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GRAMMAR

NOUN 1
Singular

Countable Noun

><

Uncountable Noun

Plural

without a/an/ -s

a /an/the Regular Irregular

Noun s/ es

Note 1
a means/series/species means .. a child children a foot feet a tooth teeth a louse lice a person people a goose geese a mouse mice a man men a woman women on ox - oxen a fish - fish a carp carp a cod cod a salmon salmon a deer deer a sheep - sheep a crisis crises a life lives a loaf - loaves -self - -selves a sheaf - sheaves a thesis theses a diagnosis - diagnoses a hypothesis hypotheses a parenthesis - parentheses an axis - axes an oasis - oases a phenomenon phenomena a criterion - criteria a memorandum memoranda a curriculum curricula a bacterium - bacteria a syllabus syllabi a cactus cacti a fungus fungi a stimulus stimuli a radius radii an appendix appendices an index indices

Note 2: Twelve nouns ending in f or fe drop the f or fe and ad ves


a calf - calves a half - halves a knife - knives a leaf - leaves a shelf - shelves a thief - thieves a wife - wives a wolf wolves

But:
a hoof hooves/hoofs a safe safes a roof roofs a handkerchief handkerchiefs a cliff cliffs a belief- beliefs

NOUN 2: Compound Nouns


1. Normally the last word is made plural
boyfriends travel agents shop windows hitch-hikers traffic wardens river banks city streets corner shops street markets spring flowers November fogs church bells college libraries driving licenses

2. But when man and woman is prefixed both parts are made plural men drivers women drivers

3. The first word is made plural with compounds formed of verb + er or compounds composed of noun + preposition + noun lookers-on runners-up sisters-in-law

NOUN 3: Quantifiers
1. Many/several/various/numerous/diverse 2. A number of/numbers of 3. (A) few 4. Fewer/ the fewest >< >< >< >< Much An amount of/amounts of (A) little Less/ the least

NOUN 4: Numbers
1. a /two/three hundred/thousand/million/billion/trillion + Noun 2. hundreds/thousands/millions/billions + 3. Compound adjectives A three-year-old boy A 16,000-page book 4. one/two/three percent (no s) of Noun ; but a/the percentage of Noun

OF + Noun

VERB
(1) Subject _ Verb Agreement (2) Tenses (3) Active Transitive V + Obj (4) Form a. After modal verb + Bare inf (can, could, may, might, shall, should, must, will, would, would rather, had better, have to, ought to, be to, be supposed to) V- ing ( active/ continuous tenses) b. After be P. P (passive) c. After have + P. P (perfect tenses) d. Gerund >< Infinitive e. Finite Verb >< Participle ( Present Participle >< Past participle) >< Passive V + No Object /Prepositional phrase (by, in, with)

PARALLEL STRUCTURE
1. , 2. and 3. but 4. or 5. either or 6. neither nor 7. not only but also 8. both and 9. rather than 10. 11. whether or as well as

PRONOUN
1. Pronoun/Noun Agreement
they >< it/he/she/we their >< its/his/her/our them>< it/him/her/us themselves><itself/himself/herself/ourselves who/whom>< which that (of ) >< those (of) (plural)

2. Which type?
a. Subjective Pronouns (I/You/He/She/It/ We/You/They) Subject of a Verb After Be

b. Objective Pronouns (me/you/him/her/it/us/you/them) Object of a Verb Object of a Preposition

c. Possessive Adjectives (my/your/his/her/its/our/your/their) -

Before a Noun Before a Gerund: We are surprised by their nesting in such harsh
conditions

d. Possessive Pronouns (mine/yours/his/hers/ours/yours/theirs)


e. Reflexive Pro

(myself/yourself/himself/herself/itself/ourselves/yourselves/themselves)

3. Wrong spelling ( hisself/ theirselves/ ourself/ themself) 4. The >< Possessive Adjective
Ex: His snake is a reptile. He devoted the life to science.

5. Double subject/object
Ex: Black Island in Long Island Sound it is surrounded by cold, dangerous waters.

6. Unnecessary relative pronoun >< Necessary relative pronoun


Ex: Certain types of turtles

that may live as long as 100 years.

The woman lives next door is too nosy.

WORD FORM
1. Adjectives
a. Before nouns Ex: an important meeting b. After be and other linking verbs

- be/become - look/seem/appear/sound - taste/feel/smell - stay/remain ( = continue to be) - turn/get/grow/go (= become) - prove/find


Ex: She looks angry.

c. Some adjectives end in ly: friendly/costly/cowardly/lovely/lively/ lonely/likely/ugly/early/monthly/weekly/daily/hourly/nightly/year ly/quarterly/timely/scholarly/womanly/manly/motherly/fatherly/ kindly 2. Adverbs


a. Modify verbs: b. Modify adjectives c. Modify participles Ex: Ann eagerly accepted the challenge. Ex: Ted seemed extremely curious about that topic. Ex: A rapidly changing situation / A brightly colored dress.

d. Modify prepositions/ clause markers: soon after / immediately after/ long before/ shortly before e. Modify adverbs: f. Ex: The accident occurred incredibly quickly.

Modify the whole sentence - general - basic - particular - original >< >< >< >< Ex: generally basically particularly originally Generally, I like my class - possible - probable - usual - innate >< >< >< >< possibly probably usually innately

3. Note
a. fast (adj) fast (adv) b. long (adj) long (adv) c. hard (adj) hard >< hardly d. high (adj) high >< highly (figurative meaning) e. early (adj) early (adv) f. good (adj) well (adv)

VERB Differ Invent Compete Fertilize Decide Prohibit Prevent Beautify Originate Emphasize Glorify Mystify Socialize Generalize Simplify Free Construct Live

NOUN Difference Invention Competition

ADJECTIVE Different Inventive Competitive

VERB Restrict Cultivate

NOUN Restriction Culture Agriculture

ADJECTIVE Restrictive Cultural Agricultural Powerful Important Significant Analytical Familiar Popular Classifiable Categorical Absent Interesting Boring Fascinating Productive Necessary Collective

Fertilizer/fertility Fertile Decision Prohibition Prevention Beauty Origin Emphasis Glory Mystery Society Generalization Simplicity Freedom Construction Life Decisive Prohibitive Preventive Beautiful Original Emphatic Glorious Mysterious Social General Simple Free Constructive Live/living

Empower

Power Importance Significance

Analyze Familiarize Popularize Classify Categorize Absent Interest Bore Fascinate Produce Necessitate Collect

Analysis Familiarity Popularity Classification category Absence Interest Boredom Fascination Production Necessity Collection

FIELD
Music Poetry

PERSON
Musician Poet

FIELD
Surgery

PERSON
Surgeon

FIELD
Dentistry Engineering Finance Physics Science Invention

PERSON
Dentist Engineer Financier Physicist Scientist Inventor

Architecture Architect Farming Farmer Biologist Theorist Chemist Politician Humorist Biographer Writer

Administration Administrator Photography Athletics Philosophy Creation Law History Editing Magic Forecast Training Contest Discovery

Photographer Biology Athlete Philosopher Creator Lawyer Historian Editor Magician Forecaster Trainer Contestant Discoverer Theory Chemistry Politics Humor Biography Writing Geography Hunting Dance Beauty Carpentry

Crime/criminology Criminal Mathematics Manufacture Acting mathematician Manufacturer Actor/actress Collector Employee/er Competitor Laborer

Geographer Collection Hunter Dancer Beautician Carpenter Employment Competition Labor

NOUN
Strength Hardness Softness Depth Ripeness Solidity Length Shortness Weight Blackness Fat

VERB
Strengthen Harden Soften Deepen Ripen Solidify Lengthen Shorten Weigh Blacken Fatten

ADJECTIVE
Strong Hard Soft Deep Ripe Solid Long Short

NOUN
Heat Light Brightness Thickness Richness Humidity Flatness/flat Height

VERB
Heat Lighten Brighten Thicken Enrich Humidify Flatten Heighten Darken

ADJECTIVE
Hot Light Bright/brilliant Thick Rich Humid Flat High Dark White Large

Weighty/weightless Darkness/dark Black Fat

White/whiteness Whiten Largeness Enlarge

Nouns: hearing/sight/smell/taste/touch Verbs: hear/see/smell/taste/touch

WORD CHOICE
1. Wrong choice of MAKE or DO
1) MAKE an agreement/ an announcement/ an attempt/an effort/ a decision/a discovery/ an offer/a profit/ a promise/ advances in/ a comparison/ a contribution/ a distinction/ a forecast/ a law/ a point/ an investment/ a plan/ a prediction/ a sound/ noise/use of/ a choice/ a loan/an appointment
2) MAKE UP OF (= be composed of ); MAKE UP (= compose)

3) DO

an assignment/the dishes/ the washing-up/the shopping/ the

ironing/the cooking/a favor/homework/the laundry/ a paper//research/ a job/ ones work/ business with/ justice to/ wrong/ a kindness/ones duty/harm/ones best/a service/damage/ wonder

2. Wrong choice of like/ alike/like or as


1) Like/Unlike A, B + Verb 2) A, like/unlike B, + Verb 3) A is like/unlike B 4) A and B are alike 5) Like + Noun 6) As + Subject +Verb 7) As + Noun (=in the role of) 8) serve as/ function as/ use sth as/ be used as/ be thought of as/ be referred to as 9) regard/consider/name/choose/elect/select/designate/appoint/declare/ nominate/proclaim/announce s.o/sth (as) s.o/sth
Ex: My results were much like Pauls Ex: I did my experiment just as Paul did

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3. Wrong choice of so, such, too

1) so + adjective/adverb + that Subject + Verb 2) so + many/few + Noun (c) that Subject + Verb + much/little + Noun (u) that Subject + Verb 3) so + adjective + a/an + Noun (c, singular) that Subject + Verb 4) such + (a/an) + Adj + Noun that Subject + Verb 5) too adjective + (for someone) + to do something 6) enough + noun +( for someone) to do something 7) adjective/adverb + enough + (for someone) to do something

4. Wrong choice of because or because of; although or in spite of /despite; when/while or during
Adverb clause markers + S+ V
because although/though/even though when/while/as

Preposition + Noun/NP

because of/ due to/ on account of in spite of/ despite during

5. Wrong choice of ANOTHER or OTHER


Another Adjective
another + Noun (singular)

Other
other + Noun (plural) Determiner (the, some, any, every, one, no) + other + Noun (sing)

Pronoun

another (an additional one) Ex: Give me another.

the other/the others Ex: Of the two teachers, one is experienced, and the other is not.

Note:

each other / one another from one to another

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6. Other word form problems


BE CAREFUL WITH THESE PAIRS OF WORDS
1) no + noun >< not any 2) no longer >< not any longer/any more 3) most + Noun most of the Noun almost all of the Noun/ almost no + Noun/almost every + Noun the most +adj/adv (superlative) 4) almost + quantifier/adjective/adverb (Word Order) 5) twice (adjective) >< double (verb) Note: be twice as as 6) earliest >< soonest 7) one /two/threepercent of >< a /the percentage of 8) after >< afterward (adv = after that ) 9) ago >< before 10) tell so that >< say that/say to so that Note: tell a story/a lie/lies/the truth/ a secret 11) hardly ever >< never 12) hard/hardly 13) and/but/or 14) be alive >< live + Noun 15) old > < of age 16) near (=close to) >< nearly (=almost) 17) some + Noun >< somewhat + adjective 18) affect so/sth >< effect of sth on so/sth 19) already (adv) >< be all ready ( adjective) 20) among (3 or more) >< between ( 2) 21) and (conjunction) >< also (adverb) 22) beside (=next to) >< besides (= in addition) 23) costume (=clothing) >< custom (traditional practice) 24) farther/further (distance) >< further (= more) 25) formally (=officially) >< formerly (=previously) 26) hard >< hardly

12 27) imaginary (= not real/fictional) >< imaginative (=creative) 28) later >< latter 29) lay lie lie laid lay lied laid lain lied laying +Object (= put/place) lying (= be situated/located) lying (= not tell the truth)

30) loose (adj) >< lose (verb) 31) no>< not>< none 32) pass (verb) >< past (adj/noun/preposition) Note: pass = go/come past 33) quiet (adj) >< quite (adv) 34) raise + object/ be raised (passive) >< rise (without an object) 35) set + object (=put/place) >< sit (without an object) 36) thorough (adj) >< through (adv) 37) out >< out of +Noun 38) away>< away from + Noun 39) out/in (preposition) >< outer/inner (adjective) 40) listen to >< hear 41) lone/live/sleeping + noun >< be alone/ alive/asleep

7. Redundancy
connect together repeat again join together proceed forward advance forward only unique new innovations reread again return back same identical sufficient enough separated away from incorrect mistake progress forward important significant carefully cautiously established founded protect guard original first rarely seldom transmit send out single only around approximately chief main such as for example necessary needed

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Inversion
a) Inversion of the verb after certain adverbs Hardly ever Hardly when In no circumstances Neither/nor Never No sooner than Not only Nowhere On no account Only by/in/ at/once/recently Only in this way Rarely Seldom Scarcely ever Scarcely when (So) + adj or participles (Such) + be + Noun

Ex:

I havent got a ticket. Neither/Nor have I. Never before had I been asked to accept a bribe. Not only do they rob you, they smash everything too On no account must this switch be touched Only by shouting was he able to make himself heard. Only in an emergency should you use this exit. Rarely did this remedy fail So suspicious did he become that So confusing was the map that we had to ask a police officer for directions. Such is the popularity of the place that the theater is likely to be full every night.

b) The subject and verb of the second clause ( not the first clause) are inverted when the following expressions occur at the beginning of a sentence Not until Only when Only if Only because Only until Only after

Ex:

Not until he got home did he realize that he had lost it. Only if you study hard can you pass the final exam.

14 c) In written English adverb phrases introduced by preposition (down, from, in, on, over, off, out of, round, up .etc.) can be followed by verbs indicating position (crouch, hang, lie sit, stand, be etc.), by verbs of motion.

Ex:

From the rafters hung strings of onions. In the door way stood a man with a gun. On a perch beside him sat a blue parrot Over the wall came a shower of stone. In front of the museum is a statue. Off the coast of California lie the Channel Islands.

Note: Prepositional Phrase, S + V


Ex:
Across the United States, the general movement of air masses is from west to east .

d) If + Subject + auxiliary can be replaced in formal English by inversion of auxiliary and subject with if omitted.

Ex:

If I were in his shoes If you should require anything If he had known

= = =

Were I in his shoes Should you require anything Had he known

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Double Comparison
The + comparative + S + (V), the +comparative + S + (V)
Note: the worse (not the worst), the less (not the least), the better (not the best)

Ex: The more he plays, the more he improves.

Incorrect Article Choice



Court

a
Ex:

>< >< ><

an without a/an (uncountable noun) the

A eclipse of the sun may be either total or partial

a/an a/an
Ex:

Rose Bird was a first woman in the history of California to serve on the State Supreme

a/an/the
Ex:

><

without a/an/the

Slag consists of waste material and impurities which rise to top of melted metals. The most asteroids are beyond the orbit of the planet Mars.

the Ex:

><

possessive adjectives

The Ozark Mountains of Arkansas are known for the rugged beauty

Note:
- a university/ a European/ a one-parent family/a union/a unicorn/ a unique character - an hour/ an honest man/ an honor/ an heir/ an heiress/ an MP/ an FBI

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1.

Clause marker (a) S+ V(f) (b) Present P (c) Past P (d) Adjective , S+V

Common clause markers:


a. Time: after , as, as long as, as soon as, before, by the time, now that, once, since, until, when, while, whenever b. Concessions/Contrast: although, even though, though, even if, whereas, while, despite the fact that, in spite of the fact that, except that/however c. Reason: as, because, since, in that, in case d. Results: so that, so that, such that e. Manner: as if, as though f. Place: wherever g. Conditions: if, even if, only if, provided, unless

(,) (1) Clause marker

2. S + V + (Object)

, ;

(2) Conjunction (3) conjunctive adverbs

S + V + (Object)

Conjunctions:

and, but, yet, for, so, or besides, likewise, moreover, in addition, additionally however, nevertheless, on the other hand, in contrast, in spite this of

Conjunctive advs -

therefore, as a result, accordingly, consequently otherwise then, meanwhile similarly, correspondingly, likewise for example, for instance

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ARTICLES A/AN
1. Before singular countable nouns Ex: Australia is a continent 2. To introduce a subject that has not mentioned before Ex: I saw a tiger. 3. With certain expressions a dozen a couple a/one hundred/thousand/million a great many a great deal a lot of 4. With names of professions Ex: He is an engineer. She is a doctor. a/one half a/one third a/one quarter fifty miles an/per hour ten kilometers an/per hour $10 a/per day

THE
1. Only one example of the thing/person or the identity of the person or thing is clear Ex: The moon is full today. Please open the door. 2. With certain expressions the morning/afternoon/evening the past/present/future the front/back/center/top/bottom the beginning/middle/end the north/south/east/west 3. Before a singular noun representative of a class of things ( usually names of animals, plants, inventions, musical instruments, and parts of the body) Ex: The tiger is the largest cat The heart pumps blood The Wright brothers invented the airplane. She plays the guitar.

18 4. Before ordinal number (Note: No article is used before expressions with cardinal numbers.) Ex: The First World War (But: World War One) The second chapter (But: Chapter Two) The third gate (But: Gate Three)

The seventh volume (But: Volume Seven) 5. Before decades and centuries Ex: the 1930s the twenty-first century 6. Before superlative adjectives Ex: The biggest island on earth is Greenland. the fifties the 1800s the sixties the twentieth century

7. Quantifier + of + the + noun Many/ some/all/much/most/a few/all/... of the + Noun Note: These expressions can also be used without the phrase of the Ex: Many books Some water 8. Before a group of people or a nationality Ex: The Vietnamese are very hardworking The Swedish are proud of their ancestors, the Vikings. Note: No article is used before the name of a language Ex: She learned to speak Vietnamese when she lived in Hanoi. not much paper a few pictures

9. The + adjective (= people who are...) Ex: The rich should help the poor.

10. Before a specific noun Ex: The coffee I had this morning was Brazilian (specific) Coffee originated in Ethiopia. (general) The rice that I bought today is in the bag. (specific) Rice is a staple in many countries.(general) The trees in this park are mostly evergreens. (specific) Trees provide shade. (general)

19 11. The + subject + of NP Subject (used alone) --> no article Adjective + Subject --> no article Ex: The literature of the twentieth century The history of The United States. But: I major in literature I study American history. 12. Before names of countries, states, cities, universities, colleges, and schools that contain the word "of" or before countries that have a plural name or an adjective in the name, except for Great Britain Ex: The United States of America The Socialist Republic of Vietnam (but: Vietnam) The State of Florida (But: Florida) The city of Boston ( But: Boston) The University of Texas ( But: Boston University) The Netherlands/ The Philippines 13. Before a. oceans: b. seas c. gulfs d. rivers e. plural names of mountains f. plural names of islands g. plural names of lakes Ex: Ex: Ex: Ex: Ex: Ex: Ex: The pacific Ocean The Black Sea The Gulf of Mexico The Nile The Appalachian Mountains (But: Mount Everest) The Hawaiian Islands (But: Manhattan Island) The Great Lakes (But: Lake Michigan)

14. Before the names of ships, planes, trains and people's family names Ex: The Titanic The Orient Express The Browns

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GERUND AND INFINITIVE


I. VERB + TO INF
afford agree appear arrange ask attempt beg care consent decide desire deserve expect fail forget hesitate hope learn manage mean need offer plan prepare pretend promise refuse seem struggle swear threaten want wish try intend

Ex:

Tom wants to become a doctor. Susan pretended to sleep. David promised not to be late again.

II. VERB + OBJECT + TO INFINITIVE


advise allow ask beg cause challenge convince dare encourage expect forbid force hire instruct invite order permit persuade remind require teach tell urge want warn invite recommend enable lead motivate use

Ex: They begged us to come. I warn you not to drive so fast.

Note: advise/allow/encourage/permit/recommend (1) + object + to inf (2) + V-ing


Ex: He doesnt allow smoking in his house He doesnt allow anyone to smoke in his house Nobody is allowed to smoke in his house

III. VERB + V-ING


admit appreciate avoid complete consider delay deny discuss dislike enjoy finish cant help keep mention mind postpone practice quit recall recollect resent resist risk stop suggest miss tolerate involve understand include

Ex:

I dislike driving long distances I cant help worrying about it. Would you mind not smoking in this class?

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IV. VERB + V-ING/ TO INFINITIVE


begin start continue cant stand hate love prefer like

Ex: It began to rain/ raining

Note: would like/love/prefer + to infinitive


Ex: I would like to play tennis today.

V. ADJECTIVE / PARTICIPLE+ TO INFINITIVE


anxious eager usual easy difficult hard dangerous ready willing able pleased prepared boring interesting

Ex: Tom is anxious to see his family. It is very dangerous to drive in this weather. We are ready to leave now.

Note: be busy/worth + V-ing.


Ex: He is busy doing his homework. The book is worth reading.

VI.

PREPOSITION + V-ING 1. VERB + PREPOSITION + V-ING


succeed in count on keep on think about think of depend on put off dream about look forward to object to confess to devote to dedicate to commit to

approve of give up rely on insist on

Ex: John gave up smoking three years ago. I am looking forward to going back to school.

2. ADJECTIVE + PREPOSITION + V-ING


afraid of interested in capable of successful in tired of be/get accustomed to fond of be/get used to

Ex: She is afraid of getting married now. To gets used to getting up early.

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VII.

SPECIAL CASES
1. STOP
He stopped smoking (He gave up smoking; he is not going to smoke any more.) He stopped to smoke (He stopped doing something in order to smoke)

2. TRY TRY + TO INF: make an effort to do something


Ex: I was very tire. I tried to keep my eyes open, but I couldnt.

TRY + V-ING: do something as an experiment or test


Ex: Ive got a terrible headache. I tried taking an aspirin, but it did not help.

3. REMEMBER REMEMBER + TO INF: You remember to do something before you do it


Ex: Please remember to post the letter. (= Dont forget to post the letter)

REMEMBER + V-ING: You remember doing something after you do it


Ex: I clearly remember locking the door before I left.

4. NEED NEED + TO INF (ACTIVE)


Ex: John needs to paint the door. My friend needed to learn Spanish

NEED + V-ING = NEED + TO BE DONE (PASSIVE)


Ex: The grass needs cutting/ to be cut. The television needs fixing/to be fixed.

5. MAKE/LET/HAVE + OBJECT + BARE INFINITIVE


Ex: Sad movies always make me cry. I had the mechanic repair my car. (I had my car repaired by the mechanic My parents do not let me go out late at night.

6. VERBS OF PERCEPTION + V-ING/ BARE INFINITIVE


see notice watch look at observe hear listen to smell feel

Ex: I saw my friend running/run down the street.

7. GO + V-ING
GO boating bowling camping canoeing dancing fishing hiking hunting jogging climbing running sailing shopping sightseeing skating skiing swimming

Ex: My sister went sailing yesterday

8. TO INFINITIVE can be used after the first, the second, the last, the only and sometimes after superlatives.
Ex: She loves parties. She is always the first to come and the last to leave. He is the second man to be killed in this way.

23 9. TO INFINITIVE can be used after certain nouns


ability ambition anxiety attempt decision demand desire determination eagerness effort failure offer plan promise refusal request scheme willingness wish readiness

Ex: His ability to get on with people is his chief asset. Ex: He made an effort to stand up. 10.
catch/find/leave + Object spend/ waste + Time have fun/ a good time have trouble/difficulty have a hard time/ difficult time + + + + + V-ing V-ing V-ing V-ing V-ing

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WORD ENDINGS
A. COMMON NOUN (THING) ENDINGS 1. ism : baptism, criticism, organism, heroism, patriotism, alcoholism,
barbarism, dwarfism, parallelism

2. nce 3. ness 4. ion 5. ment

: importance, significance, dependence, arrogance, resistance, subsistence : bitterness, conceitedness, darkness, hardness, kindheartedness : excision, damnation, pollution, suggestion, a notion, an action,
vexation, concoction, completion.

: abridgement, accomplishment, banishment, commencement,


embodiment, enhancement, excitement, fragment, garment, ornament, treatment

6. (i)ty 7. age

: purity, authority, dubiety, majority, superiority, humidity, cruelty,


faculty, honesty, plenty, safety, subtlety

: baggage, carriage, cartage, damage, dotage, hermitage, homage


language, luggage, marriage, passage, tillage, tonnage, vicarage, village.

8. ship

: ambassadorship, citizenship, headship, professorship, chairmanship,


fellowship, scholarship, companionship, friendship, hardship, relationship, craftsmanship, entrepreneurship, horsemanship, membership, courtship

9. th 10. dom 11. hood 12. ure 13. cy 14. (t)ry

: bath, birth, death, oath, growth, stealth, filth, health, length, strength,
truth, depth, breadth, wealth.

: earldom, freedom, kingdom, officialdom, wisdom : childhood, falsehood, sisterhood, brotherhood, neighborhood,
likelihood, livelihood

: closure, picture, scripture, legislature, nature, failure, pleasure,


treasure

: bankruptcy, captaincy, democracy, privacy, delicacy, advocacy,


confederacy, accuracy, obstinacy, piracy, , aristocracy, expectancy, efficiency, presidency, sufficiency, deficiency

rivalry, ancestry, carpentry, industry, greenery, machinery, scenery, bakery, brewery, bravery, slavery, archery

15. logy : archaeology, geology, sociology, theology, zoology 16. graphy : bibliography, biography

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B. COMMON NOUN (PERSON) ENDINGS 1. or : actor, creator, doctor, monitor, sculptor, successor, guarantor,
conqueror, donor, governor, solicitor, tailor, visitor. bachelor

2. er 3. ee 4. ist 5. ician

: hatter, geographer, astrologer, cottager, foreigner, Londoner,


New Yorker, northerner, villager, airliner, old-timer, sorcerer

: employee, payee, devotee, escapee, conferee, absentee, refugee. : chemist, dramatist, economist, geologist; dentist, pianist, tobacconist;
Buddhist, Darwinist, idealist, Marxist, racist, optimist, pessimist

: magician, physician, musician, electrician, beautician,


politician, statistician, mathematician, mortician,

6. ant (10%) : assistant, accountant, consultant, contestant, inhabitant C. ADJECTIVE ENDINGS 1. ent : independent, sufficient, absent, ambivalent, ancient, apparent,
ardent

2. ant 3. ful 4. ic 5. less 6. ive 7. ous 8. able 9. ible 10. al 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

: arrogant, expectant, important, significant , abundant, ignorant,


brilliant,

: beautiful, graceful, powerful, grateful, forgetful, mournful,


Exceptions: handful, mouthful, spoonful are nouns

: civic, classic, historic, artistic, economic, : doubtless, fearless, hatless, powerless, countless, tireless, faceless,
legless, careless, helpless

: authoritative, demonstrative, figurative, imitative, qualitative,


talkative, active, passive, comparative, possessive

: dangerous, glorious, murderous, viscous, ferocious, hilarious, : charitable, separable, bearable, reliable, comfortable, suitable. : audible, compressible, edible, horrible, terrible : central, general, oral, colossal, tropical, tidal Exceptions : rival, arrival, proposal, withdrawal, survival are nouns ory : mandatory, compulsory, predatory, satisfactory Exceptions : dormitory, promontory, territory are nouns ary : arbitrary, budgetary, contrary, primary, temporary, necessary y : angry, happy, icy, messy, milky, tidy, chilly, haughty, slippery, ly : beastly, cowardly, queenly, rascally (r)ate (10%): temperate, accurate, considerate, immediate, literate ish : boorish, boyish, foolish, womanish, bookish, feverish, bluish, reddish

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D. COMMON VERB ENDINGS 1. en/ en : listen, happen, strengthen, lengthen, shorten, soften, ripen, deepen,
widen, entrust, enslave, enlighten, entangle, enlarge, encourage, enable, enrich

2. ate 3. ize 4. ify

: assassinate, associate, fascinate, felicitate, hydrate, separate,


vaccinate, evacuate

: characterize, idolize, agonize, apologize, sympathize, theorize,


authorize, extemporize, fertilize, fossilize, jeopardize, moralize, Americanize, carbonize, oxidize

: pacify, satisfy, petrify, solidify, horrify

E. COMMON ADVERB ENDING 1. ly : amusingly, deservedly, firstly, fully, greatly, happily, hourly, truly,
firstly, secondly

2. wise 3. ways 4. ward

: crosswise, lengthwise, otherwise, clockwise : edgeways, endways, lengthways, sideways : backward, homeward, inward, onward, skyward, eastward

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SUBJECT VERB AGREEMENT


A. BASIC SUBJECT VERB AGREEMENT
1. Singular Subject + Singular Verb 2. Plural Subject + Plural Verb Ex: My friend lives in Boston. Growing flowers is her hobby. My friends live in Boston.

B. SPECIAL CASES 1.
Sing Subject 1 and Sing Subject 2 + Plural Verb

Ex:

The actor and the singer are coming. Jean and David are coming back to Australia.

Note: However, phrases connected by and can be followed by singular verbs if we think of them as making up a single item. Ex: Meat pie and peas is Toms favorite at the moment Fish and chips is my favorite food of in addition to with together with + Subject 2 + Verb along with as well as no less than like/ unlike

2.

Subject 1 +

Ex:

One of my friends is here. You together with Tom are responsible for this failure.

Either + Subject 1 +

or + Subject 2 + Verb nor

3.
Ex:

Neither

Neither John nor his friends are going to the beach

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4.

There + be +

Noun

Ex:

There is a book on the shelf There are three books on the shelf

5.
There/ Here + Verb + Noun

Ex:

Here comes the Queen. Here lie many unknown soldiers.

6.
Every Each Either Neither Ex: Noun (singular) + of the Noun (plural) + Singular Verb

Each boy/ each of the boys has a gift.

Note: Each boy and each girl is to do this exercise.


Everyone Everybody Everything Someone Somebody Something Anyone Anybody Anything No one Nobody Nothing + Singular Verb

7.

Ex: Everyone has his or her own idea.

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8.

a.

A/the majority of A number of A lot of + Plenty of Some of None of Half of No Ex:

Plural Noun +

Plural Verb

A number of refugees have been turned back at the border. Plenty of potatoes are grown here. None of the answers are correct.

b.

The number of +

Plural Noun

+ Singular Verb

Ex:

The number of books in the library has risen to over five million.

c.

Any of None of The majority of A lot of Plenty of All (of) Some (of)

+ Uncountable Noun +

Singular Verb

Ex: council association audience class club college committee community

All the furniture was destroyed in the fire. company crowd department electorate enemy family firm generation government group jury orchestra population press public school staff team university faculty choir gang couple cabinet Singular Verb ( if they are referred to as a group)

9.

Plural Verb ( if they are seen as a collection of individual)

Ex:

The team is winning. (the team as a group) The team are going back to their homes. (meaning individual members of the team)

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belongings clothes congratulations earnings goods outskirts particulars premises Ex: riches glasses savings pliers stairs pants surroundings + Plural Verb thanks scissors shorts jeans

10.

The pants are in the drawer. (A pair of pants is in the drawer)

11.

police people cattle poultry Ex:

Plural Verb

The police are looking for the missing child.

12.

news physics politics mumps economics

measles statistics mathematics physics phonetics

rabies diabetes gymnastics athletics linguistics

Singular Verb

Ex:

Physics is difficult. The news is alarming.

13.

The titles of books, plays, movies, etc., always take a singular verb Ex: The Los Angeles Times is on the desk. Gullivers Travels is a well-known childrens book.

14.

Nouns stating an amount of time, money or measurement always take a singular verb Ex: Five minutes is not enough to do this exercise. Thirty-five dollars is too much for this shirt. Four -hundred miles is too much to drive in one day.

15.

The + Ex:

Adjective

Plural Verb

The poor need help.

16.

Uncountable Noun +
baggage garbage mail clothing hardware makeup coffee blood bread silver

Singular Verb
equipment jewelry money tea food junk cash milk fruit luggage change oil

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furniture machinery postage soup

Fluids

water gasoline ice iron

Solids

butter glass

cheese paper

meat wood

gold wool

Gases
steam air chalk dirt confidence health justice peace violence information energy oxygen corn salt courage help knowledge pride wealth news homework nitrogen dust sand education honesty laughter progress smoke grass flour enjoyment hospitality music recreation pollution hair wheat fun importance luck sleep rice pepper beauty happiness intelligence patience truth advice space vocabulary

Particles

Abstraction

evidence work

proof grammar

time slang

Activities

driving baseball

swimming soccer dew rain light

traveling tennis fog sleet sunshine

working chess hail snow electricity heat thunder fire humidity wind gravity

Natural phenomena

weather lightning darkness

Ex:

Smoking is harmful to your health.

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PREPOSITIONS
1. PREPOSITIONS OF TIME A. In
century ( in the twenty-first century) decade ( in the 1970s; in the nineties) year (in 2007) season ( in the summer) month ( in July) parts of the day ( in the morning; in the afternoon; in the evening) the past/ future amounts of time ( in/within an hour)

B. On
date (on September 11) day (on Monday; on Sunday morning)

C. At
time of day (at 9:20) night/ midnight/ noon /dawn/dusk/sunrise/sunset/the moment/the same time/present/ first/last

D. During
During is used with periods of time It snows a lot in Montreal during the winter His company grew rapidly during the 1980s

During is NOT used with dates or days of the week.

E. Until
Until is used with points of time to indicate that an action continues up to that point Helen practiced the piano until noon They wont arrive until tomorrow

F. From . To/until and between and


These phrases are used with starting points and ending points From 1990 to/until 1993, Mr. Nolan was in charge of the sales division. Between 1990 and 1993, Mr. Nolan was in charge of the sales division.

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G. Since/ For
Since and for are generally used with a perfect tense We've been waiting here since two o'clock. The factory has been here since the 1970s. We had been talking for a good half hour.

2. PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE A. In
the world continent (in Asia) country ( in China) state/province (in California; in Ontario) in city ( in Munich) building (in the Empire State Building) room (in the living room)

B. On
earth (the origin of life on Earth) street ( on Wall Street) coast ( on the East Coast) floor ( on the second floor)

C. At
address (at 634 Sutter Street) building (at the museum) home/school/college/work

D. From to and between and


They're building a new road between Manchester and Sheffield. They're building a new road from Manchester to Sheffield.

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3. OTHER COMMON PREPOSITION COMBINATIONS A. In


clothes ( in a gray suit) language ( written in Vietnamese) book ( in the Complete Guide to TOEIC) newspaper ( in the International Herald-Tribune) magazine ( in Times) department ( in the sales department) field ( in computer science) ones opinion (in her opinion) a car / a taxi (I've left my bag in the car.) trouble (I think I'm in trouble with Dad.) danger of (The bridge was in danger of collapsing.) part (The failure of the project was due in part to his lack of leadership. front of (He walked along in front of me, holding the lantern.) the middle of (Jo was standing in the middle of the room.) the back of (Two men were sitting in the back of the car.) the rear (a passenger traveling in the rear of a car) line (The kids were standing in line waiting for their teacher.) the process of (The company is in the process of moving to new offices.)

B. On
a vehicle ( on a bus; on a train; on a plane) foot (It takes about 30 minutes on foot, or 10 minutes by car.) a trip (We were all going on a trip.) business (She's in New York this week on business) holiday (I'm away on holiday until the 1st of June.) sale (These gloves were on sale for only $9.) the market (Handguns are freely available on the open market) schedule (The majority of holiday flights depart and arrive on schedule.) time (Jack was worried about whether he'd be able to get there on time.) (the) television/radio (Later that evening we watched it all on television again.) the phone (Bridget's on the phone all day long.) a farm (Joe had worked on the farm all his life.) the other hand (I'd like to eat out, but on the other hand I want to save money.)

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purpose (Fire investigators believe the fire was set on purpose.)

C. BY
By is used before a point of time to indicate the latest time. By, in this case, means no later than. I will be home by noon. By can mean next to She is standing by her friend. By is used after passive verbs to identify the agent of the action. This report was written by Peter. By is used with means of transportation and communication by car/plane/e-mail

Note: in a/my car; on a plane Other By chance/ hand/ far/check/credit card/ means of

D. With
With is used to express the idea of accompaniment or ownership I went to the restaurant with Andrea. The man with the briefcase is the vice-president.

With is also used to indicate the tool or instrument used to complete something He opened the door with his key. He paid for the bill with a credit car

E. Without
Without means not having, experiencing or showing something; not in the company of someone or not doing the action mentioned They had gone two days without food. He found the place without difficulty. She spoke without much enthusiasm. Don't go without me. I don't know what I'd do without you. The rest of the group set off without him. Don't go out without your coat.

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He left without saying goodbye. You can't make an omelet without breaking eggs. Suddenly and without any warning, the army opened fire. He had gone out without his parents' permission.

F. Within
Within can mean during a particular period of time We should have the test results back within 24 hours. He fell sick and died within a matter of weeks. Within an hour of our arrival, Caroline was starting to complain. Within the space of a year, three of the town's factories have closed down.

Within can mean less than a certain distance from a particular place The invading troops came within 50 miles of Paris. We live within easy reach of (=close to) the shops. Adjust the driver's seat so that all the controls are within reach (=close enough to touch) Within can also mean inside the range or limits of something We have to operate within a very tight budget. Private security firms have to work strictly within the law. You can go anywhere you want within reason (=within reasonable limits) He finds it hard to live within his income.

G. Beyond
Beyond can mean more or greater than a particular amount, level, or limit More people are choosing to work beyond retirement age. Inflation has risen beyond the 5% level. Such tasks are far beyond the scope of the average school kid. Expensive luxuries that are beyond the reach of ordinary people

Beyond can be used to say that something is impossible to do Scott's equipment was damaged beyond repair. The town centre had changed beyond all recognition. Due to circumstances beyond our control the performance has had to be cancelled. Why Joan ever married such an idiot in the first place is beyond me.

37

READING COMPREHENSION STRATEGIES

38

READING STRATEGIES
1. OVERVIEW QUESTIONS
The most common overview question asks about the purpose or main topic of the passage. Other overview questions ask about the writer of the passage or the reader of the passage. What does this article/the memo mainly discuss? What is this form? What is the purpose of this letter/announcement/notice? Why was this notice/letter written? In what business is the writer of the passage? What kind of business is Mr. ________ probably in? Who issued/wrote this notice? What is the authors opinion of ______? Who were these instructions written for? Who would be most interested in the information in this announcement? For whom is this advertisement/notice intended? Dont answer the initial overview questions until you have answered the other questions Usually focus on the title and the first sentence(s) of each paragraph for the topic and main idea; also focus on the last sentence for the conclusion and a possible restatement of the topic and main idea. Skim (read very quickly) the rest of the passage for the key words that will confirm the topic and main idea. Read the answer choices and eliminate the distractors which may have one of these characteristics: a. too general b. too specific (detailed) c. incorrect

d. irrelevant (not mentioned)

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II.

DETAIL QUESTIONS
1. Information/Factual Questions often begin with the phrases According to the passage/the author, wh- questions... 2. Negative Questions contain the words NOT, EXCEPT, or LEAST Focus on one or two key words in the question Scan the passage looking for the key words or related words (synonyms, word family) Carefully read the sentence in which the key words occur. (You may have to read the sentence preceding or following that sentence as well.) Choose the correct answer

III. REFERENCE QUESTIONS


1. --------------------------------- . A ------------------------------------Initial position ---> usually read the previous sentence and find the noun that the referent replaces 2. ---------------------------------------------------------- A----------------------. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- A. Middle/Final Position ---> usually read the whole sentence in which the referent occurs 3. This/ That usually refer to the whole previous sentence or phrase. So, read the previous sentence or phrase and summarize it. 4. Another ---> Look for One + Noun 5. Others ----> Look for Some/Many + Noun 6. The former/the later/ respectively

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IV. VOCABULARY IN CONTEXT


1.

Look for synonyms


same word.

in the passage because the author may avoid repeating the

2. Look for examples

- for example, for instance, such as


3. Look for contrast

- but, yet, still - however, nevertheless, on the other hand, in contrast, in spite of this - although, even though, though, even if, whereas, while, despite the fact that, in spite of the fact that, except that - not - rather than, instead of
4.

Focus on the general context and see if context clues in the sentence or in the
sentences before or after can help you guess the meaning

- Literal Meaning >< Figurative meaning


Example: * He grasped my hand firmly
* I dont think you have quite grasped the seriousness of the situation.

V.

INFERENCE QUESTIONS

Inference Questions usually include such words as infer, imply, suggest, guess, probably, or likely or such phrases as Why mention? What . to do next? Which of these .. is probably true? and What ..probably do?

Answer choices to inference questions require students to 1. understand what the question is asking and know where to find the answer passage 2. relate the information in the answer choice to a synonym or paraphrase of information in the passage; and 3. determine what is true and not true in the answer choices in the

Note: Answer choices that contain such words as always, never,


all, and only are usually NOT correct.

41

LISTENING STRATEGIES

42

PART 1: Strategies for sentences about photographs


1. Always complete each item as quickly as possible so that you can preview the photograph for the next item. Dont wait for the statement that says, Now look at photograph number ______ 2. If you are previewing a photograph that involves a person or people, ask yourself these questions What are the people doing? Where are they? Who are they? (Is there a uniform or a piece of equipment or anything else that indicates their profession or role?) What distinguishes them? (Is there a hat, a mustache, a purse, a pair of glasses, a tie or anything else that differentiates the people?) What do the peoples expressions tell you? (Do they look happy? Unhappy? Excited? Bored? Upset?) 3. If you are previewing a photograph of an object, ask yourself these questions What is it? What is it made of? What is it used for? Where is it? 4. I If you are previewing a photograph of a scene, ask yourself these questions Where is it? What is in the foreground (the front of the picture)? What if anything is happening? What is in the background (the distant part of the picture)? 5. Dont mark an answer until you have heard all four choices. When you hear a choice that you think is correct, rest your pencil on that oval on your answer sheet. If you change your mind and hear a sentence that you think is better, move your pencil to that choice. Once you have heard all four sentences, mark the oval that your pencil is resting on. (This technique helps you remember which choice you think is best.) 6. Try to eliminate choices with problems in Sound Meaning Sound & Meaning 7. Never leave any blanks. Always guess before going on to the next item. 8. As soon as you have finished marking the answer, stop looking at and thinking about the photograph and move on to the next item.

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PART II: Strategies for Questions/Responses


1. Identifying time
Words you might hear in the questions
When did . When will/ is/ is expected, due / be V-ing/ can How long What time When did Christopher arrive? When will the advertising seminar begin? When is Marias birthday? When was Mr. Chen born? When will my laundry be ready? When does Mr. Gustavson predict the construction of the building will be finished? How long will this session last? How long has the photocopying machine been out of order? What time does your flight leave? What time is the news on television? -

Words you might hear in the answers


yesterday/ last/ ago/ in (month, year)/ this morning at + time/ tomorrow/next/ in / this afternoon/ on (date) for/since/ over . at Last Wednesday. At two oclock sharp. On March 3. In 1953. In about two hours. In about a month.

For another hour, perhaps. Since 10:00 this morning. At 7:30. Its on at 11.

2. Identifying people
Words you might hear in the questions
Who -

Words you might hear in the answers


Name/ Occupation title A man/woman who . Possessive case (Its + names) Ms. Preston A man who worked at the Central Pastry Shop. A young intern from the marketing department was chosen. I can do it when Ive finished typing this letter. I was planning to. I was wondering where I left it! Its Frans.

Whose Who will go with you on the business trip? Whos the new chef at the Fontaines bakery? Who did Mrs. Martelli pick to fill the position? Who can deliver this memo to Mr. Wantanabe for me? Whos going to pick him up at the station? Whose coffee cup is this on my desk? Whose scarf is this?

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3. Identifying a thing, an action or idea


Words you might hear in the questions
What ? What kind/type of What do you think I should wear to the party What is the fine for overdue books? What was that loud noise I just heard? What kind of work does Ms. Garcia do? What kind of novel do you like? Whats the name of the travel agency this company uses? What are your total production figures for this factory? What do you plan to do when school is finished? What do you estimate your firms profit will be in December?

Words you might hear in the answers


Something () I dont know A suit and a tie. Its ten cents a day. I dont know. Shes a computer programmer. I prefer adventure stories. I think its called All Points Travel. Over 1000 units a week. Work for my father. Optimistically speaking, about 20 percent.

4. Identifying an opinion
Words you might hear in the questions
How Whats your opinion of ? Do you think Tom will .? What do you think of .?

Words you might hear in the answers


Adjectives: great/ good/ terrific/ excellent / wonderful/ happy/ busy/ terrible/ boring Verbs: love/like/enjoy/prefer/believe/ Expressions: Its a good/great idea I enjoyed it, but my husband didnt. Its terrific. I dont know her well enough to say.

How did you like that new movie? What do you think of Scott Grahams latest novel? What do you think of your new supervisor?

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5. Identifying a choice
Words you might hear in the questions
. A or B? . prefer? like better?

Words you might hear in the answers


A/B will be repeated in the answer choice Neither one/Both, please Either one

Note: The speaker can offer a third option


Which does that artist produce more of paintings or sculptures? Will you arrive in the morning or the evening? Do you want milk or sugar in your coffee? Should I wait here at the counter or follow you back to the warehouse? What do you think, plain or patterned carpet in the waiting room? Will the conference be held here or at the headquarters? Should they move the file cabinet to the right or over by the copy machine? Shall I put this file on your desk or back in the filing cabinet? Can you locate the files on the merger, or should I ask Mr. Chan to do it? Lately, she has been doing a lot of paintings. In the morning, I think. Neither one. Oh, come with me please. Either one is fine with me. Its scheduled for this building. I think it looks good where it is. Ill take it. Ill have them ready for you in a minute.

6. Identifying an invitation, offer, request


Words you might hear in the questions Why dont we ? Why dont you? Dont you want to..? I was wondering if youd like to . Lets . What/How about .? Shouldnt we/ Shall we ? Would/Wouldnt you like me to .? Can I? Couldnt you ? Words you might hear in the answers OK Id love to! Of course Sure That sounds like fun/ Thats a good idea/ Great, Yes, please (accept the offer) No, thanks . (turn down the offer) Thank you, but ( turn down the offer) Sorry, Ive already made plans/ I h ave other plans. ( turn down the offer) Sorry, but ( turn down the offer) Wed love to thanks!

Would you like to join us for a game of tennis? Would you like to order a calendar for next year? Shall we send you a reminder for your

- Thanks, but I already have one

- Yes, that would be helpful.

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next dental appointment? Why dont we go out this evening? Why dont we take the earlier train home? How about a movie when we finish up here? Would you mind opening you bag so I can inspect it, sir? Dont you want to go to the reception for Miss Gunther? I was wondering if youd like to join us for dinner this evening? Couldnt you stop at the post office today? What about visiting the flower show over the weekend? - Sorry, Ive already made plans - Great, Im exhausted. - Thats a good idea. - Not at all - Sorry, but Im not feeling well. - Sorry, I have other plans. - I might have time after lunch. - Wednesday afternoon would be better for me.

7. Identifying a reason
Words you might hear in the questions
Why

Words you might hear in the answers


To do sth Because/ Because of Note: An implied reason ( usually a certain problem) can be given - I think there are mechanical problems. - I couldnt find a phone. - There had been too many complaints. - Everyone was in a hurry. - He though he could handle it himself

Why is this train running late? Why didnt you let us know youd be late? Why did the board of directors change its policy? Why did the meeting begin so early? Why didnt Mr. Danforth bring the situation to the attention of his supervisor? Why didnt you get to work on time? Why does Ms. Ortiz want to see the invoices?

- The traffic was terrible. - Theres a problem with the shipment.

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8. Identifying a description
Words you might hear in the questions
What is like? What does .look like? What are your new co-workers like? Whats the weather like here in the winter? -

Words you might hear in the answers


an adjective or adjectives They seem very pleasant Its cool and often rainy

9. Identifying manner or a method


Words you might hear in the questions
How will/can..? -

Words you might hear in the answers


By ( a means of transport ) With Ill get my car back from the mechanic. Express service is very reliable. Contact Ms. McKay in the stockroom. I send out this pamphlet.

How will you get to work tomorrow? How can we be sure that the order will arrive on time? How can I get more letterhead and envelopes? How do you handle inquiries?

10. Identifying a location


Words you might hear in the questions
Where? -

Words you might hear in the answers


Names of the places Prepositions of places (in/ next to/ near/ beside/ under/ over/ on/ on top of/ at/ from/ behind/ right/ left/ downtown / at the end of minutes away/ walk/drive km Lets meet at the stadium entrance. At the Grand Hotel. She put it in Ms. Garcias mailbox. Its about 10-minute walk.

How far ? Where should we meet so we can all go to the game together? Where are you staying ion Paris? Where did Maria leave the Oceanview contract? How far would you say Conrad Park is from here?

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11.

Yes/No Questions & Tag Questions


Words you might hear in the answers
Yes /No/ Not Yes, its here. Yes, he had an appointment. Mike showed him everything works. No, I didnt think of it. Yes, it was quite a surprise. Yes, but she has to submit a claim form. Yes, it is priced fairly. I would appreciate it I still have time

Words you might hear in the questions


Do/Does/Did/ Have.? Dont/ Doesnt/ Didnt ? Have they delivered our lunch yet? Has the director already left? the copier? Did you ask them what time their flight would arrive? Your managing director resigned yesterday, didnt he? Wilma gets reimbursed for the cost of driving her car to the meting, doesnt she? This new product should sell well, shouldnt it? You want me to retype this document, dont you? You dont want to start a new project this late in the day, do you? -

Didnt anyone train the new employee to use -

49

Part 3: Short Conversations


I. Strategies
1. Between each question is an eight-second pause. That means there are twenty-four seconds between each conversation. You can accomplish quite a bit during this time. You need to mark your answers for the three questions and then preview the next three questions and answer choices. They tell you what to listen for. 2. While listening to each conversation, keep your eyes on the corresponding set of three questions and answer choices. Don't close your eyes or look away. Try to evaluate the four choices as you are listening. 3. Remember that distractors are sometimes mentioned in the conversations but are not answers to the question. Don't choose an answer just because you hear a word or two from the answer in the conversation. 4. If the correct answer is not obvious, try to eliminate answer choices that seem to be incorrect. If more than one answer choice is left, take a guess. 5. Mark your answers as quickly as possible so that you can preview the next item. 6. Never leave any answers blank. If you are not sure, always guess.

II. Question types A. Overview questions B. Detail questions C. Inference question A. Overview Questions
Types of over view questions
1. Questions about locations 2. Questions about occupations 3. Questions about activities 4. Questions about topic

Question Words
Where..? Who? What doing? Whattalking about?

50

1. Questions about locations


Questions
Where are they? Where are the speakers? Where is the man/woman? Where is the conversation taking place? Tactics Examples Listen for vocabulary that is associated M: We dont have any with a certain location reservations. Is it still - Terminal /carousel/check-in/departure lounge/ gate/ hangar /run-way Airport - Rolls/cake/bread Bakery - Stage/cast/scene/box office/ Theater - Chain/ring/necklace/bracelet Jewelry store - Menu/terminal/keyboard Computer store - Bulldozer/hard hat/crane Construction site - Dryer/hangars/detergent Laundromat - Pen/envelopes/letterhead/postcard Post office - Account/balance/statement /checkbook / deposit/credit/loan/ interest rates Bank - Surf/towel/umbrella/wave/sunbathe Beach - Lawyer/judge/witness/defendant/plaintiff/ jury Courtroom - Spectators/ cheer/ clap/ match/ player Stadium - Lane/driver/exit Freeway - Suite/front desk/reservation/ room/ receptionist/room service/ housekeeper Hotel - Waiter/waitress/bill/menu/order/table/ seat/ reservation Restaurant Where are they? A. At a theater B. At a party C. At an airport D. At a restaurant possible for us to get a table for two? F: Youre in luck a party of two just canceled their reservations. We can seat you in about fifteen or twenty minutes. M: Great! I was worried, but I guess this is our lucky night!

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2.

Questions about occupations


Questions
Tactics Listen for vocabulary that is associated with a certain occupation - Kitchen/pot/knife Cook - Parking tickets/law/illegal/fine Police officer - Class/exam/student Teacher - Software/keyboard/monitor Computer programmer - Money/deposit/withdrawal Bank teller - Order/tip/guests Waiter - Runner/training/game Athlete - Medicine/nurse/hospital/patient Doctor - Instrument/orchestra/note Musician - Stage/drama/theater Actor - Passenger/Fare/Tip Taxi driver - Cash register/change/receipt Sales clerk - Newspaper/write/report/article Journalist - Switch/rewiring/ fix Electrician - Pipe/sink/faucet/leak/drip/fix Plumber - Wood/furniture/ saw/ plane/ chisels/ hammer/nail Carpenter F: I want to put a new deck on the back of my house. Do you know anyone who does that kind of work? M: Why dont you ask Thomas? He did a great job repairing the wooden stairway in my house. F: I asked him, but hes working on a new construction job. Who is Tomas? A. A sailor B. A mechanic C. A plumber D. A carpenter Examples M1: Theres something wrong with this switch. Can you fix it? M2: Its not just the switch, Im afraid. This whole building needs rewiring. M1: But that will cost a fortune! Who is the second speaker? A. An electrician B. A banker C. An engineer D. A jeweler

Who is the man/woman? Who are they? What is he/she? What are they? What is the man/womans profession / occupation/jon?

52

3. Questions about activities


Questions
What are they doing? What is happening now? What is the man doing? What is going to happen? Tactics Listen for vocabulary that is associated with a certain activity - Drinking coffee: cup, spoon, sugar, cream, coffee break - Watching a movie: film, screen, theater, popcorn - Going to the post office: mail, stamps, postal clerk, letter, package - Reading a book: novel, pages, cover, character - Making a telephone call: number, receiver, dial, answer, hang up - Using a computer: keyboard, monitor, screen, software, crash - Ordering food at a restaurant: menu, waiter, waitress, table, drink - Buying clothes: suit, pants, dress, skirt, jeans, dressing room - Eating dinner: - Waiting for a bus: - Moving furniture: - Buying a plane ticket: - Parking a car: - Driving a car: What are the speakers doing? A. Getting on a bus B. Waiting for a bus C. Taking a taxi D. Paying a fare Examples M: Ive been waiting here 15 minutes. How often do the buses come? W: One stops here every twenty minutes M: Good, we only have five minutes to wait, then.

53
4.

Questions about topics


Questions
Tactics Listen for vocabulary that is associated of the topic. The answer choices will be four plausible topics. Incorrect answers may include details the that are mentioned in the conversation but that are not the main subject of the What are they discussing A. A new outfit that the woman is wearing B. How people dress at the mans company C. Where to buy clothes for work D. A social event that the man attended conversation with a certain Examples W: Is there a dress code at your company? M: No, but most of the men wear coats and ties, and the women wear dresses or suits. W: Oh, its pretty formal then.

What/ whom are they discussing? What are they referring to? What is the topic conversation? What are they talking about? What is the conversation about? What is the subject of conversation

54

B. Detail Questions
Types of over view questions
1. Questions about time When.? How often? At what time? How long? When does Claudia want to go to the play? A. Monday B. Wednesday C. Thursday D. Saturday W1: I need to call the theater to order tickets for Wednesday. W2: Why dont you see the play over the weekend Claudia? W1: It runs only Monday through Thursday. 2. Questions about reasons Why did happen? Why is the man/woman going to? Why does the man/woman want to? Why is the man/woman upset/ happy/ puzzled? Why did not happen? Why is Mrs. Sompong leaving? A. To join another company B. To start her own business C. To enter a race D. To have a break from working M: Do you hear about Mrs. Sompongs resignation?

Question Words

Examples

Why does the man/woman W: Yes. Our competitors made her an offer she couldnt resist. not want to? M: Ill wonder if theyll appoint her as their new marketing manager? 3. Questions about plans What is the man/woman What is the woman going to do? A. Sell the camera B. Pay by check C. Fill out a form has been D. Write her name on the card planning/going to do? What does the man/woman plan to do next? What plan suggested?

What does the man/woman M: And how would you like to pay for the camera? plan to do? W: Could I write you a check? M: Certainly. Ill need some form

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of identification or a major credit card. 4. Questions about problems What is the matter with ? What is the problem here? Whats wrong with What is the man/woman concerned/ worried about? What is the man/womans problem? What is bothering the man/woman? What is Ms. Kim worried about? A. Whether she has enough money for her vacation. B. Whether she returned the book on labor dispute. C. Whether the airline will be operating or not. D. Whether her union will get higher wages. M: Are you all set for your vacation on Friday, Ms. Kim? W: Yes, but now Im waiting to see if the airline weve booked our return flight on will go out on strike that day. M: Oh yes. I head thats a possibility. The company claims it has no money to meet the unions demands. 5. Questions about opinions What does the man/ woman think of/ about ? What is the man/womans opinion of ? How does the man/woman feel about ? 6. Questions about advice What is the man/womans What does Martha advise Dan suggestion? What does the man/woman advise to do? What is the man/woman suggesting? What is the man/womans advice? to do? A. make a better work schedule B. Walk to the office C. Turn on the lights D. Give a shorter report M: Ill never get this report finished before the weekend.

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W: Youve got to allocate your time more carefully, Dan. M: I guess youre right. Ill probably wind up working at the office all night again.

(See the strategies for part 2)

C. Inference Questions
Questions
What does the man/woman imply? What is the man/woman saying about ? What can be said about? What is known about ? What can be inferred from the conversation? What does the man/woman mean? What is probably true about? What are they likely to? Tactics The answers for inference questions are not directly stated in the conversations. Instead you have to draw a conclusion based on the information that is presented by the speakers. Read the question carefully and focus on one or two key words Listen for key words that help you make a logical conclusion M: Ive heard nothing but praise for that new health food restaurant. W: Same here. And Ive got a coupon for the salad bar buy one, get one free. M: Im always looking to save some money. Lets check it out for lunch Examples What are they likely to eat out for lunch? A. Soup B. Salad C. Sandwiches D. Hamburgers

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NOTES

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