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ENG 102

Hacker Chapters 39 & 44 Dash, parenthesis, brackets, ellipsis mark, slash, hyphen

Parenthesis DO NOT OVERUSE!!!

Use to enclose supplemental material, minor digressions, and afterthoughts


Nurses

record patients vital signs (temperature, pulse, and blood pressure) several times a day.

Use to enclose letters or umbers labeling items in a series


Regulations

stipulated that only the following equipment could be used on the survival mission: (1) knife, (2) thirty feet of parachute line, (3) a book of matches, and (4) two ponchos.

Brackets

Use to enclose any words/phrases that have been inserted into an otherwise word-for-word quotation
Audubon

reports that if there are not enough young to balance deaths, the end of the species [California condor] is inevitable (4).

The Latin word sic in brackets indicates that an error in a quoted sentence appears in the original source. Do NOT overuse because calling attention to others mistakes can appear snobbish.
According

to the review, Nelly Fortados performance was brilliant, exceeding [sic] the expectations of even her most loyal fans.

Dash

type word, space, next word, and Word will do it automatically

Use to set off parenthetical material that deserves emphasis


Everything

that went wrong from the peeping Tom at her window last night to my head-on collision today we blamed on our move.

Use to set off appositives that contain commas


An

appositive is a noun or noun phrase that renames a nearby noun. They are usually set off with commas, but when the appositive itself contains commas, a pair of dashes helps readers see the importance of all pauses. In my hometown, peoples basic needs food, clothing, and shelter are less costly than in a big city like LA.

Dash

Use to introduce a list, a restatement, an amplification, or a dramatic shift in tone or thought (basically can replace a colon, but colons are more formal and less dramatic than a dash) Only use if there is a specific reason for its use (dont want unnecessary chopiness)
In

my hometown, peoples basic needs sesame seed oil, honey, safflower oil, and that half-liquid peanuts only peanut butter.

Ellipsis Mark

Use to indicate that words have been deleted from an otherwise word-for-word quotation
Shute

acknowledges that treatment for autism can be expensive: Sensory integration therapycan cost up to $200 an hour (82).

If a full sentence or more is deleted in the middle of a quoted passage, use a period before the three ellipsis dots
If

we dont properly train, teach, or treat our growing prison population, says long-time reform advocate Luis Rodriguez, somebody else will.This may well be the safety issue of the new century (16).

Ellipsis Mark

Use to indicate a hesitation or an interruption in speech or to suggest unfinished thoughts


The

apartment building next doorits going up in flames! yelled Marcia.

Slash

Use to separate two or three lines of poetry Add a space before and after the slash
Roses

are red / violets are blue / sugar is sweet

Use to separate paired terms Do not use space before or after slash
Pass/fail,

producer/director Do not use and/or, he/she, is/or Rewrite instead

Hacker pg 340 #1-5


1. The old Valentine verse we used to chant says it all: Sugar is sweet, / And so are you. 2. In studies in which mothers gazed down at their infants in their cribs but remained facially unresponsive, for example, not smiling, laughing, or showing any change of expression, the infants responded with intense weariness and eventual withdrawal. 3. There are three points of etiquette in poker: 1. always allow someone else to cut the cards, 2. dont forget to ante up, and 3. never stack your chips.

Hacker pg 340 #1-5


4. In Lifeboat, Alfred Hitchcock appears [some say without his knowledge] in a newspaper advertisement for weight loss. 5. The writer Chitra Divakaruni explained her work with other Indian American immigrants: Many women who came to Maitri [a womens support group in San Francisco] needed to know simple things like opening a bank account or getting citizenship.Many women in Maitri spoke English, but their English was functional rather than emotional. They needed someone who understands their problems and speaks their language.

Hyphen

Use the dictionary to see if whether or not a word is hyphenated or compound


Water-repellent,

waterproof, water table

Use when two or more words are used together as an adjective before a noun
Richa

Gupta is not yet a well-known candidate.

Do not use to connect ly adverbs to words they modify


WRONG:

A slowly-moving truck tied up traffic

Hyphen

Hyphenate fractions and certain numbers when they are spelled out
One-fourth

Use with the prefixes all-, ex-, and self Self-help

Use with the suffix -elect


President-elect

Hyphen

Use in certain words to avoid ambiguity or to separate awkward double or triple letters
Re-creation

and recreation Anti-intellectual (double i) Cross-stitch (double s)

Pronoun & Antecedent Agreement Pronoun Reference

ENG 102

Pronoun & Antecedent Agreement


What is a pronoun? Substitutes a noun He, she, it, her, him, they, we, us, them What is an antecedent? Noun or pronoun that a pronoun refers to Dr. Berto finished her rounds. The hospital interns finished their rounds.

Pronoun & Antecedent Agreement


Do not use plural pronouns to refer to singular antecedents 3 Ways to correct When someone travels outside the US for the first time, they need to apply for a passport.

Replace plural pronoun with he or she (his or her) When someone travels outside the US for the first time, he or she needs to apply for a passport. Make antecedent plural When people travel outside the US for the first time, they need to apply for a passport. Rewrite sentence to correct problem Anyone who travels outside the US for the first time needs to apply for a passport.

Pronoun & Antecedent Agreement


Do not use plural pronouns to refer to singular antecedents These indefinite pronouns are all singular Anybody anyone anything each Everybody either everyone everything Nobody no oneneither nothing Somebody someone something

Pronoun & Antecedent Agreement


Treat collective nouns as singular unless the meaning is clearly plural Collective nouns are treated as a group and functions as a unit Jury committee audience couple Crowd class troop family team The committee granted its permission to build. Sometimes they act as individuals though The committee put their signatures on the document. Simplify by adding a clearly plural antecedent The members of the committee put their signatures on the document.

Pronoun & Antecedent Agreement


Treat most compound antecedents joined with and as plural In 1987, Reagan and Gorbachev held a summit where they signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty. With compound antecedents joined with or or nor (or with eitheror or neithernor), make the pronoun agree with the closer antecedent Either Bruce or Tom should receive first prize for his poem. Neither the mouse nor the rats could find their way through the maze.

Pronoun & Antecedent Agreement

With compound antecedents joined with or or nor (or with eitheror or neithernor), make the pronoun agree with the closer antecedent *if one antecedent is singular and the other plural, put plural one last to avoid awkwardness *If one antecedent is male and the other female, do not follow the traditional rule Either Bruce or Elizabeth should receive first prize for her short story. The prize for best short story should go to either Bruce or Elizabeth.

Exercise 7.2 Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement

1. Meteorology has made many advances in the past few decades, but they still cannot answer a number of questions about tornadoes. Meteorology has made many advances in the past few decades, but it still cannot answer a number of questions about tornadoes. 2. Every tornado has their own unique characteristics. Every tornado has its own unique characteristics.

Exercise 7.2 Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement

3. The science of tornado watching has its own system, the Fujita scale, for measuring storms from weakest (F0) to strongest (F5). correct
4. An F4 tornado or an F5 tornado can destroy everything in their path. An F4 tornado or an F5 tornado can destroy everything in its path.

Exercise 7.2 Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement

5. Scientists cannot yet predict how strong any tornado will be before they happen. Scientists cannot yet predict how strong any tornado will be before it happens.
6. One mystery about tornadoes involves the last step when it forms. One mystery about tornadoes involves the last step when they form.

Exercise 7.2 Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement

7. Specialists do not know if a tornado forms in a cloud and travels to the ground or if they begin on earth and spiral upward. Specialists do not know if a tornado forms in a cloud and travels to the ground or if it begins on earth and spirals upward. 8. Improved meteorological technology and the skill to interpret data have made their contributions to tornado prediction. correct

Exercise 7.2 Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement

9. Either a few extra minutes of warning or more information about a storms power would prove their effectiveness in saving lives. Either a few extra minutes of warning or more information about a storms power would prove its effectiveness in saving lives. 10. People who live in a tornado zone should always know where his or her nearest safe area is. People who live in a tornado zone should always know where their nearest safe area is. People who live in a tornado zone should always know the location of their nearest safe zone.

Avoid ambiguous or remote pronoun reference Occurs when pronoun could refer to 2 possible antecedents When Gloria set the pitcher on the glass-topped table, it broke. Which object broke the pitcher or the table? The pitcher broke when Gloria set it on the glass-topped table. Tom told Sam that he had won the lottery. Who won the lottery Tom or Sam? Tom told Sam, You have won the lottery.

Pronoun References

Generally, avoid broad reference of this, that, which, it By advertising on TV, pharmaceutical companies gain exposure for their prescription drugs. Patients respond to this by requesting drugs they might not need. What are patients responding to ads, companies, prescription drugs? By advertising on TV, pharmaceutical companies gain exposure for their prescription drugs. Patients respond to the ads by requesting drugs they might not need.

Pronoun References

Do not use a pronoun to refer to an implied antecedent A pronoun should refer to a specific antecedent, not to a word that isnt actually in the sentence After braiding Anns hair, Sue decorated them with ribbons. What is the antecedent for the pronoun them? After braiding Anns hair, Sue decorated the braids with ribbons.

Pronoun References

Avoid the indefinite use of they, it, you A pronoun should refer to a specific antecedent, not to a word that isnt actually in the sentence In June, they announced that parents would have to pay a fee. In June, the board announced that parents would have to pay a fee. In the encyclopedia it states that male moths can smell female moths from several miles away. The encyclopedia states that male moths can smell female moths from several miles away.

Pronoun References

Avoid the indefinite use of they, it, you A pronoun should refer to a specific antecedent, not to a word that isnt actually in the sentence Ms. Pickersgills book stipulates that you should not arrive at a party too early or leave too late. Ms. Pickersgills book stipulates that a guest should not arrive at a party too early or leave too late.

Pronoun References

To refer to persons, use who, whom, whose NOT which, that Use which, that to refer to animals or things All thirty-two women in the study, half of which were unemployed for more than six months, reported higher selfesteem after job training. All thirty-two women in the study, half of whom were unemployed for more than six months, reported higher selfesteem after job training. During the two-day festival El Dia de los Muertos, Mexican families celebrate loved ones that have died. During the two-day festival El Dia de los Muertos, Mexican families celebrate loved ones who have died.

Pronoun References

Exercise 7.1 Pronoun Reference


1. In much political analysis, they say that public distrust of the US government began with Watergate. Many political analysts say that public distrust of the US government began with Watergate.
2. That scandals continuing legacy may make it one of the most influential American events of the twentieth century. That scandals continuing legacy may make Watergate one of the most influential American events of the twentieth century.

Exercise 7.1 Pronoun Reference


3. Since the early 1970s, political scandals have rarely interested Americans; they often seem to have very little effect. Since the early 1970s, political scandals have rarely interested Americans; the scandals often seem to have very little effect. 4. Journalists provided the American people with a lot of information about the Iran-Contra hearings, but they could not have cared less. Journalists provided the American people with a lot of information about the Iran-Contra hearings, but the public could not have cared less.

Exercise 7.1 Pronoun Reference


5. Most people were indifferent; could it have been the result of post-Watergate trauma? Could the indifference of most people have been the result of post-Watergate trauma? 6. If Americans expect politicians to be corrupt, it will not surprise or even interest them. If Americans expect politicians to be corrupt, government scandals will not surprise or even interest them.

Exercise 7.1 Pronoun Reference


7. Ironically, the medias coverage of scandals seems to have made the public suspicious of them as well. Ironically, the medias coverage of scandals seems to have made the public suspicious of journalists as well.
8. Cynicism about political and journalistic motives, leads to apathy and it can spread contagiously. Cynicism about political and journalistic motives, which can spread contagiously, leads to apathy.

Exercise 7.1 Pronoun Reference


9. Many people are so apathetic that it makes them refuse to vote. Many people are so apathetic that they refuse to vote. 10. If people do not believe that they can make a difference in the political process, it makes the country less democratic. If people do not believe that they can make a difference in the political process, the country becomes less democratic.

Grammar Tasks

Create a menu for a restaurant

On the menu, include one correct example of the dash, parentheses, brackets, ellipsis mark, slash, and hyphen.

Create a worksheet and answer key providing practice for each Pronoun & Antecedent Agreement rule. Create a mad lib in which players have to apply each rule for Pronoun Reference.

For Monday...

Ethical essay rough draft (prose not outline)


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