
ing as Vajradhara, Dorje-Chang. This is very similar to the way
in one visualized the Refuge Tree. Above the Root Lama,
there all the Lamas of the transmission, one above the other.
Sitting around one's Root Lama there is in front, the Yiddams; to
Vajradhara's ri3ht, the Buddhas; behind him the Dharma; to his left,
the Sangha; and dispersed around are all the Dharma Protectors.
This field of deities in front of one is referred to as the
Accumulation Field or the Gathered Field, and are the individuals
to whom one is g6ing to offer the mandala, the symbolic of
the universe. The one that is offering the mandala is one's own
self. What one is offering is a mandala and as a basis for
meditation one uses an actual implement which is called a "mandala".
It is simply a round piece of metal with something like an inverted
plate. If one is wealthy, one should use the very finest materials
to make the mandala, perhaps gold or silver. If one does this
without greed or avarice, then really, one will accumlate merit in
accordance with one's motivation. If one doesn't have such wealth,
then to use copper or other metals to form the mandala is fine.
I! one has no wealth even to practice these meditations
with a flat piece of wood or stone will still be beneficial as Buddha
himself taught. One also uses something which one is going to
place on the mandala as the actul offering. If one has the wealth
to use gold or silver or gems, this is very, very wonderful, very
meritorious; 1f one doesn1t have this kind of wealth, then use
rice or other grains; and even fa111ng that, if one really is
destitute, to uee even clean sand or earth will also be very
beneficial.
One by taking the mandala in and cleaning it.
What one thinks about at this point is that ultimately, one is
ignorant and it is from this ignorance that the concept of "I" has
originated. This concept of "I" has led to the concept of "others",
from emotionality and from that, karma. This karma has created
all the suffering and misery that pervades samsaric existence. All
of the impurity, the manifestations o! our bewilderment, all of the
26
unwholesomenes:3, p:11.!1 :md l.n t.he \oihole world is due to
1&norance not 3o as one cleans the
by it ln the clockwise direction three times, and repeat-
ing tne one-hundrt!d :nmtra of l;orJe Semba, one imagines
everyting beinb negativity
in the world dls.;olvlr int' Then ctill holding the
mandala, one lets onto it a gr3ins of rice. One imagines
that now there a:ipears tne Golden FOI.l!lt"'l.n of the Uni1erse; it is
completely pure without any whatsoever. Everything
has changed now to pure manifestations.
Cne takes the ,:;;econd h3.ndful of rice, or whatever one is using,
and sprinkles tt in a counterclockwise circle around the mandala.
This represents.the iron wall which surrounds the univefse. One
then takes a thJI.d nantlful and illl.tgl.nes, as one lets it fall on
the mandala, cne is the King of Mountains, Mt. Meru at
the of the universe. Then stage one places the
four major the eight subcontinents each with a grain of
rice :l.nd the appropriate visualization, and so builds U'P the
mandala. st.,ge by st:lge. While one is imagining :ill of these
on the one also thinks of all the valleys, the
rive1s, the lakes that exist in all of these continents. Every-
thing that is beautiful, all the trees, canyons, everything beauti-
ful to see,.these all pre3ent and one is offering these.
In addition to that, one thinks of the structures by
people: the beautiful buildings, beautiful temples, beautiful
houses, towers, all of these things are also on each of these four
continents.
In addition, one imagines in the eastern quarter there is a
mountain of Jewels, a mountain of and rubies sapphires,
all of tne most beautiful and precious stones. In the south there
is a wish fulfilling tree, a tree which grants wishes, whatever
the aspirant seeks; whether it be riches, wealth or whatever.
In the west, the cow that provides all needs. And in the
north there is the which needs no cultivating, grain which
grows spontaneously from the ground and can be harvested without
needing to be threshed or worked on in any way whatsoever. One
doesn't meditate just one of these and one of that and one of this;
but meditates that the whole is full of such wonderful
things replicated many many times, and that these are magnificent,
huge and beautiful things which one is offering. All of these
constitute part of the mandala.
In Buddhism the highest form of birth whlch the greatest
accumulation of merit can produce, is termed the Uni1ersal Monarch;
the monarch which influences rules the whole universe. Such a
Univers:il Monarch is traditionally endowed with certain particular
possessions, the first of which is called the Precious Wheel. It
is a wheel of gold which is vast, a huge wheel with a
thousand spokes large enough that a Un\versal can stand at
the hub and be transported by this wheel anywhere in the universe
merely through thinking of the desired destination. It is
27
propelled by the merit and the wholesomeness of the Universal
Monarch and doesn't require the rather contr1ve1 way in which we
affect our own through oil and ulanes and all of
this. The second of the Universal Monarch is the
Wishfulfilling Gem. A magnificent, large gem, crystal clear yet
radiant with resplendent light which shines out !rom it. All who
conceive the light of the gem can think of their own aspirations
and their own hopes and these will come to be granted. The third
is the Noble Queen, the wife of the Universal Monarch who is a
woman free of all faults; physically beautiful with the most
pleasant voice and the most pleasant and agreeable mind and who
is the constant companion of the Universal Monarch. There is also
the Universal Monarch's Minister who accomplishes the
Universal Monarch wishes, as soon as it arises in the mind of the
Ur.iversal Monarch, with no need for lengthy discussions or commun-
ication. His ability is supreme and his judgement perfect. The
Universal Monarch also has a Chief General who defeats all enemies
or foes of the Universal and brings peaca and order to the
whole universe. There are also the horse and elephant, great and
noble animals which can be summoned by the Universal Monarch just
by thinking that he needs to go somewhere. As he mounts them,
they know exactly where he wants to go and they take him there with
the spead or light. So these are the Seven Kingly Possessions
which one also imagines together with the mandala. One offers not
just one ot each, but hundreds of thousands of millions of these
wonderful things to the Three Jewels and the Three Roots.
One also imagines goddesses rendering offerings to all of the
Six Sources; some rendering offerings of flowers; some of incense;
some of light; so:oe of garlands, jewels and flowers; some of
scented water; some of music; some offering beauty; some dance.
These are the eight traditional offerings which are symbolized by
the eight goddesses. One doesn't imagine just eight goddesses, but
the sky full of millions of goddesses, all rendering offerings to
the Three Jewels and the Three Roots. One also offers the sun and
the moon, which illuminate the world wa live ln. Beautiful
canopies, beautiful banners, all of these things; literally all of
the wealth and splendor that men have, that the gods nave, that the
dragon kings aave; all of the wealth in tne
universe one imagines to be brought together in this mandala. As
it is said in the prayers, "wealth which outnumbers the number of
drops ef water 1n tne ocean". All of this 1s brought into the
mandala . imagines 1t being offered to the Lamas, the Yiddams,
the Protectors, to the Buddhas, the Dharma and the Sangha.
This 1s the long version of the mandala offering and in its
full form requires the placement of thirty-seven piles of rice on
the mandala. If one could offer a lot of tnese, this 1s very good,
indeed. Perhaps in a session one can only offer one or two of
Even one is sulfic1ent, so rico is it in accumulation of merit.
20
But when one ls doing visualization, these offerings,
one not .1u= t or that one is offering a
s1ncle tn'mdala, but t :-I::t t the st<y 1::; full of ilundreds of thouaa!lds
vf millions vf ;;i:. llar iila ndalls, 311 of which are being offered to
the Three Jewels and tne Three
... e !...; t. :te short '111'! 1 form of tne ma!'ld3.l9. "> ffering
which 1 :1 fou l n-:: ora_ye r \-lhl cll ,.., ,,j s , "On tnP. Found9. tlon,
I sprinkle

; nJ t.cr, 1nd 1 t i:; by tne


Kine 0f t hP. four contlH.mts. and. tile c;un the mo on .
To r:1e before we l CJ!t.;r tnls 11 l.rder that
all sentient. .,;3 ro\y reach tc1e Iure Lands" . ;.!ld uh:le one is
repeating '='''e ! lLces on the eeven Kt . 1-ieru
i:J the Ct' llt-l'; contine!'lts .il'l of !our jirecti::ms ,
north- cou .. ' - 1 : . :)'...- Kcst; ttte :Jtu-; and tile moon, m:.!king a
of !loJnt.:; . i'n"! v1cu'.l tz: tion is exactly tne same ac
fo: long Oao imaglnrs whole oky , the wholE

f11lect "'' '!1 -,andalaoo: .tn we al th attd r1ch-


- f the 3ources .
im:.- does c "'.' fer at o1ll? T. e answer to this is
f)t;.:lU t!l the prayn!.' W'11r.h follm-.'3 the short ronndalfl . It s;,.ys, "By
c rre rir. -> this uobJ. e , :nandala which 1 leases the Three Jewels
the: 'I .&ree Ro>1 s , :1ay no obstr.cle:; arisP on the Bollhl path".
Ttli3 mLan:;; that :-. s prac t :'.cen and t.::-eaol:> tbe path to enlighten-
ment, one is nraj1 nr: alw:\ys to 0f obst";Lcles both in this
life :ald in 11 One r c.: s to r alize tne thoughts,
the way in 1t.'hict1 '!..\1e tUnl or the way the
Enlightened :and .)1e wat of t:1e of the three
t\lli:!:> are . E:::.ving tbat realizr M.':'ln, 0.11e will not be be"' ilder?.l.l by
sea. rosa ric eXJ s .ence !'lor '"' ill &t t!'le pe:tc& of tnP. Arh:a ts
and !r:at1eka but tC" beings whose
numbers arc to the ext!:.it rf
At the of offering roar.d J. !:',;, ' olng this med1 tat ion fo r
a se u.lC prays, "a?.?i. ',; all we :-:. 1 th in the
all my wealth and all wealth of uncountably
1nf!n1te of beings, I am filled with the two
the accumulations of and transcending
The Buddha Field or the Buddhas imagined in front of
one, to whom one has been making these offerings, are
pleased by these offerings. They dis:>olve into light and this light
dissolves into one'c s elf. With this, one that things
are of the sawe flavour ; and one lets the mind rest like that.
In the mandala there is a particular point,
people who are going to be doing it can bring in are called
Seven Offices of Worship. These are: Confebsion of
Unwholesome Offerings , Rejoicing in the herit of Others,
Asking the Buddhas to Teach the Dharma, Asking Them Not to Pass
into Nirvana, and Dedicating the Merit of Practice to the Welfare
of Others. There ls a translation of the 3even Offices of Worship
1s used in the Cnenresig meditation in the program of
Black Crown Ceremony. There is either that or the Seven Offices
29
of Worship as they are found in the Prayer for Noble Conduct.
These Offices could be included at this point in the mandala.
Q: Where does one draw the line between the framework of the
visualization and one's own process of imagination supplementing
this? .
A: While one is actually offering mandalas, one should concentrate
on the form of the visualization ot the King of Mountains, the
tour continents, the eight subcontinents, and all.of the things
involved in the traditional mandala offering. But when one is
thinking of making offerings to the Buddha or to the Three Jewels
at any other time, then one offers whatever one can imagine,
whatever is beautiful and wonderful in the whole univer
Qs When one thinks of the various that are happening
throughout the world, how does one use this kind of thinking to
enrich one's concern and to he'p other beings who are sufferin6
throughout the world?
A: One understands from these kinds of considerations the very
limited extent of one's own mastery, not only over one's environ-
ment but over one's physical and mental being. And understanding
the severe limitation of one's ability, one can formulate a very
definite and resolution to achieve a much greater
degree or master, in fact, total mastery so that one can really
-help other oeings. And similarly, the kind of ccnsideration that
you are talking about, of people experiencin6 a famine and drought
can be used to develop within one's self, the feeling of compassion
and concern for them which will also serve tc reinforce one's own
Dharma practice. One uses.these two kinds of motivation ot
conciousness of one's own limitation and concern tor other's
welfare to work hard at Dharma practice so that one gathers the
accumulations, clears away obscurations and gradually comes to tbe
full realization of Mahamudra, which means that one gains total
mastery over one's y:hysical and mental being and then can be of
ver,y definite and immediate help to vast numbers of other beings.
Can choice overcome bad karma? If you choose not to do a bad
action, if you choose to do mandala offerings, can that choice get
rid of bad karma in itself?
A: Both the aspiration to a certain form of action and the actual
perseverance in that action can be virtuous.
Q: What is the difference between DorJe Balgor and DorJe Palmo?
A: They are the same.
Q: In the mandala offering there is a certain mantra that is said
at one point; what should one be thinking when one is saying this
mantra?
A: One should think, "Bow I am making these magnificent, glorious
and infinite offerings."
30
Q: \hen one is cleaning the mandala the of the
pr:1ctice, one rub;:; 1 t three -+ .. imes in a clock:lllise direction
wrist, What 1:3 t!H! uf t'Jis?
A: One takes q of rice the mundala three
times in a dircctlon. symbolically cleaning it.
The rea3on one u L=t.r t c !.' thP. hand is because this is
rega.rded as fr(lnt of
4
.!"lt1 h:lnd an:l there is a 3light traditional
preference to U!>e front ppp0!31!d to the back of anything.
Rinpoche says if he and I are talking together, if we fa.ce each
other face to f :ce, t:ilk front to front so to :neak, then we can
communicate fairly well. But if one of around and tries
to talk in the other direction, it makes tblngs difficult

Q: is the origin of the Four Foundational lr-ctices?
A: Foundational rructlces whiclJ been orientated towards
clearing away obscurations and gathering accumulatious have always
been part of Buddhist rractice . The particular form in which we
practice them now was originated with the inception of the Kagyu
Tradition. In particular, the offerings in the mudra,
Four Offerings, originated with Tilopa and the full form of the
mandala offering was brought in by the Translator.
I
Q: These seem to be very complicated; is there a reason
for this?
A: The man:r ast)ects of these meditations necessarily involve the
whole being, that is one is acting physically, mentally and verbally
all at the same time. This is necessary in order that one be able
to clear uhysic3l, mental and obscurations, all of
which we accumulated since beginningless samsara. Nhile this
is the main of having all of these various of the
practice, the single mos.t important is the attitude and the
imaginative process that one does mentally. When the mind is
clearly focused en the meditation, then the physical and verbal
actions adjuncts to the mental concentration and devotion. But,
really, this is the s:.tme any thine; we do in the world. ,ihcn we
work at any activity in the world, we are doing it physicallJ,
verbally and mentally also. We have to make similar involvement
with Dharma activity.
)1
GURU YOGA
October 30, 1974
of us have achieved a human form, which is a precious
form. It 1s precious because one can, by relying on this form,
achieve the higher realms o! existence. The higher realms of
existence are achieved through the practice of virtuous action
and the abandonment of unskillful unvirtuous action. However,
existence in the higher realms, though temporarily very happy and
peaceful, is not something which is permanent. So, wemust apply
ourselves to the practice of Dharma in order that we can achieve
liberation completely from the cycle of existence, so that we can
achieve the state of complete aw3kened enlightenment Buddhahood.
The perfectly Enlightened One taught many different teachings
so that beings could travel the path to complete awakened enlighten-
ment. In fact, he taught what are called the collections of the
'eighty-four thousand' different teachings of Dharma; all different
methods one can rely upon in order to achieve a state of liberation.
The purpose of these teachings was that one could rely on these
teachings and achieve the higher states of existence. By giving
up unvirtuous activity and practicing virtuous activity, one could
achieve the realms of men and gods. Buddha taught that if one
relies on the peaceful tranquility one achieves the practice
ot deep meditative absorption and if through this tranquility one
achieves bliss, one may be born in the realms of the gods and in
particular, the desire realm gods.
In addition Buddha taught a great deal about relying on
peaceful tranquility , and developing this one-pointedly. In
particular being attached to the aspect of clarity in the state of
peaceful tranquility. By relying on clarity, one finds rebirth aa
a god in the form realms. It one, through peaceful tranquility,
achieves the state of emptiness and relies on this, one achieves
rebirth as a god in the formless realm. Now, these teachings are
not teachings which lead to complete liberation from samsara. One
is still within the realm of samsara, but on a high level, in the
realm of tne gods.
Buddha also taught about the various stages that one could
achieve through meditative absorption. The state of the Arhat is
achieved through the practice of insight meditation, which relies
on the aspect of Through this, one can achieve the level
of the Arhat. So with respect to the Arhats, one has achieved only
one quarter of nature of emptiness. A Sravaka
Buddha bas reached the state of half an understanding of emptiness.
When one has achieved complete realization of the nature of emptiness,
then one has reached the state of the first level Bodhisattva. Then
one passes through the five paths and ten stages of realization to
32
tbe state of com;.lete awakened enlightenment. One then, through
the understanding of emptiness, has come to understand the
meaning of no-self in either phenomena or the individual.
In addition, Buddha taught a great deal concerning the puri-
fication of one's obscurations and accumulation of spiritual
merit and awareness. This is kchieved through the reliance on
the six perfections of the Bodhisattva. All these lead one to the
state of complete awakened enlightenment. Th's is the method of
the Mahayana, and though one can achieve liberation by relying on
t.ue UJ. ,;ne Mahayana, it takes a long time. lf one wants to
achieve liberation very, very swiftly, without delay, then one
relies on the skillful means of the VaJrayana, the secret,
immutable vehicle. So Buddha gave all these various
the eighty-four thoLlsand collections of Dharma, that by
on different aspects of these teachings, might achieve the states
of the higher realms; men and gods. Or one achieve the state
of an Arhat or PLatyeka Buddha or the state of a Bodhisattva from
the first to the tenth level of enlightenment, ultimately to
Bujdhahood. Or one may achieve the state of Buddhahood very swiftly
by relying on the Vajrayana. All of this was taught by the Buddha.
Rimpoche says that he knows something of the meaning of
and that it would be very easy for him to tell you a little
bit about Dharma, or Just give you a bit of teaching, something
that you might find very easy to as how to do a
very simple meditation. But just by relying on one single aspect
of the Dharma, one cannot the of complete awakened
enlightenment. And for this reason Rimpoche is delivering many
different teachings, telling you many aspects of Dharma; teaching
you about Nondro; how to purify oneself of obscurations and so on.
R1mpoche compares this to a man who is very poor, a man that has
no money and wishes buy material possessions. Nov, it
would net be possible for him to buy these things all at onece.
He first must.gather a certain amount of money. He gets together,
say, five dollars and then, a little later is able to save a bit
more and save a bit more. Finally he is able to meet the sum that
he needs in order to get the possessions that he wishes. In tr.e
same way we learn Dharma by passing through various first
and prao tising ce r.t:1in pre para tory practices; purifying
oneself of obscur:lt.ions, achieving spiritual merit and awareness
until one reaches the state one to achieve. For instance,
Rimpoche might explain to one, how to develop the state of peaceful
tranquility by watching the breath come in and go out. Now, he
could not say that by relying on this one practice alone, one could
achieve the state of Buddhahood. One could not in fact, achieve
Buddhahood through relying just on this one meditation of watching
the breath. it is a st,.c;e which one bas to develop.
By relying on this meditation one developes the state of peacefi
tranquility, and bised on that state of peaceful tranquility, one
gives rise to other types of meditation. So it is like saving up
until one can achieve a certain goal. Now, it is certainly not the
33
case, that developing meditation such as watching the breath or
turning the mind to the various feelings in the body, are not or
any beni!it. Certainly these are very benificial, but as Rimpoche
has said, by relying on these aspects alone, one cannot achieve
liberation. It is not the ca,e that these methods are not Dharma.
They certainly are Dharma, and the Lama that teaches these methods
is indeed very kind, and very beneficial to one. But when one has
consolidated tnis state of peaceful tranquility, in addition one
must couple this state with the clear understanding of insight and
the understanding of the perfection of wisdom. So up to this point
Bimpoche has discussed a great deal concerning the taking or Refuge
and the endgenderment ot the enlightened attitude; the desire to
reach enlightenment for the sake or all sentient beings. And if
you use these practices and in addition do such as
watching the breath or various other meditatiions, certainly not
giving up these methods, but combining then a great deal of
benifit will come from this. Diligence or 9pplicatton ia extremely
important in the practice ot Dharma. Certainly is the case
in worldly work. If one is very then nothing at all is achieved.
So, one must develop an attitude of perseverence and application,
an attitude of patience to one's Dharma practice. One engenders a
feeling of great perserverence and diligence if one meditates on
the four tho.ughts which turn the mind to religious practice.
These are the ordinary preperatory practices.
Up to this point the meditations concerning the Special
Foundations have been discussed: that is the the prostrations,
taking of Refuge, the meditation of Vajrasattva, the purification
Mantra, the offering of the Mandala, and this evening will be dis-
cussed the teaching of Lama or Guru Yoga. When one does
this meditation, it is possible that one meditateds that one's
body is just one's usual human form. However, if one imagines,
instead of this, one's form as the form of a diety, then this seta
up a condition tor the blessing to arise quickly in the stream ot
one's being. lor this reason it is better to imagine that your
body is the form of a diety. This can be compared to one's pre-
paring one's bouse for a visit ot a very high person, such as a
king. One prepares the bouse by clean1ng it out,
making it absolutely spotless and making very lavish preparations.
In this way we turn our body; transform our body into the form ot
a diety, so that the condition is set for the blessing to be
born very swiftly.
Now when one is doing this meditation, one may imagine one's
own form is the form of any diety which one chooses, but in the
tradition of the Kagyupa, one generally imagines that one's form is
the form of Dorje Palmo. There are two reasons why one imagines
Dorje Palmo for this meditation. Pirstly, Dorje Palmo is the
secret Yiddam of many or the great Xagyupa Lamas, such as Marpa,
Milarepa and Gampopa. Secondly, in the achievement or complete
awakened enlightenment, there is necessary, both means and wisdom.
34
Palmo then is this aspect of wisdom, that is, the wisdom of
complete emptiness. For these two reason3, one relys Dorje
and one meditates that one's form is the form of Dorje Palmo.
One can one's form as DorJe Palmo and do this very very
clearly, imagining the various ornaments and so on. Then this is
very good. If thls isn't possible, then qne thinks I am in fact
Dorje Palmo, and simply conceiving of one s self as Dorje Palmc
is satisfactory for the meditation. Then-when one is doing the
actual meditation of the Lama Nalgor, one may the object of
one's meditation to be in the sky 1n front of one, or the more
way of doing this is imagining that the object of meditation
is upon the crown of one's head. When one begins the meditation,
or.e imagines that either in front of one's self or on the, crown
of one's head is resting upon a snow lion throne, upon which is
a lotus moon seat. On this sits one's own root or source
lr .. ma.1n essence, but in outward manifestlltion the Buddha Vajradhara,
or, 1n Tibetan, Dorje Chang. Upon the crown, then, of your lama's
head, sits his own source lama and above him, his source lama until
one goes through a strlng of lamas or the actual line of transmission
until one reaches the source of Vajradhara or Dorje Chang at the
top. Then in close around this main line of ui
the transmission, one imagines their close diciples and in addition
all the lama of all the various Buddhism, such as
Nyingmapa, Sakyapa and so on. One imagines these are all gathered
around a central line. Wben one imagines one's lama and the other
lamas upon the crown of one's head, one must develop great confi-
dence and devotion in them .
The basis for this confidence and devotion is an understanding
of the of one's lama. R1mpochehas spoken before of the
qualities of of complete awakened enlightenment itself.
One thinks that compared to the Buddh:l himself, one's own lama has
all these same qualities, there is absolutely no difference. And
in terms of who bas been most kind to one's self, the lama is even
more kind tha Buddha. One bas not had the to meet
a Buddha, to receive teacbinJS from a Buddha. Yet one bas been able
to meet one's lama and to receive the teachings from the lama.
The lama, in fact, possesses all the qualities of the Buddha. And
when one thinks in this way there is a great feeling of faith and
devotion developed. Buddha ta.ught tba t when one thinks of one's
lama as the Buddha, then one will in act receive the blessing of
the Buddha. If one thinks of one's lama a3 a Bodhisattva, then one
receives the blessing of a Bodhisattva. If one of one's
as an ordinary that is, as an instructor or
spiritual teacher, then one recieves the corresponding blessing.
If one has absolutely no faith in one's lama, then one receives no
blessing at all. When one is meditating in the practice of Lama
Nalgor, then, though one may not be able to visualize clearly the
various lamas, what is really important is that one bas this great
feeling of faith and devotion.
35
When one is meditating that the lamas are upon the crown of
one's head, one also that in front of the lamas are
gathered all the Yiddams, to the right are all the Buddhas, to the
rear are all the Dharma, to the left are the sacred Sangha and
gathered around in the sky in a great cluster are all the pro-
tectors, the Daks and One thinks that all these beings
of Refuge are in fact, just different manifestations, different
aspects of one's own lama. These aspects appear in different forms
in order to help sentient beings through different methods. They
are all in !act one's lama, not different from one's
If one does not a great deal of time to do the meditation,
then one can immediately think that in fact, the objects of one's
meditation are the beings of Refuge. If one has more t!me, then
one can imagine that from the dieties and lamas that one has
imagined upon the crown of one's bead; light radiates forth and
attracts the eyes, draws the eyes of the true Buddhas and the
d1eties. from attracting their eyes, they in !act, come forward
and into the dieties and lamas that one has meditated upon.
One does this if one has more time to do the meditation. In
meditating this way, one thinks that there are hundreds and thou-
sands of emanations of one's own form and together are all sentient
beings doing prostrations, offering homage to the assembled lamas
and other beings of Refuge. In addition, one im3gines that one is
making wonderful copious offerings; offerings that are to
the various senses. This is what one thinks to begin with: One
thinks that one is openly confessing all the unskillful actions
that have been committed by one's self and by all sentient beings.
One thinks that through this confession, one becomes completely
pure, that all sentient beings become purified of their actions.
One resolves that in the future one will not commit actions of
this nature. One then rejoices in all the virtuous actions that
have been accomplished by all beings. One offers prayers urging
that the Buddhas and the various emanations of the Buddhas may not
pass into final Nirvana, but may continue to work !or the benefit
of sentient beings. One urges that they turn the Wheel of Dharma
in order to help beings. And finally one offers or dedicates all
this merit that bas been achieved through these six different types
of service. One dedicated& all this merit to the ultimate enlighten-
ment of all sentient beings. These are what are called the Seven
Offices, the Seven Religious Services. One then prays that pure
impartial 'love and compassion may be born in one's stream of being.
One does not develop the of love and compassion which is
generated only towards certain individuals only. But one develops
love and compassion which spreads to all beings. One prays for the
blessing that one may quickly achieve the realization that is
possessed by all enlightened individuals; that is that one may
quickly come to achieve the realization of co-emergent
36
When one is then practicing these foundations, if one has
some understanding of the Tibetan language so that one can do the
appropriate sounds as one is reading the prayer, and in addition
to know the meaning of the words that one is reading, then one
comes to understand very clearly the meaning of the foundational
practices; the exact meaning of the prayers that one is offering.
In the actual prayers that one offers directly from the scrip-
ture, one is offering the prayer of Mahamudra. But right now,
since the meaning is very very difficult to understand, and one
readily understand it, this will not be explained at this
time. This prayer is, in fact, a very deep and powerful one.
All those in the past that have achieved a state of realization,
have in fact, relied on the practice of Guru Yoga, of Lama
The reason for this is that, by relying on this practice, one comes
to understand Mabamudra. lor instance Naropa, with great faith
and devotion in h1s teacher Tilopa, constantly relied on his guru
and on this meditation. He went through many many hardships at
the bands of Tilopa, and through going through these various
hardships he came in time to reach complete realization of Mahamudra.
As Tilopa said, he could give concerning
Mahamudra, but this would not be effective for his diciple Baropa
at that time. necessary first to remove great obscurations,
to achieve before Baropa could come to the complete under-
standing of Mahamudra. So he vas given first: teachings, pre-
paratory teachings, scriptual authorities, initiations and so on.
In order to illustrate the great hardships that Naropa went
through and which indicate ver.r clearly his great faith and devotion
in his teacher; Bimpoche tells the story of Tilopa instructing
Baropa to go and get him some food, saying that be vas very very
hungry. So Naropa saw in the distance people working in the fields.
He went over there, carrying a skullcap, and asked if he could
have some of their food. !hey gave h1m a bowl of soup and he
returned very pleased that he had recieved this, and gave it to his
teacher. When Tilopa had finished this he instructed him again.
He said tb1s soup was very very good, and could be please go and
get another bowl. !his time when he returned to the field, he
found that the people there had gone back to work, so be had to use
fairl7 devious means in or4er to get another bowl of soup. When
he got this and started charging across the field with this bowl ot
soup, the people aaw him making off with this and caught up to him
and beat him up, until he was lying exhausted on the ground, totall7
disheartened. He looked around and could not see Tilopa anywhere.
Be lay in this condition on the ground for a day. When he came to,
be could barely move, and Tilopa was peering over him saying,
well, what seems to be the problem? Pollow1ng this, Tilopa
blew air on his body and he 1mmed1ately vas better.
Tilopa and laropa arrived at a very tall bouse, and Tilopa said
to Baropa, "Well in fact if you have great faith in me, you will
climb to the top of this house and jump off, and there will be no
doubt in your mind." And of courae, his diciple, with abaolutely
37
no doubt at all, did this. Be climbed to the top and jumped off and
reached the bottom in a very battered condition. In this condition
be lay for one day. When at last Tilopa arrived on the scene, he
again applied a few medicines and his blessing, and immediately
his diciple vas better.
!ilopa and Naropa bad managed to make a number of pens with
very sharp points out of bamboo. This had been achieved by work-
ing them down with a knife and applying them to tire. Tilopa said
to Haropa, "Well, nov if you can really carry out austerities that
your lama is instructing you to do, then you will take these tine
pointed objects and stick them into the ends of you fingers. So
immediatedly Baropa did this, thinking, well, my lama has said
that I should do this. !here must some purpose or b1nefit in
it. So be applied these to his fingers, and this was very very
painful. He stayed in this state until, again his teacher came and
applied different methods, until be vas finally better from this.
Tilopa and Iaropa were walking along and they saw in a distance
a great wedding party, and there was a very beautiful bride. She
was dressed in a beautifUl gown with flower garlands around her
neck. And !ilopa said to Baropa, go over there and get that bride
and bring her here so we can fix things up. This will be very very
good. So immediately his diciple took off in order to get the bride.
While he vas attempting to carry her away from the wedding party,
the groom and the other attendents were quite enraged. They beat
him up so he was laying once more, completely disheartened and
exhausted upon the ground and couldn't get up, and no where in
sight was his teacher. After a period of one day Tilopa returned
and again gave him various and he was able to get up.
Tilopa instructed his diciple to bring him a woman, that in tact,
he needed this woman, that Baropa should bring this woman to him,
and he would be able to give further instructions about this.
Baropa thought, well, he must this and when he actually
did bring the woman to the prescence of Tilopa; Tilopa vas greatly
enraged and said, on earth are you doing. What are you doing
bringing this woman here!" And in order to punish him for doing
this, he beat him up, leaving him once again on the ground.
On another occasion, Tilopa instructed Naropa when they came
to a ravine to stretch his body across this ravine so that Tilopa
could walk across his body in order to reach the other side. And
while he was in this extended position, his teacher instructed him
to stay in that position until he returned and wished to get over
to the other side. While he was in this position, since it vas a
very vet marshy area, his body was subject to the of leaches,
but still he stayed in this position. And when at last Tilopa
returned and vas walking across the top of his body, his feet slipped
from the edge so that be was down into the water and his teacher waa
extremely angry with him tor not staying in the same position. His
Teacher, being so enraged at him, grabbed him by the scruff of the
neck and proceeded to beat h1m on head and from the blow on his
38
head, tbe thought came to his mind that now in fact he would
fall into unconsciousness. But at this point, he in fact realized
the nature of his own mind. This was in !act the pointing out
instructions. Sq in this way, Naropa went through many different
hardships at the bands of his Following each of these
he was given various instructions. It wasn't until be had gone
throu3h these various austerities that be could recieve the point-
ing vut instructions. And in the same way Marpa the Translator
journeyed from Tibet to India on several occasions and stayed with
his teacher, Baropa; working with him, studying with him for
twelve years and seven months. During this time he bad absolutely
no doubt or wrong view concerning his lama, and eventually achieved
realization.
In the same way, Milarepa relied completely on his
Marpa and went through many various trials and tribulations, until
in fact, he relied on the instructions of his teacher and achieved
realization. Most of you are very familiar with the story of
Milarepa. Milarepa, after receiving instruction3 in meditation
from Marpa, went orr to meditate in a solitary area in a cave.
And after meditating fer a long time, be eventually realized that
the conditions he wa5 in were very very poor. He bad no water and
no fire and barely any food at all. He thought to himself, well,
I think I'll go build a fire. So he wrapped his few rags around
him and set off outside in order to collect wood, and when he
got outside, be found that there was a very very strong wind. This
wind blew so strongly that through the effect of having very little
food for so long he was knocked unconscious. When be came to, he
looked up and saw that some or his tattered rags were hanging from
a tree, and be felt very sad and longed at this time to see his
teacher And while he was sitting this state, feeling very
unhappy, be looked up into the sky and saw that Marpa was approach-
ing on a great white cloud. Marpa spoke to him at this time and
said that he had felt and heard his yearning and what was the
problem. At this time Nilarepa sang many songs expressing his joy
and feelings of devotion at seeing his lama. Marpa gave him more
instructions and he returned to his cave to meditate. If one
relies on the compassion of one's lama, then one can dispell the
various obstacles,that do arise in one's Dharma practice.
experienced such obstacles, but by relying on the compassion of his
lama, these were dispelled quickly. On another occasion Milarepa
returned to his cave and found that five very fierce men had
arrived. He found that some of them were looking through his books.
One was meditating. Anotner was looking anything that
l-tilarepa had. Others were just genera.l.l.y wor.atlug. A't
was a little afraid of these, and ao be tried to remove
these beings by feeling love and compassion for them. However this
only increased their pride and was not successful. In !act another
two appeared on the scene. Milarepa tried at this point to teach
a great deal of Dharma to them, but this was absolutely no benCfit.
So then, Milarepa recalled the instructions of Marpa, his teacher.
39
All outward manifestations are but the bewilderment of one's Olin
mind. And thinking of this, be no longer thought in the dualistic
terms of these outer beines and himself. And resting in this
knowledge, he had no and no fear. When Milarepa had achieved
this realization, then these ver,r fierce men immediately dispersed
in a great feeling of being very upset and distraught. They
quickly left his cave. Through this event Milarepa's realization
greatly increased. So in this same way, the lamas of the oral
tradition of the tradition relied on the instructions of
their lamas. They followed the instructions that were given,
and carried out what they intended to carry out. And,
in fact, relied on the meditation of the Guru Yoga.
The teaching of this meditation, then, is extremely important.
The one who instructed in Lama Nalgor was the Buddha himself.
When one is doing the practice of Lama Balgor, one says Karmapa
Cheno a number of times, as many times as one wishes. One may
think particularly of the Lama, Karmapa, but it one has not in fact
met him, one may think of one's own lama as one is saying Karmapa
Cbeno over and over again. This means one is making obsience to
the one which is full of activity or has activity. The reason for
this is that what one's is the activity of all the
Buddhas. And sowhen one says this Karmapa Cheno, one may think of
one's own lama; or in the case of many individuals who are here to-
night, who have in fact received initiation. and teaching from
Xarmapa himself, one may think of Karmapa. a
It one is doing the foundational practices, so that one is
actually planning to do one hundred thousand prayers to one's guru,
one offers the following prayer which bas seven lines and asks
tor six different blessings. The first line is addressing
one's prayer to one sown lama. One thinks or one's own lama as
being the union of all the lamas of the line and of all other lines,
all the Yiddams, all the Buddhas, all the Dharma, the Sangha and
the Proctectors. These are all gathered in one's own root lama.
One prays to one's root lama, one askd first for the blessing of
being able to give up clinging to a self. That is, one no longer
clings to the idea that one is an existant entity with any lasting
nature. The next blessing that one asks for is that one may be
without any needs. That is, nov we are in the situation of needing
many different material things. We need clothes and food and friends
and so on. So one prays that in one's own stream of being, one no
longer has need. Thirdly, one prays tor the blessing tnat all
thoughts which are not concerned with Dharma be prevented, be blocked
ott. And in this particular part or the prayer one is asking ror
tne specific blessing of realizing that mind is without origination.
One prays tor the blessing that all manifestations of bewilderment
be pacified in their own place. That is, one realizes that all
illusions are in fact like dreams, having no intrinsic nature.
This being so they are pacified in theil' own snbere, their own place.
Lastly, one prays tor the blessing that one might all
phenomenal appearances to be in tact the Dharmakaya, !bat is,
40
one realizes tnat outward manifestations in fact, are
empty of any intrinsic One realizes emptiness, and this
being so, one realizes Dharmakaya.
When OTI.e is saying this prayer, one can say it in an audible
voice. One canay it very loud if one wishes. However if one
flnds that one's neighbors don't appreciate this, then one can say
1t not quite so loud. So when one dc1ng the foundational
practices, one sl)ls this prayer hundred thousand t1mes. When
one is prayer, should not be wanderlng to
anything else. If one s wind wan1"r!:l froc t:1e then it
is very difficult to accrue any ben1fit from sayinB it. So one
says this in a meditation session. One says it as many times
as one can in that seGsion. Following one offers
particular prayers to one's lama, asking for bestowing of
particular initiations and then one surround-
ing lamas around the central line disuolve into light anc\ are
absorbed into the line of trg,:smission. These lamaa dissolve
into light and melt into the form of Dorje Chang upon the crown of
one's head.
1
\nd at this time one may im;1gine the form of one 's
own lama upon the crown of ones head. Now one may be meditating
that one's lama is in front of one or upon the o! one's head.
One might imagine that on the forehead of one's lama is the letter
OM, but one .does not actually have to meditate there is this
letter. However from the placa of the one imagines that
white light comes forward, down and reaches one's own
forehead. This light one's O\m form and one imagines that
all unskillful actions that have been commited through the body are
completely purified. One recieves the vase initiation. One recieves
empowerment to meditate upon the stages of arising and ultimately
one achieves thd state of Nirmanakaya. Then one that
from the throat of the lama red light comes forth and strikes one's
self at the same place in the throat. All obscurations that have
been accrued through actions commited through speech are completely
purified. One recieves the secret initiation and recieves
empowerment to on channels and prajna. And one ultimately
achieves the state of Sambhogakaya. Then the place of the
heart the lama, if is meditating on the letters, there will
be a blue HUNG. From the throat a red AH. From the heart a blue
light comes forward. When this strikes one's own heart, all
obscurat1ons and unskillful action through mind are
completely cleared away. One recieves the wisdom-awareness initiation
and empowerment to do deep meditative concentration in the stages
of arising and in the stage of perfection. one
state or the fruit of Dharmakaya. Through this particular
initiation one can meditate on both compassion and wisdom, meditate
on both the father and mother dieties. Then one imagines that
simultaneously light comes from the white lieht at the forehead, red
light from the throat and blue light from.the heart of the lama's
form and strikes, one's own body at the forehead, throat and heart.
And one thinks that all the obscurations of body, speech and mind
41
are simultaneously purified. One receives empowerment, receives
the fourth initiation into the meditation of Mahamudra and ultimately
the essence body itself. Then following that, one imagines
that the lama dissolves into light. One's lama enters one's own
form and one's own body, speech and mind become indivisibly united
with the body, speech and mind of the lama. The lama melts into
light and is dissolved into one's self, and thinking that one is
indivisible from one's lama, one places one's mind in this state,
without any contrivance, resting naturally. Following the
meditation, when one arises, one thinks that all appearance is in
fact the form of the lama; that all sound is the speech of the
lama and all mental activity is the very mind or heart of the lama.
And following the practice of Lama HalgBr then, one dedicates
the merit for the benefit of all sentient beings. So this concludes
the special foundational practices.
November 6, 1974
Q: Could Rimpoche talk a bit on Mahamudra practice?
A: .Mahamudra means meditation. In order that one be able to
meditate on Mahamudra, it is like learning to drive a car. One
has to learn bow a car is driven first. For this we need to do the
foundational practices. The foundational NBndro, is like
a road, and in order to drive a car somewhere, you need to own a
car. And having a car is like doing various meditations on the
Yiddams, Mantra meditations and visualizations. When you have a
car and you have a road to drive it on, you can just sit in the car
and go wherever you want. So, when you have done these practices
you can go, and it's like driving a car two or three thousand miles
a day. This is like Mabamudra. Driving a car along the road
requires a certain amount of discriminative thought. But in
Mahamudra, one doesn't need to think at all. One has no contrivance,
no meditation.
Q: Bot Tibetan, I've found the translations a lot
more and meaningful. I'd like to know which practices
Rimpoche thinks specifically are very important to actually in
especially relating to prostrations and the beginning
Bondro practices? .
It's quite alright to do any of these practices in English.
Buddha said that if one bas the education and learning, one can use
this as an instrument to enlightenment. And without this kind of
education and learning, one can rely on faith and enlightenment will
nevertheless be reached.
42
Q: Is there a difference between the way a Bodhisattva takes
form in and 1n the way an ordinary person takes form in
the Bardo state, the state between death and birth?
A: A Bodhisattva, when he wishes to take any tangible form of
existence for benefit o! sentient beings, can take existence
merely through thinking that he is to be born in such and such
form. A sentient being immediately in taking existence, becomes
totally to stupidity or ignorance, and becomes completely
unconscious. When he revives !rom this unconscious state, the force
of the manifestations of bewilderment to which he is subject cause
him to take physical existence. It vas said of Rongen Dorje,
that even while he was in his mother's womb, !or him it was like
being in a spacious castle in one o! the heavenly realms. And
during this time he was fed the amazing elixiers of the heavens.by
gods and goddesses. During this time he taught thousaAds and
thousands o! gods and goddesses about the Dharma.
Q: Is there a wrathful aspect to Cbenresig?
A: One o! the slightly wrathful aspects of Chenresig is Dorgen
Rimpoche, an emanation of Rimpoche, Guru Padmasambava. In the
west part of Tibet there vas considerable difficulty in opreading
the Dharma. Tnere were many many obstacl6s through
deamons and various other circumstances. And Guru Rimpoche emanated
in the form ofDorje Trolo and Dorje Trolo to wrathful emanations
ultimatley o! Chenresig, and through activity in these quarters,
created conditions that were suitable for the development of
Buddhism. There are also various other Yiddama that are emanations
of Chenresig.
Q: If one bas completed all one's responsibilities in the world,
what is objection to suicide?
A: Suicide is unwholesome activity, because if one has in fact,
completed all responsibility and completed everything that it is
possible for one to do, one has reached full enlightenment; one
bas become a Buddha, and Buddhas do not If one is
contemplating suicide or commits suicide, it is generally from out
of either panic or fear or because one is in a situation of tremen-
dous suffering or because one is crazy. A person who really does
understand something about religious practice and knows what he is
doing will not commit suicide.
Q: Y:1at is the difference in preparation for Mahamudra between
concentratin6 on the breath and using the meditation techniques
of the Yiddam.
A: There is a difference between these two techniques. When one
on the technique of the focusing o! the coming and going of
the breath, this is a perfectly good technique for the establishment
of tranquility meditation, which can be used as a basis to develop
insight and which will lead eventually to Mahamudra. But here one
is depending essentially on one's own capability and power and
strength. I! one uses the meditation techniques of meditating on
a deity or Yiddam, or on the other hand, through meditating on one's
43
lama; one is employing or making use of both the power and the
blessing and inspiration of the Yiddam or one's lama as well as
one's own power and strength in meditation. through this two-fold
force one comes to realize Mabamudra more easily.
Q: is unwholesome about eating onions?
A: In the beginning of th:s Xalpa, the merit of human was
almost that of the gods. And so this physical human form much
finer and more subtle thaa it is now. It was so fine and subtle
that it shed its own brilliance and radiance and the world was
filled with light shining from human forms. There was no sun nor
moon nor stars in the sky. There was no need of any external
illumination. But as this Kalpa progressed, the merit of human
beings gradually deteriorated. uhe radiance ana the human.
form degenerated. The physical form became courser, less subtle,
and the world became darker. In order to alleviate this darkness
that the world was sinking into, the most powerful gods, such as
Indra and others together with the titans, stirred the waters of
the ocean. Through stirring and working with the waters of the
ocean, the sun and the moon came into existence, and all of the
stars. &lso out of this came a tremendously potent elixier, which
vas kept in a beautiful crystal vase. A great deal of the elixier
vas generated and the gods would drinkit as much as we drink tea
now. They would always pour it from this vase. While they were
doing so on one occasion, one of the great titans thought to
appropriate this vase for himself. He swooped down on the gods,
snatched the vase away, and flew as quickly as he could. The gods
of course, took up the chase immediately and realizing that he
could not escape, be drank this very potent elixier. The gcds
threw weapons at hi:, and one of these was a wheel which
sliced his body into ribbons. Any normal person would have died,
but because he bad already drunk this elixier, his body could not
just degenerate and become nothing, so powerful was it. And the
blood and flesh of his body fell onto the earth and it is from this
that onions and garlic now grow. This helps to explain the dual
nature of these plants. It is said that because of the wrong
aspiration and unwholesome view of this particular individual, that
the odor and smell of garlic and onions is so powerful it can
destroy the efficacy of Mantras. But nevertheless, because of the
elixier that this had drunk, these plants are extremely
benificial for one s own body.
Of course there are many parts of his body that hadn't at that
point received the benif1ts of the elixier which he had drunk. And
the lands upon which these parts of his body fell became the cause
of diseases such as rabies and of the poisoness plants which are
so fatal that they kill anybody who eats them. If one is using the
lower Tantras, such as Kryia Tantra, then because or the power of
onions and one should not eat them at all when one is
doing these practices. If one is doing the higher Tantras, such
as Anahata Yoga then it doesn't make too much of a
difference.
Eating garlic does not affect the attainment of realization,
such as through meditating on Mahamudra and coming to realization,
or receiving the blessings and inspiration. But it does affect
the power of Mantras. There are various Mantras which one can
use to cure wounds and to bring good health an4 things like that.
It is this kind of power that the eating o! garlic and onions
affects.
Q: In it to dedic te merit specifically to a dying
being that one comes
A: Yes, one can ccrto.inl do this and it would be very beneficial,
very helpful.
Q: Wt .:1t is Rtm!'och'?. 's raJ.:\tionship to Jamgon Kongsprul? How are
they due s the mean
as in co-arisin6 e3rt .,.,
A: Ja.1lton Kongst'rul Gr . at .,a.s or.e 'Jf' t.: ;e gre!ltest recent
teacher in lived in Tibet t-.nd
comple iely maste;: all of of B'..lddi.: ism and wrote great
treattsies whic:-. ::l.ll of the practices . He ",{as
rded by many ?;. at t :'la t . :.i.'e -. 13\Addh. Many people
feel that Kalu is an 0! great saint. I
don't k:1ow of any r-c:-; .. f; c t ton . '3ochen : ncho: he came to
Sikkim, said that I .. an em ana t1 r n J but
perhaps I may havP. sor1::- of the 6reat "'CS inspiratioz=s of
this very very great t'!Rcher , but I in
Co-arising awa r er.es:: ltr.s ..,hat ! ;aq .. 'lbout before. In
describing this ba '";hich 1.s c:- mu:.taneously the seed
or potential e It s the intrinsic, or mind-
nature itself, no clear and unimpeded.
Q: A Bodhisattva chocse!' hi s and is conscious
in the womb. Why is he is not necessarily born fully
conscious and must be retrained in the Dharma?
A: There are Bodhisattvas that have taken birth and have needed
no education whatsoever. There are others that have needed a great
deal of education, but whether a Bodhisattva needs or does not need
education, is not becauF-e he needs to lee.r.l to read or anything like
that. It is to provide opportunity for sentient beings to be
brought into cont ct A sentient can
be trained and in the way to enlightenment, through helping
and training a Bodhisattva.
Q: What is the relationship whP.t you describe ash ::.Yenly
worlds and. hellir.h ,.,crld Rr.d +.he w':lich we see in the heavens
l:hich astroncmic:.ll and C<'Sm':> .. scientists have plotted ou .?
A: We, as sect ent betng3, are to manifestations of our
own Since these of bewilderment arise
through the power of Karma, exactly what appears 1s going to depend
upon our Karma. As long as we have not achieved any realization,
these manifestations seem to be very true and we believe them to be
the way of the universe. And as long as these continue to appear
to us, and we believe them to be true, the universe appears to us
45
in this way, and in different times and different places, the
universe appears in different.ways. So we can take our own
impression of the universe to be what it is; a manifestation of
our own bewilderment. Buddhahood, or full enlightenment; knowing
exactly how things are describes the way the universe appears to
be, the way it is. But it's like hav1ng a hundred people asleep
in this room. \ihen they go to sleep they all have different dreams.
And when they wake up, you listen to one persor. say that his dream
is true, all others are false. There is not just a single impression
of the universe. In one of the Sutras there are many different
accounts of the way the universe appears and has appeared to various
sentient beings. To some it has appeared as a disk, to oome as a
square, and to some as a to others as rourt4. Not one
impression of the whole universe, but many many different ones.
Q: What is the basis of confidence in the possibility of
achieving enlightenment and his confidence in the presence of
inherent Buddha nature in all
A: Tne source of confidence and belief in these things is that
they come through the spoken word of the full enlightenment of
Buddhahood, Buddhahood whose knowledge and awareness completely
embraces all phenomena, all reality. And knowing exactly how
things are, .that there are these teachings and that Buddhahood is
possible. And all sentient beings have the potential for Buddhahood.
If one approaches the practices of Buddhism with this idea, that it
is possible, and one has confidence in this, then gradually one will
come to believe more deeply and deeplJ in the empty, unimpeded and
clear nature of mind.
Q: Has Rimpoche taken the vow not to kill, and if so, hov is it
that he eats meat?
A: I've never killed anything to eat. If there's anything
intrinsically wrong with meat, well then my own body is meat. But
you are quite right. Buddha taught that eating meat was a very great
form of unwholesome activity., And the unwholesomeness was somewhat
reduced when if one was de!in&tely in need of meat, because one's
body was weak and needed the strength which eating meat gives one.
Then it is also somewhat reduced if one does not actually kill
animals for one's self. If one eats what has been killed, there is
some slight lessening of the Karma involved in the action. If one
either kills an animal for one's own purpose to eat it or one
orders someone to kill an animal so that one can eat it; these are
the very worst kinds or unwholesome activity.
Q: Isn't animal raising in direct line. Like knowing that society
raises animals for that purpose, solely for that purpose?
A: There is this kind of connection certainly, and it is for such
reasons that Buddha said eating meat was very very unwholesome. And
it is this kind or intrinsic unwholesomeness that is present with
s:tcsaric exic'\.ence, t te.; the r.ee;ess1 ty for u .. to be constant-
ly confe ss1 ng and :J. dr:i t '!. , 1 of ti': unwholesome ::t.ctions that
we have f!'orn Much of it 1.s just
this kind of relati ou:.:t;' p . hy br.ing, we are doing a lot of
unwholesome
0 : As lon6 ;.:g 'r ln th cy :.,_ , '3 no wa.y t 'J vo td it'?
A: Ye 3 , as r:: . .: _ . . : o11et1 t: n:-
whole3ome 11 I 'ndta they cake great use.of
. 0 "J UlOS4Ui toes '\, d ot,1er lnS\!CtS from
destroying th: c.ro ::1 . n :.:1-: rleo.tt", ,f
billions of in:-. cc t :; , :; '1 that crvr : :-t11 h:''..I''Iesteti. c.:Hl peo:>le
can eat. And a lot of :.ctirm tn :;am:;ar3;
rarma which i !> eh1.rC!,., by 'lnd t ';. s for t 1;, re r. son tl1at ....-e
need to continual l y co'"'l.fo:; s, .Ld!"ui t. 1 ;1u rify all the sorcc
action that has e.
If we ; l :l'i 3 n cf uoC!s tnis not us
from our own intrl 'l.;lc. :.!.-,3 :;attre:'
.\: In this kind v ! -r t .: l,...ative .. :; , o:1e iG invoki!'lg dual1t:r.
But are t,ro . of uuJ.lity . r:-H.:re is duality .. ,hicb further
our existence, but !s
th'J d .. ::.,.!.ty ::; to us out of it. This focusing t il e
a tten -:. >. n on an tmnrl11Jc\ t'or.n of BJdc!:,a 1.!:3 a moans b: which we
not come to th'J ble s sings and
of in his ::!li f'' o !.n th i fom thqt is 111agined and
!lO 1ncr'J.-se the !'alt
1
1 :;., !1 us. Through this kind of
inter!'lctic."l 3!'ld th.r:.1 ,; :: fr,::q .. 1:w, nlnd co:ne a to rest one-pointedly,
and with +. . 1:.; can be used as the ba3is for
development of nnd d1rAct !.nto the natu=e of
Q: 'What does OJ.! F-tnlE t.! r. .nr.'
A: The mantra C.t-1 :;."! / ::>t-1? ;:n.-t ha:a no tr'l':lSl? tion. It was:1' t
translated 1ntc from th6 original S'lnskrtt. Anc\
:.ny :::e :; i:1r cr tran::l'ltion to it is not vcr:,- rurycsclul .
T:1c 1.-hro, ,.,:: thP. fusic-n of P.'!\r of emptiness and
Clnl:: very .i r,h BochLGa tt.v'\r; can tan<! 1cw
the Wh: thf:se r s our.d:; a l'c so efft!ct !. ve and
ht'!l ,ful: how t.l.1o gh rep can
be clea rcrl wa;: v irt.uour. t r. .. :fh ts !.H' ins tilled; how tne c:tn
b to tl. : blessings c.r.d - inE"pir.'-.t..iOAl'' of the .Bud\lb<J:>
Bodhi:;at.tvrs.
Q: Ho,; t.lo. s :; e "'alk the line betwe .'U\ non-strivinG and t!'le need for

A: W:1 n o:: e
1
3 pract1c1nt; mu$rma, if C'n e becomes very sleepy or the
mind bcc :-> mes and dull and ve!'y unclear, this 1s when one needs
to tighten it; to make it very firm, bring 1t into focus. When
the mind is very scattered, there is a lot of mental activity going
on, everythine is flyine all over the place, 30
there are thougtts of attachment, aversion, all
things are coming up a great deal or the tiMe.
one should relax and let the mind settle on its
47
to speak;
or these
This is when
own.
Q: Rimpoche has said that our practices aim at the goal of
realizing NahOJ'ludra, and in the system of the nine Yanas
they say that Hahrunudra is a creparatory practice to
i:aho.-Ati, Hhich to hear without understanding decreases
rai th in i.ahamudra practices. ,-/ould 'Rimpoche com:1ent on this?
A: The word Naha Yoga. refers to the practices which are
called the staces of transformation, one of the practices
in Vajrayana Buddhism. In Tibetan the term is Cherim.
It's
11
iiaha,"
11
ani" and
11
a ti The "maha" refers to Cherim or
the stn3es of transformation or the principle emplo1J'I'lent of
t'"lese techniques. "Ani'' refers to the principle em7"10yttent
of the stages of perfection, which is a second principle
technique in Vajrayana. And
11
ati
11
refers to great perfection
in the !Twnan syster1, Dopochemopo, which is the direct realiz-
ation into the clear empt7 nature of It is at this
s;;nonamou3 ,.,i th in the Kargyupa syster11. It
is as if ,-ou ,.,ere calling one !)erson b7 two names.
Wh,- d6 they do it that way?
A: The r:umopas Hi sh to present their teachings as the very
very very best.
Q: HoH do JOU trannmute saxull.l energy into something finer?
A: '.lhen one renlizes one's own Illind to be no thing in itself,
then defileMents o.nd all the emotional drives which we feel
are realized to be no things in themselves. And Hhen one
realizes thnt all phenomenon are no in themselves, are
empty, one realizes the::r arise like dre8.r.'ls, like
apparitions, and when one has achieved these two realizations
all F.ctivity becomes pure.
C Hc.'J! H3ZIG
In the f'B.!lt , :'l:l!''J of you have obtained the initiation
for C!1.cnrczir; or Ava) oki.. toshvara , and there a!'e many of you
H
1
lo bnen t !1 i!l !rleditation f">r scme t

Also
t Gre of you ">rly recently raceived initiation
":>r t:hL So tonir;ht , I Hant to tt>.lk about the
1 .edit . tion for zig. 'rhi s uill not onl:: be a helpful
:'c;11indel' !'nl" all of Hho have been pr.::!.cticinc

but will also provide the essential basis for


for those who have not yet received thia teachinG,
fO!'" ,_.,i thout !luch tc-cr.ing, there is r.o way that one can do
the of this neditation. ,
For t!lis \!e begin \-lith \.Jhat is re::\11 ! the
root of all Bu1dhist pr-actice ; thC'.t is, aoing for refuce .
alAo, at this point , foster wh t is , in effect , the r0ot ,
the basis of '"' ractice , which is the enc;enderinc of
Bod! icitta. So the meditation starts with the fornal
rc:-..e; or mot i v.::1tion of go inc for refuge in the ouddha ,
and the and tho cn3enderment of the
hnlichtenine Attitude; the3e be ing the foundations upon
vlhich the rest of the meditation rests .
The refuee pra:rer is the tvro lines "'hich rend, in
en13lish , "until J reac h enli ghten:-1ent , I r;o for refuge to
tho Buddha , the Dharma and the Host Perfect Gathering.
11
11
Buddha
11
means the m-takening from sleep- 11:-:e ignorance and
the enlic;htenr.1ent that comes t !1e development of all
for ms of knoHledce . This is "Buddha" %\'leans , and refers
to all Buddhas , the Transcendent , accomplished Conquerors .
The \-lord
11
Dharma
11
refers to the teaching3 uhich cone through
enlighteru:tent Nhich have become known and have been
so that all sentiant beings may be provided Hith the !'!eR.ns
to r each Full 8nlic:'\ terunent . It refers to both the Hinayana ,
thP. iahayana , indeed, all of the thousands thol: sands of
tea.chinr.s t htt.t con1e doHn to us today .
11
f1ost Perfect Gathering"
means the Sangha, because thin is not only a of the
most perfect enli s htened beinas but is also tho most r 9rfect
reference object for the accumulation of merit and cwareness .
Tha.t ia, one 0ructices with respect to the
of the I rhc to , etc . it is
called "'rhe J.:os t .t'erfec t r;a the ring" for thes e'! tHo !'leaninc;s .
"I" sht:, ly pefers to one3elf . "Until enli c;h teT"Ilent is
nctun.lly

rll enns t"lat until one to r" al izo the
nc.turc of rtinr.l or until one ,.e:1ches f'ull Bucldlvthood , me \-rill
always continue to so for refuge . This is the idea thet one
is rcfuce, noing to the Buddha, Dharr.Ja and 3a.ngha for
refuc:a .
49
'rhe sour-cn 0f r r r uc;e is Enl ieh ten:tc nt or
od , "l nd all of the qualities of
enli ::;llt('nncnt: the :r. ontal qualities, the qu::tlities of the
phy::ic?.l :or!"t, :lnd the qualities or the speec h of
It is the poHer llnd capability,
force , t"le strenr, th o.nd in Avrlllcened .:.::nliehterunent
tht. t ')no is appeal i ne to for refuge . The seel:er of refuge is
onenelf; it i s also 5entient bc inns . Oneself ar.d all
sentient beines a re limited in nnd
cr:pnhilities; because of the ie:norance v!hich li:1its our
ca ::- ahilitien He !\re subject to samsaric exi.::;tence . Sams9.ric
existence is s:rnon:,Pious Hith fe f.l r , t!'ihulation, sufforine,
nnd frustration. It is from this feeling of suffering ard
dissatisf:-tction Nith that one c;oes to
tor refuge . The of refuge is just this attitude ,
thnt ':>ne is in a verJ unsatisfactorr situation. F'rotl this
unsa tisfactory situation, one is to achieve '
enl ::. c;hteT".:nent . One focuses on enlie'"'ten.,cnt as the
of refus e and takes refuge in enlighten...,ent in order to be
sheltered and protected from this ocean of suffering which
we call samsaric existence .
The next branch of this concerns the engenti erMent
of Bodhicitta or the mi nd to It reads ,
" Hay I , through all the ood worl< thttt I do eenerosityft
etc ., rcnch Buddhahood for the welfare of all sentient beings .
1
The first idea is :. I , " t his is the \ot ork oneself is doinG
Generosity and all the other aood work neans the Six
ferfections: morality , for e be a rar ce, dili ence ,
meditative and wisdom. pr s cticinB the se
Six .t' erfecti on::; , 1irtuous action is n. ccWl'lulated . One is vowing
tha t this kind of a ctivity is to be used to
enabJe one t o roa ch f ull Buddhahood. The reason that 0ne is
ai:nint; for full Duddhahood, is tha t th t he attain1ent of
all the qual 5. ties , pol.rer , nnrl ca .. )ability of Full ,::nli c:hterunent ,
one i s coinr. t o direct nll this ability to helping other
sentient beings . So that the final for doiPB all
of these tices s uch as :"' e it' tion on t.hcnrezig
1
s 1'orn1,
repetition . ., r thP r.1e.ntra, or hol ding the tnind in 5BMadhi , is
to enlightenr1ent i n order to help others . This branch
of the is called ai sine the id nd to the Ob jec ti ve of
"!:nliehtennent . 'l'he prayer is mane up of , first the a t titude
of r c fuge, and y , the cf 8odhici t ta.
Tho ne xt r>::t rt of the me0i tation bor: ins ;i th the lines ,
the he :..:. d of each and every be int:; Hhose mxtbcrs
mntch the bound l e ssness of spacA, rests a lotus white
r;>. nd n full ;-.toon s c at .
11
Th .. s means one thinlts of oneself
and al l other bein3s . On t ile cr':>Hn .,f ':>ne 's head o.ncl of a!l
other beine3, there is an eieht- pctallcd white lotus , above
Hhich rests t hC' flat disc of the moon . "All other beings whoso
Totatch the boundl.essness of. space' means thst the
50
of :::;-').r.P. th of thn nt.u:ber:. of
sen';:iC'nt t'H ro arc . Thnt ti-1: . >; 5f one thirJ{s
'' f all . there arc , t.,is 5 s :i"1finit:.e
T''"' ii:lit to On top of the of
Of t'1f'!!:C
1
t ; .0rc l S t: i:; ... l!>t'.':: ... ::;e;;t .
:.'he 11f'l::t i. "le i ::; "i'rorr. r::I !!pp .... r..r:: n:c'lt :.11 - :->ee in :o:
0ne" : hich L; 0f --:henrzic;': nc:1e .
10\-T to:., :--r t ' o l)t!.t :; anl one i:-nr.:i ne;; th-! t a. letter ,

ii.:f! iz H"litP . Tho for
th t +-ho '1RI ' . s t 'n. t .-r:1en ":l-J.enrezil!
;as .:'::1 oc n.:; t !1o :: of s the
fit"::;t t.li ns !"p;>carec\ W\S the letter HRI :rhich tm!"'eod
nt" :.io the let.ter ;.t:1I is the syllable for
Chen!rzig. Tr,is :ts just "'h!l t it A sP.'ld i:l scmethine
'He it gro"'s into first a s!1oot , and
then full floHcr .-: hi.ch bcnrs fruit . The syllable Hnl is
tho C. frofll :rhi ch ' :henre zig appears .
you 13.re Hell versed in thi s tati on, JOU can
i!'"1agino tho "H;{l
11
on ne' heaC: and tho he'ld of a.ll ::entient
beings , 11nd ir.afine fro:"l this HRI brilliant light shines
This li Ght offerines to all Buddhas in
every direction, in all the Buddha real:-:s , and it P.lso '.:orks
for the bcn Jfit of nlJ sentient beings . As it all
bein:s , it relieves their riisery and frustr a tion
tha.t f\re f ':l.ctor::: o f sa.asuric existence . 'i'hen light fror.1 all
Ru<ldi with their and from all sentient beings
As this is absorbed into the HRI , the in:.tantly
cho.ncez into Chcnrezie. lt depends upon one's inclination
one tncorroratcs the lirht
fro! the HtU and r'lturnin: to the H :I into the
Cne can , if 5 t
1
s :1edi t3 te the Hili appears and
changes into ;henrezie.
a ,. hen fivP. colored shine
1
1i:: cle:\r \:hitc :."O!'J:t ,
r.nd kindness in his ores r.rnili!'l" face . " :henrezig's fora
is brilliant Hhitc , t
1
!e purest - possible to; his body is
so te and G:"). endero,ls thP.t fr ">r.t it , light of
the five white , green, y ellmr , red and blue . These
rcdiste his in all directions . He is and
l-tas a. r enceful cnlrr. expression on his face ,
reflecting thP. cm.l!'l le te cAlm and 1 i thin his oun heart ,
thn inter and love that &:ells within hiM.
rurther , the }.; j in his e:,res arises fr ')M the deep
CO!Ipnssion 1-;hich he lool<s upon al1 heing3 in
with great affection, :_: rc3.t love , just t'.s
a u; on her onlJ child.
't'he next lines are , "Of his four n. :->air
j -.i.ned in 'r:1e left lotus holds e.nd in the l'iBht
a cr.rst.1.1 rosary. :15th sil': he is 1do::-ned, :ith cer-:::: r.nd
of !!Old. '' Chon!"czig hns four hr..nds . The first pair
a re joined in rra:er at his the second riGht hand
51
a nndo 0f crystal qunrtz, anrt the left,
ll te lotll::; floHer . He \HHlNl sill<en :obes . silks
of colors: Hhite , aold nnd red . is
'd':'rnec: vlith 1:-eautiful jeHelry : a cr(')\-:n, ncclde.ce, so:ie
-- nll uro {Jht of the r,old and st,.ldded
ben.utiful cons . To see ex'!tc tly hol-7 ?rne:1ents o.re
n. rnrGed, one should lool-: carefully e.t o. or a
of
':'
1
1e next line iT' the translation has to '1)13 chanr,cd.
sli.:;h tJ -p . ":\nd over i1is shoulder falls q dr.cr "Cl t
!'.J"'d i\uddha oi' 3ou.'1i..lass rests r'!P hi.s Gvel' h.is
left .
1
.ou)(:er i; he:,,.. in relt a rleer . On
'1i:J hend, tf\Pro !'.:>zts ti-e Budcth .\r.1i toh
1
1a , the B--::di"c. of
Boundl er::= J.i:ht forrrt is t'ed. hc.nd:: hold n. b : :gine;
boHl .. ro n ... ,c::o ';"'tion po::-ition; his teet in
Va .. r:"l i .. JSit. jC".r . :1e th" si :,tp!.e of c. r.1or.!: :)'"JC is
t.dorn"d 5. th tho t! irty- tuc of :>erfec tion a,....d
the . ino1 !"lC..rkc of )erfection s\tch as the cleft on
his he'ld, thti .-!hoel of the Dharmo. thg.t is inscr-ibed ' on the
nnd the of his feet .
is cro: rned by c. comT1letely perfected Buddha , the
:u i


"I!Y! .. he sito, his legs crossed , his
a Roon , deities in essence

11
This n es.ns thc:.t Chenrezig sits ui th less
cro!iS"' rl iri Vajrn pos:! tion or full lotus rostu!'c ,
and cA.l:.l . T!e is SUIJ!lorted o.t hir. bacl: by a noon thnt
no or defilement
C1enrezig
1
s C0 .. i;->le to purity. One should think of C: !1onrezig
c>.s the union or the es r. ence of all of the sourcez of !"efuce :
the !Ju(.dha , t i1e the Sangha , t ::e Lano.s , the Yidruns ,
nnd the Protectors . At this point .,r ou should be
imacininc:; on your he!lrl and on the he!lds of all
sentient Here one fosters
<ievotion , faith and confidence in Chenrczig, and l7i th this
confidence and faith prays to him.
'l'he prc.:rer , il'1 Tibetan, oe3ins t-rith t!'le \.,ord "Jo
Hhiel ! is a very polite terM of respect uhic!1 often
tran::>late b\{ the term "Oh Lord.
11
The first line of the
pra;rer is, 'l:h Lord of whitest form, not clothed b.> f!lult . "
This is a short eulogy to Chenrczie !Jraising his
wonderful qualities . The first and ntost out::.t!lndinc quality
is his complete free<lom fror.1 o.nt kind of fault,
There is no defilement . .:e is not subject to emotione.lity,
nor to discursive , conceptual wo.ys of nor tioes he
nn:r vestiec of ti1e t\.zo-fold clincinc to objective reality
E'.nd subjective existence . He is fr-ee fron all faults , all
unwhol so:neness , all ne!::o.tivity , all obscurntions . 'rhis
co!"lplete free<lOln from all faults is epitomized by his pure
uhite form.
52
The next line is,

ho:ld n Per fc c t 3udrlh11 crol-JnS
in lieht . " The phrase

Buddhna ;nenns a co: :p1ete
se Hlrc.t.ion or <.livorcenent from all f aults , al l f ailinGs ,
t he total per fection of all positive ap,,tddha"
Mo&ns the :-Hnkenine frm11 sleep-l ike i ;.nore'.nce nnd tho
onliehtonnent of all fol''"I'IS of J\,eh a 3uddha,
Buddha Ar
1
i crouns Chenrezig. vne inar,ines that on

1
sits A111i to.bho., P-s the crotrn of
Chenro21ig, t .ms pu ttinc the zeal on Chenrezig
1
s oun perfection.
The prayer ends "'i th. , ".-lhose cot.tpassi ono. e see each
livin:: thine, to you , 1\11 - SeeinB l'lne , I l " O\ol r.q head.
: .-; o:l!)e.::.si rna t e eyes
11
to thf:l totality o f con::>'l s::>ion
of rhich Chcnrezig is the It l'lleans that
is a.lmys loolcinc upon overy sentient beinG -.-tith
deer 'love and a con1 assione.te doinr: .!hateve;. .. he can
for their welfare . This compassionate concern is reflected
\lith his uncea9ing gaze , as he looks upon every sentieftt
beinr; all of the tine . .So one prA:,rs to Chenrezig, "I pray
to you, All - 3ceing One , nnd I bou rny head . " 'f!1is phrnse is
in pr o.:rer to reflect t :-..e f eel:$ ne; of devotion, the P.Ct Of
devotion as it : s in hod:r , speech and r.lind.
is , t he and inaging

is t. e act
of devotion; repeating of this praJ cr is verbal
devotion; and tho attitude Hith uhich one is approachinG
this , the hands , etc ., is devotion. So
one s homage to t;henrezig one
1
s \thole beine.
In Hat progra:n, vol should hav' fcund :ln
orange piece of p3.ncr Hhi ch is a seven fold service . If
one hc.s one can include this seven fold service , with
one sli cht Tlultiplicn.tion, in the meditation of Chenrezin.
The fir::; t office of service is that of Homage . One :lo\.\lcl
chco.nee it slightly to read, cor.tplete faith 1 pay homage
to the All - Seeing One all the Victors and their sons
uho d !ell in the ten directions and three tines .
11
This
that one ls ho11aec :)rinci pally to Chenrezig, but also
to all 0udcl.has and Bodhisattvas . The Victors a:-e the Buddhas
and their sons , the :Sodhise.ttvas . "'1'ho.t ducll in the ,ten
direc tj "ns
11
l'llee.ns in the totality of space . "And the tbree
timec," in t :1e eternity of tirtte: past , present and future .
One is :-' aJin{! horota.ge to all of them \-lith complete, clear and
lucid devotion.
The ::;Qcond office is the offic e of OfferinB "I offer
both c.ctual i..ta()iT'led flowers, i ncense , lumps , perfullle ,
food, :otusic and lolUCh else . I beseech the hol:r assel.thlar,e to
accept thnoe offeri One is offel'ing floHers , incense ,
ln1r1ps , perf 1:1c , food, 1nusic , both actually in the
offetinc;s th.o.t one plac es on the shl'ine i ttt also i:m,.ined
offerings , apace to be fi lled Hith such of fo:-ings .
OffePing t ,esc things principally t o Chenrczig, o.lso to
all Buddhas and Bodhise.ttvas . One prays to therl to accept
53
thCSF. jt"l rll'OOr th_t O.ll Sentient OClTWS !laJ l)e
hcl. cu . i'
1
, is is the Office of ('fferi ncs .
;-ohe third )ff:tce is the office of Confession . ''I confess
all tho unr.J:illful nctions tll r.t I have t1ore , i nf luenced by
t:cfi aD the ten unli rtuous act::;, five i l1 CXniable
<
1
.oPe til"\e up to the ;>resent .
11
off.' r.e l ' e :-:. ns th=tt one thinJ:s Of all the Un'.lhOlesone
'=' "''1e r.ccu.H:lotod durin,. one's her-inn'i.nrless
c.,... .. .... '-
sn'b tior. t'1 '=lX'i ate nee . of of
,.\3' 1 one fc:- re 1orse 'lnd recet that 11avc been
cicmt". .nu a1. 1i;;:::; .,penl 'f that. ro:, .. . .::! , t\ (J'
l:. one :.1d ::'3.JS to ell of the "3uddhas , 3odhi s o. ttvC'.s ar. i
:;!1cnr c. ::::.:: t11' t-. 1 :>f thes e things be c 1 e ; red cuaJ
ur::. f i.or
1
C'r.e t:'.l.Jo vo
1
s n0t to do thor.1 a:o.in. At the encl of
:me c;h0uld thinl:,
11
:'t.ll '> f this
'1as h. s been rP:1oved.
11
I t ;".c : 1erit of .shs=t tever :rirt \e Sr-::.vd:as ,
t:re: : P
1
S'l t tv as, t.nd '1rr.iir::tr:r people ther
t:1e t;;!r!?P. ti::tos . " 'rhe 3ro.valtas, l'ratye!.:e. 1
c.r.cl 3orl'1i a':"r n.ll o::- iented to 'lch5 <Piinr libornt-.ion
..
sa .:;P..ra, r-.t var;Tinc roAl i Z'l Ordir.al"J
lJeOt)lB ht;'.Vc '"lJ C!t ohjecti res c.s Hell . All of tho vi:-tue t '.:-.t
l'!.<..ts '!:-con i.n tl!o r:1st , .is bcinc done in tr-f1_ present,
uill 'he j r. the future by such nne\ sue:: ori.inary
peo;: le, Hal-=es one tre:"lendously hflppy :.md joJ('ul . It is this
of in the GOOd works others that
constitutes t he fourth office.
"I pra for the ',/heel of Dhart11a to be turned _or the
o:!dinary
1
gre11t nnd lesser vehicles for as rli fferent
as are in the of all
being:; . a 'l'his . eP.ns that one is prayine to the Buddhas to
turn tho .!heel '>f \shich is a : for the
.. g of the and to teach tho for all
sent;ient beiP..t:::s, usine the ns;>ects of Dho.rlla e.re needed.
for the particular attitudes and of sentient
tie te3.chings of the Dho.rl"\a Hill be i:wtedie.telJ
hel pful to sentient beinRs in particular situation
uhether it is the vehicle of the Vajrayana Dhanna,
the lccser vehicle, the ordinary vehicle , all of these . On
is :1r e.yi n!,; for th.e Jhar-:-1a t o be tauGht so that ever:,r sentient
bcinc.: ca.n be helped by 1 t .
'l'he next office is, "I beseech the Rundh:?.s n'=>t to pass
int'J r irvano. but , until the CJClc is complctel:r ecpticd, to
Hi th crcnt up0n all sentient beinr;s .-1ho
fl ::mnder in t .i s ocean of eor,.. rM.
1
T!\is
t
1
1at one is r rRyinc to the Budd!las not to pnas into
i7irvtl.nn. but to st;iy and he1p ient bein:s until the
cycle of sar1se.ric existence is completely e1-:ptie<l of all
sentient beincs . One is to the Bud :,a. s to exercise
their so that they will to helr sentient
beincs, sentient bein,_s \rho are blind and lost in this ocean
of suffering.
54
Ti1e cevcPth offtce is t!1o office of cation .
:e:.'i t I have become a :Jood for the
enlichtem;lent foP all beinBS t-li thou t delc.y , J heco:ne
n splond5 d lec.cl er for o.ll sentient beinc;s.
11
:iere one is
praylnz or ded:i.cc.tinB the 11eri t th!l.t one cl:>ne il'
j">rr-ctice , in :-> r:t:rer throughout one ' s Dhe.rH=. and
ng tho:-; :i. t become a primary c ause for t :1o
of .11 l>einr;s . That ls, th!lt throush t l\i3 me:'it,
one uU 1 '}Uickly, Hi tilout inte!'ru tion, VO'!'J quicl:J. y achieve
the fullest enlir.:htePF&ent, and becoNe a oudd,ltl or
so that one crm rel\ll:r lead sentient heings to r't 11 2nlight -
cnl1ent , a.nci help thern in a ::.mst rtiract Pnd :i.n :ed5.ate ilt'ly.
'ihis i:: the seventh office of Decl5 cation.
'!'hose !)even Offices of p nro r.los t henoficial to
uhethor one is oneagerl in prnctices 0f the or
sutrns or the path 0f the tantras . If one ! earns these
')ffice& :->f Worship 1.2.nd understands uel:l t!1e,;- n ean,
then :todi to.tes U'on the r.1eaninc of these Offj.ces of
.vorship , ther. tho:; c!'tn used not only in this Chen:i."ezis
a lso when one is doin: o-
offorin., .. lo.s 01 .. in all forms or devotior. end r:eC..i tr\tion.
To the Seven Offices of iorship into all acts
of dovotion very beneficial . .
Ir. n bool that has been published, A Continuous i. ain to
3er.efit : eir.es , there i s e. slirht error.- It
.1rayer to a monl{, l-:!3.palr\ O,

should renlly be a l'ttn,


Pallr.O; there \>IPs confusion on t:"l.e part or the translator .
The r.un, PalMo , was a Tibetan nun t-iho fror.1 the time tne.t she
H:.s very :,rotmg, praye d to Chenrezig. She lived to be over
100, oll of the tir.1e she "Ins .. inc to Chenrezir; over
anu over If you have plentr or ti.1e to do this
r1edi tRtion, if yr.;-u t in anJ l'inci or a hurry, J')U can
o.lso incorpor,lte the prayer 3he u .. ed all the tir'le. DurinG
the swm':'ler l ... et'!'eat , this nun uould 9A.t nothint:;, and r:;o through
the :-etrcP..t this HC'.J -- every othor do.y ea one 111eal , and
Hould :)r:J.y to t::henrezig t her Hhol e life and she
cwne to ht'tve rtC.nJ r.1any visions of Chanre zig. '.i'his i.::J the
she uses , so it is a. Hhich hns t blessing,
creat inspiration. '.rhe prayer be[ins , "I prn.y to Chen'!'czig .
uho :i. s rn:J L2llla, I pray to Chenrezig Hho J. nJ Yidrun. I p!'ay
to Chenrezic uho ia the .3u:"rerno e.nd Perfect C':ne .
11
Tho.t is ,
that Chenrezig of all ryos i tive
"I to .::;hen!"f'zir, ':!ho is the of I to
f!henrezic i s the !ord of Love . "
hac a totsl concern for all oentient
11
ael:;:lne upon :rour nd the co:nra::: sion .-thi ch
the Victors have, for nll beinr;s iih.o suff.;;:
intolerl'bly in sn:.!suric exist ':"! nce , '"l'lo hnve ttande:i."-?C
1
in
exi::tence for co\lntless tir:te , I pr<.q to
exclusively to give ther.l rcfugo e.nd c:;tnbJ. inh t)1e.: throuch
the .. .., irr..tion of .rour blessinc in
the enli[;htenNent which is m:miscent . " 'l'hen on-:> ;> rc.ys for
55
01;estJlf :1nd ell ;,er:tient bei!"gs, Hho fror.t bee;inl'lin::less
t1=11e a ted a grc :\ t deal of kar;1a,
the potJer of llhich, that which i3 attributeci
to cnused countless beincs to be born nc hell
bcin3:1 .-rho\'e they surfer the lli so:--..r of in tense heo.t nnd
cold, to he i>)!'n in the f 10l'! t ;-. e:rfec t Then one says
tho W\n tra
11
Oi! . Ai'I l' i\lJi :E Y:l.i7'IG . "
c:o.ll sentinnt boin,zs h:ve accunuJ .?. tc'i tre :trndon3
l::.!r :1a. rron hp..innin.,.lcss tiMe, but pril"ci ; a.lly those Hho arc
3\,bject to inten'"O t_;l'e<ed , i1ave heen born CS , ratas 'md
!'tld nre suffer:tne fr'>n t,irst and hllnce;o.
!;.11 nuch bein: :s born in your (Ghenrc::::.ie;'s) ?u:oe Lanr4,
B-::-dhil:t
. lJ oont "lllt Nho accu!tU u.terl from
but CS!10ciall:r boir:G subject to - tunidi t-. ::
ha\ & .. l:crJ '"> onr.J .ls .:he:. ... e ::uffe-. .. fr'=n
':' t .. ,r 1 duJ.lTH)3S o.nd foolishness j all
O(' in :rour .:;.nd then one 01: E -J ' I l' .. OiiZ
HtTUG.
All en t boeir.gs he. vine nccu::lUlnterl un>;hol
..r'. f:r?:n :ecinrin;::less. oa:lsnra, but es::> eciall:,r tht ..:hich
is due t.., jeo.lo
1
J. ::: y, E".nd l'ho h3.ve born in the titan
rct-.lns, nncl suffnr- frol"t quarrelin; and bickeril1C Me.::- they
be born in !oul' ?ure i. e.nd , Borlhil A.
All scPtinnt beinGS who in the course of
:::::l!.Jsn. : .. a havP. a.ccttlulated unwholes ome karr.t3., esz>e ciaJ. ly those
uho accu;mlated l<:arl'la throuBh the defilertent of pride
c.nd !1avo been born in the heavens, in the !}'Od reah:s
Hhe!'e they sttffe!' frorn the fall at death in the god
all such bein_;s be born in y:mr ?ure Land, the 13odhilo. .
Ol: HAll I ? A Di :E IIUFG.
Prny then, that in this life :md in o.ll lives following
this one, one will equal Chenrezig
1
s capabilities
and "'.ctivity, all beincs in ii'lpU!'e existence a.nd
investing the . :erfoct speech of six syllables -..11th such
poHer t the:r uill all of the ten directions ,
s1>onta.'1eousl y l!ber.:. ting s entient beings in e1ery
One r. !'a.ys then, alGo, that through the povrer of pre.yinr.:; to
Ghcnrezic in this way , that Rll sentient beings who have
becone the the.t one is seeidng to help -:nd Hho lrill
become one's folloHers in the future, lea:!""l and apply
the law of l<:arna., Hill strive dilir;ently at virtuous knM
1
1R.,
and that el l s cntieP-t beines will como into contact with the
Dharma in the future .
After thezn pra:rers, one continues Hi th the t1edi tntion,
11
"1/hcn I ha\re pr::tyed this ,.,i til Hindfulness, J.it:-:h t shining
from the !:ol:r i'orrol removes all i1npure l:nrr.1a and be1-1ildcrment.
The outer !'ealrn becomes the realm of bli3s. .i;ach livinE:
being ' s body, speech and mind to All-Seeing One's three .
faculties are changed. All knoHledge, sound and all
for;:ns becorr.e insepera.ble froM emptiness.
11
This l'teans that
having prayed to Chenrezig, with deep devotion and me pointed
prayer, fror:t h.is for:n, light shines outward and transforms tho
rhole :c1ld . Fir:Jt through A.Hr!J r1ll 'Jmrhole::>o!llenel':s ,
all impure ;:o.r.::l , &11 dofileltent:3 , n.ll heHil clcr :.tent ,
ic!orance, n.nd all it"lpure rtanifestttions t)f bouilrler: wnt , so
that t :&e outer rocJ<:s , trees and c;eneral envi r onr.1ent
that HA live in, is tran::forned in to Ardtc.bha's J'ure Land,
DeHachen , or the :tealm of i1liss ; that ever;r being hc.s
been born is trnnsfor11ed rhysically, verbe.lly and :-!en tally
into Chen.rP. That is , his body, s ).1 eech mine. becoflle
(;henrezig
1
s . '' All jno11ledee, .c;otmd and all forrr.s
i>o:.c.,: e from o:tptiness .
11
This means f:h.ot ...... all
becm::e si!'tul taneousl:r l;>pcarinc; and elllp ty. rha t
is , thc:J tal.e nn the divine as .,ec t, tho Pure iJano. and
Chen!czig 's form. :Ul sound t:tantr.;, , the irr.l ivisibility
of so,un l and eJ1!1tinass. All :.tentrl nctivity becomes tj'le
indivisibilit_:r of a.t'1reness and et. :) tincss and :tn this
:ledit"\tive stt'te "me S3.JS the JlP.ntra, ol JiAi :I P.\Di !E RUHG.
'l'he re o.re t tcm:r reasons for using a rnala or rosary. One
count 3 the that one is saying bJ brinGing the beads
one , croes r.'.;;ht around the r.1ala and then cot:}es back .
One r\ oen not cross over the central bead. That Hould count
o.s b:o hundred; so if one has t he se :-olf!.rl<ers, l)ne \:ould
thGM for each hundred. ten of thosn moved across ,
one done a tbnusand, and if one .1o.s set of
: ut rl:e:.,s , one .toves one of thos e out to s lv:>H that one has done
-:- t housc:mcl . And Hhcn tsn of tho "e he.ve been d.,ne, one has
done a huntJ.red thousand , gnd one Hi 11 rnar){ tha. t off :i th
c.nother set of ua:-kers that would move the r.tale 1 ike
this to 3how thnt one has done a hund!'ed thou9and
:ihen thi3 ytarker \lorlc s ar und l-lhole rnala , that will !'tean
tha.t one has doJ"'c ten million. And ,.,ri th Ct)n:,letine ten
!.i llion
1
rmc Hill have done a hundred rdlli-:>n !tantras . This
is vcr:: , ver:r .:;ood . To Y.eep tracl: t)f the nu.""lber of rtantras
:.'OU have dorel so you look,
11
0'& I've done a lot now out
I've got o. lot to go .
11
So one Hill do lots and l0ts of
l antras .
:lhen you rcpe:t. t the l'te.ntra , (lji itAWI !'!l Di;c. HUln , o1er
e.nd ov'3r aco.in , :ou can think about a nUJTiber of different
thincs . S-:>metirnes one i-:naeines t;henrezig clearly on one's
head, cleo.r .:. 1 i : taeining his brilli:1nt o.ppe FrtlT'Ce 1 and sa:r s
the r:mntra OH hAl'I Pt\DHE HU!!G. Scmetirnes one says the rnantra
as 0ne is prayine to Chenrezis , praying for such
blensings o::; tl e develo:'>!nent of compo.ssion
1
the
of realization, the reali zation into the na ture of all
phenmtena, rPalization of One pra;s for the
nc; o f a r .J vulsion for sa."''\saric e;d s 1 of a d ee;> ened
co1-1p:1ssion for :-.11 sentient beines
1
of deeper fc.i th in the
Three Jewels . One , ro.ys for these kinds of blessings
. ;o.teti!lles one can, 11.s one says the n antra, thin){ -::>f li!; ' t
from
1
s body and this b1il j. iant s!)lendor
the verse transforming o.ll s r:nt ient beinGS into
-:>f Chcnrezig and thinkine; of the \thol e universe as
beinB transfornec into a paradise all bei ngs as
ChenreziB. Focusing one ' s attention on this , one the
::tantra, 0;; J;ANI PAD.Z HUNG, over and over again. Sornetirnes
let the :tinn :-est any contrivance or l'.:ffort,
in l. t3 n atural st., te, to say the 111antra . .joll Otirnes thlnk
57
of all sentient beings Hith deep col1lpassion and concern, and
s'l.:f the r.mntra lilce this . Generally, think of each of these
tl ines for J. i vc, ten, fifteen rninu te s a. t. n tine and then thinlc
ub:")t t a.nother o:;pect of the r.teditntion, but al). the tine
the .t:rmtra much as :rou ca.n . .'.J"ld if :: ou do all
of t :'!is nll of the time, l"er:;ulc.rly, :rou can come
!"ot !:nou tire.lness , to ,.,ant to hard Uharr:1s.
r :';I. C ti Ct:", ::.nd riecper ft\i th and compa ssion, unders to.ndil"'8
l'll). nc uithin one . one uill receive uan:r
benefici al such as
. n1en :;r()u h-'We been cticine this ldnd tr.tion
or :1onth:; c r a : ear or co, nnd are very eood
1
.! t it ,
C'.nd cnn do thi :J suo.li zation process
1
tell, :J()U , cr.n
thil"ll: of u).l hein;s diss J.vinc; i 'l" to the ChenreziG
on r) ne's hoad . clicsoJves ir.tv li;::';ht, and one's C'W!'l
. . :,r:IJ "> z e. Ope's body is ir.u 1ed:!.o.tely trc..':'lsforr:led
ir.to body, t ;, e i ::iagined forr:1 of C!'lenr' zis is
with tho awareness or principla of one
bect:'lnes .":;:1en!"ezi .3 One repents the r-tantrll dircc ting
one's a. t to one's own form as Ch.enrezig
1
s fort'!l. :lhile
one is doinr this, one can also think that in Qne
1
s heart
tr.ere is n siY.-petalled lotus above uhich strmds the letter
:. .nd arow1d Hhich stand the letters of the mantra OH l:ANI
PADisE h'"Ui:G, and di rect your attention to this . From the HiU
o.nd tho r.tantrc>., light shines outuards and 1:1akes offerines to
all of tho -=3uddhas in nll directions, and li3ht \-15. th !'.11 of
their blessings r e turns. Or smtetimes fron the light
shines all of t ! e suffcrin5 and
misery of all ser.tient beines in all establishing
everr sen in the realization of Chenrezig so the.t
they too become Chenrezig. Or.e does these meditations over
.ani over again as ,rell . '.i'he se are very, ver.r
n e<li t::ttions and Hill bring one tlle.ny deep blessings and
benefici al results .
Because of the ?re-eMinent role that mind plays in
meditation, one think that when one is repeatinc the
ntantra, Nhole Horld is hUJ'IU'Iling Hi th the rcverberntion of
the 1nantra from the lips of all sentient beings , and in this
Hay , everj tif.1e one says t he mantra 0!: l!ANI PADllE HT.nm, it
has the effect c ... s if hundreds of millions of beines Here
say" ng the mantra, 011 iiAITI PADilE HUNG. This totality of
involvement th the \thole universe , clears nHay obscurations
and unt-rholesome karme much rnore powerfully and is a very
important aspcc t of the r.teui ta tion to pra.c tic e . .;o:-tetil"!es
if r:ne finds the r epetition of the mantra dis trr.tctinB, then
stop the laantra and focus the cxclusivel .. on the
H.n in one 1 s heart . If one is able to focus the mind
exclusive!? on thic Hithout di straction, it will
develop into the nttain.ment or tranquillity l'!l&di tntion.
5D
!'')r t ' )E' p r0,1Cl' .l! .. lC' tiCeS 0f the ::; 0 f tr;.r :; fnr:'ICl ti On
or p::oduction , ';'\inc;s rtu::;t be :'lrtl.cticerl . iz ,
c0:1pleto of '.:izuo.lizatjon, conplete .1c: or.r cf all
the t-.:;j')ec of t '. e vi ::;uali zation and tho sttp-::>O!'t ::>1"' reli12.nce
thinking oneself is the deity.
.t'.:"C'.nr. th:.lt :1hon one i:; nedi tating ,.,n forn of Chenrezir; ,
ono ' s i: all the aspects of Chenreziz
1
s bodJ
ore c!e:"l.r: the \rhite !'orrtt of the ' .. eit:r , four
har.<'s , f ;ee, feet crossed in the ' 'njra posi t.ion, uhi te
the r..,bcs , jeueleri 0rna.""1t'mts , deer o these
t :lincs r-s r-.::; if ':>I"e ,., .
lool::". n ':"' :.t v .. i ll in tin. or l')ic tu"!'c '"'f zi G. s tot a!
c!s.!'it: of ,,ifjualizatior" is referled to :1s "conpletc cle.ritJ . "
'!.'h.e re.zt t o::' ::-roper s of "f'roc'-1c tion or
tr .. :.. .. . , .... ,,'\ ti.:m, j _:: etely : ure rne!'JOry , :rhich : 1er'. 1s to
tl,!lt tr..e forr: of Chenrnzie is not coincido!'ltl\l or
l ea!-".n l.Jcs or fi.ctit:iC'Its but tho.t thnre is a d;; a_ of
r. .. - and in .... henrezis ' s forr,l . Fi:' .'.ns tarcc ,
the rh!. te c -1lor of sienifies t '1e total frn.ecl :>n of
for:-1s of fror.t unHholeso:-.te
o.ction , emr.-tiono.l dcfilen ent ,
i n:: tine l i.ncing. ihenro:!ig is con!1l e tel:r free fro:"":
... ; '"S' 3.1"1
1
'I is ::i:;nifj ti1 o. Hili to for:.1
f .. "''>: t ell ins or any i n uri tles
: ;:l.l5. r: :henre:ic i1c.s f our the four sit;l"if:, the
fOl.l.!"

love , conp::l ss i :m, joy r-.nd


'J.,ho 'lc..nc's joinr.o in at the he!'.rt tl:at
is ..... de1otedly to o.ll Buddhas not to -r ass into Firvana
h1.t t.-, tc':'.c :1 t he D!1ar1 Hl for countless eons in order that
t5. ont ')Pings i 1ay eventually o. chieve J i beraticr. . '::'hn
r ich t t:c.nd h0ldinc +;be C!7S tal sy:t!:oli zes zi r;
t. .ret :-_:h . :ovin,s or rosnry to :rtrcls hiM,
dtt""r.lt\8 .ll ::r.ntiont '>ei!'"!gs out of 3?-!: arj c e:-:: i stonce . 'fhe
lof :: .11"1 !'!?lcEr..c; the lrhi te lotus , si3nifi es the fl Ul'i t) of
a t t f\ iru'! ent , is free fron1 1l l
fl.n<l ztn1nr.; to draH all sentient : ...
to the att:'\in1: ent , fron all stains , e.ll e:1otiono.lit] ,
n.nd neop'l ti vi t:J 0f s a.:.s: .!'ic s 4- ence .
'l''lo. t he iR on f\ l otus sic;nifies t hat c.ltho,;r:h
o. lottt:J r.riso.:; fror.1 t ' e ::'llud 0f a the lotu:J itself l".as
not e of dirt on it . So Chenrezi{; is free from all
def ilo::ents of existence , and in tho ,ignifico.nce
of hie ocin- on a lotus sent . 'fhe le!3:: l n the Vajra
position r-icnif.r cloe:; not 1est and is no t
bet-ril i 0rcc1 b.J cxlstcnce nor doe:; h .. in lfirva."'la ,
but acts r,.,r of sentient a
anti '.s a Yidar.1 or nec.!itationo.l deity.
'i'he ornx1ents ;rear:;: the -r.cc!dace
:ignify the perfection of nll
is, Chenrer.ie 1-tas completed the 3ix Pe"'fec i;5.ons , has ac'"!ieved
the 37 tes for Enl iehteru.tent , has ished
59
the 32 Major 'nd flO Minor marks Of perfection, this
kind of o.ttninnent is reflected in his heine t'dorneci Hith
oll the Tile tuo :tlJOn5, the one he sits on :1nd the
rJne rhich his lctlns , the tot'"'lit:r f)f
"':hP.nrc::::ig':; atto.inNent . 'l'hat is , that Chen""'ezig hc.s
t he f \!11 of an enli Ghtened
is the tot:tl realization of the nature of a.ll
,henonf)r.e., the 1'19-ture of all Just ':\ s Hhen
thli lftoon ic f 11, it is completely round , so -=:henrezig
re:1t3 m a .. oon is supporter\ 't>y n \!hich illu::::trates
of his realization, :t b e ing equal to the
of a Buddha.
S)"lllholizP. the atto.ir..:.1cn t of the five T!nnscendinc
:>f is the one has
the five lirhts to the five xrnrenes:;cs which
e:mn.:-..te fr o:-:1 ChenreziB, s form. ::>o this is ; hat is by
puro "tC!lor:
j!cxt i ;j the :"'Olic.nce or. rride "Jell
1
1-l e':'ns
::one t hi ng il:e, ' 'Oh , I'm a. e;ood rnan . = One :f. s ver:p -,rotd of
Hhe. t one .;. :::: . r i::; of pride r ceC.s to be ::::ct :!Si e for
the 'lr:d one t'links inste,d,
11
I an Chen1 .. ThS. s
t;ott>.l convict: -:>n one actually iz Ghen:."'ezig the
!,ecli tc.. t.ion :t s very iMportant . One needs to ti nte this
l:ind of pride. ':!hy does one necc to think "I o.n
(;hcnrezig?" Thct is appearance of the forrl of the
deity is r:ind , and that .rhich cline;s to the idea of " I" is
: lind. Mi nd is the deity ; the deity i c nind. .5o one
to tr..iru:,
11
I an Chenrezig" because of the identity -, r mind
and the forn of the deity.
W' 1:,P does one need to neditate on ChenreziB at all'! If
he really o.nd helps sentient beinr; s , l'hy is there a
neces:!ity to Heditate on him? ?he attainment of :-ealization
upon the interaction of the c f
:11th the Tlind of the indi viclual r.1edi ta tor, Hho is vi i zing
to be Ghenrezic. the thinkinG
of ::1enrezig in the first thero is no field for the
principlo. of t:;hcnrezig to affect .
T:1 is rol e. tionship is best illustr" ted by exarnple . For
instancP. , one 's oHn form st:1.ndlnc in front of a mirror causes
another forn to a.ppee.r in the 1nirror. One
1
:; O\m form by
i tsc:.!. f t CO.U3C another for:n to c.ppea:-- . A rrlirror hy
C'l.!not create another for111. It r e quires the
tion of n fon.1 and a tnirror t-thich to13e t l\1'}:' cre:l te thor
forl't . In tile so.ne uay, oneself , 'vy oneself, io limited in
wh:!.t one c:n d0 . thinkinc about Chen:-ezig, there is
no field of activity for Chenrezig, but upon
Chenro zi g e nd innate of one co.n
co111e to :--eal i ze totall y Chonrezig.
T:1iS is the profound and quick or the
uhich r-mkes o.nd uses the inspirnt:i.on and blessing:; of
Cher.rezig to reach quick)..y. For example ,
60

1
s to.l{e o. per:iOJ"' l:ho has a ear. He can eet into this ear
and dri vc quicj\ly ".The rever he wants to go. The car by itself
is all\Ost U:J aless if there in n.., one to drive it; the car is
not going And in the \laJ, the person b:r
himself is liPitorl to walking and "" i. ll take a lone time to
travel any distance. But 1-li t !l the car o.nd the person
to drive it, of cour:Je he can go q\.ickly. In the ss.."'!lc '.tr:t.:r,
if there no Chonrezie, we l-tould be lil.1i ted to our own
cr,po.hilities. Ou:-- 3itua.tion uould he On the
ot!lOt' hand if He non' t think '>f Cbcnrezie 3nd r.1a.ke une of it,
t hen He are just relying on our own initiative. Dut if ,.,e
on then with the interaction of
s blassing and onQ
1
s own faith a.-1d rr.ecU tn -;r.:c:
quicl<:ly renche::J
I ;, the l'Jeditstior. i!> chc.rn("terizoc\ .hy
Thore ls Chenrezig there is oneself. ?hrourrh
the iJrocasz of meditation and thr.: concent:o:::.t . on ,r Cha!'lrczir-' s
fo:-:;, 1:1ind t :1e for111 ,.,f the deity Rro joined
rli:1d becomes th, for.rt of the deity; deity becomes th, nind;
the;r become i.dentica.l . \-11th this u ion of rdnd and tie :t t:r,
Just as pot of te3
and a of :1ilk. 3y pol.!ring these tHo together, nne
Hhite liquid o.zfl..in. .:>o, once oneself, Rs a sc"lticnt heine;,
and Chenrezig nrc ,.oined through th9 proce.:;.: of :necli tation,
one beco:1es Gh nrezig.
J"n the 1 t is very ir.:porte.nt to r rnr. tice
,.,.i ti1out cot\bt or hesi t :>. t :.on. 'ihen YO'-' qre th-3
of Chemrezig, be convinced th.at this can actually
(;')!lle o'bout. Be con Finccd the.t reciting the r. antre.
beneficial. If one prectices it with this tot'\l conviction,
free rrom ::>.ny doubt , it l<lill be very, very beneficial. 'I'his
5. s sor:ethir.g thE. t is descri hed again &nrl asain in

11
Well, ::oenlly, is this or
no t , don ' t l.:noH
11
or
1
!3 this posnible or not, I tm not
11
'i"hi:. l:ind of att:i.tu1e is not very benef1cial. One llill get
very little out or the mod:J.tntion.
The t. h1ee p::.ir.cipnl oh::;t!'cles to th'J e.chiavenent of
CJ"'lic;htefl!llent a.re icnorance, u ,. ong views Ignorance
1-:teo.no oinple of 1-:no'.: lode;e r.bout the pri.nciples nf D1ar::1a
practice and hoH one is to medi to reach enlighteru'tent.
Wrong to thinl{ of ;rhat tho La.ll- s:l.:; s, the
ll":' as b" untrue, ine!'fect.ive Clr stt"ewn
':lth Do,tht is to loJOn(ler tofhother llhnt the is
is or not, helpful or "lot, o.nr t to believe it
totnll;r. These :'.':"'e the ':. hroe pt'iTI obatacles to the
:;'"chiovet'1ent of
:3elief in the Vo.jra:;:!.nn is most i!'Tlportunt, cruci!ll. In
Jndia, there we.s o. and wife. The husb'lnd ;!ns very
dull ,.,itterl, ve"f'j" simple. His l'life Has a rlnkinl or :;ocldess.
3irtple as he w:tc, he had complete faith and everything
hi3 uife told him and uould do it with conviction and
61
certainty. !:is :ifc tried to t hink of some t.:ay in '"hich to
holp him because he really was dull witted. So she to
hbt, '' ou T\Ust i)ray to llanjusri and repe:lt iianjusri
1
s rl\antra
over !lnc1. over Svery da{. he \-lOUld pray to tianjasri
and r t:!!)GO. t i ianjusri 's :nantra, 'OH PA TSA ll\ mti,
11
over over '"'.eain. Finall:r his Hife said, "TrmorroH you
must 30 into the shrine prostrate yourself before
,.;anjusri, :ray for initiA.tion, and hold out hand. You
kee,., :,nur e:Jes closed and t ake Hhatever he r>uts in
hand o.nd er-.t it . He '"' ill t; i ve you t he blessine; here; t.ri th
thi3 hlessine you will beco3e wise,
r-nd intelli :;E. n t. !-: er hushan.d had n o noui't :'> f this. The next
-' o=-nins behind the s to tue of lianjusri ar.d uai tee. Nhi le
her cr ne pros tre. ted hirr:sel r before the s tc tue
una. . r :>.;en ver,' r .votedl:J to o.nd helC. his
h:;.nc, She toolt out " riece of fruit that she :: ad, been che\odng
:i. n he!' .-. 1t it in his cand. He tool: it c.te it
i :n; tec:.d "' tel:,r rec ci ved all the hlessincs of 9.nd soon
r..fter this n r;re::t t and 1 iahat'anfji ta, fr:.r.:ed
t-hrough':> lt India. In the so.."':le it is v"ry fN'
t.ll of you to without rloubt or Jack of conviction.
At the end of tho session, one
th;t t lic;ht out frof.l the heart of oneself a3 Chenrezis
end tho whole '.r orld, all beinGs as Chonrezig, dissolve
into ':\!ld is into one
1
s ovm forr.t as Chenrezig.
One 's ns dissolves into light, iz absorbed
int":' tho !'iU nnd 1:o.nt::-a at the hea:-t. The lotus nnd tho
:1nntrL'. 5.nto the HRI s.nd the dissolves by
st':'.fO The tHo d.ots fir::t tUssolvc the rniddle
11
!" at
the bottoJ'Il. T!'lis "r" dissolves into the horizontal
Tho horizontal stroke dissolves into the nnin body or
l'la. in body of tho letter c\iz3olvoo into the
nt tho top, the hoo.: dissolves into 1 tself do:m to a tiny
point or light t;ets smaller and snaller, then finally
In this way one lets the rnind completely to
rest \Zithout nny contrivance, in ito oun natural :So
one rests in this etate for as long ns one can. After an
hour , or ortor u. da,- , one il'tap;inos thnt nstnntly ChenreziB's
the whole world is pnrndi3e . 1he world
.-: i th tho rovorbera ti on of the no.ntrn, Oi i :\lil r .'.D1. E IltiNQ.
The nind is ahoo .. bed in deer. Cl.l;, ndh1. . '!'he lines in t
1
1e
!1r<'.;re!" s.t this \)Oint oro: 'H:,rool f C'.nd ot'!cr:J n:P. tho
li'or: l (thr.t form). 'l'ho \lo.ntrn o.nd
in ovol"' ' noun(.' l\ doop nnd va:: t o.wt.ronoos thot.\r.h so .
: JI')" pn.rto of thf'l : or\i tl'!.tion UJ.'O co.llou
C.Nl Gloo.1 .. nn1fonto.t1on. is th!' oltinr; of
over:rthing into the It:U in ono s hoo.rt and t ! 1110J. tine into
1 t,el f, Claar lianifesto.tion is the rainbow-lii: e apr>oo.rance
or the whole thing o.cnin. Ono concludeo
prnctice w1 th the dedication of virtue prayinc, Throu: h
virtue of thi 3 prnc tice may I no'vl quicl:ly nchieve All-
One s stc.te, nnd to this snrne otate r-lf\Y I come to lead
62
cvor.r beinc, not one left behind." And one nl s o prays nftor
this n short . for birth in iC""ti tabha.' s Purelancl.
Ct,: 11i'lcn one is i:rnarrining Chenrezig on ono
1
s he:;td , should
ono hi:'.1 so.JinG the =-ian tro.?
A: Ho , one rcr>e:.ts the rnantra; it is r.ot necesse.r:r to
i ".l&(!ine Chenre=iG o., :,in[! the nant:-n.
Q: Is it batter to say HU1TG or HUl , PAD; e.:; or PAl'ri3, or are
both e.l,..icht?
A: !'he e.ctue.l sound ;rou say is not important if it's fADiil:.
o!' both o.:-e alright.
63
TFE SIX
As all or us now have what we term the precious human
existence, we have the best, the most powerful of all possi-
ble forms of existence which are encompassed by Samsara. 1his
human existence is a better existence to obtain than even that
of a celestial being or god. And it is only appropriate that
we should take this very rare, very precious opprotunity and
make the fullest use of it, make it as meaningful and useful
as possible. You may &sk what kind of thing makes the human
existence meaningful? What kind of activity should we
to mike the best use or it?
'r/ell, the human existence is uniflue in that it affords the
possibility of religious practice, specifically the practice
ot Dharma. Through the practice of the Dharma, we can come to
achieve not only an improved existence within the realm of
Samsara, but we can use it as a basis to begin treading the
path to enlightenment. Through cultivation of Dharma practice
in this life, \le can, over the series of lives which follow,
constantly at Dharma practice and so stage by stage not
only come to freedom but eventually to tull and complete en-
lightenment. .
or all the teachings or the Dharma, among the most important
are the group which come under the heading of the Six "Jerfections.
'.l'hese are important in all Dharma practice but especially the
:-:>harma practice which is based on the Nahayana and Vajrayana
tradi tiona. rhe Six Perfections, when they are applied, con-
stitute a complete and total practice of the Dharma.
The first of the Six Perfections is the perfection of
Generosity. There are three kinds ot Generosity here: There is
the generosity of material wealth, the generosity of refuge or
shelter, and the generosity of the itself. These are the
three principal kinds of generosity. And of these the generosity
pf material wealth is the particular practice for lay people;
tor the householder, his wife and children. The reason for tbis
is that generosity or material wealth means simply what one
would think it would mean: That is, to give things, material
objects to those who need them. It can be directed to people
who are practising the Dharma or to people who are tn need , who
are poor, whatever the case may be.
ihe reason why this is a ver1 good and appropriate practice
f0r a householder is that a householder is someone who is engaged
in \torldly activity and because he is working, he is earning
money. Because he is earning money, he will usually have quite
a number or possessions and if he is to make t!1e best use of these
possessions , then to give them generously to gather accumulations
ot merit and awareness is a very good use toward which to direct
material wealth. Ordained people, on the other hand, supposedly
64
have world and have few possessions . So
it is h8 lay porson is in the situation to
prac tic'; gcn ty of matel'ial wealth best. \H th regards
to generosity, it can be directed in two ways:
either to the Buudha and the Three Jewels, or to sentient
beings. Novz, to offer things to the Three Jewels means
simply to prepare on the shrine offerings of incense, lighted
co.ndles, flot.;ers , part of the food that one eats or drinks;
all of t!1ese arc Jneterial offerings to the Th:-ee Jewels and
one thinks, when one places theM on the shri e, that one is
givin6 them to t '1e Three Jewels for the welfare of all
sentient beings. One can also give CP-nerously to sentient
being$. This means simply to food to those who are
hungry, to 6ive clothP.s to those who need them, to give Money
to those who need money, to giv whatever is needed tq any
particular rerson. This kind of is called giving.
There t:. re various stages to g5 ing. There is great
giving, which refP.rs to the gift of one's epouse or children;
there is extremely greRt giving , Which refers to the
genero5i ty of one's ovtn physical body, speech and mind . Now,
without having 1:ind of realization, vlithout being a
Bodllis:1ttva Hho something very definitely ::tbout
the nature of emptiness, it is very difficult to give one's
body, speech and mind properly. These are not things thct
l-!e prnctice at this point, but tl-tere are these kinds of
generosity as uel
mq? curious as to how rne is to Bive away one's
spouse or children or hol-T one give : av1ay one
1
s own body.
Buddha, before he reached full in India, lived
a series of exist ences which became known as the five hundred
pure exi:::tences and the five hundred impure existences. Over
these one thousand existences, on many different occasions,
he demonstrated the practice of eenerosity through the gift or
He3ltl and material objects , through the gift of his spouse
and children, and through the gift of his own body or parts
of his body on various occasions .
There are many, manJ 3uch stories in the Kanjur, which
is the collection of scriptures which records the Buddha's
actions l\nd ,,ords. \-lhile t 1.ese have not yet been translated
into Enr, lish, the translation of this body of is currently
going on; so it should be within the relatively future
that you will access to such stories and understand how
generosity is !>Nlcticed at this level.
The second kind of generosity is the seneroeity of refuge
or shelter or from fear. It refers to such action as
eiving mcdecino 11nd nursing the sjck, because si ckness and
not only brine ereat suffering, but also bring great
fear in tho anxiety of death. To provide help and medicine
to eno.ble a per:-;on t o get better is an example of eenerosity,
of refuge or 3holter. Aeain, if any or being is in
danger of losing its life, to create the situation in which
65
that life is ,reserved, that life is saved, is again t 11e
generosity of refuge, because death is some thine. that is
terrifyine, and to save somebody or some animal from death
is again an example of generosity.
In Dnrjeeling, is a Nyingma Lama called Chatral
iUmpoche . In that pnrt of India the.re is a festival on the
15th of every month in which many many fish and eels are eaten.
And every year, Chatral Rimpoche rides down from Darjeeling
to the br-.se of the l'lountain , Silagurie, and buys many fish
and eels I hile they are still alive and takes ther11 to the
neareot river f'l..nd :lours them in. This is an example of the
generosity of refuge.
The third kind of generosity i f the generosity of Dharma.
To !lractice t his kind of eenerosity, one explains the Dharna
to the best of one ' s ability to t hose who are interested, to
those Hho HEmt to hear about Dharma. It means simply explain
how virtuous actions aro practiced, wh r.t constitutes un,.zhole-
some P.ction and ho\v unwholesome action is cont., 'tted how
Dharr.Hl and :111 the facets of Dharma at'e prac ticed. One
explains nll of t !"l ese things to the lirni t .., r one's l<noHledge
and understandin. That's one kind of generosity of Dharma.
The second kind is practiced with reference to those l-tho
eithe:- cant understand Dharma or don't uant to listen to it.
This primarily refers to .animals who really can it comprehend
abstract ideas; one says aloud in t he ir presence , so that they
can hear it, such thi ngs as the names of various Buddhas or
r1a.ntras, s uch as OH t-lANI PADHE HUNG.
or the three kinds of generosity, the generosity of
Dharma is the most beneficial. It is the most beneficial
because the act of the eenerosity of Dharma pl ants a seed or
brings a person or being into contact with Dharma, which is
the seed which Nill eventually blossom into full freedom.
is n very beneficial result. Generosity of material
things and generosity of refuge are very beneficial for the
immediate present . they are accompanied by a deep
P.nlightening attitude, and a sincere dedica tion of the merit
of such an act, t hey are even more beneficial than Hhen
practiced o.,.. dinarily, because they are renewins and deepening
these kinds of attitudes in the giver. But the most beneficial
kind of r;enerosi ty i s the generosity of Dharma '.olhich gradually
will lead many, many to freedom.
There are many aspects to the benefits of the generosity
or Dharma. All of you are people who are practicing Dharma,
and you are familiar with the names of many Buddhas and
several mantras . It is very beneficial for you to be saying
these things over and over to yourself, to be repeating the
mantra 01 ; HAll! P 1.DHE HUNG over and over This is not
only beneficial for yourself, but when pe on1e hear you saying
this, even if they are not interested in Dharma, it is some
contact l<li th Dharma which will over the course of time ripen
into a fuller contact and eventually place tbese individuals
66
on the pnth to freedom. If one is living with people Hho
are not int in ,)harM!l. or even who do not Dharma
the sOJne effe.ct Hill cor.1e Rbout . They "rj 11 hear all of these
thin5s, -:.nd cradual ly t heir mind chan:,e . So the: .. . are
man:; aspects to ty of Dh:!rr.ta. OH HAl! I P.\DiiE HI.nJG
itoelf is because it cnn help liberate
\.rho corne :i.ntn contnct it in Rn:r .,f four 'rtays:
the sieht of mRntrg wi 1 lead to liberation; the sound
of the !"lant ... n le to lileration; the thought of the :nantra,
ond :llso cont!lc t, phy:::i.co.l contact with the tn!'. ntrll , r-. 11 of
these thinrss uilJ. an individual coMe to liberation.
Practice of three kinds of things ,
rei'ue", and Dha::ma--wi 11 n ot onl help you to reach enlight-
enrtent, but sil"'lul t'lneously benef:i.t r.1any
\lhile you are in the practice of enligfttenment .
The second ]"erfl3c tion is the !)e::-fcc ti rm of morali t y .
There 'lre t :1ree kinds of 1-1nrali ty : there is the mor3l'i t7 of
vowing not to do 'lilY moral faults; there is the lllorality of
g,thorin virtue; there is the mornlity which works for
the benefit of nther3, of sentient beinss .
The first of morality, moral ity of vows concerning
unt-ri1olosor.1e nc i.;ion , rofers to n[; '\bon<i oru:!ent of
such as the ten acts , not engaging in such artions ,
of cultivating thn ten virtuous acts to the be st of one's
ahili t:,r . On a tore formal level, it refers to ln:r ordination,
in Hhich one tr-Jws so11e or all of t he four root VO\-IS of not
to kill , not to s te.ll , not to lie, not to co:-n:ti t sexual mi s -
conduct , and the fifth voH not to take intoxic'.n ts; this is
the vow, the rosolution not to do the se thines. Agei n , it
can refer to the ta!dng and preservation of ordination either
as a novice monJ or nun or as a full y ordained or nun;
or it can _efflr to the Bodhisattvn. voH, particularly
in its not to cngege in the dh r rttas ,
not to co::ll":it anJ of the f ni lincs or omi :-; sions of t1e cultivation
or :Jodhicitta; or, in tho Vajrayana context, it refers to
the Vo.jrayana voHs of the fourteen root and
eighteen ryrecepts . All such of ordination,
or the abandOm'lent Of tm . .Jhole30r:'lC action, constitutes the first
aspect of the of
Very brieflJ, the first a spect of the of
morality !"leans to abandon , as much !.l.s one possibl:,r can,
urntholesome a ction or that which brint;s on tmtholeso!lle action.
If one can abandon all such actions , this is the very best
practice of t:r . If one can abandon half of the thin{js
that g,re sorno and brin13 on raul ts, or even some
of theu, this is very , very For inste.nce, in respect
to the ten non-virtuous acts : if one can ebandon all of these ,
this is the fullest practice of the perfection of Morality.
If one can abA.ndon only some of thern, to resolve e.nd cornmi t
oneself to abandonine 3ome of them or particular ones is to
practice
67
The nspect of moraliti is morality which gathers
virtue . Tin s on levels . It refers initi r,lly
to the 3 tudJ of Dharma: learning \that is virtu0us and \that
is to be rJracticecl . It refers to the contemplation of
understandine for lnstance the t telve links '>f exi:::tl'?rce, so '
one uhy ol"e is rracticin[" Dhnrma and hoH :)1'\-.rna is
pr'lcticr:- r . It refers to is ,: irtuous action
ancl to brinr:ine; t '1is into one's personality. It also :-efers
t0 the culti,Tation of Bodhicitta, uorking for the benefit of
others 1 t
1
Hl cul ti va ti.on of this attitude and the exectl tion of
thi3 attitude . it refers to all those actions and
0f th . ch hring one into a virtu.,us frame of
into the of virtuous action.
third of morality, which works for
the honefi t of t')t;1ors , refers particularly to the 1 opment
of \"f lC".re for all :::entient beings, and the
cultivation of tha enlightenine attitude , the onliehtening
frs.r.1c of 1:lind , so thc; t one is un lartakins all Dharn'l practice
fol"" tho benefit ?f Through thi s motivation for Dharma
"' ractice , t : e of others is
are three .:t::;pects to the perfection of
or patience . Tho first is not to retaliate or reuct to harm
by others . O\ool , all neople t-tho are rio.cticinG
\:har;11a need to cultivate an understanding and a
of the natU""e of emptiness , a direct of the
fundAmental nature of all phenomena. And while one is
meditation, one can be interrupted by other
or, <luring the course of practice , inevi ta.bly one is
goinc to be frustrnted , people are going to create difficulties
for one , perhaps inj urr or inflict harm in some way or other.
I:ot to not to react to t 1ese nisfortunes is the
first ? f the perfection of patience .
'l'he second aspect of patience is the patience or the
forbearance whic't overrides the difficulties one encounters
in one is medit:J.ting, one gets hungry,
thirsty, cold, or uncomfortable; lltllny unpleasant things arise .
One patientlJ forbears all of these unpleasant things , per-
severil"lg in the t.teditation the attitude that ona is
engaeed in medi t e. tion to reach enlightenn1ent for the benefit
of all sentient
The third of patience is the patience which does
not fear the deep rne nnin,.,.s of Vharma. The func.lru.tental teaching
of Dhartna phenoniena lack any kind of intrinsic reality,
are empty , can be to certain individuals a terrifyinG concept ,
torrifying idea, cOinplotely rernovinr: all ground for existence .
Some peoole all their courage when faced sith this idea.
But to accept it and to be bre.ve in the face of such an idea
is the practice of this kind of patience .
Or in the Vajrayana context, one studies the stages
of and of perfection. And aeain, these things ,
the transformation of the impure into the pure , can be very
68
forei811 'l.""'d ... ing to ::;orne people, and they will feel that
there is no ,os::;ible way thet they can do such a Meditntion;
and even if tile:; could do such a J'l'!edi it uould be \rery
difficult for them to achieve enliehtenAent throueh it. It
is very if.tportant n11t t.o fr.Ar the deep teachlnes and the cleep
rtcenir.r;s of ticP., but to persevere in meditation
:i thout alarr.t or rli nl-leartenment with regnrd to these very deep
ideP.3.
: ;ot-1 t-In C? 1e to the perfection of diliecnoe. The first
kind of is the argour or diliaence, nnd
ti1:. s i:; the- ':'!'T1)U't' l"'lf rosoJ.,Jti">n. One J o..:"T'3 oneself
Hi th idell ti1nt one to persevere at J.)harrna practice
until one rer.&ches enlit:htePjlent r2.nd never sheds t lis
ider., neve:; .. r :. loo.ses oneself frort t
1
U}.t so ,that it
acts lilce an to enable one to :.,er severe through all
:d t u:1 tio.,s. :'or ins Hi th. r ospec t to the . oundatlonal
Pro.ct)ccs, Nondro !ractices, at the beginning or these
one C'.rns oneself uith the resolve thnt one j r;oiPC to
t;.ive tho::c up they are finall:r finished, that no natter
hmr tired or diffi cult these practices may turn out to be, one
will de all of th.A prostrations and all of the hundred-syllable
rnantra and at the rractice until all of th.e five hundred
thou!:!lnd are finally corople ted. such an e.r:nour of
or.c dilicence.
The aspect of dilicence is the of
to say prostrations, one starts a
session of proEtrations and aft9r about one one is
exhau!>ted. One just feels, "I can't do anything.
'iell , I've just go .. to take a rest; this is too much; this is
too hard." one thinlts, ''row just a second; I
1
ve already
.r ".l d t I goinG to do one hundred thousand of these
And, well, tiredness is tiredness; everybody
i::>ecol'lcs tired. objecti ve here is nothinr.; trivial: it is
not only for my own welfare that I do but
also !'or the Helfare of all sentient beings." To renew onesel f
uith resolution and then to think, "\iell, even I
1
m
tired, I :-:1U3t do and to sticlc to the prostrations and
do another :me hundred or another tuo hundred, perhaps even
work up to a in a session and ju::;t keep doin! these,
ove,..riciinp- tironne3s and lack of rnotivat:ion ti:ne and tirne again--
this is Hhat is r.1ennt by the dili ence of fixation .
The third ldnd of dilir.;ence i:; dili g ence uhich never
turns hack. :\.nd this, aBo.in in the context of the fountiational
!"'lractices , roe:'\ns that .lhen one has COJilpleted the hundred
t'1ou:::t-\r.d pros t.r::!.l; ions one rloesn
1
t thinl{, ''Ho." , th')y
difficult; I fin'l1ly fini:-;hed them. Pow I thinlc I '11 go
out and 6et a joh and have a nice time. I
1
ve that IllUch;
that's eood . " Instead of thinlcing in this Hay , one thinks,
11
ili r;h t, l'vo done one hundrerl thou:Jn.rd P!'O::trations. That's
cood; that's so1.1e hene:."it fro1 this hum:tn existence ;
no\'1 I 3hou1d c\o the hundred thou:;and VajrP.sat tva :-.1antras.
tl
69
And with,.,ut turninc back from the Hhole objective that one
has CTtbarkcd upon, one does tho hundred thJusand mantras,
even thouGh they are very difficult and one is tired and
fraught th :1uch frustr!ltion. One just keeps going, and
after t'1c Nc.ntras are finished, then one does manc1ala
offerinGS , after Mandala offerings, one does r.ru,a llal jor,
and aft.er laflla Haljor one keeps going with all the Dharma
;'r!?.ctice , never t.urning b:iclc, striving until one finally
This is the practice of
which never turn::; bnck.
KoH 1e cor:te to tho perfection of meditative stability.
The first kind is meditative stability which is the procurement
of a.rnuse:.tent , Jet's say. This means that one has had some
kind of inDtluction on tranquillity neditation; and
one has played Hith instruction, and perhaps gott n to
the point t :--.a t mind can rest for a while Hi thout too many
thoughts, but it is neither rich nor clear. Or one has just
practiced neditation on oneself; this is neditntion which is
es3entially the procurement of sor11e arttusernent.
'rhe kind of meditation is meditation which differ-
entiates excellent meaning. This r11esns that tl1rough the
cultivation of tranquillity meditation and insieht , one comes
to lmo"' co&l'les to let the mind rest in it::; natural state:
clear, eJ'I\pty and unimpeded. The m.ind is brilliantly clear,
lustrous; its cla:i.ity is extremely s harp, vivid. So one lmows
exactly tvhe. t the Dharma is talking about through one's own
meditative experience. And this is the meditative stability
which best differentiates all meanings.
The next kind of meditation is the virtuous
stability
11
tihich goes like that," if one were to translate
it literally. The One-Gone-Like-That is an epithet for Buddha;
in Sanslcrit it is Tathagata. Not only is ITlind realized to be
.clear, er.tpty and unimpeded, but in this rnedi tation, the
meditator and tho meditation are no longer different, they
become identical; they become one. There is a complete
absence of 3I1'J kind of conceptual thoueht of discrinlination,
discriminative conciousness; this is completely terminated.
And t
1
1is is "goine like that" or, in other \orords , full
enlichtenMent. Since this kind of meditation is the highest
possible fonn of virtue, it is called the Virtuous Meditation
of the Tathagata.
Uext is the perfection of wisdom. The first kind of
wisdom is the wi::;dom of hearing, of listening, which neans
that one listens to the instructions in the Buddhist Dharma
from a spiritual teacher, from a Lama. ':lhen one listens
attentively and understands \olhat one is hee.rinr,, one is
practicing the Hisdom of listening.
However, listening by itself is not effective; it is n?t
sufficient . heard the Dharma, one must think about 1t,
contemplate it. This means to think about it over and over
70
aGain, ln,l-:ine 11t it from v:Jriou:: poin ts of vieH, until one
clearly exactly \-that being said, uithout
ar..y doubt, thout o.ny confusion. one has thought
about the Dharma to this point, onn has practiced the
wisdom nf contemplation. But r.:erely hearine and thinlting
by are r..ot sufrcient . One needs to
upon it; to appl:J oneself through meditation. And this
rlle!!.n::: not to unrler!ltand and comprehend Hha t is being
said, but to focus one's attention on it undistractedly so
tho.t it becot.es ;')art of one . th the practice of these
thtee kinds o!" l.zi sdom--hearing, thinking, and rtedi tating--
one will reach Suddhahood.
These , t hen are the Six Perfections trthich :rou should
try to practice in everything :,rou <lo. 'fhe7 constitute a r:1ost
important part of Dhar1na practice, a.nd should not be neglected
but in way possible. I ltave explained
individually, the various aspect s of these Six Perfections .
It is possible to give much more com:;;. entar:r on Hhat is rnee..nt
by these Six Perfections, but I wish to illustrate hot: they
can be practiceu siMultaneously.
For instance, with respect to listenins to the Dharma:
Hhen one is tnkine Dharma one's nind is
on the Hords of the Lama. One has no thought about "'orldly
matters, about what 's happening, about possessions, about
one's home situation, one's wealth or anything like that ,
and th s con tl ete disitissal of all \torldly thoughts and
concern about possessions and everything like that is the
1>erfection of generosity. one is listeninr; to the Dharma,
one is sittinr; still, focusing the attention on \<That is
beinc said, and all sorts of unwholesomeness and all of these
thines absent , and this is the perfect i on of morality.
,/l'dle one is to the Dharma, one 's lef!s sore ,
one
1
g gets sore , one becomes tired, but to bear all of
this difriculty is the perfection of
':lhile one is listening to t he !)harma, one endeavors to hear
every word nnd to understand ever7thin t hat the is
saying, and this focusing of one's attention, or this not
giving up ::.ut staying t tho te r.. ching of the and
to it very carefully, is the perfection of dilieence.
To f ocus one's attention exclusively on hat is beinr; said,
not to be d) :::tra. cted b.f any thoue; '-: t or other thine;s that
hai>
1
,en in the room, is the perfection of modi tation. ;\nd
while one is listening, to understand exactly what is beinc
said, to comprehend the uords of the Lamn, is the perfection
of wisdom.
So , in just listening to the Dharllla, one can practice
all of the Six Perfections together. This is what one should
try to de in that one does.
71
G ::HZHAl ?RACTICE
In the course of beginninr:less existence in :3artsara,
all of us az sentient bein' s have been subject to
1'hj. s suujec tion has enabled us to becol"le subject to the power
of the of beHilrler:nent that !'rollt
\11 of thi!; be:: ilce_ 'lent ancl these nanifestations ar:i.se simply
fror:1 i10t its OHn nature . rot lcnouing its orn
nature , not !'Qcognizing hoH it can be controllerl , : ;inn is
lih:e the child vlhich doesn't follou advice and discipline of
its and just does everything wrong. So what we need
to do is to re[ain some control over our mental beinG, over
our !li nn, to co1:1e t-:> understand the nature -:>f our r.1ind; and
through thi 3 under r tandine, gain control and .Lull lmd:;l edge
of t
1
e nt.ture of our oun cr.istence .
!3ecau!jo of this fundaitental lack of control or limitation
of our ::bilities r11any , r1o.ny different for:ns of
be\.zilde:-ment and c-:>nfusion arise, and this confUsion and
is the basis for our emotionality, with
ttt-.chr.tent , avel'si on and vi ty to everything that c>.ppears
before us . This basic eJ"lotionality uithin U3 i:; the Ground
for conceptual thinldng, for discursive , tuC'.l frame of
thoucht . 'Al l of this serves only to rei nforce our subjection
to the uanifesta.tions of our o\tn bevlilder::lent , and to increase
these .l::'.nife3tations and to increase the bcllilder:1ent itsel f.
So we need very defi itely a nethod by
we cnn relea se ourselves fron the subjection to bewilderNent .
Because of the proliferation of belvilt er:lent and the
proliferation of such Manifestations which el"lhrace our whole
viO. J : )f 1_ ivinc:; and existeT'ce , it is ver-J difficult indeed to
terninate nll of these Jolo.nifestations at one til'te , ver"j , very
difficult to just stop them from arisin6, but all of these
r.tanifestations of beHilderr.tent l-lhich are rooted in discursive
thinl:in0 and emotional! ty are not the 1 .. eal definite sub-
stantial things that l-Ie take them to be. All of t!-1.ese impure
m=u1ifestations , bt,,ure because of the basic ignorance of
tHind, could be turned into pure manifestr. tions , manifestations
Without the taint Of Olr'lOtionali ty and discursive thinkinc; .
This is a easy mo th0d. It requires that one under-
stands thot external phenox.tenal ret'.lity ia not reality as
nuct"l, it has not the assuredness or peMttanence that ,.,e
ordinarily with the idea of tht those
which we to be real have in fnct no intrinsic
e;.: .:. 3'tence , theJ are no thines in thell'lzel ves , they a1e er.tpty;
thn t discursive thinkinG and e: totiohali ty :?.re also !lO things
in ther.1selves; they are not real thinBS and are in <'S3ence
elltflt:r; t'1at all that Hhich see:11s to be so real is , in fact ,
misleading and in a sense, unreal .
12
To umlers tand :I ell the idea of ernn tiness ar.d the \lay in
Hhich :.:. t o phenonenal re:1li t:t is very
henefici a. l. 'fo cff ec t this trP..n.sforna tion, \:e can beein .,.,i th
a conceptual frar.Je of thinking. You lmou that uhen one is
to the non- sel f of the individual , one ho.s
to n"
1
':e use of conceptual thinkinE to investicate the nature
of of 3 minr or a self , to look to sea if mind
'"Yhthits '.r. .,; charA.cter .'.stics such as fortn or
color. In the S'.ne one uses essentially a conceptual
frru11e to question and thinlc nbout the idea t:1at all external
cbJec ts \!ilich are (")ercei ved throueh the senses have only a
real c.:istence <:'.S ::terl'!ei v eo ts, o.s appeara.Tlces 'rthich
:; rise to 11ir:d, hut other than this there is int:-insic
ty to the11.
... d Hhicit co : es
thr:>i.1,3i1 c.nal 'SC"S is , conceptual thinking, but
it is not conce9tual thiclcing; it is a very
Hhole::oHe of conceptual tninl-:inG, because throu.r;h it
one i:; to underst3.nd the ideas r.1al:e up "'ho.t
is called the of Wisdm. . Also , these kinds of
conc epts and ldeas a.re helpinG one to eli: .inate clinc:;ing to
re:1lity , cline;ine to substantial existence either of phenomenal
reality or of imli vidual refll i ty. So nll of these of
thoucht.:J nre being broken do"rn 3.nd renoved Hhile one
replacin3 tho!l \Ii th fine thoughts about non-substantial
reali t :; , 19xistence arises and appears to be
lil;:e a drerun, or like a mi rage, or like fll1 echo
. .\nd c.a,nin, to develop compassion , one has to rely on
conce;'tU:?.l t h.o-.tc:;hts . One
11
All centient beings have
been ny not ::cr one time or another throueh the course of
begi nningless :::iDJ.lsartt . All of the::;e beings are suffering so
11uch because theJ do not understand mind in itself is no
thinG. This b a sic is the cause of all the suffering
and frustr t'. tion they tSxperienc e. And this is a verJ ,
ve!y terrible si tuo. tion , a situation in 11hich suffering and
frustration a rise sililply from a lack of
11
This
beins the case , 0ne fosters a tren endous feeling of affection
and love for sentient beings . Out of this affection o.nd love
develo ; s cor.1po.ssionate concern. All of t :1is is frDJ'Iled in
conceptual ideas , conceptual but og3.in, one is using
conceptual for noble end, to achieve
or the 2nli[!htenin; :\ttitude , nnd they e.re heing
directed to holp sentient beines . So these kinds of thouahts
::.re not unHholesot'le ; the:r are not negative in their effect .
They n.re to which o.ccw:1uln te a t;rea t tical of 1o1eri t; they
t>.re Hhicil clear nany o'h::;curations and roue - un-
'rihol e:.ot.lenos s .
A third exa:lple in one's approach to the 'fhree Jel-rels :
the Buddha, the Dharma , n.nd the .. angha . One thinks of the
gre"'.t ouo.li ties of Buddha and thinks o.hout Hi th conceptual
thought; thinks o.bout the Dharma and hou the >harraa helps , nnd
73
trhat the is l:tke tllld the uay t:-te ;;iancha :;uides one
in t '._c !>!'ac ticc ryf Dharml:l . of t! tc se , o.3n.in , le
tbous hts , to deepen one's faith , one ' s
respect , one
1
a devotion, one's in tho pr ac tice
of i)h:?..rnn. in the possibility of enlin: .... teJ"_"nent .
t-.3o.in, these concep tus.l th '>UGhts clear O.Wl.J ntany obscura tions
S\nd t.h.er t 11eri t and throuGh such thouch ts as these , one
i s ri'lle to tranr for 111 the conceptual fr :-J:'l e of from
Wh?. t is to Hhat is very fine nn<l noble . The
person Hho is rcnllJ to practice Dl1arr.1a l \\.&st rise
t o '"'Uch thouchts nnd such u f r ama of reference; for Hi thr>Ut
this , hi) \till not be able to proceed effectively Hith his
pr ncticl) .
have & very deeply incrni ned sense of self nqd we
consider ourself to be some thing, ahra.ys cal line this Hhich
He construe our ... elvos , ''I , " "I rul"' ,
11
1 BlTl doing this . " This
concept of
1
:!
11
is the basis of It :t s iT'
::"eference to this "I " that enotionnlity arises , that
arises , and that stupidity or indifference arises . All of
this leads us f urther into the rlepths of Sru. saric existence
bec".USe it rise to unHholesor.te ldnds or Ll.nt:\
unHhole cone reactions to the o.round \tS .
In the we mal:e usc of concep i;ual t!lOUE::;ht to
trc:.nsfor. the frone of our existence, so t -: at , for in::.t ;mce
in ChonreziG one consider::; to deity,
to be and to the fo!'I : of :: her:rezig.
This forn of Chenrezig is no cor;Joreal , sub3 tantio.l , fles:1-
cnd- hlood body lilte the one He have no,: . It is a forr-;


i:; sinul tRneously Oi.J:>earr.nce and emptiness . It i3 no thine
in i tsclf , 1et avpenrs Ni th the of a r a inbotr.
one is i :-.t:![;ining one ho.s this form, uell , one is using
a conceptual frr:c1e ; one is thinldn!} , "I ho.ve this for:-t .
11
In
speech, one is reper.ting a but Hi th the underst::!nc.l ing
that the sound C\f the :.mntra is indivisible frOITl
One lets the Li nd rest i n sOJTladhi , Hh.: ch is the nrisine of
awareness or r>erceptiol" and ernp tiness tottether ,
/11 of this is done in a crmceptual Hay , but
t he \Ih':'le frP.me of concept has chanced so that no is
it un: . holesone frame, but one of r: ure ;.u:mifestations , pure
concepts . Aa nne nr ctices this the concentra tive
t-.bili ty of through reliance on tl is !'lUre conceptunl
fre.:ne , uhet is hcin- thour.;ht of actually co:: es into h.eing , so
that one beco:nes Ghenrezig and throuch thie one reuches Ful l
ml i e h ten:len t .
It is itnpor t :".nt that should underr;to.nd there is
a distinction to be Jitade Hith rer ard to conceptual
There ere eood conceptual thoughts , wholesome end
there o.re 'n:Iholesome conceptual thou;:-hts . The unHhol esor.t e
ones , the ones uhich are rooted in e1notionnli t y and ienorance ,
serve to crea te karr11a which binds us deeper to Sansaric
existence '-Ihile Hholesome or fine conceptue.l though ts nerve
to loosen t he bonds of S3.rllsaric e xistence and to set us on

the path of frc :::dom. A lot of people think , '
1
leU. , thin i!i
nll very nice to do tlene l<inds of medi tn tions but the object
is to eat rid of all thoug:, ts." They don't Nake such o.
distinction. So theJ are concerned with gettinB rid of all
tho\.\Sh t s Pnd they Hon
1
t do such medi ta ti ons o.s Chenrc zis
because it rely on such & conceptual in the
This failure to practice is due to a failure t o
w:.ke e distinction l:>etwecn the ldnd of thought. There are
thour;hts Hhich us dee!)er into Sa..nsara, \rhich do us a
lot of h:lr&il. '.:'hore thoughts -.,rhich help to re:r1ove
obscurotions, to marit and set us or the path to
frecdo: !. It is such thoUGhts we need to relJ on.
It ho.s only been for e. short ti:;e that Buddhi stn ' hils
sprend to .i:.\l.rope P.nd to Horth Atnerica. Budd hi:; t ide:-.s,
.?urhlhist is so:-tething thnt is rel =-t tively to the
:le3t. :-10st people lrho are practicinc in .'est,
Hho ::1:-e i n tP.rcsted :tn Buddhism, have not 1.ad no.ny opportunities
to meet not hnd many opportuni to have teachings
and to le2rn a lot c.bout Duddhism. Because of there are
nr.ny doubts , n3.ny uncertainties i n the rninds of a lot of
He:>terner::;. .:: .ne of these doubts are principly laclt of
cP.rtainty about tho pmter of k1.I'llla, for instonce; ;rhetr.er
l:ar;'lll is such. a polierful agent, a relntionship .\thic!l reall:r
doe s the nature of our own exi3tence; actions
do develop into the kind of resul ts that appear .
?eople often talte the point of vicl't that, I cen
1
t see
this rel c. tionship; I can 't see ho1t1 it
11
fe e line that to
see sor.te thing Hi th their eJes is to z-eveo.l that it is n ree l
thine , is ac tuall:r taldng place, and not to see it, not to
perceive it directly throueh some sense neans that that idea
doer. not e;ist . And, again, the sarne t-7;pe or problen centers
on Btlddha ar.d the Yid9Jlls . People say,
1
I can
1
t see Buddha;
I 've never seen a Buddha , and I ve neJer seen a Yid!lll\
1
so I
don't think the::;e things exist ." If you t ake this point of
vi aw, one i s going to have very sePious doubts and problo!'ts .
'i'hi::s kind of problem, this !dnd of doubt is sonethinr
t ":lll. t in ver:J pre\'al ent aro.oung t-lesterners Hho are interested
in Rut as I described before , our inability to see
such thincs only ir-dice.tes the extent of our igt'orance, because
I c:. e cc::."i bed :1o.r the iY.-:.arr:1aka;a i 3 never seen , one ever se.J s
one's e:r.istenti r.:-li ty. It is realized when one reaches ii\111
Enlic:;' tennent , bcco!1ec a Buddha onesel f . It is onl .: throuch
tho tret tendnus t and Hholcr::omencss and the tremenrJous ly
deep fnith and and the of this faith
"ith the blessinr; of Enlichterutlent tht'.t mal<es it possible for
very hir;h level to come into cont nct ui th the
ve t'.spec t of En lie', tenrnent, the As
for cor.tinG in to contact "'i th a fiuddha, such as
Buddha !::ihaj(;:, OJI'I.uni , this is s01nething that ref}uires trcnendous
uholeso!'.teness , treJ11endous merit accuJ"'lula ted over r11an:: rnanJ
lives and the connection which this meeting cen take
place.
75
:1re shtpl:J tri thout this Neri t, Hi t hout this Hh-; le-
so . oncss Hit hi n u: . have mnny , r:tAnJ ob:;curutions
have :1 verJ deep fun<lar:t entr-.1 i. r_:norance . ';/ hen thin_: P.:, out
thinc;s in the sorte of our Olm expertise , i r \ fe to
D- pply t !1e criteria -- that is, if one didn 't n.ctunlly
zee it happcninc; , then it woon
1
t really -- we would
have 1 an- of the which we for
Let's tke f o1 .. ins to.nce teievi sion. In a television
stud5. o, car: cro. focuse::; on u per:::on ap( in t l-t o
Hhole country sees the s3r.le person in a little box in their
roor.t; l)Ut no one a t time , n.t any pl::.ce e. person flying
throuc;h tho :.ir, :?Oinr-; frott the televj si.nn st:.unlo into the
box. . :a never give thlz any thought , an::t doubt t :1r:. t one is
P.ctuull:r seeing that person on the screen. . :Je !mo-.-: th:J.t it
i::; tb.rou;h co:-ting toBether of man:r different co! ponents ,
and conditions events that it is for e. television
inane to bo !)rojacted and rf)ceived by a television se t and
be projected onto the screen.
C' ne's contact 'Hith auddha , uith
':idrui s ic P.. lso dei)en<1ent upon manJ different c onditions . If
the sf) conditions no cor.te are held toge thcr, t :1en
one cotes into cUrcct contllct . One see the Yidar.ts , cone
irto cont ::;. c : th Full Enlightennent . 'i'hese t7pes '>f conditions
arc very different from our \.JOrldlj conditions , of course .
'rhey !!\re th, devoti.on and ;>rae tice '>f the indi vidu!l.l inter-
acting -:t th the blessings ann the !10v1er of FuJ.l 3nl i ; h tcnman t '
of the Throuc; h this interaction, one can receive all
of the blessi!';gs and with certainty the nat'.lre and being
of such Yidans and Buddhas .
5o there is no need whatsoever to doubt
bcicauze are not seen. The liloli ts of our :isual
ability do not define the limits of u ho.t of uhat is
po3sible . The lirnits of our visual ability are defined by
our o\m ignorance . This isnorance pervades our exintence ;
it pervades our and because of this ignorence ,
no :tatter much \.Je l-tish to investignte and analJze , and
l':arroa , ue are never eoing to see directly a
relationshi p between a certain action and certain result .
For we to see directly a Buddha in front
of us or like t :1at . This is because of the ignorance
that is so prevalent in our being.
Take a much rnore liTrli ted example: ;re have , each of us,
a mind . Yet 'tre cannot se rl this mind at all and He lmow
nothing about it . This is our problem. Or, toke qnother
e:;atn:>le l.rith two peopl e: I look at a person , he has a mind,
and I hc.ve a r.1ind , hut I cannot see -thether he is thiru:ing a
good thought or a bad LikeHise, he cannot look at
rne and see direc tl1 t her I am thinldng a good thou!}h t or
a. bad thought . Each of us lmoHs about the othe r
S rrlind at all . Only the COIIlpletc re:,oval Of all
ignorance , or F\.111 EnliGhten.ment , Buddhahood cnn see directly
what is happeninG It is out of t his total clarity of
76
under : tandint: "\nd O.tvarene:Js that Buddha t e.ught the Dharma,
describin6 the relationship betHeen action Rnd result and
the that Dharma can be practiced. By a;>proaching the
Dharrna and the teachincs of Buddha and the ideo. of cn-
liE;htenment Hith an attitude of belief and confidence, one
uill understand Hhat is being said, and throue;h this
understanaing he able to practice what is virtuous , to
ab3l1C:on Nhc.t is
1
mrholesome. Thus, accomplish somethinc
t ' :at i3 .. neaningful .
In the Buddhist scriptures the.t have cor.1e doun to us
to the clay, there are Many, Tlany stories of some
event n of Buddha's life lvhich reveal very clearly the
extent of his and understanding, the fact t :1.c.lt he
no i 5nor3nce OT!e time, there \vas a very
t-Tedth] of Buddhn naroed Gompo Hho invited Buddha
and to his hoMe nnd \vishod to serv6
llim t-. Y"A!ll . Buddha t.tillingly accepted this in.vi tation; he
uith l
1
lan:r of his monks c8Jile to Gompo's home. They l1ere sat
dolm :.t thei '!' places c.nd served very , very fine food,
o.l' ':lOS t t:'.s fine 1:\S the ;>reparattons end food t ha t were served
to his Holiness in Vancouver. After this,
Gompo \sked t.be Buddha to teo.ch the gave a
disc:)urse on the Dharma at t ile end of Hhich he sat Hi th a
sndle on his faca . d-:,r.te of his close disciples such as
Shariputro., 1-:aurlge.ly-a.yana, and 1\.nando. bent Buddha
o.nd
11
Why are you s::tiling?
11
and Buddha. said, "I
1
ve
been looldng into the past of our patron here to see
\<That ;':lerit he has accur;1ul .ated in previous lives, and Hhat
unHholesor.1e action he has accur1Ulated in previous lives, and
ho\-r he can e to have this existence. I have also been looking
a bit into t he future of our ' Jorthy patron here to see uhat
is to ho.ppen. " After that, Buddha with his f.lorJcs left.
iiol: ,
1
s neighbor had absolutely no fo.i th uha tsoever
in or the 0harrna. In rae t, he to ole quite a dislike
to Buddha u.nd tho teachings of the Dharna. l'\UCh nora
a ttracted to another relicious tr:!.di tion and the teache r of
that ti on. So Go:-.p o undertook to invite this teacher
to his home \lith son1e of his oHn 1 onlcs and
folloHers to them a similar meal and to test his power
of and understanding to see if he had any pre-
lcnoH!edge or niraculous knowledge of kind. So he invited
all of the attendants of the .Lama and the LR!ila, himself, and
put hil1 on the throno . He :Jerved all of the mor.h:s a large
boul i!1 Hhich tl'!.ere rice with sorIO vegetables poured on
top of it . out to the Lama, he poured vo::;etnbles into the
boHl first, and then put rice on top of tho.t. Ho nre:1ented
this to The Lru11a cave his blessing and
start en eo. ting. .Jut tho Lama thought to htms el f, II I haven t t
received any ver;e tnbles. I'll wait; I'm sure the:;'ll cor.1e .
11
All of his :lonlcs finished eating and still no vegetables had
come. 3o, rather e:-1barrassed, this religious teacher pre-pared
to tnke his leave , and as he was stepping out the door, there
77
ho..cl heen o. li t tle hit of rice uater ::;pilled on the floor .
i!e s 1. i :, ped on and o.s he zlipped on this, he ho.d to
ju.tp to 1-:cep his bc.lance and hit his head on e. nnil Hhich
uns 3ticl:int:; out of the roof. So his e:dt \T'"'.s ro.ther
enbo.:"'rassing. 3verybody thouc;ht it lIO.S qui tc a.."'tuzinr; ,
not only diu he r.ot l:now about the vec;etables in
the bottoM of his bowl , but he did not know the rice
,.,atcr on t.he floor nor. the nail on tl1e roof. They thought
th'tt thi:J Han q i tc sufficient evidence to sho\-1 that he did
not have any . d r c culous
Gompo's neichbor did not much like the event, and he
thour,h t of to have revcnr;o . He thought he d do a sir1i lar
ui th !=;uddh.a . :5o he prepr-.red 2. fe ast for Buddha. and
invited -=-,utldha . in this pat:::-on ' s ho:ne , the one Hho had
no i'ai th in '' Hi-:.9.tSoever, there 'Jere tuo \te.,ts of GCdnrr
out . He cloned one off o.nd just outside the other one he dug
n trench and filled it Hith and covered ..
thing \.zith a hanboo J at . He contemplc.ted t !1at l-lith a certain
of r;l eo . Then he invited and all of his nonks ,
seated :-:uddhn. on the throne . Tie server\ the:--1 all food , hut
food that had been dosed with certnin poisons.
3uddh.a sc.t doln and gave his blessing nnd all tho poison was
turned into eli:-ir. So Buddha and the monks uithout any
concern ,,hatsoever just quietly ate the food tnat had been
offered to then . The patron rubbed his hands and said, "Ah,
t hey've the poi son. " And then he in vi ted Suddho. t o
teach the Di1arr.13.; t!lUGht the Dhartna . After that he
shoued Buddha out the uo.y that he ha.d ospecio.ll:r prepared for
his exit . :!e thoug:1 t , "They didn
1
t knoH an:,r thing about the
poison, they \mn't tmy- thing about this trench," nnd he
opened t :1.e door. As Buddha carne up to 1 t , he his
hand upon the which turned into lotus plants and he just
quietly 'Hallced .':l cross therr. .
This is the ldnd of .... nd a\.,o.roness that Buddha
had , his ability to exactly "'hat Has t!-le case all the
ti!ne .Ii thout anJ confusion. It is based on this kind of
exnrtple of 3uddha ' s and clarity of that
\-le ce.n have conplete confidence in ltThn.t Buddha taur;nt . This
f'at ron later cru e to have groat faith in end becrune
one of t;he great discipJ. es of Buddha.
ihen it cor11es to Dharr.la "!)rac ti an considerinr: Duddha ,
the .tJhc.rma, ::md tho 5tmgha, the 1-arnas , the !idruns and the
irotect ors , the ideo. of 1tnrtlln. , "'c need hn.ve no doubt that
t!1ese o.re in,ort3.nt principles, very im!"ort -'\nt ideo.s , ::md
there is no reason for there to be rl cception in thene
idons, and here is no deception who.tooever . These concepts
e.ncl for::mln. tions carne throuc;h the t , cl eo.r nnd total
aHarcr.ezs of _'ull rJnligh teru1ent . One cnn have corlj)lcte
confidence, free from any doubt or hesi tat5. on in the efficncy
and import of the 'fhree Jewels , the Three .-oats , etc .
.. re can try to exauine these thinGS; He ca.n subject the::n
to intellectual inveotieation because of the very deeply
78
ingrained. iGnornnce or luck nf lmowledce, it is going to be
ver-;/ difftcul t if not i : tpo:r;sible J."'or this intcllec tual
be 2.11 fruitful. It's not ;;oing to he
convincing. 1'hore is no need for such exU'lination if one
can approaci1 t ' C'se teachings \<lith confidence and belief, frp,e
froitt doubt; then one Hill be able to study and learn and
res.lly cone to. understand them truly. If there aro anJ of
you ,.,ho still say, " ''iell , I am not to believe in
auddho. , I
1
!1 not t;oing to believe in kni"''la until I ce.n see
and I ce.n 3eo ko.rma," 'Hell , I' 11 ask you, "JOU have
ho.d full eUUC:lt.ion fron tho ti:'.tO that :70\1 \rare VC: r:J young,
iva or six, to pro::Jent . ho.ve learned nan:, r.tany
things; is t :,is learning in 7our stotnach, in 7')ur heart, or
3.n your her.d? Jf ::ou ca'l oeo it, then you can see l:arn3 .
ln th"' same :1o.y, P.VOT". you can't. it and t.herp is
nothj.nr; to be sc"'n, you can believe it .
Il'l it i:J p"rticularly hl:'l ':) rtt\nt to develop
: ;e cal). or the meditation of tranquillity, letting
!.lind co11e to rozt, focused on a sinelo object.

this l: ind of :nedi ta.t.i ve ability, one focuses the


:.:ind on :iOlile p::-.rticular objoct . It could be on a !l! :rsical
:; on!1a tion zuch n :; the coning o.nd go in:-:; of broa th, or j t could
l ,A tm the forn of a ty such 0.3 Chenrc or on the HRI
in the heal"t., the ::Jound of :nantre. . The pri!"!ci pal idea is to
pick a. p:-..rticular reference ob,ject, to focu3 the :"lind, 'let
the m3.nd on it xclusively, without
a.:v,ut tha t. :>:::.. rticuln.r object or (l.n:r of
kind. Jf uno thi::J, one will develop the
of t.r &n-1 l U. 1. ' I.:J .
Tn pr-'1r.t.JrA l)r it ic verJ if.!!') Ortont
tho.t ono' r. a rareness brilliant and cleo.r , that tha
on .;ide; one ls .Locusing is brillinnt r.:.nd cle".r, that
perce-, ti '>n is oxtrcmely brilliant and clear.
r..ne is just resting in n dull stupor in 1hich there is no
activity , no clarity, juct stillness , is not
proper and u ll l not be very effective for ..tEH1itation for
the o.tt nim.cnt of enliehtonr.10nt .
:J: hc atti tU' .e nnr\ iuea td th 'lrhich such n1edi tat ion ts
unr.l.el''t".l:en i:; r. ::tremel:,r 1\. p e!"son who i c
a:1crc oncl conscious of the conco!'li tance of 3amsaric existence
1md frustration, fe els there is rothing deoirahle to be
c::aino<: fro::t : 1.\1'\ :. aric oxi !3 tence, and that it should be trans-
COl"dcd a.s quic!: l J o.s po!: s !ble, that it !lUSt bo ti'ancccnded
nl)t for one's om welfare, but alsn in order to help
r-.11 :J cT"tiant oeil'lP to tho cc:t . .,e realization. Beco.uoe of this
drive and Motivation such o. person feels, he puts
nsido al ). forP. of \tlorldly o.c ti vi ty, spends hi!l time devoted
to r.lcditation, to the development of trc.nquill i ty J.ledito.tion
and to Dharma practice." a person is to be extre:--1 ely
respocted. This is n very difficult thine to do; it is a
very ronderrul thing for a perzon to do. It is inspiring and
the one can do it i3 one uho has great internal (!Ua.lities
and strennth. On the other hand, the person uho cannot do
79
an; physical work , not like physical work, and just
\lants to and do nothine, finds that he cnn't neditate,
can ' t t he energy or discipline to !'ledi tation, nnrl
just sits there in a oort of stupor t.nd does no thine, i th
no renl nhJsical activity and no renl spiri tual p ractice to
rel1 t:'n, just sitting in a dull stupor . There is
ver .. r about this ; the re is nothin ... to be
in thio; this i s just n forM of laziness .
It is very, very ir.ti)ortan t to unci.ers t ::-.nd hoH
is to be reached to make the iJharrna serviceable , hoH
to '":lnJ:c it useful to ourselves individually, 110\.Z we are to
&pply it .
no
IJ.i:: ORT NCE OF T$
In mny Phen soneone teaches the
studAnts 1 i stem to t :1c )ho. r ma. , ' 'os t people lirobably "lrefer
evary rew of the should be
Hi th ever ir:cre "".sinc pro ty and Hi th ever
uonde,.. :me solendor . if He tM of
!oa.l'nin'= about Jh :ur.ttl as beine like climbine; c. sta.i:-case ,
5.t i s difficult to one ctep and arrive t";::!''t .... t
top . J t
1
s rery, very dlf!'i cult t o unders to.nd the
tinte rottn' , so to s penk. 'l'hi:; bP.irg the t-Ie
have no but to discuss and repeat the
rtost 11ns c c.nd ir1po:r-tant of DharNa ar:e in and
:;o tba.t one proceeds in one's understantiinr: of Dharma step
bJ st,p . 'l'h5. ::.: A. [H'oce.ure vrhjch \-till insure thr' t one
i::1doed rloes cor!e to t he fullest r:md deepest
Put , onr:: ll icht think tlP. t here is sonething thc.t could be
briefl y 9nd very quic%ly. is there so much
to lea.rn? ' >ihy is there so much thnt needs to l e tAught?
:ell , jn the I have t a lked about the four ordinary
founrlntions, t :,P. four thouf!h t.s which turn , inli . TI-e se
arc foUl' oont e!'tpl::. t i ons . Sach of is a con te.tpla tion
in its Oh'n ri -ht . Jm;'erml=\nence covers a va::; t ranre of
to!)ic:-, ric=>.lir.: :-oth Hith in t '"! e outer
pheno:lone. l i:ll, Hi thin the indi vicual,
iH!' (;r:n=>.nenco in thE: i r. tcre c tion he tHe en the irdi vir.unl and
l:i s onv iroru ;. en t. . There arc. rllany, :'lan,; nspec ts to ir:r' er:-u:!.nence
?.nd all of t"'esc neec to be understood and used as bases
for meeitation
ore turns to the precious existence
1
so
ni fficul t to oht:-i n
1
t here nre even rtore r ."'.. "'nifications to
thnt contc!"l; J r.tion. l''or e;=aroJllc , the eit;ht freedons fro::t
difficulty, the ten blessings vlhich r.tal(e uhartna pr actice
and all the ideas and of the human existence
\-lhicll to ,,,:.:.l:e on o appreciate vihat a rr.re opportunity it
is . I'bis forr1s a very extensive field of r11editation and
thoucht in itself.
';I hen t.te turn to Knrm=t
1
there is much rtore to 1 earn there .
For in:.t ::mc c , one to lef.rn Hho.t me:-ltorious l=arrn is,
what is, wha t in( iffcrcnt is ,
11hat the various Gc tions are , what the various nrc,
all th.e rn:!ifi c ::\ ions of the results . The111 is a .r-;reat dcRl
to learn nbout k a rma nnd 3 ereat deal to cone to understand
very, vc-:-y clearlJ, Vflr"J Hell.
Again , as l'er:ards the faults of Sa."'lsnra , one needs to
learn first about each of the six realns of and
the conditions pertain in a.ll of the six raalrts , and
the particular of suffering which are predominant in
each of these renlms . Jo there is , even within the four
thou5h ts that turn the mind , a great deal to be learned,
gre".t deal l:hich needs to be explained, and a great deal
Hhich needs to be thought.. about very carefull:r .
81
Tho:--e :lO.nJ people think that t
1
1ere is not much
to he learnerl from contemplatin : these four uhich
tur11 Hind; thC'.t nodi tating upon thelTl i:; not ver'J pur-
poseful , not very that to cone to understand cler:.rl:r
t these ta<ichin(js r.1eo.n, Hhat they Neo.n to us , is not very
helpful; is no result , no ercat benefit to
hC' obtai i!" s,. enrlinr time and in nc; c. bout
in nedi to.ting u::,on them. This is very
defiJ"!i telJ POt the C'35C .
Let's \lith the precious existence , \tthich is
o. upon the factors \rhich nalce up the hmnan
existence and enable it to be used as a fra;neuork for
l'ro.ctice . The conte:1plation also illustrat'es
!,1oint:: 0ut j n a nunber of '\oTaJS exactly hoH r\if!'ir:ul t o.nd how
r:tre it 5. s to obtain a hunan existence , let alo1e cne throuch
uh_ch one can Dharr1a. .-/hen one sturlies this , thiri . s
it , nnalJzes it , throueh the course of one's ne itntion
ancl t'1otasht, one can cone to unde:-stand .. thc.t one does
have a 1mi or_:-C'Irtnni ty, an opportunity that is not
to [.:"'aGent itself aco.in Flll that :.n ..
can things , for
one ' s Olrn a!ld for the ,.,elf are of ot"le:-s . It
1
s a
sincle not something thnt is often repeated.
So \Ti thi n Ol" e 's self one increasinc:ly feels , I ::1us t
tnake t :lis opportunit;,r I r.tust e:ttract t
1
1e
ber.e fit fro:t Hha t I now, cul ti va te o.nd r:al<:e u ::; e of this
attitude r.s o. cree.t nid and stir.tulus in direr,tin:_: one ' s
energy nnd o.bili ty to the practice of
After this , one should i
trar.:li tor:r no. ture of exi tence , the fo.ct tho.t every thine
into existence out of exintonce eventually.
'.rhe effect of Cl")ntemplating irr:permanence until one ho.s a
feeling for iJ; ... and an of itnpert Hlnence
in one ' s ol:n streli.."'l of being is to rnake one ::.\To.re of the
pas::ing of time , so j tuch so the.t one resolves not to Ha:>te
c. sin8le instant, but to make use of whatever titne ron ains
in
1
s life , ho\tevor lon5 or short , to e.chieve Buddhahood,
not for one::;elf , but in orrler to help othe:-s . Only in
the short ti:.!e that ve in the hU!'tc>.n existence ca.n ,;e do
::oMothine thnt ,.,11 !'f.lo.lly hol p others .
one r.ontettplates the faults of existence
and come:: to one::.elf 1oli th the tic::. of
o.xi stence ancl the perva.si veness of suffer5.n.'} in all forrns of
c::j s t"'nce , r.-no bec;ins to feel t there is o.n incredi ''1 e
of sufferinc in Sm1so.ra. is which ,
rhen rou roollJ think about it , no one , no individual
could 1ossibl.., It is n..n incredibl ; po.i n!'ul
of e::istence . this feeling and
undorstandin8 of the pervo.si veness of sufferir.c , t ite depths
of suffering, t'1e inescapa.bi li t:r of frustration ancl 11iiscry ,
one reoolves or uilJ. recolve to transcend the linit:: .or
SarolS!lric existence , to r each enlichtenrtent , o.nu to reach
82
not only for one's own sake , but aloo to
enable others to be froo fr oM Hha.t is an ocean of sufferinG.
'J.hrouBh app!yinc; one oel f to the con templa.tion of ltarna.:
throueh to understand uhat the effects of unHhole3ome
action are , what the effects of wholesome action Rre , what
constitutes un:.rhole sol'le action, \-that constitutes Hholesome
action; throuch nll this one comes to unrlerstand
e;d s tence One cnn rNil-:e use of this
only to hprove one
1
s position Hi thin tho
of StU'lsaro. but gr:-.dually to take u :: e of lca1"710. throur:h the
abo.n<lonr:ent of umrholesorne action Jnd the cul ti vat::. on of
Hh'?leso;'ie ti on, to reach freed on fro!"'' 58J'Ilsara, and even-
tually to roc:.ch fulJ. enlir.htenrJent .
,Jh.en one has t"lese kinds of cl eterrlination !l.n
1

and c1ircc tion to cne
1
s Dharnta practice , one has extracted a
GreE>. t deal of benefit froltl these conteNplations . The::oe
conteJiplatiors ure especially b eneficial in r>rovidinG one
ui th the irotpetus and the drive to rersevere in prac t:ee .
Until one !'ealizes the staae of one-flavor in J.i ah8l1tudra, one
needs to contemplate these every cA.ay .
After t :1ese contcnplations, tl e next step 1& to 0 for
Refuge . The fi.rzt thinB to enable one to eo for Rcl''uge is
to understand very clearly Hhat is meant by the !<ullJ
and Enligi1tened hinn or Buddhahood, Hhat is meant oy t!1e
Dharnn , and by the .:.;aneha , the Lrunn , the Yidru:t s or meci itntiorial
dei tics, the J:1t.rma p:." otec tors . Tt-:roueh s tudyine uhn.t t :
things Nean, what they are, through studyinG what qualities
they po3sess, poHer and capability, rl:;nrunism and energy,
Hhnt love and compassion, what blessiPg and inspiration --
throueh learninB these well, there no po3sibility
that :;ou will not be filled Hith faith and confidence in th
of enlightenment , and in the possibility
of rcceivtnc r ofuBe and shelter.
The next is to use this basis of -- faith
"'hich through clear 'i.nd siMple understanding, throue:h
belief, n.nd throueh the desire to reach enliahteTU:lent -- to
use these three lcinds of faith as a basis for praJer , pra:;ing
for refuee , for the blessinr. s of the Three anc\ the
Three Roots, for realization, for the clearing aNa:J of
obnt -: cles to Dharma practice, for the inspiration through
the of the Three Jewels , and for suitable f2cilities
and circumstances to reach enlit:;hterutent . ./hen ,tou come riGht
doun to it , the :- 1ai n rnethod , the nost inport::mt e.spect for
clearing a:.rn.y obstacles, for orientinn oneself toHar<.ls F\111
b'nli0:1 ten . .-'lent, and for creatine conditions throue:;h Hhich one
can come to practice DharJila is prayer to faith in the Three
Jewels, which over the course of tir:1e will mean that one
receives their blessinBS end inspiration, and until
one does achieve enlightenMent .
Then the understanding of the lac!: of self of an
individual and the lack of self in pheno:Tlenal reality, the
bnsic that n.ll phenomena are empty, of
any intrinsic cin3, i.s the very basis for the poss1b1l1t of
achieving enlightenment. If one reF.ards oneself and real1ty
as bcin.r. sub::t!l.nti nl entities , there is no possi ility or
or BttddhP.hood . It is through
undt}rs tho. t 11henor.1ena are er.lpt:r , th:l. t t :1cso
Hhich ap;->er.r to us 'lrise j :.!st as appearances do in P. t:i.rea.rn,
a.:-e li nngic, like an echo , one is able n.chieve
Jith the realization of of all
phenonena , rhat hccornos the activity of of en-
.. tclll'lent , Horld.T"C ror the benefit ,r sentien.t beings
until all bein[' S nre liberated fror.1 the existence ,
is the c.onteHplntion a.nd cultivation "f love
no., .
LOVA c.n<l for all sentient beings the
.. c.0npassionate concern r-.nd the enliGhtening
nttitudo arc the seccs which develop into activity
and the v1olfare of all sentient beinc;s to be z.cco:"lpl 5. shed
uitr. the of enlir,hten..,1ent . So in
all:r in r:c\h!l.yana 1uddhisn, coNpassion and er. ;') tiness
toccther , T"ot npart each other , the key-
stonP.s , J).re the ve-rJ ba sis of this tr11.dition of i3uddhis:l.
nn l'ndcr3trtnr1ing of emptine:-;s, \o1ithout the cultivation
'>f one CF-.nnot even consirler such a tra.d5. on to
he t.he liA.he. a.nn nr the t Vehicle . It is ::;e of the
i :.1portcrc e , crucial inport.':T'C .,r ');,ot:-.:. ar.d
c*":'r'l:-'2- ssion in the tradition that ue SC\.:SS these
topics orc.r nn<l n cr e.gain
. Buddhns ths."tt ha ve in previous tir:cs e.chievcd Full
tenne.,....t th.rnur;:-: renli za. ti on -:> f o::-lP tines s
1
spent countless
'! cons a ccur.\Ula tions of t.\E:ri t nnd and
cl c;;arir;. "'.uay : .er. tal obscurations . So 'lt!e c:"'lbnrking
u:Jon tho 'l ent of i'\111 Enli 8: htcn"lcnt , need to
allaJ obscurP..t ioPs to a ccumulP.te merit . l'his ue do through
t :-. :inc ref tge, :'rostrations, mandala. confessior-
of nn.:holoso.te k o.rma and various med:l.t !. tion::; . IT" orl't er to
reac h. :''ull .mlichtem.ent , it is nece::;sar:r to cle11r
obsc_w!l tior. s , and to receive the blessinss
throl: Gll f:.>.i th and y .. heve the os t concise
:">o'Hcrftll . .co.r..s of do1. Pc; these prc.c tice s in ::hl:'.t ire call the
It is just to this prepnration
1-1hich is so necessary for the of enlic;hten::ent ,
th.nt need to do these pruc tices no''' /e s'10uld Hork as
:'lard a::: we can at d-::>irg thmn. One could achieve !\,11 Bnlight-
ennent t :\c P.'V1e.y of obscura.tiC'I!1S and the
of it t 11. Jces a lone: tin e .
'1'o nchieve more quickly, one :-!a.l:cs use of the
specil\1
1
!"OHcrful techniques of the secret po.th of the

frincipally , one rnakes use of techniques or
P.nd perfection 't1hich constitute the princip le
practices or tho It is thrOU!rh the
of all i:1"lure mc.nifc::tfl.tions into pure llt:'.ni fcstations of
cnli ,:htenrlP.nt t !1rou::;h the techniques co.lled :.-. rans :-or ::to. tion
and l'erfectior. uhich enables one to rP;ach full enlir,l1t cn."Tlent
so quic::ly. 1'hesc techniques nre usc(l in the
and ell of will have received the initiation
for Chcnrczis l-thich rincns one's of beinc, the
auth0rity for the text on Chenrezis merlitntion
provirles the su!)port for rtte.:ii tation, and the
ins true tions for this r.tcdi t at ion ,.,hich ennble one to
nchieve
84
In order to meditation effective, it is very
im-rortant that so=-te control be enined over our mental
f nculties . Ti"is of control is best cultivated throuch
the development of trc.nquillity Neditation, the meditation
throuch Hhich the rilind COJ'i\85 to rest peacefully, one-
p .. dnte<lly Hithout distrc.cting thouc hts . 'rhere are manJ
teachinf_;s and :.to.ny technS.ques thr:>ur,h Hhich one can estnblish
the Mind in tranquill ity. In the path of the sutras , one
usc of foc
1
Jsi nc; the nind on the emp ty nature of all
phenol"lena or on the forM of a or on a partictflt".r
thi.nc, 1ha tever it :nay be, on the coming and goinc of the
brec.th, for i nstance . Any of these that people f ind
conducive can be prc.cticed es a for the mind
to rest , ?ne to control over the uirection and
of one ' s c.t tention .
In the Vnjrnyana there are O.Gain rnPny different tech-
One c an focus the mind on the for:: of a dci t.r, on
the sound of a nc.ntro., the mind in or of
thP. fo:--n of o. deity, on particular letters -- all of these
also rill :30rve as a basis for establishing the :nind in
peace ..ritho1.1t rlistr!\ction. One needs to pre.c tice this a.nd
achieve this 3bili ty until the mind will rest of its own
accord and just carne to rest and sit completely still. .ihen
one he. s o.chievecl. this abilit:r , it is verj' for
insicht directly into the nature of rttind to he (1e11onstrated.
'i'he Dharrno. t'u1t has be en taught for the past r.l':mth or
so , the :0harrna nany of you listened to and learned is
not shcllow. It has a treMendous meaning; it is very deep
and r rof'lund. It is not 'brief , it ro t just a little.
'i'lleso teachinr;s have man:; rrunifications, as;>ect::; lthich
need to be learned and studied more and used for objects of
conte;,plation until they are instil) ed within one. So in tlle
one has heard, in reality, a vast body of very profound
p"rticularly the teachinr;s concerning etnptiness and
co:>m:>a::>:ion uhich need to be practiced and developed every day
to the best of one's ability.
If one le:.lrns all c.bout tho:;o thinr,s, anrl. me<H upon
them, studies them, will be very beneficial to you.
Don
1
t just do vharmo. 11hen you feel li!<e it n.nd then forget
2.bou t it Hhcn you Hont to do SOI :"'e thinr. eJ. so , nut Horl on
leo.rn) ng cbout Dharna o.nrl medi eYer:r dny rt::;tt larly, s
ho.rd ':'.s one ::- ossi bly cnn. If OPe always hrin s one's enerr:y
and discipline to Dharma p ractice, r,radunll.r one will cross
the various reach the various of spiritual
realization. People like us who practice the feel that
ue c:i.on
1
t e.chieve enliGhteru11ent quickly , because no
indications that we are traveling tho five paths and ten
to spirjtual arise soon , that the teachings
He have been r;iven !lre not very deep , not very i)rofound. This
85
is not case nt all . The failure here resto with our-
selves rts iru'\ viritt:lls . '..fe are not very dilicent
1
He do not
c.pplJ 'Jur:-:el ves to )har:-ta verJ hard.
It i=> po:;siblo to achieve Full .c..nlip;hter:I.lent in one
lifEllti: :e . It is pos :: ible . It has heen shO\tn by J.ilnrcprt
1
Hho :.:ont cf'f into the :.1ountains and vii thout concern for
1i0rld!; l'lffairS 1 devoted hilllSel f d(IJ ().nd ni t tO the praC-
tiCe or nnd the practice of ThrouGh
trc::e'1<i.:->llS rJili ;..cncc an(l otrenuousness, he L:id
onl.i,:: .:.. .1 one J ifetirne . no ne<:li t:"!ted dca.y and ni r:'1t
Hithout :.ny l:inc: of cUstra.ction Rut ue the
-::>f view: A.n<l a ni;:ht constitute h0urs E'.nd
if, L"u.;. of t'losc !1-::>urs
1
,oJe spend !!lore than an or tl-IO
on !Jl1l'.l""tla 1rac:tice, He
1
re ver:r pleased and HO ue've
done nnd vory faH f)f us nre capal J. e of
;ore an hour or tHo out of a da:r Hithout
1
.L'he.t is the prohlem rieht th.ere . is not the of the
Pot the fc.ult of \:hat He l<now, hut just Ollr O\m
lac!c of drive or laclc of diligence uhich prevents us fror:
<!Uickl_t . If :,ro come to um1er-
:)tcmcl clc':.:.,l j Hhat these foundatiol"al ucan,
!"'2.t thejr in , and the!'J "'.nci nt
Ci-!'3:-ll"eui:; that Hhcn JOU sit to -:lo it you
Jmou ::r;: J:>U .,_ro this nerlitution, 1'\o;! this

1
editn.tiotJ done; if .rou hring :;,ur t '' l eer or, the
I ecH t . chout di:tr:ction, "'nd unuer !': t '\.nd :!ell all 'lf
the f 1cets to Ghenrezig so thc.t lJeco:ne 'ICr".J'
f11.ni 1 E'.r .11th 1harflla tiC e i or if JOU the foun-
r c ctices -- in doing thines , one trains the
t:ind j r: t'ocu!l.i.n['; on a :::inc:lo t and 311 nf the
:r:-.c tic as f'rof,'crl.:r thou t any confusion.
Cncc :T">U h::nre ce tabli shed this founc1a ti"n of
..... . t:lti:; f"" rrc.ct.ice , nnd under:;t:1.nd
per fcc tion, then ;:ou can he gi vcn : :1i tia-
tion f,:- t!1e f)f l!arop11: yo3n, cle-:..r lic,ht
Jo:::o., .,ardo dreen, nnd ,)ho.nto.t bf)tl:r .
If bo"n nble to train J :'>Ur t.lind :::o that it car rr;st
C'> . . in tr: nt:!,'-lillit.; M.J . hSltS?"'Ver
t :".e!" ,;ou C!>."' s tuc :r : t'.nd cone to zn tlofl i!'l t:1e
or one- T ,intedness , the three :)tr".f-:es n:' a:!!j-
fr )n-pl!'.y-.,orc.is , the three 3 ta{!es of one- fl:l'!or , mtc1 the
t.hrno st':'.c;('.!'t of l"O 1edi t :J tion; ?r st\lrtJ the nine :;\no:ts in the
arrivinc evertunllJ the
o1 _. ti-- oe o. :'.ncl . . ah.':'.- .\ ti . All of t L. e3c I co.n , .. i ve
to ymt : d c. solid r.nd defini tA umler5tRnd.inG of the foun-
.. ons of :nar.,n. tico.
'fro i>zo!: :;:1en tr"'!..dj. ti()n i:; cssP.', d :>.lJ.. o. trP.dl tion
tra'ii tionally nine sto.gos or l"ine vehicle:) . It is not
o.ctuc.ll;r :.; o different frorn the nevi 'lhich t'.. r c those
of tho j(D(?;JU , Gelu , and :khools . The:r are cal!.on no\.J
olrl because of the tir:te th':'.t they t-::> fihet , the
Hyin{;.ltll) ll tr-:- di tion being the first trr..di t-::> cor-:.e . In
tho first tl rce e.re the 'fehiclc of the
Sh!."C.v"'<o.s , the Vehicle of the e.nd the /ehicle
86
of the In the three
are the t'1rc :-: lol:er tantrns : the ts.ntra of action, the
of nnd the te.ntra of J oca . The HyinQ'tapa
trc.dition has thrP.e different na.tes _'or these , ut the
a.t the:;e three sto.Bes nrc essert5. all .'' the saNe .
the neH schools, +;he last three star::cs are the
:-t:;,ther t2'."'tra, cmd the non- dual tantrt:'.. In the
l-Jine-:ulpa, t!'!ree n taces l-te!'e c t1llcd i:'lha , Ani and A ti ,
so that the:;c ::-.re different na. .. for the ::;a.ne
s:rsten '>f 'fhe fnther tantra concentrates on
devclopin::; the s taco nf transforroHl tion; the r.1othor tantra
on the of rycrfection; and the
n'>n- rlucl on integratin7 perfection and
tre.ns f.' .:;,r;.ta.tion toget!'ler . That is for the nei-l schools . In
tile old school, the school, concentrates on the
s tage of tra nsfor:;mtion, Ani on the staGe of perfection, fl.nd
1 ti '>n the :tnte2:ration of these t
1
JO into the sane pre c tice .
m1en one builds a house , one builds a very solid
four.rla tion to it and then one can build as r1any stories to
the house as one uan t ,s to . There
1
s no point in bui ldin""; a.
hr,use uhich docsn t have a solid found a. ti on . In the sf'.r::e Hay ,
uhel" one i.la.s a very oolid foundation in Dhe.rrrto. pr ctice nnd
under s tands re'\lly ltha.t one is d"':'inr,, then one can _cc.. rn all
of tho vnrious !Jr8ctices and techniques , and rrtake use of them
and app) y . therl . Eu t t :'l ere is very 1 it tle pnint in h9.vina
this and until one does have a very solid
foundntion . .:;.., all of you have a very solirl foundation
in o:u:trr.t:'l r;ractice, !mort the o:i' Dho.rma , of
meditc.ti'>n, and understand the Chenrezi ncditation, then rou
co.n r-eceive teaching in all of these things and in
all the as pee ts "' f l)hl.'l.r .ta.
The ter".chi nan of the Karg:;ur:o. . trarii ti on r,oroe throuell
'filop."' , r:. :-opa, 1 ;arpa , l.i 1 arepa. and many other very h irhly
attc.inecl lnllividua.ls . 'i'he special te t' ch5ng'" of the ' .agyupa
orc:.er :-.re : t he ..>ix Y0c;as of lfaropa o.nd lio.ha:tudra . The
trc: poHc:-ful blessings of the ;

order and the


extro:.te n0 tcncy 0f the t.ecbPiqu, s and of the r.agJu
school rc cnl :i.n Ha.ny ir; :\:i.viduals co .. to .:;u11
: r. tho course of this tradition, so much so
1l l :ther :.;chool :. of ::.uddilisrt in .' i be t, :u::.d :-c::;pect
for the : : n(L'U!')t , s}stcfTl , os )ecially tho :J:i x 'oc;a.s of F:..ropa
"'nd l nho.r.mdro., El.nd c :?.lled the i:3.!3:fU cyste! t ocean of
attairttent " beca tse of the treraendous nu:nbe rs of inc!iv.:.duals
H!lo havfl i:t ado ''Of?. :1f these tec.chincs to roo.c '1 1\111 Enl.: gi1. ten-
mont . :\11 of the cchools of Buddhisz11 in 'l'ibet have their
pa.rticu: . . .r :;tron points . The school "l :::"C cotl!"letel;:
un.iv:'.led ir: t!.eir pre.ctice of the r>erfection of Illor.?.lity;
the sc!1ool o.re un::-i in their tic learninG
and of the sntras P.nd tflntras;
..... are c :.::-'letely un!'ivaled in the5.r practice or
:r1 edi tc.tion nnc1 their- c.!)plication of l!l"d the r.ac:ru;>as
arc co:opl ete}.J n:"i V !;' led in their a ttainn ent . '.Je ?.re very ,
VOl":/ fortunate indi vj duals indeed . :Jo rettll:r , if one has the
ho.s t.hc ,'ntiC'nce forcbeo.r ;-. nce , can
really am! trul :I !<"ull
-,; : .\. r." "inr. to nee his l.e.: .. a to t:ke
:>.no to clo I:. h. c he h d to cross a hnrc.er . There , t"le.: [' .
: ll.' f'! '.l.') :; :1f1l ct"l if he had o.ns ered trul7
: revcntcd fro:-1 bein:: r,ble to co sec his La:1a t"
So he liert in order the vow not to lie .
If E." 'er::;on r.o.3 vo\..zs , in order to further the :X1ar .1e., in it
o.lriE;ht to lie?
A: In Jind of situation, the :e is un:Iholeso: c Y.:1r:!a. in
n"t the vow strictly, but the bch}nd it
P.l the karrl iC ! ic tul"e . In :-Pfel .. e!"lce . a.rticu"larly to
l :inc, n lie would not constitute dcstroyinc the oriic-
ation of o. !a:; :" rtlc ti t . . onEler of up a salta l'he act
Hilich r\e::;tro:rs the ordination co:.1pletely is to lie about
one's spiritual or to lie to one's Lruna . This
destro:rs th11 or<Hnatinn; it is thC' root com: itnent . The next
\.rorz t forn '>f l :in,: is t"' 1 ie to deceive end cause injur;r to
other beincs . These the worst forms of l yinr . In the
fin:J-1 it depends upon one's :::.ttitude and :!Otivation.
If oPe is s on street corner .and ore o. person
r\Ul!"i '1C pn._s t one o.nd another person col"'ling c.ftcr hiM tti th a
:nife, and the person says "",-/here did he co?" , !\nd . O\t're
prct tJ snre the person is roin) to do in jury to the
's fleeinc;, ther. to s !J.y , 'I 'n not sure; I really
didn't 3ee uho t\ent hy, " is helping strictly
lt is a lie . '!'his is quite a different situaticn.
Q: t::1n r .cscri be the s s '>f tr.:- r.:;forna tion r.nci
t:i on in :'l edi tnt i on?
A: !.1"'! -;henrez n :-:cdi ::: t ::tce of is
:: r'lcticed conceptually i:.1c..'3jni nc; tiv.t onesel.f " nd all
a.ro .. s nnd have Chenrozic' s :>h:r::icnl that
e.ll :-:-:>und is :1 ntra; :1nd that o. :nrenes:; arc inse c rable
frofl'l derli t::\tir.3 in thP. conce,, tuc.l fra:lc::orl.: in
thi:; .., .hA . r c.c tice ol' the of
: .. ettir:g the 1:: nrl i r its natural st'lto , e. t: the cnC.
of ;. eli c"l.t.:. o,, i:: tho : ractice of the stage :>f ;Jer fect5on.