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CHP 1 GENERAL PRINCIPLES

Mechanics : Branches of Physical sciences concerned with the state of rest or motion

of bodies that are subjected to the action of forces


Body Rigid-Body :
distance of particles fixed during applying load

Deformable-Body:

Body can deform during applying load

Fluid mechanic :

large change of particles distance during applying load

Action of Force
Statics :
deal with equilibrium (in rest or movement in constant velocity)

Dynamics :

Deal with accelrated motion of bodies

MECHANICS STATICS

Basic Quantities

Length : locate the position a point in the space


: describe the size of physical system.

Time : conceived as succession of event. Mass : Property of matter (manifest of attraction between 2 matters). Force : Push or pull exerted by one body to another
Idealization : in order to simplify application of the theory

Rigid body : Combination of particles in which all the particles remain


at a fixed distance from one another before and after applying a load. earth when studying its orbital motion). of a body.

Particle : has a mass but its size and geometry can be neglected (ex ;
Concentrated Force : Loading which is assumed to act at a point

Newtons 3 laws of motion

First Law : A particle originally at rest, or moving in

straight line with constant velocity, will remain in this state provided the particle is not subjected to an unbalance force.
Second law : A particle acted upon by an

unbalance force F experience an acceleration a that has the same direction as the force and a magnitude that is directly proportional to the force.
F=m.a

Third law : The mutual force of action and

reaction between 2 particles are equal, opposite and collinear.

Newtons law of gravitational attraction


F : Force of gravitation between 2 particles

m1m2 r2

G : Universal constant of gravitation (= 66.73 (10-12 m3/(kg.s2). m1,m2 : Mass of each of 2 particles. r : distance between 2 particles.

For a particle in the surface of earth m1 = m : masse of particle m2=Me : masse of earth

r : distance between earths center and particl

F
Let g=Gme/r2

mM e G 2 r
W : weight of particle m : mass of particle g : gravitational acceleration

W = mg

Unit of Measurement
Length (L), Mass (m) and time (T) are base unit, others are units derived from them. Ex :

F = m.a
Base unit Derived unit

unit of force cannot be selected arbitrarily (depends on base unit)

Derived unit

International system of Unit


g = 9.81 m/s2

W=mg

body of mass 1kg has a weight of 9.81 N


m : constant wherever the location of measurement g : depends on location of measurement.

F=ma

1N = force required to give 1 kg of mass ab acceleration of 1m/s2

Prefixes
Exponential Form 109 106 Prefix giga mega SI symbol G M

Rules for Use


-Never written with plural s, since it may be confused with the unit for second (s). -use proper prefix : GN,Gm,kN,km -quantity defined by multiple unit are separated by a dot ; N=kg.m/s2 , m.s (meter.second) ms (millisecond) -mm2=(mm)2=mm.mm -rather 15.25 than 15 -keep numerical value between 0.1 and 1000 50kN.60nm = (50.103N).(60.10-9m) = 300010-6 N.m = 310-3N.m = 3mN.m

103
10-3 10-6 10-9

kilo
milli micro nano

k
m n

Dimensional Homogeneity
Each term must be expressed in the same unit

-compound prefixes should not be used Kms(kilo-milli-second) 1(103)(10-3)s = 1 s -avoid to use prefix in denominator

S = v.t + 0.5.a.t2 In meter (m) m/s . s m/s2 . s2

N/mm kN/m
180o = rad

m/mg Mm/kg

-Plane angular in radian (rad)

Example