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Abstract-This paper presents a novel speed control scheme of an induction motor (IM) using fuzzy-logic control. The fuzzy-logic controller (FLC) is based on the indirect vector control. The fuzzy-logic speed controller is employed in the outer loop. The complete vector control scheme of the IM drive incorporating the FLC is experimentally implemented using a digital signal processor board DS-1104 for the laboratory 1-hp squirrel-cage IM. The performances of the proposed FLC-based IM drive are investigated and compared to those obtained from the conventional proportional-integral (PI) controller-based drive both theoretically and experimentally at different dynamic operating conditions such as sudden change in command speed, step change in load etc. The comparative experimental results show that the FLC is more robust and, hence, found to be a suitable replacement of the conventional PI controller for the high-performance industrial drive applications.

Index Terms - Digital signal processor, fuzzy-logic controller, induction motor, PI controller, real-time implementation, speed control. 1. INTRODUCTION

AC MOTOR drives are used in a multitude of industrial and process applications requiring high performances. In highperformance drive systems, the motor speed should closely follow a specified reference trajectory regardless of any load disturbances, parameter variations, and model uncertainties. In order to achieve high performance, field-oriented control of induction motor (IM) drive is employed [1]. However, the controller design of such a system plays a crucial role in system performance. The decoupling characteristics of vector-controlled IM are adversely affected by the parameter changes in the motor. The motor-control issues are traditionally handled by fixed-gain proportional-integral (PI) and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers. However, the fixed-gain controllers are very sensitive to parameter variations, load disturbances, etc. Thus, the controller parameters have to be continually adapted. The problem can be solved by several adaptive control techniques such as model reference adaptive control (MRAC) [2], sliding-mode control (SMC) [3], variable structure control (VSC) [4], and self-tuning PI controllers [5], etc. The design of all of the above controllers depends on the exact system mathematical model. However, it is often difficult to develop an accurate system mathematical model due to unknown load variation, unknown and unavoidable parameter variations due to saturation, temperature variations, and system disturbances. In order to overcome to above problems, recently, the fuzzy-logic controller (FLC) is being used for motor control purpose [7][12]. The mathematical tool for the FLC is the fuzzy set theory introduced by Zadeb [6]. As

compared to the conventional PI, PID, and their adaptive versions, the FLC has some advantages such as: 1) it does not need any exact system mathematical model; 2) it can handle nonlinearity of arbitrary complexity; and 3) it is based on the linguistic rules with an IF-THEN general structure, which is the basis of human logic. However, the application of FLC has faced some disadvantages during hardware and software implementation due to its high computational burden [7]. The earlier reported works for fuzzy-logic applications in motor drives [8][11] are mainly theoretical and based on either simulation or experimental results at lowspeed operating conditions. This paper investigates the successful application of the FLC for normal speed control of IM drives. The complete vector control scheme of IM incorporating the FLC has been successfully implemented in real time using digital-signal-processor (DSP) controllerboard DS1104. The performances of the proposed drive have also been compared with those obtained from the conventional PI controller both theoretically and experimentally. It is found that the proposed FLC is insensitive to temperature changes, inertia variations, and load torque disturbances. This novel FLC could be a suitable replacement for the conventional PI controller for highperformance drive systems. II. DESIGN OF FLC FOR IM For the proposed FLC, the speed error and rate of change of the speed error are considered as the input linguistic variables and the torque-producing current component is considered as the output linguistic variable. Thus, the functional relation of the FLC can be expressed as [14].

i q ( n ) = discrete i q ( n ) = f ( e ( n ), r ( n )) (9)

where e ( n ) = r ( n ) r ( n 1 ) is the change of speed error, is the present sample of speed error, r ( n ) = w r* ( n ) r ( n ) is the sample of speed error,

of actual, speed, r (n) is the present sample of command speed, and f denotes the nonlinear function. The main goal of the control system is to track the command speed by providing the appropriate torque-producing current component iq depending upon the operating conditions. In real time, the motor position information and output of the FLC, which is considered as the command q-axis current, as well as the command d-axis current, are used to get the command phase current and using (5). The electrical position of the motor can be expressed as

*

e = r + sl

The trapezoidal functions are used as membership functions for all the fuzzy sets except the fuzzy set ZE (zero) of the input vectors. The triangular membership functions are used for the fuzzy set ZE of the input vectors and all the fuzzy sets of the output vector. The trapezoidal and triangular functions are used to reduce the computation for online implementation. Mathematically, the trapezoidal membership function can be defined as Trapezoidal: f (x; a, b, c, d) =

where

e is the rotating field position, r is the rotor position due to slip speed, and sl is the slip position due to

slip speed. In the next step, the scaling factors K, Ke and Ki are chosen for fuzzification, as well as for obtaining the actual output of the command current. These scaling factors play a vital role for the FLC. The factors Kw and Ke are chosen to normalize the speed error wn , and the change of speed error en , respectively, so that these remain within the limit of 1 . Factor Ki is so chosen that one can get the rated current for rated conditions. Here, the constants are taken as Kw =

w rn , en and

to get the optimum drive performances. After selecting the scaling factors, the next step is to choose the membership function of

The triangular membership function can be obtained from the trapezoidal function by setting b = c. The rules used for the proposed IM specific FLC algorithm are shown in Table I. Based on the above rules, the fuzzy-rule-based matrix is shown in Table II. For this study, Mamdani-type fuzzy inference is used [14]. The values of the constants, membership functions, fuzzy sets for the input/output variables, and the rules used in this study are selected by trial and error to obtain the optimum drive performance. In this study, the center of gravity defuzzification is used [15]. The output function is given as

important task of the FLC. The membership functions used for the input and output fuzzy sets are shown in Fig.2.

i

output i =

k =1 N

c (k )

(i)

k =1

c (k )

(i)

c (k ) (i) denotes the

output membership grade for the kth rule with the output subset C.

III. EXPERIMENTAL IMPLEMENTATION The proposed FLC-based vector control of IM is experimentally implemented using DSP-board DS1104 through both hardware and software [16]. The DSP board is installed in a personal computer (PC) with uninterrupted communication capabilities through dual-port memory. The hardware schematic for real-time implementation of the proposed FLC-based IM drive is shown in Fig.3. The DS1104 board is based on a Texas Instrument (TI) Incorporated TMS320C31 32-bit floating-point DSP. The DSP has been supplemented by a set of on-board peripherals

used in digital control systems, such as A/D, D/A converters, and incremental encoder interfaces. The DS 1104 is also equipped with a TI TMS320P14 16-bit micro controller DSP that acts as a slave processor and provides the necessary digital input/output (I/O) ports and powerful timer functions such as input capture, output capture, and pulse width modulation (PWM) waveform generation. In this study, the slave processor is used for digital I/O configuration. The actual motor currents are measured by the Hall-effect sensors, which have good frequency response and are fed to the DSP board through the A/D converter. As the motor neutral is isolated, only two-phase currents are fed back and the third phase current is calculated from them. The rotor position is measured by an optical incremental encoder, which is mounted at the rotor-shaft end. It is then fed to the DSP board through an encoder interface. The encoder generates 4096 pulses per revolution. By using a fourfold pulse multiplication, the number of pulses is increased to 4 4096 in order to get better resolution. A 24-bit position counter is used to count the encoder pulses and is read by a calling function in the software. The motor speed is calculated from the rotor position by backward difference interpolation. A digital moving average filter is used to remove the noise from the speed signal.

output signals in a digital storage oscilloscope. The complete IM drive is implemented through software by developing a program in high-level American National Standards Institute (ANSI) C programming language. The program is compiled by the TI C code generator. Finally, the program is downloaded to the DSP controller board using loader program LD31 [16]. The sampling frequency for experimental implementation of the proposed FLC-based IM motor drive system is 5 kHz. IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Several tests were performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed FLC-based vector control of the IM drive system both theoretically and experimentally. The speedcontrol loop of the drive was also designed, simulated, and experimentally implemented with the PI controller in order to compare the performances to those obtained from the respective FLC-based drive system. The speed responses are observed under different operating conditions such as a sudden change in command speed, step change in load, etc. Some sample results are presented in the following section. The PI controller is tuned at rated conditions in order to make a fair comparison. Figs. 4 and 5 show the simulated starting performance of the drive with PI-and FLC-based drive systems, respectively. Although the PI controller is tuned to give an optimum response at this rated condition, the fuzzy controller yielded better performances in terms of faster response time and lower starting current. Fig.6 (a) and (b) shows the speed responses of the drive system using the PI and FLC, respectively, with a step change in the reference speed. It is evident from Fig.6 (a) and (b) that the proposed FLC-based IM drive system can follow the command speed without any overshoot and steady-state error. Thus, the FLCbased drive system is not affected by the sudden change of the command speed. Thus, a good tracking has been achieved for the FLC, whereas the PI-controller-based drive system is affected with the sudden change in command speed. Fig.7(a) and (b) shows the speed responses for step change in the load torque using the PI and fuzzy controller, respectively. It is to be noted that, in Fig.7 (a), the vertical scale for current iq is to be divided by five and, in Fig. 7(b), it is to be divided by four. The motor starts from standstill without load and, at t =0.8s, a sudden full load is applied. The motor speed follows its reference with zero steady-state error and a fast response using a fuzzy controller. On the other hand, the PI controller shows steady-state error with a high starting iq current. It is to be noted that the speed response is affected by the load conditions. This is the drawback of a PI controller with varying operating conditions.

The input vectors of the FLC are generated from the present and the delayed samples of the speed error. The command currents are generated from the FLC. The hysteresis current controller compares the command currents with the corresponding actual motor currents and generates the logic signals, which act as firing pulses for the inverter switches. Thus, these six PWM logic signals are the output of the DSP board and fed to the base drive circuit of the inverter power module. The D/A channels are used to capture the necessary

The performance has been investigated at different dynamic operating conditions both theoretically and experimentally. It is concluded that the proposed FLC has shown superior performances over the PI controller. APPENDIX MOTOR PARAMETERS

1hp, 3, 208 V, 50 Hz, 3.4 A, P =4, Rs= 4.0, Rr = 1.143, Ls = 0.3676 H, Lr = 0.3676 H, Lm = 0.3489, Jm = 0.03Kg.m2, Bm = 0.00098 (N.m)/rad/s.

REFERENCES

F. Blaschke, The principle of filed orientation as applied to the new transvector closed-loop control system for rotating-field machines, Siemens Rev., vol.34, no.3, pp.217-220, May 1972. [2] H. Sugimoto and S. Tamai,Secondary resistance identification of an induction motor applied model reference adaptive system and its characteristics, IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicant., vol.IA-23,pp.296303, Mar./Apr. 1987. [3] C.Y. Won and B.K. Bose, An induction motor servo system with improved sliding mode control, in Proc. IEEE IECON92, pp. 60 66. [4] T.L. Chern and Y.C. Wu, Design of integral variable structure controller and application to electro hydraulic velocity servo systems, Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., vol.138, no.5, pp.439-444, Sept.1991. [5] J.C. Hung, Practical industrial control techniques, in Proc. IEEE IECON94, pp.714. [6] L.A. Zadeh, Fuzzy sets, Inform. Control, vol.8, pp.338-353, 1965. [7] S.Bolognani and M. Zigliotto, Hardware and software effective configurations for multi-input fuzzy logic controllers, IEEE Trans. Fuzzy Syst. vol.6, pp. 173-179, Feb.1998. [8] I. Miki, N. Nagai, S. Nishiyama, and T. Yamada, Vector control of induction motor with fuzzy PI controller, in IEEE IAS Annu. Rec., 1992, pp.464-471. [9] Y. Tang and L. Xu, Fuzzy logic application for intelligent control of a variable speed drive, IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, vol. 9, pp.679-685, Dec.1994. [10] E.Cerruto, A.Consoli, A.Raciti, and A.Testa, Fuzzy adaptive vector control of induction motor drives, IEEE Trans. Power Electron, vol.12, pp.10281039, Nov.1997. [11] C.H. Won, S.Kim, and B.K. Bose, Robust position control of induction motor using fuzzy logic control, in IEEE IAS Conf. Rec., Houston, TX, 1992, pp.472-481. [12] A. Rubaai, D.Ricketts, and D. Kankam, Experimental verification of a hybrid fuzzy control strategy for a high performance brush less DC drive, IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicant, vol.37, no.-32, pp.503-512, Mar./Apr.2001. [13] B.K. Bose, Adjustable speed ac drives A technology status review, Proc. IEEE, vol.70, pp.116-135, Feb.1982. [14] M.N. Uddin and M.A. Rahman, Fuzzy logic based speed control of an IPM synchronous motor drive, J. Advanced Comput. Intell, vol.4, no.3, pp.-212219, 2000. [15] H.T. Nguyen, M.Sugeno, R.Tong, and R.R. Yager, Theoretical Aspects of Fuzzy Control. New York: Wiley, 1995. [16] Digital signal processing and control engineering, in Manual Guide. Paderborn, GmbH, Germany: dSPACE, 1996. [17] Fuzzy Logic Toolbox User Guide. Natick, MK : Math Works, 1997. [1]

The simulated results are verified by the experimental results. Fig.8 (a) and (b) shows the experimental speed responses of the drive system using the PI and FLC, respectively. It is to be noted that the fuzzy controller gives better responses in terms of overshoot, steady-state error, and fast response. The experimental speed responses with step increase in command speed are shown in Fig. 9(a) and (b) for the conventional PI and the proposed FLC-based IM drive system, respectively. These figures also show that the FLC-based drive system can handle the sudden increase in command speed quickly without overshoot, undershoot, and steady-state error, whereas the PI-controller-based drive system has steady-state error and the response is not as fast as compared to the FLC. Thus, the proposed FLC-based drive has been found superior to the conventional PI-controller-based system. VI. CONCLUSION A novel FLC- based indirect vector control of an IM has been presented in this paper. The FLC has been designed for a speed-control loop. The simulation has been carried out using the Simulink Fuzzy Logic Toolbox Manual Guide [17]. The complete IM drive incorporating the FLC has been successfully implemented in real time using a DSP controller board DS 1104 for the prototype 1-hp motor. In order to minimize the real-time computational burden, simple membership functions and rules have been used. Since exact system parameters are not required in the implementation of the proposed controller, the performance of the drive system is robust, stable, and insensitive to parameters and operating condition variations. In order to prove the superiority of the FLC, a conventional PI-controller-based IM drive system has also been simulated and experimentally implemented.

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