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Bioenergy Development 2013

Ulf-Peter Gran

Energy harvesting in bioenergy forest - MTH unit for multi-stem delimbing - Downy birch stands (MTH = Multi-Tree Handling)

Ulf-Peter Gran

Contents

Some examples of the various R & D projects in bioenergy in Finland

Examples of different ways, for processing of bioenergy and goals


Various types of equipment for harvesting biomass

Right equipments and good wood biomass for better end products
Small-scale CHP options

Integrate business for a good processing of biomass


Some examples of technical solutions for CHP units

Companies who work with small-scale solutions

Some examples of the various R & D work


- Finnish bioenergy research and development takes place on many levels

Future efforts for Bioenergy Solutions takes place on many fronts, in a rough division of activities taking place in these organizations;

Universities and university centres R & D in both basic and applied research applied research

Polytechnics/Universities of applied sciences VTT


(Finnish State Technical Research Centre) (Mainly work for large scale applications)

Technology development for industry

METLA (Forest Research Institute Metla)


Research based on environmental and utilization of forest resources

MTT (Research Institute of Agriculture and Food Economics)


Research based on environmental and utilization of agricultural resources
Ulf-Peter Gran

Future efforts for Bioenergy Solutions, cont.

Innovation and development centres Development and some applied research Activities agriculture and counseling

ProAgria Forestry Centres


Activities for forestry and counseling

Municipalities and associations in various regions


regional problems

and many other ..........


Ulf-Peter Gran

Heat
(kWth)

Some pick out areas of interest for Bioenergy Solutions with an Environmental concerns in development
Power
(kWe)

In rural areas located processing and use of bioenergy Large-scale processing of biomass into biofuels and chemical products Small-scale processing of biomass into biofuels Cooperation on bioenergy processing and use Technical solutions for biomass gasification Development of Energy Cooperative Harvesting and management techniques for different types of biomass

Ulf-Peter Gran

Heat (kWth)

Bioenergy Solutions with an Environmental concerns in development, cont.

Power
(kWe)

Logistic solutions for managing biomass from forest and field Interventions for enhancing knowledge Development and utilization of forest resources Development and utilization of agricultural resources Biogas plants and small-scale CHP

Small-scale "Biorefineries"
other .

Ulf-Peter Gran

Different ways for processing of bioenergy, and goals


- Higher quality needed for a longer-driven processing

The processing of bio-based raw materials


= processing of bioenergy from forest

CHP=Combined Heat and Power BTL=Biomass to liquid GTL=Gas to liquid

Material
Forest raw materials
Sun energy Photosynthesis, 6 CO2 + 6 H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2

Process

Product

Energy conversion
Boiler CHP

Available energy
Heat for heating process Electricity Heat Chemicals
Vehicle fuel

-Wood raw materials - Residues - Energy plants Agricultural raw materials

Combustion Pyrolysis

Heat Wood gas


(Carbon monoxide)

Pyrolysis oil
Alcoholic fermentation

- Grass
- Reed Canary grass, hemp - Oilseed - Grain
. . . . . . . . . . .

Alcohol

Biogas production Oil refining Vegetable oil Esterification Biogas production Biogas
(methane gas)

Gas engine + gen. Heat Chemicals Fuel raw materials Technical raw fuel BTL, GTL
Boiler Vegetable oil Biodiesel Gas engine + generator Heat Technical fuel GTL

Heat Oil
Vehicle fuel

Manure and waste - Livestock manure - biological waste Municipal waste - Manure - Process waste

Electricity Heat
Vehicle fuel

Heat Biogas production

Separation -> solid

Solid fuel

Boiler CHP

Heat

Electricity
Ulf-Peter Gran

Biomass from forest - woody biomass for pelleting


Raw materials from the forest to the Extraction of energy products when thinning clearing, field drying for storage - chipping - (final drying) - grinding and pelleting - combustion pellets and combustion

Ulf-Peter Gran

Gasification of forest biomass for heat and power or to fuel or chemical products

Different raw materials

Chemical products

Fuels
Purified Bio-Syngas

CHP
Electricity - local heating

Gasification

Product gas purification Residues

GTL
Ulf-Peter Gran

Various types of equipments for harvesting biomass is used today


- At higher quality requires better equipment and knowledge

Harvesting Technology

Ulf-Peter Gran

Multi-Tree Handling at harvest (MTH)


Quality of raw materials are determined already at harvest in the forest. With a so-called accumulating or MTH harvest units, several trees are managed and also multi-stem delimbing is done at harvest.

MTH units for both roundwood and energy wood

Logset 4M with roll feed. Through collaboration between the drive rollers and knives make it possible for multi-tree handling at harvest.

Timberjack or JD 745 with extra clamps at the top for multi-treehandling. The unit has a drive on four feed rollers. With Komatsu (Valmet) 350 can also manage multiple trees in the same grip with a skilled driver at the pre-programmed control levers.

Ulf-Peter Gran

Multi-stem delimbing of energy wood

Multi-stem delimbing devices,

- the harvester head is equipped with multi-treehandling (MTH), and delimbing knives.

Several different models and versions are multi-tree handling and multi-stem delimbing harvester heads that fit the abstraction of quality raw material for pelleting or gasification. The harvested energy wood requires a well organized, natural field drying to maintain quality and get a good wood chips that can be processed into pellets.
Ulf-Peter Gran

Metal's bioenergy harvest research in Kronoby

Energy and pulpwood next service road or collecting route

Forwarding of energy wood with a weight scale equipped forwarder

The result of Logset equipment for stripe debarking of energy wood

Field Drying properly

Research and development efforts continue


- Corridor Harvest

Geometric corridors

Corridors in fan shape

Stickvg

Stickvg

Drive
SLU Forest Technology's trial in Sweden
SLU = Swedish Agricultural University

Cooperation on technology development


Corridor Clearance

By the Company Vesweed in Haapavesi, Finland (www.vesweed.fi)


Ulf-Peter Gran

Short rotation Energy forestry fast-growing bioenergy trees


Downy birch grows rapidly and can provide a good energy wood harvest, even at 15-20 years of age.

Notice the ripped bark Stands of birch wood for energy, gives already within 20 years a good quality of wood chips. Downy birch grows rapidly in moist peat. Harvest of birch with a multi-stem delimbing MTH unit. After a natural field drying over a summer season, you can get a good wood raw material from birch, which could then be chipped, finale-drying for pelletising or gasification.
Ulf-Peter Gran

Wood Chipper - A few examples

Bruks-Klockner's mobile wood chipper 805 CT powered by a diesel engine of 330 kW.

LHM Giant is a Finnish large wood chipper for contractors. The chipper is mounted on a four-axle truck. For powering the chipper it has its own 600 hp engine. The hydraulic equipments is powered by the truck engine. The chippers feed table has the capacity of 18 m3. The chipper can easily handle slash bundles or logs, chipping capacity is 120-200 m3 wood chips per hour. Ulf-Peter Gran

Right equipments and good wood biomass for better end products
- For better quality needed skills, accuracy, and proper equipments

Examples of mobile driers for wood chips


- to make good quality of wood chips it should be final dried after chipping

Elevator scrapers at the bottom (bridge slot perforation)


Photos by, Akron.se

Bridge slot perforation in bottom

Mobile flat bottom wood chip dryer from Swedish Akron, available in two sizes, 15.5 and 32m

Examples of mobile driers for wood chips


- to make good quality of wood chips it should be final dried after chipping

Bridge slot perforation in bottom

Photos by, Lauber GmbH

Mobile flat bottom dryer, executable made in the hook bin, from the German manufacturer Lauber

Dryers for wood chips


- Some examples of other types of dryers
Right,

Stela Drum dryer


Photo by Stela.de

Left,

Stela Belt dryer,


Photo by Stela.de

Above, Drum dryer,

Right. Silo dryer

Pelleting trials with mobile pelleting equipment

Pelletising trials in Evijrvi


Ulf-Peter Gran

Combustion Experiments
Green parts, small twigs and bark provide poor pellets and creates problems with Coke formation in the pellet burner (top right)

Photos by, Sylvia Larsson

Combustion experiments at SLU-BTK, Biofuel-technical centre in Ume, SE


Ulf-Peter Gran

Cooperation with companies developing


new technologies
Wood-gasifying pellet burner

The company Pyro-Man from Sievi, Kimmo Ahola


Ulf-Peter Gran

Designing a pellet factory

A small pellet plant in operation, SPC (Sweden Power Chippers Ltd); 1. Cyclone for the dried and milled wood chips, 2. The mixing and metering unit, 3. Pellet press, 4. Conveyor up to the condenser, 5. Pellet Cooler, 6. Conveyor to the pellet silo, 7. Pellet silo, 8. Sack-up equipment for small bags, 9. Wrapper for small bags on a pallet, 10. Wood pellets in small bags on a pallet. Ulf-Peter Gran

Small pellets plants for local producers


Examples of a smaller pelleting plant

Schematic diagram of an example of a less pelleting plant: 1. Feed silo for dried wood chips, 2. Transport Screw, 3. Wood chip grinder, 4. Fan Conveyor, 5. Cyclone, 6. Auger with any steam addition, 7. Pellet Press, 8. Elevator, 9. Pellet Cooler, 10. Pellet Conveyor, 11. Big Bag. Ulf-Peter Gran

Small-scale CHP options


Heat and Power
(CHP - Combined Heat and Power) (MCHP - Micro CHP)

In rural areas, decentralized CHP units close to raw materials and local customers
- Set requirements for raw material quality for the desired quality of the end product - Choose and customize the equipments so the quality can be achieved

CHP units with direct combustion


From the forest
CHP unit
Large Boiler Steam turbine

Biomass
Moist wood chips Dry wood chips
Combustion
Harvest

ORC

Heat (kWth)

Power (kWe)

Stirling
Small CHP unit

Boiler Energy wood

Stirling

Heat (kWth)

Combustion Final drying of wood chips

Power (kWe)

Chipping wood

Ulf-Peter Gran

CHP units with gasification and the use of Bio-Syngas for direct combustion
CHP Unit
Large Boiler Moist wood chips Dry wood chips ORC Steam turbine

Heat (kWth)

Gasification reactor

Combustion

Gasification of biomass

Power (kWe)
Stirling
Small CHP unit

Boiler

Stirling

Heat (kWth)

Purification and Cooling


Product gas Bio-Syngas

Combustion

Power (kWe)
Ulf-Peter Gran

Gasification for product gas / wood gas for electricity generation


Gas engine

Biomass
from forest
+

Generator
or

Reactor

Power (kWe)

Gasification
of biomass

Bio-Syngas Bio-SNG

Micro turbine

Heat (kWth) Purification and cooling


of wood gas

Fuel cell
Ulf-Peter Gran

Integrated CHP with Gasification of biomass

Small CHP unit


Biomass

Gasification reactor
Moist wood chips

Gas engine + generator

Heat (kWth)

Gasification of biomass
Bio-Syngas
Power (kWe)

Dry wood chips

Purification and Cooling Product gas Bio-Syngas


CHP= Combined Heat and Power

Microturbine + generator

Ulf-Peter Gran

CHP through integration with gasification of biomass


Biomass
CHP unit
Moist wood chips Dry wood chips

Steam turbine

Large Boiler

ORC

Heat (kWth)

Gasification reactor
Gasification of biomass

Combustion Stirling

Power (kWe)

Smaller local CHP unit

Heat (kWth)
Purification and Cooling of product gas Bio-Syngas
Gas engine + generator Micro turbine + generator or

Power (kWe)
Ulf-Peter Gran

CHP biogas plant

Small CHP unit


Anaerobic Fermentation

Power (kWe)

Gas engine + generator

Wet biomass
Biogas Production - Manure - Bio-waste, etc

Biogas
Specific biomass

Heat (kWth)
Micro turbine + generator

Bacteria

Energy Plants
- Reed canary grass - Hemp, and others

CHP= Combined Heat and Power


Ulf-Peter Gran

Integrate business for a good processing of biomass


- By coordinating and integrating better results, utilization can be increased and wastage can be reduced

Integration Opportunities
Chips Drying CHP unit (power + heat) Energy Terminals with an integrated management, - Biomass raw materials and - Processed raw materials Gasification of biomass (for heat or cogeneration) Solar energy Geothermal energy Pellet Production Biogas production from agricultural Processing of raw material for motor fuel etc.

Ulf-Peter Gran

CHP - combined heat and power


Direct combustion of wood chips / pellets + Stirling Direct combustion of wood chips / pellets + ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) Direct combustion of wood chips / pellets + small steam turbine Gasification + direct combustion + Stirling Gasification + direct combustion + ORC Gasification + direct combustion + Hot air turbine Gasification + direct combustion + Steam engine

Gasification + Gas engine (piston engines)


Gasification + Microturbine Biogas + Gas engine

Biogas + Microturbine
Combined Bio-Syngas and biogas + Gas engine or Microturbine
Ulf-Peter Gran

Integration with local Energy Terminal


Heat (kWth)

Biomass
From forest

Power (kWe)

Heat (kWth)

Local heating plant

Small CHP plant

Energy Terminal
Cogeneration
local district heating
Wood biomass Storage section for energy products Sawdust

Bioenergy materials - Products

Stumps

Slashbundles

Wood chips

Fire wood

Wood pellets
Ulf-Peter Gran

Integration with Solar and Geothermal energy


Biomass

From forest

Solar energy

Local heating plant

Geothermal energy

Solar heat

local district heating (kWth)

Geother mal
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CHP with biomass gasification integrated with an ORC unit

organic liquid

water

Wood chips

thermal oil 300 C


Large Boiler

steam Heat (kWth)

ORC unit
Gasification reactor
Purification and Cooling Product gas Bio-Syngas
Combustion of Bio-Syngas

Power production Power (kWe)

Ulf-Peter Gran

Integration, Wood Gas and Biogas CHP

CHP= Combined Heat and Power

Ulf-Peter Gran

Energy Entrepreneurs harvest and process biomass


Energy Contractor
Harvesting

Energy Entrepreneurs
Heat / CHP Processing

Handling

Biomass

From forest

Transport

Wood chipping Field Drying


Wood crushing

Ulf-Peter Gran

Some examples of technical solutions for CHP units

MCHP (Micro CHP)

Direct combustion of wood chips or pellets

KWB in Austria and SPM (Stirling Power Module) in Germany has a pellet fired boiler with Stirling engine. The plant unit produces, - 1 kW power and - 15 kW heat.

CHP with Stirling Technology


A four cylinder Stirling engine generator of 35 kWe, which is mounted on a boiler. Stirling modules mounted in series, of 35 kWe / pc. (2 x 35 = 70 kWe, 3 x 35 =105 kWe

http://www.kwb.at/en/

Photo by, KWB

Photos by, Stirling DK

www.Stirling.dk

Direct combustion of wood chips or pellets


CHP with ORC technology (boiler for wood chips)
Turboden from Italy manufactures ORC CHP units in sizes between 200 kWe - 2.4 MWe. Heat production (left) is about 4 times greater than power from the plant. 500 kWe Turboden, CHP unit in Nocera Inferiore, Italy
Photos by, Turboden

Photos by, Maxxtec

German Maxxtec manufactures ORC, CHP units in sizes between 100 kWe - 2 MWe.
http://www.maxxtec.net/

http://www.turboden.eu/

The gasification of wood chips


CHP with biomass gasification.
Nexterra in Canada has a CHP unit with gas engine and generator of 2 MW.
http://www.nexterra.ca/

Photo by, Nexterra

CHP with biomass gasification.


GASEK in Reisjrvi, Finland manufactures CHP modules in containers. Sample size, 50 kW and 100 kWth
Photo by, GasEk Photo by, GasEk

http://www.gasek.fi/

The gasification of wood chips


CHP with biomass gasification.
HTI Heat Transfer International in Michigan has a CHP unit with direct combustion of bio-syngas and a hot air turbine generator, available in sizes between 200 kWe - 10 MWe.
http://www.heatxfer.com/

Photos by, HTI

CHP with biomass gasification.


Volter in Kempele, Finland, along with CCM Power developed CHP units and chips dries.

Eco-village / neighbourhood
Eco-village in Kempele have Volters chips drying and gasification plant. The nominal power output is 35 kWe. Eco-village has its own completely independent off grids power system. A small wind turbines contribute to electricity supply.
Photos by, Ulla Lassi

http://www.volter.fi/

The gasification of wood chips

CHP with biomass gasification.


Photos by, XyloWatt

XyloWatt Belgian company has XyloWatt CHP units with duo-diesel. For these Bio-syngas is the main fuel (80-90%). The rest is biodiesel or diesel.
They have CHP units in sizes from 300 kWe and 600 kWth to 1500 kWe / 3000 kWth

http://www.xylowatt.com

Investment costs (as by Energy Technology Austria)


Specific investment Costs CHP with steam turbine cycle
(with back pressure turbine)

Plant size MWe ~ 1 MWe ~20 MWe 30-75 kWe 30-75 kWe

EUR/kWe > 1.500 > 1.200 650 1.100 1.250 1.800

CHP with gas turbine cycle Microturbine CHP plants with diesel and gas engines
(Biogas)

Steam-engine process
CHP on the basis of an ORC process
(Organic Rankine Cycle)

~500 kWe
~500 kWe 10 - 40 kWe ~250 500 kWe ~100 kWe ~25 50 kWe

> 1.500
> 2.300 > 2.400 > 3.900 > 3.000 > 2.500

Stirling engine process Hot air turbine cycle CHP with fuel cell technology CHP Gasifying of Biomass, gas engines

Some Finnish Companies who

work with small-scale solutions for CHP

GASEK
CHP via gasification of wood chips CHP unit on Farmari Fair in Kokkola 2009; 50 kWe (power) 100 kWth (heat)
The inventor is Eero Kangasoja and developer Yrj Muilu

CCM-Power
CCM-Power - pilot gasifier

Computer-controlled monitoring of the gasification system

CCM-Power is now part of the company GASEK Ltd Heikki Majava and Leo Ruokamo Pilot unit for gasification
Ulf-Peter Gran

CCM-Power (included in GASEK company)


Wood chip dryer
(Shown at Farmari Fair 2009 in Kokkola) - height 12 m - Closed drying system - Capacity approx. 40 m3 of water per day. - Energy need less than normal wood chip drying

Draft by CCM-Power
Ulf-Peter Gran

Volter Oy

Eco-village

(or Eco-blocks)

In Kempele just south of Oulu - 10 homes receiving electricity and heat from a small-scale CHP unit, by gasification of wood chips - Supplemented with a small wind turbine - Completely independent of the grid - Low-energy houses

Photos by, Volter.fi

CHP unit in Lestijrvi


The gasification of wood chips
Owners, "Lestijrvi chips cooperatives
Contact,, Harri Kavanter
Drying of wood chips from about 35% down to about 25% moisture

Harri Kavanter

Silo dryer for wood chips

Total heat production about 1.7 MWth, and about 300 kWe power, from CHP unit.
Ulf-Peter Gran

New CHP plant to Lestijrvi


Gasification of wood chips with the BioNear gasifier 2013 the new CHP gasification unit from TuroTeam under construction

HKGBioNear

Toholammin Energia Oy
The new Turboden ORC unit now in use (2013) - 8,2 MWth (heat) - 1,3 MWe (power)

The combustion of wood chips and peat in a Vapor bubble bed boiler and ORC CPH unit from Turboden

Vapor Finland Oy
Vapor has its manufacturing units, in Nivala, and Kiuruvesi.
Development of wood gasifiers underway

Picture by, Vapor

A different wood chip dryer


Model XX-large
- In use at Kokkolan Voima in Kokkola/Karleby

Kokkola Power, stack drying of wood chips


- The dryer use waste heat from the CHP plant - Main channel consists of sea containers with openings in the bottom

Photo by, Henrik Holmberg,

For more information


Please see the Internet;
http://www.scribd.com/Priki1/documents