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and plans being made, some of which have t o hol d


pot ent i al benef i t s f or everyone who is in AP-S. If
readi ng them gives you an idea, or motivates you t cj
become ( hopef ul l y, more) i nvol ved, cont act Al an
Simmons or Dan, or one of the other AdCom members.
Also, be sure to read Alan' s message on t he next page.
There' s an opportunity there for you.
Some peopl e ar e bl es s ed wi t h t he abi l i t y t o
communicate i n a par t i cul ar l y el egant and s ubt l e
f as hi on. Prof. Gentei Sato i s one such person. I
hope you enjoy his sharing of events on the hundredth
anniversary of Prof. Yagi' s birth as much as I did.
Th e r e a r e s e v e r a l c a l l s f o r p a p e r s wi t h
approaching deadlines i n this issue. These include
t he MTT-S Symposium, IGARSS '87 (remote sensing), and
t he 1987 International Microwave Symposium/Brazil. In
addi t i on, our own 1987 AP-S/URSI Symposium has a
deadline of January 1987. Also, an announcement
for those interested in further information about t he
XXIInd General Assembly of URSI appears.
In p u t t i n g together this issue several problems
t hat seem t o be happening more often were especi al l y
acut e. This leads t o the following pleas (we passed
the "requests" stage long ago). If you would l i ke an
announcement or cal l f or paper s publ i s hed, pl eas e
pr ovi de or i gi nal , black-on-white, camera-ready i n p u t .
Blue p r i n t on gray paper; brown, yellow, and green
p r i n t on t an paper ; and xer ogr aphi c copi es of a
printed original may al l look f i ne t o t he human eye,
b u t t he phot ogr aphi c l ayout and printing processes
used t o produce this Newsletter see these as white on
off-white, "confusion" on gray, and unreadably fuzzy
di r t on white, respectively. I am not exaggerating,
and I received examples of a l l of t hese f or t hi s
issue, al one. Fur t her mor e, i f at al l pos s i bl e,
provide camera-ready copy which is less than one, or
an i nt eger number, of 8.5 by 11 inch pages, or can be
reduced or enlarged to this. If i t isn't a meeting
hel d i n conjunction with or of broad i nt er est t o AP-S
i n at l east some sense, t he r e had bes t be a good
r eason i f the integer is greater than 1. If you are
t o pay t o r un an adver t i s ement , t r y t o do
your sel f and our r eader s t he justice of having i t
t ypes et and any artwork professionally done. Finally,
i f you have t o d e p a r t down these or any ot her t r ai l s
t o product i on prabl ems and poor readibility, please
cal l me welT before the issue dead?ine. I'm s or r y
about put t i ng al l of t h i s where many t a whom it
doesn't apply will read it, it' s the only way
have t o the message t o those may be asked t o
pub?i ci ze somehing for the first time (or f or
experience b a s not been adequat e t eacher ) . Tu
t hose who've gone t o the troubTe t o provide good copy,
you.
I am still looking for cont ri but i ons by f eat ur e
art.ic?e authors and Uwhat's happening". correspondents
from out si de North America. Don't be shy. al l
pot ent i al f eat ur e ar t i cl e a ut hor s , pl e a s e di r e c t
correspondence t o Tapan Sarkar from As noted
i n t he l a s t issue, need to give Arlon Adam the
time t o organize the Symposium not just because he
has earned t h i s expression respect, but because I
don ' t want him t o be forced to completely leave the
Newsletter st aff!
t hos e s t a r t i ng a new school year, best
wishes for one that is productive rewarding.
a l l , may r adi at e i deas without resistance, and
propagate friendship without attenuation.
w
Introducing David M. Pozar
David M. Pozar was born i n Pitts-
bur gh, PA, on January 1952. He received the
B.S.. and M.S. debrees from t h e University of
Akron, Akron, Ohio, i n 1975 and 1976, respectively,
and t he Pt1.D. degree from the Ohio State University,
Columbus, Ohio, i n 1980, a l l i n electrical engineer-
ing.
From September 1976 t o March 1980, he was a Graduate
Research Assistant a t the ElectroScience Laboratory,
The Ohio State University. He i s currently an Assist-
ant Professor i n t he Department Electrical and
Computer Engineering, University of Massachusetts,
Amherst.
His research includes the development of anal yt i cal
and numerical techniques f or the analysis and design
of printed antennas, phased arrays, and optimization
of transient radiation. These techniques have taken
the form of moment methods, hybrid methods, and modal
methods. He i s also involved w i t h the design and con-
st ruct i on of microstrip arrays and beam-steerino
networks f or remote sensing applications.
Mes s age (cont'd. from 3)
Awards and Fellows
Chapter Activities
ConstituCion and Bylaws
Distinguished Lecturers
Education and Tutorial Papers
Finance
Long Range Planning
Meetings
Membership
Newsletter Editor
Nominations
Publications
Standards-Antennas
Standards-Propagation
Transactions Editor
Antenna Eleasurements
New Antenna Technology
In addition to these Society committees, we are
invited to nominate members to represent our Society
on a number of IEEE and other committees such as
Committee on Man and Radiation
Energy Committee
PACE
Research and Development
Standards Board
USNCl URsI
If any members are interested in getting more
involved in any of these various activities, please
get in touch with me or one of the other Society
officers.

IEEE
Abst r act
T h i s a r t i c l e w i l l r e v i e w t h e d e v e l o p me n t o f
mi c r o s t r i p a n t e n n a s a n d a r r a y s . E a r l y d e s i g n a n d
a n a l y s i s work w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d , a l o n g wi t h t h e a d -
v a n t a g e s a n d l i mi t a t i o n s o f mi c r o s t r i p a n t e n n a s .
Char act er i s t i cs s uch as bandwi dt h, mut ual coupl i ng, and
pol a r i z a t i on will be addr es s ed, and s ome of t he r ecent
work r e l a t e d t o t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s will be not ed.
The cur r ent s t at e of anal yt i cal t echni ques W i l l be d i s -
c u s s e d , a s w i l l t he c onc e pt s of a monol i t hi c pha s e d
a r r a y . Fi n a l l y , s me new ways of f eedi ng mi cr os t r i p an-
t ennas wi l l be pr esent ed.
Ea r l y Work
I n or de r t o gi ve 2 sense of hi st or y and cont i nui t y,
a s we l l a s t o p l a c e r e c e n t wo r k i n a meani ngf ul and
pr ope r c ont e xt , we wi l l begi n by br i ef l y r evi ewi ng some
of t he past devel opment s i n mi c r o s t r i p a n t e n n a t h e o r y
and desi gn. As wi t h most t echnol ogi cal devel opment s, i t
is v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o c a t e g o r i c a l l y s t a t e who was t h e
o r i g i n a t o r o f t h e mi c r o s t r i p a n t e n n a . The e a r l i e s t
wor k, however , i s g e n e r a l l y a s s u me d t o b e t h a t o f
Deschamps [ l ] , a n d Gu t t o n a n d Ba i s s i n o t C2 1 , i n t h e
e a r l y 1950s . I n t he l a t e 1960s . Col l i ngs C31 f i l e d a
p a t e n t f o r a s t r i p r a d i a t o r wi t h mu l t i p l e f e e d p o i n t s ,
and i n 1972 Byron poi nt ed out t hat The0 Ches t on of
NRL had s ugges t ed t hat s uch an el ement was wel l - s ui t ed
t o phas ed ar r ay appl i cat i ons . By t h i s t i me p l a n a r c i r -
c u i t s u s i n g mi c r o s t r i p and s t r i p l i n e were becoming very
popul ar , as t hey of f er ed a l ow- cost , compact , and easi l y
f a br i c a t e d c ompone nt . The s t a g e was t h u s s e t f o r t h e
r apdi gr owt n cf mi cr os t r i p ant enna t echnol ogy t hat oc-
cur r ed i n t he mi d- t o l at e- 1970s .
By 1979 enough y o g r e s s h a d b e e n made t o wa r r a n t
t h e Workshop on Pr i nt eS Ci r cui t Antenna Technology held
a t t h e h'ew Mexico St at e Uni ver s i t y. Thi s meet i ng l ed t o
t h e s p e c i a l i s s u e of t he I E E E Tr ansact i ons on Antennas
a nd Pr opa ga t i on f or J a nua r y 1981, de vot e d t o pr i nt e d
ant ennas . Thi s i s s ue cont ai ns two r e vi e w a r t i c l e s [ SI ,
[ 6] on mi c r o s t r i p a n t e n n a s a n d a r r a y s ; t h e i n t e r e s t e d
r e a d e r i s r e f e r r e d t o t h e s e p a p e r s f o r more d e t a i l and
r ef er ences t han space per mi t s us t o gi ve her e. I n addi -
t i o n , two books C71, [ 8] devot ed t o mi cr os t r i p ant ennas
appear ed at about t h i s t i me, g i v i n g compr ehensi ve over -
vi ews of t he st at e of t he ar t u p t o about 1980.
The s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s of t he t e c hnol ogy u p t o 1980
can be s ummar i zed as f ol l ows . The t e r m " mi c r o s t r i p
ant enna" r ef er r ed t o a conduct or ( or " pa t c h" ) pr i nt e d on
a t h i n , g r o u n d e d , d i e l e c t r i c s u b s t r a t e . The s u b s t r a t e
mat er i al was us ual l y a low di e l e c t r i c c ons t a nt ma t e r i a l ,
such as Hexcel l or Duroi d =2. 20) , b u t some-
t i me s o t h e r s u b s t r z t e s x e r e p r e f e r r e d , r p a r t i c u l a r l y i f
i n t e g r a t i o n wi t h o t h e r c i r c u i t r y was necessar y. The
mi c r o s t r i p p a t c h e:err,ent formed a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h - Q
r e s o n a t o r , a n d was us ua l l y r e c t a ngul a r or c i r c ul a r in'
shape, al t hough ot her shapes wer e somet i mes suggest ed t o
achi eve ci r cul ar pol ar i zat i on and/ or i mpr oved bandwi dt h.
Ar r ays coul d easi l y be formed by e t c h i n g a s e t Of
p a t c h e l e me n t s , wi t h a p p r o p r i a t e s p a c i n g b e t we e n
el ement s . Cor por at e ( par al l el ) power di vi de r s c oul d be
e t c h e d on t h e same s u b s t r a t e C61, or s e r i e s - f e d t r a ve l -
i ng wave a r r a y s c o u l d be de s i gne d C91. A t t h e p a t c h
i t s e l f , t w o t y p e s of f e e di ng me t hods we r e de vi s e d.
Feeding a pa t c h a t its edge w i t h a mi c r o s t r i p f e e d l i n e
was pa r t i c ul a r l y us e f ul f or c or por a t e f e d a r r a ys wi t h a
s el f - cont ai ned power di vi der , whi l e pr obe- f eeds vi a t he
c e nt e r c onduc t or of a coaxi al connect or wer e conveni ent
f or of f - boar d connect i ons.
Si mpl e r e c t a ngul a r or c i r c ul a r mi c r os t r i p a nt e nna s
pr oduce l i near pol ar i zat i on, but c i r c u l a r p o l a r i z a t i o n
c oul d be obt a i ne d wi t h a s qua r e or c i r c ul a r pa t c h a nd
two f eed poi nt s s epar at ed by 90 i n s pace, and f ed wi t h
a 900 hybrid. Another way t o a c hi e ve c i r c ul a r pol a r i z a -
t i o n was t o us e one f eed poi nt at a p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n
on a s l i ght l y as ymmet r i cal pat ch [ SI . Thi s t echni que is
ve r y s e ns i t i ve t o t ol e r a nc e e r r or s , howe ve r , a nd ha s a
very narrow bandwidth.
Ear l y anal ys i s t echni ques i ncl ude t he t r ans mi s s i on
l i ne mode l a nd t he c a vi t y model [ 5] . The t r ans mi s s i on
l i n e model t r e a t e d t h e a n t e n n a a s t r a n s mi s s i o n l i n e
r es onat or , whi l e t he cavi t y model t r e a t e d t he a nt e nna a s
a cl os ed cavi t y wi t h magnet i c s i de wal l s . Bot h met hods
r equi r ed some ad hoc cor r ect i on f o r t h e s h i f t ( l o u e r i n g )
of t he r es onant f r equency due t o f r i n g i n g f i e l d s , o u t
wer e us ual l y capabl e of gi vi ng good r e s u l t s f o r t h e i n -
put impedance of antennas on t h i n s u b s t r a t e s . Be c a u s e
t he mi c r os t r i p a nt e nna ba ndwi dt h is us ua l l y r a t he r low
( 1 - 3 2 ) , t o l e r a n c e e r r o r s i n t h e s u b s t r a t e d i e l e c t r i c
c o n s t a n t , o r i n t he e t c hi ng of t he pa t c h, of t e n r e qui r e
t hat empi r i cal cor r ect i ons be made for agreement between
t heor y and exper i ment .
The n e x t s e c t i o n s wi l l d i s c u s s some of t he mor e
r ecent work on mi cr os t r i p ant ennas r el at ed t o bandwi dt h,
t he or e t i c a l a na l ys i s , t he monol i t hi c pha s e d a r r a y, a nd
some novel f eedi ng t echni ques.
Ef f o r t s t o Improve t he Bandui dt h of Mi crost ri p Ant ennas
P r o b a b l y t h e mo s t s i g n i f i c a n t d i s a d v a n t a g e o f
mi cr os t r i p ant ennas is t h e i r narrow bandwidth. For sub-
s t r a t e s t h a t a r e t y p i c a l l y f ew hundr edt hs of a
wavel engt h t hi ck, or l ess, t he bandwi dt h w i l l be on t h e
o r d e r o f 1 % t o 3 % - - a v a l u e t h a t c l e a r l y l i m i t s
appl i cat i on. Becaus e of t hi s , a l o t o f work has been
di r e c t e d t owa r d i nc r e a s i ng t he ba ndwi dt h of mi c r os t r i p
ant ennas.
Be f or e we pr oc e e d a ny f ur t he r , a few words should
be s a i d a bout ba ndwi dt h i n g e n e r a l . T h e r e a r e t wo
s e p a r a t e c r i t e r i a t o wh i c h t h e t e r m " b a n d wi d t h " may
r e f e r :

Impedance Bandwidth The f r equency bandwi dt h f or
which an ant enna remai ns mat ched t o its f e e dl i ne , wi t hi n
a specified l e v e l . Thi s s p e c i f i c a t i o n may take t he f or m
of a maximum VSWR ( e. g. , VSwR<2) a t t h e a n t e n n a i n p u t ,
or t he form of a r e t u r n loss (e. g. , RL>15dB).
Pattern Banmsidth The f r e que nc y ba ndwi dt h f or
whi ch t h e pat t er n of an ant enna r emai ns, i n some sense,
c o n s t a n t t o a s peci f i ed degr ee. Thi s c r i t e r i a may i n -
c l u d e p o l a r i z a t i o n c h a n g e s , s i d e l o b e l e v e l s , p a t t e r n
symmetry, or ot he r e f f e c t s .
I deal l y, an ant enna would s a t i s f y bot h of t h e above
c r i t e r i a o v e r a s pe c i f i e d ba ndwi dt h. For t h e b a s i c
mi c r o s t r i p a n t e n n a , t h e impedance bandwidth is us ual l y
t he c ont r ol l i ng f a c t or , due t o t he r e l a t i ve l y hi gh- 8 of
t h e c a v i t y - t y p e e l e me n t . The p a t t e r n b a n d wi d t h i s
us ual l y many times broader t han t he i mpedance bandwi dt h,
so o f t e n B si mpl e mat chi ng net work can be used t o o b t a i n
broader band performance.
Anot her poi nt of i nt er es t is t he f undament al r el a-
t i o n b e t we e n t h e s i z e o f a n a n t e n n a a n d i t s o r
ba ndwi dt h [ l o] . As t h e e l e c t r i c a l s i z e of an antenna
d e c r e a s e s , i t s Q i n c r e a s e s , a n d h e n c e i t s bandwi dt h
d e c r e a s e s . A s shown i n C5l t hr ough t he c a v i t y model, a
s u b s t r a t e wi t h a hi gh di e l e c t r i c c ons t a nt has a s ma l l e r
s i ze pat ch el ement t han an el ement at t he same f r equency
on a l ower di el ect r i c c o n s t a n t s u b s t r a t e , a n d t h e
bandwi dt h is also smal l er . As w e will s e e , many of t he
s ucces s f ul ways of i ncr eas i ng bandwi dt h i n v o l v e a s u b -
s t a nt i a l i nc r e a s e i n t he e l e c t r i c a l s i z e of t he e l e me nt .
The mos t di r ect way o f i n c r e a s i n g mi c r o s t r i p a n -
t enna bandwi dt h is t o i nc r e a s e t he s ubs t r a t e t hi c kne s s ,
whi ch has t h e e f f e c t o f i n c r e a s i n g t h e r a d i a t i o n
conduct ance. T h i s t e c h n i q u e u s u a l l y wo r k s well f o r
bandwidths up t o about at which poi nt e i t he r pr obe
i nduct ance o r hi gher or der r eact i ve modes lead t o s e v e r e
mismatch. Higher-order modes may a l s o r e s u l t i n p a t t e r n
d i s t o r t i o n s .
Another way t o o b t a i n improved bandwidth i s t o u s e
a d d i t i o n a l e l e me n t s t h a t a r e r e s o n a n t a t s l i g h t l y d i f -
f er ent f r equenci es , and t hus achi eve a doubl e or t r i pl e -
t u n e d r e s p o n s e . The e l e me n t s may be p a r a s i t i c a l l y
e x c i t e d as i n C111, [ 12] , or d i r e c t l y c o u p l e d a s i n
[ 13] . These methods have been used t o o b t a i n impedance
bandwi dt hs of 10- 15%, al t hough t h e p a t t e r n s may show
some di s t or t i on ove r t h i s bandui dt h, par t i cul ar l y i n t he
pl ane of t he par as i t i c el ement s .
A l o g i c a l e x t e n s i o n o f t h i s i d e a i s t o b u i l d a
t r a ve l i ng wave series fed ar r ay wi t h el ement s of d i f f e r -
i n g r e s o n a n t f r e q u e n c y , descri bed i n C141, C151.
Mul t i -oct ave bandwidths are achi eved i n C151 by de s i gn-
i n g t h e e l e me n t s a c c o r d i n g t o a l o g - p e r i o d i c a r r a y
formul a. Note t h a t t h e s e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s a r e much l a r g e r
t h a n a s i ngl e mi er os t r i p el ement , and s o would probably
not be pr a c t i c a l a s e l e me nt s of a phased array.
Al ong t h e l i n e s of impedance matching is t h e tech-
ni que of C161, where a c a p a c i t o r wa s f o r me d i n s e r i e s
wi t h t he pr obe of a probe-fed patch by al l owi ng a s mal l
gap between t he t op of t he probe and t h e pat ch sur f ace.
T h i s c a p a c i t a n c e s e r v e d t o t u n e - o u t t h e i n d u c t a n c e
caused by a r e l a t i v e l y t h i c k s u b s t r a t e , a n d r e s u l t e d i n
improved bandwidth.
If a wi de t unabl e bandwi dt h is a c c e p t a b l e , a s o p -
p o s e d t o a wi de i nst ant aneous bandwi dt h, t hen a va r i e t y
of s chemes i nvol vi ng P I N d i o d e s wi t c h e d s h o r t s , o r
var act or di ode t uned mi cr os t r i p el ement s , ar e pos s i bl e.
Reference C171 is r e pr e s e nt a t i ve .
F i n a l l y , o n e s h o u l d b e wa r e - o f c l a i ms f o r h i g h
bandwidth without some c o n c o mi t a n t i n c r e a s e i n s i z e o r
c o mp l e x i t y ( a s i n a ma t c hi ng ne t wor k) . One r e c e n t
r epor t , f or exampl e, cl ai med a 25% bandwidth for a pat ch
of r el at i vel y s t r ai ght f or war d des i gn. Cl os er i nves t i ga-
t i o n showed t h a t t he el ement was r e s ona t i ng i n di f f e r e nt
modes a t di f f er ent f r e que nc i e s , r e s ul t i ng i n r a di a t i on
whose pol ar i zat i on changed wi t h f r equency!
Advances i n Mi cr os t r i p Antenna and Array Anal ysi s
reviewed i n [ SI , t he t r a ns mi s s i on l i ne model and
t h e c a v i t y mo d e l , wi t h var i ous i mpl ement at i ons , wer e
us e d qui t e s uc c e s s f ul l y t o pr e di c t t he i nput i mpe da nc e
a n d r a d i a t i o n p a t t e r n s o f mi c r o s t r i p a n t e n n a s o n
e l e c t r i c a l l y t hi n ( ( 0. 01 s u b s t r a t e s . Th e s e mo d e l s
wer e eas y t o i mpl ement , and gave a cons i der abl e amount
of p h y s i c a l i n s i g h t i n t o t h e b a s i c o p e r a t i o n o f t h e
mi cr ost r i p ant enna, but wer e not wi t hout some drawbacks.
Fi r s t , becaus e of t h e appr oxi mat i ons i nvol ved, t he model
is o n l y v a l i d f o r v e r y t h i n s u b s t r a t e s a n d s o f a i l s t o
pr edi ct r esonant f r equency or i nput i mpedance accur at el y
f o r t h i c k e r s u b s t r a t e s . Se e , f o r e x a mp l e , Fi g u r e 1 ,
which shows a Smith char t pl ot of t he measured i nput i m-
pedance of a r e c t a ngul a r mi c r os t r i p a nt e nna ( r a di a t i ng
edge f e d ) on a s ubs t r at e t h a t i s a b o u t 0.02A t h i c k .
The me a s ur e d r e s ona nt f r e que nc y is about Z. l? GHz and
t h e me a s ur e d r e s ona nt r e s i s t a nc e i s about 1800. One
commonly used cavi t y model , however , pr edi ct s a r esonant
f r e que nc y of 2. 23 GHz ( 2 . 8 % e r r o r ) , a n d a r e s o n a n t
r e s i s t a nc e of 4300 e r r o r ) . This example (which is
not , by f a r , a wor st case) demonst r at es t hat t her e is a
need f or i mpr oved anal ys i s t echni ques f or mi cr os t r i p an-
t e nna s , e s pe c i a l l y f or t he t h i c k s u b s t r a t e case, whi ch
i s o f p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e f o r millimeter wave and
monol i t hi c appl i cat i ons . ( See Cl 8l f or more examples of
t h e pr obl e ms e nc ount e r e d wi t h antennas on t hi ck, hi gh
di e l e c t r i c c ons t a nt s ubs t r a t e s . )
Moment method techniques have received a l o t o f at-
t ent i on s i nce 1979, wi t h C191 bei ng one of t he e a r l i e s t
moment me t hod t r e a t me nt s f or t he i nput i mpe da nc e of a
c i r c ul a r pa t c h. This was f ol l owed by a number o f o t h e r
p a p e r s f o r r e c t a n g u l a r , c i r c u l a r , a n d e l l i p t i c a l
pat ches, wi t h [20], [Zl], and E221 b e i n g t y p i c a l . The
a bove t r e a t me nt s us e t he e xa c t Gr e e n' s f unc t i on f or t he
g r o u n d e d d i e l e c t r i c sl ab ( a l s o known a s a " s p e c t r a l
t r a n s f o r m domain" s ol ut i on, or a "f ul l - wave" s ol ut i on) ,
Figure Measured input impedance of a rectangular microstrip antenna.
Ey= d=0.02Xo

so f r i n g i n g f i el ds ar e r i gor ous l y account ed f o r , a nd no
a d hoc l e ngt h e xt e ns i ons are needed. I n addi t i on, Sur -
f a c e wave e x c i t a t i o n i s e x p l i c i t l y i n c l u d e d a n d c a n be
c a l c u l a t e d as i n [ Z O] , wher e i t i s s e e n t ha t Sur f ace
wa v e p o we r i n c r e a s e s wi t h s u b s t r a t e t h i c k n e s s a n d
d i e l e c t r i c c o n s t a n t . Agai n, sur f ace wave power i s not
i mpor t a nt f or pr i nt e d a nt e nna s on t hi n s ubs t r a t e s .
Anot her pr obl em wi t h t he basi c cavi t y model is t h a t
i t c a nnot b e us e d t o p r e d i c t mu t u a l c o u p l i n g . Th e
mut ual coupl i ng bet ween el ement s of a mi c r o s t r i p a r r a y
wi t h s paci ng on t h e order of X0/2 is about -20dB, and
e a r l y a r r a y d e s i g n s c o u l d i g n o r e t h i s e f f e c t wi t h o u t
d e t r i me n t . T o d a y , h o we v e r , wi t h i n t e r e s t i n l ow-
s i de l obe a r r a y s , l a r g e s c a n n i n g a r r a y s , a n d a r r a y s o n
t h i c k s u b s t r a t e s , mu t u a l c o u p l i n g e f f e c t s ar e more i m -
p o r t a n t , a n d s o i t i s d e s i r a b l e t o be a b l e t o p r e d i c t
t h i s e f f e c t . The moment method t e c hni que i s v e r s a t i l e
e n o u g h t o d o t h i s , a n d g o o d r e s u l t s h a v e b e e n
demonstrated [21]. There is al so work on ext endi ng some
of t he s i mpl er models t o cal cul at e mut ual coupl i ng [ 231.
Cl osel y related t o t h e above e f f o r t f or mi c r o s t r i p
p a t c h a n t e n n a s is t h e work by Alexopoulos, e t a l . , On
pr i nt ed di pol es , encompas s i ng r es onant f r equency, i nput
i mpe da nc e , mut ua l c oupl i ng, s ur f a c e wa ve e xc i t a t i on,
f eedi ng met hods , and s ubs t r at e/ s uper s t r at e ef f ect s [241,
C251, E261, C271.
The Monolithic Phased Array Concept
One of t h e more s i gni f i c a nt dr i vi ng f or c e s be hi nd
much of t h e r e c e n t wo r k o n p r i n t e d a n t e n n a s i s t h e
monol i t hi c pha s e d a r r a y. Suc h a n a r r a y woul d i nt e gr a t e
a c t i ve de vi c e s f or p h a s e s h i f t e r s a n d o t h e r c o mp o n e n t s
wi t h r adi at i ng el ement s , and s o form a ( r e l a t i v e l y ) low-
cost mi l l i met er w a v e s c a n n i n g a r r a y . Two r e c e n t
a r t i c l e s des cr i be t hi s devel opment i n mor e det ai l C281.
[291, and s o we w i l l n o t r e p e a t t h e d i s c u s s i o n h e r e .
number of f i n i t e a n d i n f i n i t e a r r a y p r o b l e ms h a v e b e e n
t r e a t e d i n c o n n e c t i o n wi t h t h i s p r o j e c t ; t h e i n t e r e s t e d
reader is r e f e r r e d t o [ 2 8 ] f or r ef er ences .
New Methods of Feeding Microstrip Antennas
A number of new t e c hni que s f or f e e di ng mi c r os t r i p
a nt e nna s ha ve r e c e nt l y be e n de ve l ope d, a ddi ng t o t h e
v e r s a t i l i t y of s uc h a nt e nna s pa r t i c ul a r l y when integra-
t i on wi t h a c t i ve de vi c e s i s r equi r ed. These new methods
i ncl ude aper t ur e coupl ed pat ches [ 30] , [ 3l ] , [ 32] , [33],
a nd pr oxi mi t y c oupl e d pa t c he s [ 15] , o r d i p o l e s [ 2 7 ] ,
C341. [ 351. We c a n t h u s a r r a n g e mi c r o s t r i p a n t e n n a
feeds i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s :
Di r e c t c o n t a c t f e e d s . Th i s i n c l u d e s t h e c o a x
p r o b e - f e d p a t c h , a n d t h e mi c r o s t r i p l i n e f e d
p a t c h . No t e t h a t i n t h e mi c r o s t r i p l i n e c a s e ,
t h e f e e d l i n e may c o n t a c t t h e p a t c h a l o n g a
r a d i a t i n g or nonr adi at i ng edge.
Pr oxi mi t y f eeds. I n t h i s case t he a n t e n n a el e-
me nt ( pa t c h o r d i p o l e ) i s e l e c t r o ma g n e t i c a l l y
c o u p l e d b y c l o s e p r o x i mi t y t o a m i c r o s t r i p
f e e dl i ne . The ant enna el ement may be pa r a l l e l or
pe r pe ndi c ul a r t o t he f e e dl i ne , a nd may b e o n t h e
same l e v e l as t h e f e e d l i n e o r p r i n t e d o n a cover
l a ye r ( s upe r s t r a t e ) . Ti ght e r c oupl i ng c a n be ob-
t a i n e d i n t h e l a t t e r case by havi ng t he ant enna
el ement over l ap t he f eedl i ne.
Ape r t ur e c oupl e d e l e me nt s . Here t h e mi c r o s t r i p
ant enna i s pr oxi mi t y coupl ed t o a small a p e r t u r e
i n t h e g r o u n d p l a n e below t he pat ch. The aper -
t ur e c a n t he n be coupl ed t o a mi c r o s t r i p f e e d l i n e
i n a var i et y of ways. ( See f i gur es bel ow. )
The di rect cont act f eeds ar e pr obabl y t h e Si mpl es t ,
a n d a r e a d e q u a t e f o r many a p p l i c a t i o n s . As mentioned
above, however, t he i nput i mpedance can become v e r y i n -
duct i ve f or ant ennas on t h i c k s u b s t r a t e s , r e s u l t i n g i n a
poor ma t c h. I n a ddi t i on, f or monol i t hi c a ppl i c a t i ons ,
v i a h o l e s ( p r o b e f e e d s ) a r e n o t d e s i r a b l e d u e t o low
yi el ds and hi gh i nduct ance. I mpedance mat chi ng can be
o b t a i n e d b y a d j u s t i n g t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e f e e d p o i n t .
For coax or mi c r os t r i p l i ne f e e ds , a t or near a r a d i a t -
i n g e d g e of a r e c t a n g u l a r mi c r o s t r i p a n t e n n a , t h e
r e s o n a n t r e s i s t a n c e i s on t h e o r d e r o f a f ew hundr ed
ohms. T h i s i n p u t r e s i s t a n c e c a n be l owered by moving
t h e f e e d p o i n t t o wa r d t h e c e n t e r o f t h e p a t c h . F o r
mi c r o s t r i p l i n e f e e d s a l o n g a nonr a di a t i ng e dge t hi s is
eas y, but f or mi c r o s t r i p l i n e f e e d s f r o m t h e r a d i a t i n g
e d g e a n i n s e r t i n t o t h e p a t c h is r equi r ed [ 51. For t h e
lowest order mode of a r e c t a n g u l a r p a t c h , t h e i n p u t i m-
pe da nc e i s n e a r z e r o a t t h e c e n t e r of t he pa t c h. I n
p r a c t i c e , i t a p p e a r s t h a t mi c r o s t r i p f e e d s wo r k b e s t
( l o we r c r os s p o l , e t c . ) i f t h e y a r e p o s i t i o n e d a t
r a di a t i ng e dge s , as opposed t o nonr adi at i ng edges.
Pr oxi mi t y feeds can be ve r y us e f ul f or pr i nt e d ar-
r a y s ( e s p e c i a l l y f i x e d - b e a m a r r a y s ) , s i n c e t h e f e e d i n g
net wor k and pouer di vi der chai n can be e i t h e r e l i mi n a t e d
or s i mp l i f i e d . Th e a mo u n t o f p o we r d e l i v e r e d t o a
pr oxi mi t y c oupl e d e l e me nt c a n be e a s i l y c ont r ol l e d by
t he spaci ng bet ween t he el ement and f eedl i ne. Monopul se
ar r ays us i ng pr oxi mi t y coupl ed el ement s wi t h a combina-
t i o n of c o r p o r a t e a n d s e r i e s f e e d ne t wor ks ha ve be e n
c o n s t r u c t e d , as well as p u r e l y series f e d a r r a ys . I n
s ddi t i on, pr oxi mi t y c oupl i ng l e nds i t s e l f e a s i l y t o t h e
use of a ddi t i ona l pa r a s i t i c a l l y c oupl e d e l e me nt s f or i n-
creased bandwi dt h.
Technol ogy devel opment f or monol i t hi c phased ar r ays
C281 ha s l e d t o t h e idea of us i ng an aper t ur e t o c o u p l e
power from o n e s u b s t r a t e ( a f e e d s u b s t r a t e ) t o an an-
t e n n a s u b s t r a t e . S u c h c o n f i g u r a t i o n s ma k e more
s u b s t r a t e r e a l e s t a t e a va i l a bl e f or t he ne c e s s a r y com-
pone nt s of a mo n o l i t h i c p h a s e d a r r a y , as wel l a s
a l l owi ng s e pa r a t e s ubs t r a t e s t o be used f or t h e d i s t i n c t
f unc t i ons of r a d i a t i o n a n d c i r c u i t r y . So f a r , t h r e e
t y p e s of aper t ur e coupl ed mi cr os t r i p ant ennas have been
devel oped, al t hough many va r i a t i ons on t he s e de s i gns ar e
pos s i bl e.
Fi gur e s hows a n a pe r t ur e c oupl e d pa t c h ge ome t r y
wi t h two pa r a l l e l s ubs t r a t e s s e pa r a t e d by a gr ound pl ane
[301. One s ubs t r at e can be of low p e r mi t t i v i t y , wel l -
f " 7"
a
SUBSTRATE
TOP
Figure 2. Geometry of an aperture coupled microstrip antenna with two
parallel substrates.

Antennas and Propagation Society Newsletter, October 1986
The a pe r t ur e is f e d by a mi c r os t r i p f e e dl i ne , which
can be t er mi nat ed a s hor t di s t a nc e pa s t t h e a p e r t u r e f o r
t uni ng pur poses, added bonus wi t h t h i s a n t e n n a i s
t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n c r e a s e d b a n d wi d t h by obt ai ni ng a
doubl e r esonance wi t h a l o n g e r t u n i n g s t u b . F i g u r e 3
s hows s uc h a n i mpe da nc e l oc us on a Smi t h char t , wher e
t he r es ul t i ng bandwi dt h is about 4. 6%- - at l east t wi ce
wha t woul d be obt a i ne d i f t he e l e me nt were f e d by con-
vent i onal means.
Anot her apert ure coupl ed pat ch geomet ry is shown i n
Fi gur e whe r e t he f e e d s ubs t r a t e i s now o r i e n t e d p e r -
p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e a n t e n n a s u b s t r a t e . The a pe r t ur e is
f e d b y a mi c r o s t r i p l i n e w h i c h t e r mi n a t e s a t t h e
a p e r t u r e . The gr ound pl ane of t he f eed s ubs t r at e is i n
cont act wi t h t he gr ound pl ane of t he a n t e n n a s u b s t r a t e ,
s o t h e a p e r t u r e is s t r o n g l y c o u p l e d t o t h e f e e dl i ne .
Th i s g e o me t r y a l l o ws p r a c t i c a l l y u n l i mi t e d s u b s t r a t e
area f or t he f e e d ne t wor k a nd a c t i ve c i r c ui t r y. I n a
way, t h i s c o n f i g u r a t i o n is a n a l o g o u s t o o p e n - e n d e d
wavegui de phas ed ar r ays , whi ch make us e of t he dept h
d i me n s i o n f o r p h a s e s h i f t e r s a n d o t h e r c o n t r o l
c i r c u i t r y . I n a d d i t i o n , t h i s c o n f i g u r a t i o n allows t h e
a c t i v e c i r c u i t r y t o be f a br i c a t e d i n modul a r f or m, as-
s u mi n g t h a t t h e d i r e c t c o n t a c t s for RF f eedi ng f r om t he
f e e d l i n e t o t he aper t ur e can be made r e l i a bl y.
El e c t r i c a l l y, t hi s ge ome t r y f unc t i ons much l i k e t h e
pr e vi ous a pe r t ur e - f e d a nt e nna . The d i r e c t r a d i a t i o n
from t h e a p e r t u r e is smal l compar ed wi t h t h e p a t c h
r adi at i on, and an i mpedance mat ch can be eas i l y obt ai ned
by t he a dj us t me nt of t he a pe r t ur e s i z e a nd/ or its posi -
s u i t e d f or p r i n t e d a n t e n n a p u r p o s e s , whi l e t h e o t h e r
s ubs t r a t e c a n be of hi ghe r pe r mi t t i vi t y f or a c t i ve c i r -
c u i t f a b r i c a t i o n . Co u p l i n g is t hr ough a s ma l l a pe r t ur e
i n t he ground plane. The back r adi at i on f r om t h i s aper-
t u r e i s small ( u s u a l l y l ess t han -20 dB) compared wi t h
t he f or war d r adi at i on f r om t he pa t c h, s i nc e t h e pat ch is
r e s o n a n t , wh i l e t h e a p e r t u r e is not . I n addi t i on, t h e RESONANT
gr ound pl a ne r e duc e s s pur i ous c oupl i ng f r om t he f e e d
c i r c u i t r y t o t h e r a d i a t i n g e l e me n t s , a n d r e d u c e s
s p u r i o u s r a d i a t i o n f r o m t h e f e e d c i r c u i t r y i n t o t h e
f r ont hemi spher e.
FEE0
GROUND
Figure Geometry of an aperture coupled microstrip antenna with perpen-
dicular substrates and contacting feed line.
t i o n r e l a t i v e t o t h e p a t c h . U n l i k e t h e p r e v i o u s
aper t ur e- f ed pat ch, however , t hi s des i gn does not have
t h e e x t r a d e g r e e o f f r e e d o m a s s o c i a t e d wi t h a t u n i n g
s t ub.
F i g u r e 5 shows a v a r i a t i o n o n t h e a p e r t u r e - f e d
p a t c h wi t h a pe r pe ndi c ul a r f e e d t ha t c ombi ne s some of
t h e b e s t features of t he pr evi ous two designs. Here the
mi c r os t r i p f e e dl i ne is agai n on a s u b s t r a t e mounted per-
p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e a n t e n n a s u b s t r a t e , b u t now t h e l i n e
r u n s p a r a l l e l t o t he ant enna s ubs t r at e, pas s i ng close t o
t he a pe r t ur e i n t he a nt e nna s ubs t r a t e gr ound pl a ne a nd
t e r mi n a t i n g i n a n o p e n c i r c u i t s t u b . To i n c r e a s e t h e
coupl i ng from t he mi c r o s t r i p l i n e t o t h e a p e r t u r e , t h e
gr ound pl a ne be ne a t h t h e mi c r o s t r i p l i n e is p a r t i a l l y
removed, f o r c i n g t h e f i e l d l i n e s from t he mi c r o s t r i p
l i n e t o c u r v e o v e r t o t he gr ound pl a ne of the ant enna
s ubs t r a t e . We t hus have a p e r p e n d i c u l a r f e e d s u b s t r a t e
o f f e r i n g l ot s o f s p a c e , a n d a n o p e n - c i r c u i t s t u b f o r
t uni ng, wi t hout t he ne e d f or di r e c t c ont a c t be t we e n t he
mi c r os t r i p l i ne a nd t he a pe r t ur e .
Figure 3. Measured input of an aperture coupled microstrip anten-
na with enhand bandwidth.
8
Concl usi on
This ar t i cl e has r e vi e we d a number of t o p i c s as-
s oc i a t e d wi t h mi c r os t r i p a nt e nna s , c onc e nt r a t i ng OR some
of t he more r e c e n t developments. Due to s pace limita-
t i o n s , of course, a l o t of good uork has gone unr epor t ed
her e.
%DE
Figure Geometry of an aperture coupled microstrip antenna perpen-
dicular substrates and proximity coupled feed he.

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