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Moldova State University Faculty of Foreign Languages and Literatures English Philology Department

Contrastive Analysis of Gerund in English, Romanian and French

Diploma thesis

Research adviser:

Chiinu 2005

Contents
Introduction....3 Chapter One. Linguistic Peculiarities of Gerund in Modern English...5
1.1. A Diachronic Approach Concerning English Gerund5 1.2. Some Attempts at Defining the Non-Finite Forms of the Verb in English7 1.2.1.The Double Nature of the Gerund12 1.2.2. The Voice Distinction of the Gerund and the Anteriority...13 1.2.3.The Noun Characteristics of English Gerund...14 1.2.4.Verb Characteristics with Gerund15 1.3. The Use of the Gerund.17 1.4.The Functions of the Gerund in the Sentence.19 1.4.1.The -ing form as Subject..19 1.4.2.The -ing form as Predicate...21 1.4.3.The -ing Form as Part of a Compound Verbal Predicate.22 1.4.4.The -ing Form as a Second Action Accompanying the Action of the Predicate Verb23 1.4.5.The -ing form as Predicative24 1.4.6.The -ing Form as Subject Predicative..26 1.4.7.The -ing Form as Objective Predicative...26 1.4.8.The -ing Form as Object...27 1.4.9.The -ing Form as Attribute...31 1.4.10.The -ing Form as Adverbial Modifier35 1.4.11.The -ing Form as Part of an Absolute Construction...39 1.4.12.The -ing form as Parenthesis..41 1.5.Gerund in Romanian and French....42

Chapter Two. Contrastive Analysis of Correspondences of Gerund in English, Romanian and French Languages..44
2.1. English Gerund Corresponding to Verbals in Romanian and French ...44 2.1.1.Gerund..44 2.1.2.Gerund and Infinitive...48 2.1.3. Infinitive..50 2.1.4.Participle...56 2.1.5. Participle and Gerund..57 2.2. English Gerund Corresponding to Noun in Romanian and French58 2.3.English Gerund Translated by Past Tenses and Infinitive....62 2.3.1. Imperfect and Infinitive...62 2.3.2.Perfectul Simplu and Infinitive64 2.3.3.Perfectul Compus and Infinitive...65 2.3.4.Mai Mult ca Perfectul and Infinitive65 2.4. Specific Ways of Translating the English Gerund.66 2.4.1.Noun and Infinitive...66 2.4.2.Conditional and Infinitive.68 2.4.3.Conjunctiv and Infinitive..69

Conclusions...76 Bibliography.78
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Introduction
English grammar has been thoroughly studied by grammarians from different countries and their valuable contribution to the science is manifested through a treatment of a particular part from the point of view of contrasting it with their mother tongue counterpart. There are three verbals in the English language: the Infinitive, the Participle and the Gerund, which make up a part of the English verb system. In this paper we will dedicate our attention to the last verbal, i.e. Gerund. We have chosen namely this topic because there are a lot of unclear moments in the history of English ing forms and there appeared many disputable theories concerning Gerund and we are to determine which of them is closer to its real status. It is not so easy to study this grammatical form in comparison with its equivalents in Romanian or other languages. It is of great importance to understand how to use properly the Gerund in the English context and its interpretation in the other languages. The purpose of this diploma thesis is to analyse the syntactical functions of the English Gerund in parallel with the morphological peculiarities and to present its translation means into Romanian and French. This paper consists of two chapters, the first representing the theoretical part and the second the practical part. The first part is based, in general, on the works of Russian linguists as Barchudarov, Bloch, Ghanshina, Ilyish, Smirnitsky and others. The first chapter represents an approach of the lexical and grammatical characteristics of the Gerund. It includes the historical background of the ing form, the substantival and verbal characteristics, the use of Gerund as well as the functions it performs in the sentence. Besides that it comprises a short presentation of the peculiarities of the Romanian and French Gerund. In the practical part we have selected about 400 examples with Gerund from Daniel Defoes work Robinson Crusoe and analysed them from the syntactical

point of view in order to establish their equivalents in Romanian and French. While selecting examples we have to distinguish the Gerund from the Participle, which is not always easy to do. By means of such methods like synthesis and contrastive analysis we are going to investigate the problems that will appear by establishing and explaining in details the means and ways of translating Gerund and showing the similarities and the discrepancies among the three languages concerning the syntactical functions of the Gerund. Thus, this topic raises many important questions in English grammar. It is of great interest since the majority of English learners face difficulties in understanding and translating the Gerund. We hope that through this paper we will be able to understand better and identify the syntactical functions of the Gerund and its means of translation into Romanian and French.

Chapter One. Linguistic Peculiarities of Gerund in Modern English


1.1. A Diachronic Approach Concerning English Gerund
The old language had many endings, most of them with very vague meanings and applications. In the Modern English the majority of words are inflected regularly. The grammatical development and simplification has taken place not suddenly and from one cause, but gradually and from a variety of causes. The gerund is a descendant of the Old English verbal noun and the present participle; hence it's double nature and its noun and verb characteristics. In the Old English period the verbal noun had the ending -ing, -ung; in the Middle English had the ending -ende that in Middle English was replaced by -inge as the result of confusion of constructions with the verbal noun and the participle. [7; 23] Thus the verbal noun and the participle became merged into one form -ing (e), in modern -ing. As a result of blending of the two forms, the verbal noun in -ing began to develop verbal characteristics under the influence of the participle. In constructions where on Middle English and in Early Modern the verbal noun, like any other noun, was proceeded by the definite article and followed by the proposition of (He thanked him for the saving of his life. Compare: He thanked him for the preservation of his life), the article as well as the preposition of were gradually dropped, the -ing form taking the noun following as its direct object (He thanked him for saving his life), thus crystallizing into a new form, the gerund. The following examples show the gradual transition from the verbal noun to gerund; the -ing form still retains the article, but the preposition has already disappeared. Nothing in his life Became him like the leaving it (Shakespeare) With the finding the little infant (Fielding)

Later on, the gerund becoming more and more verbal developed tense distinctions and the passive voice and preserving still its syntactical characteristics of noun assumed to a great extent the dynamic force of a verb. With regard to its syntactical use the old ing was a substantive and was restricted to the functions it shared with all other substantives. While keeping all its substantival qualities, it has since gradually acquired most of the functions belonging to a verb. It was and is inflected like a substantive; now the Genitive case is rare and scarcely occurs outside of such phrases as: reading for readings sake. However, the plural is common: his comings and goings. Like any other substantive, it can have the definite or indefinite article and adjective before it: a beginning. The ing form can be used in a sentence in every position occupied by an ordinary substantive. It is the subject and the predicative nominative in complimenting is lying; the objects in I hate lying. It is governed by a preposition in before answering. When the ing was a pure substantive, the object of the action it indicated could be expressed in one of the three ways: 1. It might be put in the Genitive case 2. It might form the first part of a compound 3. It might be added after the preposition of From the 14th century we find a graving tendency to treat ing like a form of the verb, and accordingly, to put the object in the accusative case. A substantive doesnt admit any indication of time. Similarly the ing form had originally, and to a great extent still has, no reference to time: on account of his coming may be equal to because he comes or because he came or he will come, according to the connection in which it occurs. I intend seeing the king refers to he future. I remember seeing the king to the past, or rather the -ing as such implies neither of tenses. But since the end of the 16th century the ing has still further approximated to the character of a verb by developing a composite perfect.

Let us some up by saying that the ing has clearly become a most valuable means of expressing tersely and neatly relations that must have indicated by clumsy dependent clauses. So, as we can see, the ing forms have attracted the attention of scholars and writers for a long time. At present, the ing forms are undergoing their own evolution in the Modern English language. And although now they have almost broken off interrelations, in some functions they can hardly be distinguished from one another, especially when used in their simple forms. This accounts for the complication of the problem of the ing forms and for the fact that the process of their evolution has not been completed yet.

1.2. Some Attempts at Defining the Non-Finite Forms of the Verb in English
All English grammars distinguish between finite and non-finite forms of the verbs. These non-finite forms are also called the verbal or the verbids. Verbal are the forms of the verb intermediary in many of their lexicogrammatical features between the verb and the noun-processual parts of speech. The mixed features of these forms are revealed in the participle spheres of the partof-speech characterization; i.e. in their meaning, structural marking, combinability, and syntactical functions. They expose the processual meaning in a substantive or adjectival-adverbial interpretation: they render processes as peculiar kinds of substances and properties. They are formed by special morphemic elements, which do not express either grammatical time or mood (the most specific finite verb categories). They can be combined with verbs like non-processual lexemes (performing non-verbal functions in the sentences) and by they, can be combined with non-processual lexemes like verbs (performing verbal functions in the sentence).[50; 106]

From these characteristics, one might call in question the verb justification of including the verbals in the system of verb. As a matter of fact, one can ask oneself whether it wouldn't stand to reason to consider the verbal as a special lexemic class, a separate part of speech, rather than an inherent component of the class of verbs. On closer consideration, however, we can' t but see that such an approach would be utterly ungrounded. The verbal do betray intermediary features. Still, their fundamental grammatical meaning is processual. Their essential syntactic functions, directed by this relational semantics, unquestionable reveal the property which may be called, in a manner of explanation, "verbality" and the statement of which is corroborated by the peculiar combinability character of verbid collocation, namely, by the ability of verbs to take adjuncts expressing the immediate recipients, attendants, and addresses of the process inherently conveyed by each verbid collocation. One might likewise ask oneself, granted the verbids are part of the system of the verb, whether they do not constitute within this system a special subsystem of purely lexemic nature, i.e. form some sort of a specific verbal subclass. This counter-approach though would evidently be devoid of any substantiality, since a subclass of a lexemic class, by definition should share the essential categorical structure, as well as primary syntactic functions with other subclasses, and in case of verbids the situation is altogether different. In fact, it is every verb stem (except a few defective verbs) that by means of morphemic change takes both finite and not-finite forms, the functions of the two sets being strictly differentiated: while the finite forms serve in the sentence only one syntactic function, namely, that of the finite predicate, the non-finite forms serve various syntactic functions other than that of the finite predicate. The strict, uninteresting division of functions strictly shows that the opposition between the finite and non-finite forms of verb creates a special grammatical category. The differential feature of the opposition is constituted by
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the expression of verbal time and mood: while the time-mood grammatical signification characterizes the finite verb in a way that it underlies its finite predicative function, the verbid has no immediate means of expressing time-mood categorical semantics and therefore presents the weak member of the opposition. The category expressed by the opposition can be called the category of "finitude". The syntactic content of the category of finitude is the expression of predication (more precisely, the expression of verbal predication). As it is known, the verbids, unable to express the predicative meanings of time and mood, still do express the so-called "secondary" or "potential" predication, forming syntactic complexes directly related to certain types of subordinate clauses. For example: Have you ever had anything that was caught in your head? - He said it half under his breath for the others no hear it. The verb complexes anything caught in your head, or for the others not to hear it or the like, while expressing secondary predication, are not self depend in a predicative sense. They normally exist only as part of sentences built up by genuine, primary predicative constructions that have a finite verb as their core. And it is through the reference to the finite verb predicative that these complexes set up the situations denoted by them in corresponding time and mood perspective. In other way, we may say that the opposition of the finite verbs and the verbids is based on the expression of the functions of full predication and semipredication. While the finite verbs express predication in its genuine and complete form, the function of the verbids is to express semi-predication, building up semipredicative complexes within different sentence constructions. The English verbids include four forms distinctly differing from one another within the general verbid system: the infinitive, the gerund, the present participle and the past participle. I will analyse deeper the gerund (the ing - form) and the present participle. There are different approaches to the problem of the -ing form. Blokh considers that these are two different verbals. The outer structure of the

two elements of the verbal system is absolutely identical they are outwardly the same when viewed in isolation[50; 118] Barchudarov believes that there is no reason to accept these as two different morphological forms since they do not differ in paradigms of any verb. Ilyish considers that the solution of this question largely depends on the extent to which we are prepared to allow for shades of meaning in one form.[16; 135] Smirnitsky, Ivanova, Burlakova, Pocheptsov consider the forms of Participle and Gerund to be different verbals. The gerund is a non-finite form of the verb, which combines the properties of the verb with those of the noun. The gerund serves as the verbal name of process, and its substantive quality is strong pronounced. The gerund can be modified by a noun in the possessive case or its pronominal equivalents (expressing the subject of the verbal process), and it can be used with prepositions. Since the gerund is an abstract name of the process denoted by the verbal lexeme, a question might arise, why the infinitive, and not the gerund is taken as the head-form of the verbal lexeme as a whole, its accepted representative in the lexicon.[50; 108] As a matter of fact, the gerund cannot perform the function of the paradigmatic verbal head-form for a number of reasons. In the first place, it is more detached from the finite verb than the infinitive semantically, tending to be a far more substantival unit categorically. Then, as different from the infinitive, it does not join in the conjugation of the finite verb. Unlike the infinitive, it is a suffixal form, which makes it less generalized than the infinitive in terms of the formal properties of the verbal lexeme (although it is more abstract in the purely semantic sense). Finally, it is less definite than the lexico-grammatical point of view, being subject to easy neutralization in its opposition with the verbal noun in ing, as well as with the present participle. Hence, there is no rival of the infinitive in the paradigmatic head-form function.

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The general combinability of the gerund is dual sharing some features with the verb, and some features with the noun. The verb-type combinability of the gerund is displayed in its combining, first, with nouns expressing one object of the action; second, with modifying adverbs; third, with certain semi-functional predicator verbs, but other than modal. Of the noun-type is the combinability of the gerund, first, with finite notional verbs as the object of the action; second, with finite notional verbs as the prepositional adjunct of various functions; third, with finite notional verbs as the I subject of the action; fourth, with nouns as the prepositional adjunct of various functions.[50; 109] One of the specific gerund patterns is its combination with the noun in the possessive case or its possessive pronominal equivalent expressing the subject of the action. This gerundial construction is used in cases when the subject of the gerundial process differs from the subject of the governing sentence-situation, i.e. when the gerundial sentence-part has its own separate subject. E.g.: Powell's being rude like was disgusting. How can she know about the Morton's being connected with this unaccountable affair? Will he ever excuse our having interfered? The possessive with the gerund displays one of the distinctive categorical properties of the gerund as such, establishing in the English lexemic system as the form of the verb with nounal characteristics. As a matter of fact, from the point of view of the inner semantic relations, this combination is of a nounal type. It can be clearly demonstrated by the appropriate transformations, i.e. verb-related and noun-related re-constructions. I can't stand his criticizing artistic works that are beyond his competence/ T -verbal- He is criticizing artistic work. T - nounal -His criticism of artistic works. Besides combining with the possessive noun-subject, the verbal ing-form can also combine with noun-subject in the common case or its objective pronominal equivalent. E.g.: I read in yesterday' s paper about the hostages having, been

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released. The formal sign of the gerund is wholly homonymous with that of the present participle: it is the suffix -ing added to its grammatically leading element. The gerund is a categorically changeable (variable, demutative) form; it distinguishes the two grammatical categories, sharing them with the finite verb and the present participle, namely, the aspective category of retrospective coordination (perfect in opposition), and the category of voice (passive in opposition). Consequently, the categorical paradigm of the gerund of the objective verb includes four forms: the simple active, the perfect active, the simple passive, and the perfect passive. E.g.: taking - having taken - being taken - having been taken. The gerundial paradigm of the non-objective verb, correspondingly, includes two forms. E.g.: going - having gone. The perfect forms of the gerund are used, as a rule, only in semantically strong positions, laying special emphasis on the meaningful categorical content of the form.

1.2.1.The Double Nature of the Gerund


As a result of its origin and development the gerund has verbal and nominal proprieties. The verb characteristics of gerund are as follows: 1. indication. a) The Indefinite Gerund Active and Passive denotes and action simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb; depending on the tense form of the finite verb it may refer to the present, past, or future He can swim any number of hours without tiring. She walked on without turning her head. No one could pass in or out without being seen. b) The Perfect Gerund denotes and action prior to that of the finite verb. She denies having spoken with him. He was ashamed of having shown even the slightest irritation.
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It has tense -

forms - indefinite and perfect. The tenses of the gerund comprise relative time

She really had been crying ... out of danger at having been driven so hard. However, a Perfect Gerund does not always express a prior action; in some cases we find an Indefinite Gerund instead it. This occurs of the verbs: to remember, to excuse, to forgive, to thank and after the prepositions on (upon), after and without. I dont remember hearing the legend before. You must excuse my not answering you before. I thank you for restraining me just now. On leaving the house we directed our steps to the nearest shade. After walking about ten yards, he found that hat among the leaves. She passes through and disappears in the pantry without noticing the young lady. The Perfect Gerund may also be used after the above-mentioned verbs and prepositions. He did, not remember having been in that room. After having denied herself to everybody, Miss Rachel, to our astonishment, walked into the midst of us of her own accord. They parted at Cohen's door without having spoken to each other again. In order to conclude, we may assert that the English Gerund has two forms: indefinite and perfect Gerund.

1.2.2.The Voice Distinction of the Gerund and Anteriority


The Gerund of transitive verbs has special forms for the active and passive voice. He liked neither reading aloud nor being read aloud to. It is to be observed that after the verbs to want, to need, to deserve, to require and the adjective worth the gerund is used in active form, tough it is passive in meaning. "The slums want attending to, no doubt", he said. He realized that this room needed painting.
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The child deserves praising. They were not worth saving. What is traditionally called tenses in the verbals differ greatly from the tenses of the finite forms. The tenses of the finite forms indicate the time of the action. The Gerund has tense forms indefinite and perfect. The forms that are called tenses of the Gerund comprise relative time indication; they usually indicate whether the action expressed by the Gerund coincides with the action of the finite forms of the verb or is prior to it.[11; 217] Active Indefinite Perfect Writing Having 'written Passive Being written Having been written

The indefinite gerund expresses that the action denoted by the gerund is simultaneous with the action of the finite form of the verb in the sentence[11;269] She enjoyed sitting in the sun The perfect gerund indicates that the action of the gerund precedes the action of the verb in the sentence [11; 269]

1.2.3.The Noun Characteristics of the Gerund


a) As a noun, the gerund is used as the subject or object (direct or prepositional) of the sentence. When used as an attribute or adverbial modifier, the gerund also clearly shows its nominal character; it is always preceded by a preposition, which is a formal mark of the noun: Crossing the river was a hard task (subject). ... she enjoyed sitting in the sun( direct object). "Excuse me for interrupting you, Mr. object). Winterbourne" ( prepositional

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Mark was in the habit of so saving (attribute) On reaching the bedroom, we heard the voice of Miss Scatcherd (adverbial modifier). b) Besides, when the gerund is associated with the doer of its action (forming a complex), the noun or pronoun expressing that doer is uses grammatically as an attribute (possessive) to the gerund, and this attributive relation strengthens the noun character of the gerund. At first, I was in daily dread of his taking my education in hand again, or of Miss Murdstone 's devoting herself to it... We may affirm that the Gerund can act as a noun with the corresponding functions in the sentence.

1.2.4.Verb Characteristics of the Gerund


Kaushanskaya says in her work A Grammar of English Language that like all verbals the gerund can form predicative constructions, i.e. constructions in which the verbal element expressed by the gerund is in predicate relation to the nominal element expressed by a noun or pronoun.[22; 112] I don't like your going off without any money. Here the gerund going off is in predicate relation to the pronoun your, which denotes the doer of the action expresses by the gerund. The nominal element of the construction can be expressed in different ways. 1. If it denotes a living being it may be expressed: a) By a noun in the genitive case or, by a possessive pronoun. His further consideration of the point was prevented by Richard's coming back to us in an excited state. Do you mind my smoking? b) By a noun in the common case. I have a distinct recollection of Lady Chiltern always getting the good conduct prize.

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Thus in Modern English there are two parallel constructions of the type: Fancy Davids courting and Fancy David Emily. These two constructions may be used indifferently, but sometimes there is a slight difference in meaning: in the first example the action (the verbal element of the constructions) is emphasized, whereas in the second the doer of the action (the nominal element of the construction) is emphasized. Occasionally examples are found where the nominal element of the construction is expressed by a pronoun in the objective case. I hope you will forgive me disturbing you. There are cases when the nominal element of the construction though denoting a living being, cannot be expresses by a noun in the possessive case, but only by a noun in the common case, namely when it consists of two or more nouns or when it is noun modified by an attribute in post-position. I object to Mary and Jane going out on such a windy day. Did you ever hear of a man of sense rejecting such an offer? 2. If the nominal element of the construction denotes a lifeless thing it is expressed by a noun in the common case (such nouns, as a rule, are not used in the genitive case) or by a possessive pronoun. I said something about my clock being slow. ... Peggotty spoke of... my rooms, and of its being ready for me.
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The nominal element of the construction can also be expressed by a pronoun, which has no case distinctions, such as all this, both, each, something. I insist on both of them coming in time. Again Michael... was conscious of something deep and private stirring within himself.

Some grammarians recognize the existence of two separated constructions: the gerundial construction (a construction whose nominal element is expresses by a noun in the genitive case or by a possessive pronoun) and a construction with a
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half gerund (a construction whose nominal element is expressed by a noun in the common case, a pronoun in the objective case, or a pronoun which has no case distinctions).

1.3.The Use of the Gerund


In Modern English the gerund is widely used. In the following cases only the gerund is used: 1. With the verbs and verbal phrases: to avoid, to burst out, to deny, to enjoy, to excuse, to fancy (imperative sentences as an exclamation of surprise), to finish, to forgive, to give up, to go on, to keep (on), to leave off, to mind (in negative & interrogative sentences) to postpone, to put off, cannot help and some others.[2;363] He avoided looking at Saving. ... she burst out crying. She denied having been at the station the evening. ...he enjoyed thinking of her as his future life. Excuse my leaving you in the dark moment. Fancy finding you here at such an hour. Forgive my speaking plainly. When the Committee had finished deciding on its politics he had gone home. Willoughby gave up singing and looked at Karen and Yates from under drooping eyelids. They went on talking. I have left off shooting. Would you mind waiting a week or two? I don't mind going and seeing her. She couldnt help smiling.

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2. With the following verbs and verbal phrases used with a preposition: to accuse of, to agree to, to approve of, to complain of, to depend on, to feel like, to insist on, to look like, to object to, to persist in, to prevent from, to rely on, to speak of, to succeed in, to suspect of, to thank for, to think of, to give up the idea of, to look forward to, not to like the idea of, to miss an (the) opportunity of and some others. They accuse me of having dealt with the Germans. It was clear now... that Abraham never had agreed to their being married today. I insist on being treated with a certain consideration. I object to his having any acquaintance at all with my sisters. You suspect me of stealing your diamond. I resolved not to think of going abroad any more. I really thank you heartily for taking all this trouble. So he returned his straitened means to his pocket, and gave up the idea of trying to buy the boys. I think everybody looked forward to his coming back. He did not like the idea of being hunted down by Butler. Don't miss the opportunity of hearing this pianist. 3. With the following predicative word-groups (with or without a preposition): to be aware of, to be busy in, to be capable of, to be fond of, to be guilty of, to be indignant at, to be pleased (displeased) at, to be proud of, to be sure of, to be surprised (astonished) at, to be worth (while) and some others. I felt physically incapable of remaining still in any one place, and morally incapable of speaking to any one human being. I am very fond of being looked at. You 're really guilty of having connived with a German officer to help his escape. Mr. Osborne was indignant at his son 's having disobeyed him.
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... she was not pleased at my coming. Miss Crawley was greatly displeased at Rowdon's having married Becky. ...nobody knows better than I do that she is proud of being so pretty. The bridal party was worth seeing. Thus, the Gerund may be used together with the above-mentioned words word-groups or phrases.

1.4.The Functions of the Gerund in the Sentence


1.4.1.The -ing Form as Subject
Volcova states, The functions of the verbals may be divided into two groups - the independent use of verbals and the dependant use of verbals. By the dependant use of the verbals we understand their functions as Subject, predicative and parenthesis.[57; 79] I. The gerund may be used in various syntactic functions. The gerund in the function of subject usually expresses permanent or recurrent action, simultaneous with the action expresses by the predicate verb. Looking after one man is realty enough, but two is rather an undertaking. Going to concerts was about the only thing he thoroughly enjoyed. II. 1. 2. 3. Sentences with the -ing form as subject, have certain structural peculiarities. We find the -ing form as subject only in declarative sentences. It is never used The -ing form as subject as always placed at the head of the sentence. Any The -ing form as subject is occasionally found in sentences in interrogative sentences. secondary parts never precede it. beginning with there is, but it's use is restricted to negative sentences where it is usually preceded by no.

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There was no arguing with her about it when she had made up her mind. Well, there is no avoiding him now. Of course I am scared to hell. There's no denying that. Hence the frequent use of the simple -ing form to express statements of a general character. Passing a law about equal rights doesnt necessarily mean that women get them. Beatrice and I dont correspond unless there is a major event I the family. Writing letters is a waste of time. Sometimes, though not often, a passive -ing form is found, its time reference being the same as that of the active -ing form. Being liked doesnt count so much in politics as outsiders think. I said being accused of something one knows oneself to be ridiculous, and which everyone else knows to be ridiculous, never hurt me. Being born in my provincial town wasnt much different from being born in Brooklyn. The use of the perfect -ing form as subject is rare exception. It expresses the priority of the action of the -ing form to that of the predicate verb. Having been born in that communion was like being born an Englishman. III. The subject of the -ing form may be expressed in different ways. It is generally indicated in the context and the relation of the action expresses by the -ing form and its subject is easily established. The indication of the subject is often found in the same sentence and it's expressed by one of the secondary parts (a). Occasionally it is expressed in one of the neighbouring sentences (b). (a) Seeing you there, by the door, made me remember what I had to do. Listening to her night after night filled Jan with a sense of pitying irritation.
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(b) It was me who persuaded David to come here this Christmas to be reconciled to his father. I realize now that coming here was a mistake. Susie left him gasping. Being friends with her was going to be very exciting. The subject of the -ing form may not be mentioned at all. In such cases the action is associated with any or every person or an indefinite number of unidentified persons. Being too economical with glue and screws can give plenty of trouble later. Building a school in Britain today costs only half as much as in the 1940's, said the Minister of Education yesterday. Lastly, the subject of the -ing form may be expressed specially by using the socalled complex -ing form. It was wonderful having Bart. At first she had not been sure that his coming here with her had been a good thing. IV. The use of the -ing form as subject is mainly found in literary English but even here it is not of frequent occurrence.

1.4.2.The -ing Form as Predicate


I. The -ing form as predicate may be used in the following type of sentence. A rush of disconnected memories flashed rapidly through Luke's brain (Luke suspects Lord Easterfield of committing certain crimes). Major Norton saying, "Lord Easterfield was very kind... " Lord Easterfield holding forth on his visit to the Laboratories, with its serums and germ cultures, just a short time before Dr. Humblebee 's death. Everything pointing plainly in one direction and he, fool that he had been never suspecting. All the spirits store of Turtle's running to waste in the streets. The use of this type of sentence is a rare exception.

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Sentences of this kind resemble absolute constructions turned into dependant sentences. II. The gerund may be used as a predicate in one-member sentences, interrogative (a) and exclamatory (b). (a) What about going to London? How about seeing what they did with your house? (b) But letting him to do it! This type of sentence is quite common in spoken English.

1.4.3.The -ing Form as Part of a Compound Verbal Predicate


The -ing form is lexically dependent in this function - it is used after a number of verbs denoting motion or position. They are: to come, to go, to go out (around, round, about), to sit, to sit around, to stand, to stand around (round), to disappear. They came rushing in, laughing. They had often gone fishing in those days. Are we going out dancing tonight? He went about sniffing the air but there was no trace of gas. They all sat around feeling very proud. "I'm very ready ", he said to Maurice and stood waiting. Next morning I woke early and lay listening to the clatter of dishes in the kitchen. He disappeared walking; there was no noise, nothing. Mentioned should be the following set phrases: I burst out laughing, and the others followed. All at once she burst out crying. The set phrases only help us since we will already know that we deal with a Gerund and not with a Participle.

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1.4.4.The -ing Form as a Second Action Accompanying the Action of the Predicate Verb
The -ing form may express a second action accompanying the action expressed by the predicate verb. The subject of the -ing form is the same as the subject of the sentence. The -ing form in this function refers not to the predicate verb alone but to the whole predicate group. It can be found with verbal as well as with nominal predicates. The -ing form is not lexically dependent in this function. They ran up the stairs brimming with excitement. You can 't just sit there being talked about. She was sitting in the doorway of the tent reading. As a rule the -ing form follows the predicate group. But it may also be placed at the head of the sentence or between the subject and the predicate. Coming into my office one evening in the autumn, he said shyly: "Doing anything tonight? Watching them with bold, excited eyes, Simon discussed their characters. I made to go out, but Roger, frowning, shook his head. When the -ing form is used to denote a second action, it is often separated by a comma form the rest of the sentence. The -ing form of certain verbs have come to be used as prepositions or conjunctions. Care should be taken to distinguish them from real -ing forms. Several officials, including me, had been invited. Presuming, the old man gets better and comes back to the job, then what? "That will be all right, barring accidents ", I told him above. Taking all things into consideration, I decided to tear my letter up. Notice that taking all things into consideration (account) has become a set phrase.

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1.4.5.The -ing Form as Predicative


1.The -ing form as a predicative is used with appositive meaning. The usual link-verbs are to be and to mean. But the last thing I should ever have dreamt of was finding myself here for good. The important part is helping people so they can live normal lives. It was politics he could not resist; if it meant making speeches, well then, it meant making speeches. The -ing form as a predicative is found more often when it is preceded by like. It also has appositive meaning here, but explanation is made by way of comparison. It was absurd to suppose that any money under Heaven could buy hi in: it would be like trying to slip Robespierre a five-pound note. I wondered how the hell I'd got myself mixed up in a project that couldnt be carried out. It was like starting to write a novel. The first thing I noticed was the lowness of all the doors and ceilings; I had to dip my head to step into the house. It was like stopping to look into a nest of cave. Notice that the subject of the sentence in the latter case is often expressed by the personal pronoun if referring to a situation previously described. The -ing form as a predicative may also be preceded by some other compound prepositions. She was by way of being a household tyrant. He sat at the desk, nodding a little, looking as though he were on the verge of waking up from sleep. Apparently the child is in danger of losing her leg. 2. We find the simple -ing form in this function, which serves to express an action simultaneous with that of the predicative verb. As a rare exception, the passive -ing form may be used in this function.

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Lord H. then chipped in to say that what tired the Foreign Secretary was being questioned by newspaper correspondents. 3.The subject of the -ing form either becomes clear from the context or is any or every person or an indefinite number of unidentified persons. Sometimes, however, an -ing complex is used to indicate the subject of the -ing form. But what started sentimental train of thought was my walking out into the garden this morning and finding that the top of every single rose has been cut off. All right, dear. Go back to sleep. It was only I talking. Somehow it didnt sound like a wild young boy talking to an eminent man. 4. Instances of the -ing form used as a predicative are scarce. When the -ing form does not express appositive meaning it becomes adjectivized. That must be enormously exciting. Hugh got more and more subtly insulting. The journey was slow, rough and tiring and took us eleven days. We usually find a change of meaning in this case - the idea of action or state inherent in the verb disappears and the -ing form comes to denote quality. The -ing form also acquires other adjectival characteristics - the distribution of adjectives. In this function the -ing form tends to become a set phrase and is generally placed at the head of the sentence. It is separated from the sentence by a comma. Talking of sin, wasnt Miss Drury 's Reverend friend I save you talking with yesterday? Speaking of warning, I don't know much Ellis told you, but 1 don't like anybody getting ideas where Lena is concerned. Of course, strictly speaking the excuse was not necessary. -Ing forms as parenthetic expressions are not very frequent are usually denoting some sort of reservation on the part of the speaker or else they are used as
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introductory phases having the meaning of "incidentally". The -ing form here is always speaking or talking.

1.4.6.The -ing Form as Subject Predicative


The -ing form as subject predicative is lexically dependent and it's found after a limited number of verbs in the Passive. These verbs are: to catch, to find, to leave, to notice, to report, to see, to set, to show, to watch. I felt I had been caught boasting. The baby was found sitting on the floor. When the door closed, Monty and I-were left looking at each other. Here also belong a few verbs after which the -ing form is out reduced by as. They are: to accept, to consider, to explain, to guarantee, to mention, to regard, to take, to treat, and to understand. Here also belong the verbs to speak of and to think of which take a prepositional object. The Browns did not entertain and were spoken of the district as being "poor as church mice ". Janet and I became very friendly, and at school we were considered as going together. The use of the -ing form as subject predicative is restricted mainly to literary style and is not frequent even there.

1.4.7.The -ing Form as Objective Predicative


It is used after a number of transitive verbs in Active followed by an object, which is expressed by a noun or a pronoun. The following are the most frequently used verbs taking a direct object: to call, to catch, to discover, to feel, to hear, to get, to imagine, to keep, to leave, to dislike, to like, to notice, to picture, to see, to stop, to watch, to want. I felt him looking at me now and again. Ellen had noticed me talking with landlady.
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He saw me watching him. Besides this construction is found after two verbs taking a prepositional object - to listen to and to look at. We opened the door for a moment and looked out at the windy night and listened to the trees groaning. He looked at Jane wiping her tear-wet face. Here also belong a few verbs after which the -ing form is introduced by as: to accept, to consider, to explain, to guarantee, to mention, to regard, to speak of, to take, to think of, to treat, to understand. You took his statement as being quite in order. We always thought of him as being "promising". With all above-mentioned verbs, the object that precedes the -ing form is expressed by a noun in the common case or by a personal pronoun in the objective case, and serves as subject to the action denoted by the -ing form. But there are a number of other verbs after which the object may be expressed either in above described way or by a noun in the genitive case or a possessive pronoun. These verbs are: to appreciate, to dread, to excuse, to fancy, to forget, to hate, to have, to imagine, to mind, to miss, to pardon, to prevent, to recall, to remember, to resent and also can't bear, can't help and to catch sight of.

1.4.8.The -ing Form as Object


The -ing form may be used as object to the verb, direct or prepositional. In both cases it is lexically dependent. As a direct, it is used with the following verbs: to admit, to avoid, to begin, to cease, to consider, to continue, to delay, to deny, to endure, to enjoy, to escape, to finish, to forget, to give up, to go on, to hate, to intend, to keep, to keep on, to leave off, to like, to love, to mention, to mind (in negative and interrogative sentences), to neglect, to postpone, to prefer, to propose, to put off, to quit, to

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recall, to recollect, to regret, to remember, to resent, to ripe, to start, to stop, to suggest, to try and some others. English grammar is very difficult and few writers have avoided making mistakes. He kept on smiling at her and speaking. He drank his beer and resumed reading his paper. I 'was in low spirits and even considered going away. David Robin did not much like being called Professor. In addition to the verbs mentioned in the list above the -ing forms are used after certain model phrases in the negative form: can't bear, can't face, can't fancy, can't imagine, can't resist, can't stand, and can't help. I can't bear being humiliated. He could not face being talked about. He couldnt help asking me: "Isnt there anything else you can do for Roger? Besides, the -ing form is also used after the set phrase to feel like. He felt like giving up the whole affair. I didnt feel like talking to him after what had happened. The -ing form may serve as object to a verb in a special sentence with a format it as subject. The use of the -ing form in this sentence pattern is found after a very limited number of verbs or set phrases but it is typical of spoken English. He said to his wife: "It doesnt matter much being liked, for this kind of life". As prepositional object to a verb, the -ing form is also lexically dependent. It is found after verbs that take a prepositional object. These verbs may be divided into 3 groups: 1. Verbs followed by prepositional object alone; 2. Verbs followed by a non-prepositional object and prepositional object; 3. Verbs followed by two prepositional objects.
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The verbs of the first group are closely connected with a preposition who's meaning is often weakened. The following is the list of the most commonly used verbs: to admit to, to agree to, to aim at, to apologize for, to approve of, to believe in, to bother about, to care for, to come of, to forget about, to mean by, to return to, to insist on, to talk of, to tell of, to worry about and some others. What did she mean by boasting like that? I didnt think twice about telling her: we had no secrets. The readers of the book insist on knowing the reasons of the actions. Here also belong certain set phrases such as: to look forward to, to make appoint of, to plead guilty to, to find excuses for, to take pride in, to lose time in, to have no doubt about and some others. I took pride in making my lodgings pretty and comfortable. I expect you are looking forward to seeing your fianc again? He was taking risks in speaking in that tone to her. Special attention should be given to set phrases with the verb to be which are to be treated as verb equivalents. Would you be up to paying with us this afternoon? Verbs requiring a non-prepositional object and prepositional object are in general less numerous. Besides, not all of them take an -ing form as their prepositional object (to explain something to somebody, to dedicate something to somebody). Of verbs taking a non prepositional object and a prepositional object expressed by an -ing form the most commonly used are: to accuse somebody of, to amuse somebody with, to ask somebody about, to charge somebody of, to give something to (for), to talk somebody into (out, of) and others. I am prepared for anyone to accuse me of being cowardly. Did she suspect them of being of trying to cheat her? Will you be able to keep those fellows from making any more fuss?

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Of all the prepositions there is one that acquires particular importance in this construction as it may be associated with a considerable number of verbs and is, consequently, or frequent occurrence. It is the preposition for. It generally serves to indicate the cause of the action denoted by the predicate verb. For may be found after the following verbs: to blame somebody, to excuse somebody, to forgive somebody, to reprimand somebody, to reproach somebody, to thank somebody, to like somebody, to love somebody, to hate somebody, to pay somebody and some others. I thought you have just been blaming me for being neutral. I was going to thank you for looking after him till I came. He scolded me for not having let him know. The -ing form may also serve as object, direct and prepositional, to an adjective. In both cases, it is lexically dependent. As a direct object it is found only after two adjectives - busy and worth. The children were busy doing all the things they had been told not to do. He thought my idea was worth trying. It was not a criticism worth repeating. The -ing form may be used as direct object to an adjective in a sentence pattern with a formal it as subject. This kind of object is also lexically dependent it regularly occurs after it is worth. It is worth remembering that he had once been a boxer. It is worth finding it out. Sometimes the -ing form is found after a number of other adjectives such as: amusing, banal, comfortable, difficult, easy, great, hopeless, lovely, nice, odd, pleasant, strange, useless, wonderful and others. It was difficult getting him to do it. It was useless arguing with Jane. It will be rather nice seeing him again.

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But the -ing form is not very common after these adjective we generally find the infinitive here. The -ing form may be used as object to an adjective in a sentence pattern with a formal it as object to the verbs to think, to find, to make. The formal it, in its turn, is followed by an adjective, and it is to this adjective that the -ing form serves as an object. She did not find it worth -while pressing further. He thought it very odd my leaving when I did. Wik Berit has the opinion that the -ing form as a prepositional object is found after various kinds of adjectives - they may be adjectives proper, predicative adjectives and adjectivized participles. The most commonly occurring of them are: absorbed in, accustomed to, afraid of, amused at, angry with, annoyed at, ashamed of, aware of, in/capable of, careful about (in), careless of, certain of, clever at, content with, delighted at, different from, embarrassed at, excited about, far from, fond of, irritated at, nice about, set against, right it, upset at, worried about, wrong in and others.[45; 91]

1.4.9.The -ing Form as Attribute


The -ing form in the function of attribute is found in different constructions. The -ing form may immediately precede its head-noun. In this case it expresses an action, which is performed, by the person or thing denoted by the head-noun. The -ing from is always a single word in this case, not an extended phrase. This attribute is not lexically dependant -it may modify any noun. Singing people, arm in arm, filled the streets 1 reached for a cigarette with trembling hands, and lot it. There was nothing to be seen or heard, not even a barking dog. This kind of attribute is not of frequent occurrence in English and is typical only of literary style. This accounts for the stylistic application of the -ing forms in the examples below.
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Arthur gave a creaking laugh. He watched it with despairing incredulity. It is typical of the -ing form in this function to become adjectivized - the -ing form is devoid of the idea of action in this case its lexical meaning is often changed as compared to the meaning of the corresponding verb, e.g. a charming girl means a very nice girl, an amusing story is an interesting, funny story. They were preoccupied with coming debate. We had a very good view of all the surroundings scenery. Such adjectivized -ing forms are in common use in English. Another peculiar feature of the -ing form in this function is its tendency to form, in combination with its head-nouns, a set phrase, e.g. the reading public, the presiding mastrate, a racing man, working people, a leading politician, revolving doors, running water and some others. Such combinations are in common use in English. The -ing form as attribute may closely follow its head-noun. In this case it also expresses an action performed by the person or thing denoted by the head-noun. But unlike the -ing form in preposition to the noun, it is more or less extended group not a single word. This kind of attribute is not lexically dependent - it may modify any noun. Yet its use is structurally dependent, as it mainly serves to modify a noun after there is/are. There are some people coming in here now. There is a lot of work waiting for me to do. The -ing form coming on (in, up) is used to modify a noun, which is an object to the verb to have or to have got. I saw at once he had an attack of malaria coming on. You 've got too many things coming up to get involved in such an affair. This kind of attribute is used in literary as well as in spoken English. It is noteworthy that running in post-position to a plural noun is used in the meaning of one after another, in succession.
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He says he has received three telegrams running from them. The -ing from may follow its head-noun and be separated from it by a pause. But in other respects this attribute is similar to the -ing form that closely follows its head-noun: the head-noun is also the subject of the -ing form and -ing form is generally a part of a more or less extended group. This kind of attribute is neither lexically nor structurally dependent - it can modify any noun and the noun can have different syntactic functions in the sentence. I could hear the voices of the kids waiting for the school bell to ring. They stumbled on the snow turning to icy water. The loose of character of the -ing form in this function is always marked off by intonation, and it may also, sometimes, be indicated by the use of comma. The wardrobe was empty, except for one dress, swinging on a hanger. The -ing form in the function of attribute may be preceded by a preposition; in this case it always follows its head-noun and is generally part of an extended phrase. The -ing form is lexically dependent here. In most cases the -ing form is preceded by the preposition of. The attribute acquires appositive meaning here, i.e. it serves to explain the meaning of its headnoun. That is why it can modify only certain abstract nouns that admit and sometimes even require an explanation of their meaning. The number of nouns thus used is quite considerable. The most commonly occurring of them are: action, advantage, aim, art, business, case, choice, conception, custom, difficulty, danger, effect, fact, fear, feeling, gesture, guilt, hope, idea, incident, importance, job, labour, love, luck, means, method, pain, object, pity, process, rule, sense, shock, sin, sort, state, success, symptoms, task, way, week, wisdom, work, shame, relief, result, etc. I had the advantage of looking younger that I was. I have no hope of discussing it, Mr. Bridling. He didnt want to discuss the idea of Katherine leaving with them.
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The -ing form may also be preceded by the prepositions for, in, at, about, to. But they are by far less common that of. These prepositions are found after a limited number of nouns, which regularly require their use. The meaning of the -ing form is determined here by the lexical meaning of the head-noun and the preposition. The following is the list of nouns requiring the above-mentioned prepositions: For cause, excuse, genius, gift, grounds, motive, passion, pretext, reason, reputation; In advantage, belief, believer, difficulty, experience, harm, hesitation, ingenuity, meaning, object, pleasure, paint, purpose, sense, skill; At amazement, astonishment, attempt, delight, dismay, irritation, pleasure, satisfaction, shyness; About fantasy, obsession, scruples; To objection, preparation. She had a real passion for reading detective stories. Certainly I should have no objection to working with the man. This -ing form is not restricted to any particular style and is widely used in English. The -ing form may be used as an attribute in a sentence pattern with a formal it as subject. The -ing form is lexically dependent here - it is regularly used only after it is no good and it is no use. It has a positive meaning here. "It's no use going on like this ", he said. It's no good trying to fool yourself about love. We also find a synonymous construction there is no use followed by an -ing form. There was no use complaining. It is noteworthy that this construction is less common that the one with the formal it. Still less common is the pattern in which the gerund is preceded by the prepositional in. You can see now there's no use in trying to make him understand.
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Sometimes the -ing form occurs after a number of other nouns which are, as a rule, semantically pole, such as thing, business, chance, idea, problem, etc. The nouns are usually modified by an adjective, which is semantically more important than the noun. It's been a great chance my meeting you like this. It 'II be such a surprise to her seeing you. It should be mentioned, however, that the -ing form is not common after these nouns. We normally find an infinite here. The -ing form may also be used as an attribute in a sentence pattern with a formal it as an object to the verbs to find, to think, to make. The formal it, in its turn, followed by a noun. It is to this noun that the -ing form serves as an attribute. Won't you find it rather bore having me at home for so long? It should be noted that this construction is of rare occurrence.

1.4.10.The -ing Form as Adverbial Modifier


The -ing form can serve as an adverbial modifier to verb. In this function it denotes a second action accompanying the action expresses by the predicative verb. But it is preceded by a conjunction or a preposition, which lend it adverbial meanings, such as time, concession, condition, attending circumstances, manner, cause and some others. The adverbial meaning of the -ing form is determined by the meaning of the preceding conjunction or the preposition. The -ing form is not lexically dependent here - it may be used after any verb. The -ing form may be preceded by the conjunctions while, when, once, if, as though, that, as well as and the correlative conjunctions as...as and not so...as. While and when lend the -ing form the adverbial meaning of time emphasizing the idea of simultaneousness of its action with that of the predicate verb. While shows that both actions are taking place at a given moment or period

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of time (a); when usually serves to express recurrent actions simultaneous with the action of the predicate verb (b). (a) He continued to speak while walking down the path. (b) Often, when boasting of his deceits, he sounded childlike and innocent. The conjunctions as though and as if serve to show that the person denoted by the subject of the sentence appears to be performing the action indicated by the -ing form: there is something in the manner, in the behaviour of the person that gives the impression that the action is being performed by him. He listened as tough brooding. She stopped speaking as if waiting for him to speak. The use of other conjunctions is frequent. Nothing is so dangerous as being too modern. He always dropped in if passing by their house on a wet night. But, as well as being a man of strong feeling, he had made himself a good doctor. The use of the -ing form in this function is found only in literary style and even there is not frequent. The -ing form may acquire adverbial meaning even when it is not preceded by a conjunction. But this use of the -ing form is still less frequent. For example, in the sentence below the -ing form has the following meanings: Cause Time Manner Concession Condition Seeing their uneasiness Mrs Norris softened and I know we shall break our necks one night walking across the field. They walked by the lake holding hands. But why did he marry her, feeling as he did about everything? Oh, do not go upstairs, Suzy! You '11 only catch a cold, hanging around the passage. smiled. Knowing he could not go to Alice he tried to telephone her.

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The -ing form may be preceded by the prepositions without, by, instead of, before, after, on, in, through, from, besides, for, fear of, for the sake of, on the verge of, except for and some others. The most frequently used of them is without. It serves to show that an action, which may be logically expected to accompany the action of the predicate verb, does not take place. "It is a funny thing", he said, without smiling at all. The bus passed us 'without stopping. I watched her for a little while without being seen. Then he let us without saying good-bye. As is seen from the above examples, the -ing form is places after the predicate verb. It is possible at the beginning of the sentence or between the subject and the predicate, though possible, is unusual. Slowly, without turning his head, he pulled himself to a half-sitting position. Roger, without turning to me, said in a curt, flat and even tone: "There may possibly be trouble. " It is noteworthy that we find a synonymous construction in English that is an -ing form preceded by not. But it differs from the -ing form preceded by without - it does not imply the idea that the action is logically expected. Like any other -ing form, it simply denotes a second action. Only in this case it is in the negative form. I returned to the drawing room and stood preoccupied, not noticing acquaintances about the room, with my back to the fire. We had both sat for a long time, not speaking, in the quiet. I knew she was not reading. The gerund preceded by not is typical only a literary style, whereas the -ing form preceded by without is in common use in literary as well as in spoken English. Another frequently occurring preposition, which may precede the -ing form, is by. In this case the action denoted by the -ing form expresses a means, a method of performing the action of the predicate verb. It may also indicate the manner in which the action of he predicate verb is carried out. You begin learning a language by listening to her sounds.
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I don't want to distress her by telling her that you have behaved like a cad. This -ing form is generally placed after the predicate verb, though its front position is occasionally possible. By keeping quite, she might save herself a lot of trouble. The -ing form introduced by instead of is also in common use. It is characterized by a clear-cut meaning, owning to the preposition itself. Its position with regard to the predicate verb is not fixed. You positively help them instead of hindering them. He bought pictures instead of buying me the things I -wanted. The use of the -ing form with other prepositions is less common. -Ing forms following the prepositions before, after and on express time relations between the action of the predicate verb and that of the -ing form. Before shows that the action expressed by the -ing form follows that of the predicative verb. It is usually placed in post-position to the predicate verb. He waited a long while before answering. They were sitting there now before going out to dinner. After indicates that the action expressed by the -ing form precedes the action expressed by the predicate verb. After glancing at his watch he said, in a businesslike tone: "You 've made me a bit late. " After hesitating a moment or two, Jigs knocked on the door. On expresses the same relations as after. But on emphasized the idea of an immediate succession of the two actions - the action of the predicate verb begins at the moment the action of the -ing form is accomplished. It is noteworthy that we find only the -ing forms of terminative verbs here. On arriving at the college she found it locked. On getting up in the morning I found a letter on my doorstep.

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As is seen from above examples, the -ing form introduced by after and on is usually placed before the predicate verb. The meaning of the -ing form introduced by in is not so clear-cut. It may be defined as limiting the sphere of application of the action denoted by the predicate verb or as indicating a process during which the action of the predicate verb is performed. I've done something rather foolish in coming here tonight, I regret it. In defending myself against this lady, I have a right to use any weapon I can find I daresay you have noticed that in speaking to you I have been putting a very strong constraint on myself. The place of the -ing form preceded by in is not fixed. The use of-ing forms introduced by other prepositions is still less frequent. We find various prepositions here. It was a lesson he had learned from having seen so many accidents. I found that besides being a philosopher he was an uncommonly good writer. We talked in whisper for fear of disturbing the Smiths. It should be noted that on the whole the above-described use of the -ing form is stylistically neutral - it is found in literary as well as in spoken English. However, care should be taken to remember that -ing forms preceded by after, before and on are not in common use. Adverbial clauses of time are much more frequent.

1.4.11.The -ing Form as Part of an Absolute Construction


The subject of the -ing form in above described adverbial functions is the same person or thing as denoted by the subject of the sentence. But the -ing form may have a subject of its own with which it forms the so-called absolute construction.
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He gave an intimate smile, some of the freshness returning to his face. His study was a nice room with books lining the walls. There are two parallel actions in this sentence pattern - one of them is expressed by the predicate verb, the other by -ing form. Each action has its own subject. Absolute constructions may be of two kinds - non-prepositional and prepositional, introduced by the preposition with. They are both lexically independent. The non-prepositional construction and the prepositional construction are synonymous. Absolute constructions, while serving to denote a second action parallel to that of the predicate verb, acquire at the time adverbial meanings and stand in specific relations to the main part of the sentence. The most commonly occurring meaning of the absolute construction is to describe the appearance, the behaviour or inner state characterizing the person denoted by the subject of the sentence. Non-prepositional (a) as well as prepositional (b) constructions serve this purpose. This meaning of the absolute construction is called descriptive circumstances. (a) Finally she stood back and looked at him, her face radiantly smiling. "But it's so ridiculous that we don 't know what to do, " William told them, his voice rising in indignation. (b) The man was learning forward in his seat, with his head resting in his hands. He went into the house, with a curious sadness pressing upon him. Another meaning of the absolute construction is to describe the circumstances attending the action of the predicate verb serving as its background, as it were. The function is by far less typical of absolute constructions. It may also be performed by non-prepositional (a) and prepositional (b) constructions. (a) Then they were out in the cold night, fresh snow crunching noisily underfoot. (b) With a hurricane approaching, we prepared to stand a siege.
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Absolute constructions may acquire the adverbial meaning of course i.e. the action denoted by the absolute construction indicates the cause of the action denoted by the predicate verb. This meaning is mainly expressed by nonprepositional constructions (a), prepositional constructions (b) being uncommon. (a) Death being contrary to their principles, for Forsytes took precautions against it. (b) I cant write with you standing here. Finally, absolute constructions can serve as some kind of additional explanation of the statement made in the main part of the sentence. In this case the absolute construction acquires more semantic independence - it seems to be on a par with the predicate verb. This meaning is mainly expresses by the nonprepositional construction. There were two serious accidents in the West Country, one involving a coach and a car. The three stood in a triangle before the fire, the two men smoking, and the woman sniffing at an October rose. Absolute constructions are typical of literary style where their use is quite extensive. But they are hardly ever used in spoken English.

1.4.12.The -ing Form as Parenthesis


The -ing form as parenthesis tends to become a set phrase. We mainly find here the verbs to talk and to speak. The -ing form as parenthesis serves to denote some sort of reservation of the part of the speaker or else it is used as an introductory phrase, meaning incidentally. Secrets, generally speaking, are not very well kept nowadays with reporters and television cameras all around us. Roughly speaking, it might have been said that youth and hope in women touched him.

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Talking about crime, I can lend you rather a good book, as you are interested in the subject. Of course, strictly speaking, the excuse was not necessary. The -ing form as a parenthesis is in most cases placed at the head of the sentence and, in writing, marked off by a comma.

1.5.Gerund in Romanian and French


In Romanian, gerund shows that the action is performed in parallel with another action. It has no number, person or tense.
1. When the action performed by a finite verb is in the present, the Gerund has

a present meaning, too. For ex. Lucrnd demult mpreun, se cunosc bine (pentru c lucreaz mpreun demult, se cunosc bine).
2. When the action performed by a finite verb is in the past, the Gerund has a

past meaning. E.g. Revznd clasa, bncile, catedra, a fost cuprins de duioie (pentru c a revzut... a fost cuprins).
3.

When the action performed by a finite verb is in the future, the Gerund has a future meaning. E.g. Va pleca, poate, bombnind ((n acest timp) va bombni). Se vedea luna strlucind (care strlucea).

4. When the Gerund is referred to a noun, it may be the equivalent for an

attributive clause.
5. In general, the Gerund acts like an adverb, that is why it does not agree with

the noun it is referred to (in attributive clauses). It may also refer to a verb (in non-attributive clauses). Sometimes it is difficult to establish whether the Gerund refers to a noun or to a verb. E.g. Cinele, simind primejdia, ltra cu disperare (simind may be the equivalent for an attributive clause care simea or for a causal clause ltra fiindc simea). The Gerund in Romanian is formed from the root of a finite verb plus the ending ind.-for the verbs with the endings i, -ia, -chea, -ghea -nd-for the rest of the verbs
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The verbs, whose root end in d, get instead a z. E.g. cznd, eznd, arznd, ascunznd, vznd, rznd, etc. In the French language, the Gerund coincides with the form of the present participle. It can be distinguished due to the particle en. E.g. chantant en chantant. The Gerund comes from the Latin gerundium, but in French it represents a quite new grammatical category. In Latin, it was a noun, but nowadays it is a special form of the verb. In the sentence the Gerund has the function of an adverbial modifier and the action it performs is, in the most cases, simultaneous with that of the predicate. However, this simultaneity is not always absolute. It may appear that an action precedes the other, but the interval between these two actions is generally very short. E.g.Demain matin, en apprenant que le pape nest pas mort, ils seront trs contents. The particle tout underlines the simultaneous character of two actions, one of which is expressed by Gerund. This particle renders to the sentence a strong shade of opposition. E.g. Ces penses lobsdaient, tout en lui inspirant du dgot. Having the function of an adverbial modifier, the Gerund resembles often with Participle, which can play the same role. Still, it will be a fallacy to consider as gerund the forms with ant without the particle en and performing the function of an adverbial modifier. It cannot be a predicate, an attribute; moreover it is not so often replaced by participle, fact that proves that the Gerund, being distinct from participle in form, has its own domain of usage.

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Chapter 2: Contrastive Analysis of Correspondences of Gerund in English, Romanian and French Languages
This chapter is wholly dedicated to the equivalents that English Gerund acquires while being translated into Romanian and French. We have selected and analysed about 400 examples with Gerund from the syntactical point of view, from a literary work because such piece of writing represents a good source of various situations and where Gerund appears to have almost all the syntactical functions of the sentence. The aim of the analysis is to observe how the English Gerund is translated into Romanian and French. For this purpose we have picked up the examples from the novel Robinson Crusoe written by Daniel Defoe in order to establish a relation between the English Gerund and its equivalents in the languages mentioned above by means of confrontation among the three languages. According to the examples got from Robinson Crusoe, we may assert that the English Gerund can be translated into Romanian and French as follows: 2.1. English Gerund Corresponding to Verbals in Romanian and French 2.1.1. Gerund He started up growling at first, but finding his leg broke, fell down again. S-a ridicat urlnd, dar simindu-i laba rupt, czu. Il tressaillit dabord en grondant... We have noticed that to the English Gerund growling corresponds a Gerund both in Romanian and French and namely urlnd and en grondant. The English example is one of the few English Gerunds used without a preposition.

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...which by keeping off at sea, to avoid the indraft... unde speram, ieind n larg, s evitm curenii Golfului Mexic. ...en gardant la haute mer pour viter lentre... The Gerund has the syntactical function of an adverbial modifier of manner and this function is preserved in all the compared languages and indicates that the action expressed by the Gerund is prior to the action of the finite verb. My business was to hold my breath, and raise myself upon the water, and so, by swimming, to preserve my breathing... Tot ce puteam face era s m ridic deasupra apei i, notnd, s-mi pstrez suflul... Ma seule ressource tait de retenir mon haleine, et de mlever au-dessus de leau et en surnageant ainsi de prserver ma respiration... In this case the Gerund, having in the three languages the function of adverbial modifier of manner, denotes simultaneity in relation to the action of the finite form of the verb in the sentence. For if I had lost it by crossing and re-crossing the line Nu ar fi fost posibil ca, trecnd de dou ori ecuatorul, s pierd mai mult de o zi... Si javais commis cette erreur en traant et retraant la mme ligne... The indefinite Gerund denotes an action that is simultaneous to that of the predicate verb. The syntactical function of an adverbial modifier of manner coincides in the three languages. I could not miss finding my first dwelling by viewing the country. Puteam s m orientez spre cas, aruncndu-mi privirile... ...je ne pourrais manquer de retrouver ma premire demeure en explorant le pays...

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The English Gerund is preceded by the preposition by and has the function of an adverbial modifier of manner. It is translated into Romanian and French by Gerund with the same syntactical function. ...by going a little way about, I saw I might come undiscovered... Am vzut c, fcnd un mic ocol, a fi putut ajunge acolo fr s fiu observat... Je vis quen faisant un petit dtour, je pourrais y parvenir sans tre dcouvert... The action of the Gerund is prior to that of the finite verb in the sentences. The choice of placing Gerund before the main clause indicates on a certain emphasis put on the method by which the hero might come undiscovered. The syntactical function is identical for the three languages adverbial modifier of manner. ...to comfort her in her poverty, by telling her she should have a further supply. ...asigurnd-o c nu va duce lips de nimic... ...de la consoler de sa pauvret, en lui donnant lassurance quelle aura de nouveaux secours. The action expressed by the Gerund is simultaneous with the action of the predicate verb. The English Gerund coincides with the Romanian and French Gerund. The syntactical function coincides as well. ...my mind being entirely composed by resigning to the will of God... ...lsndu-m cu totul n mna Lui... ...mon esprit stait calm en se rsignant la volont de Dieu... that in laying things open to him, I really informed and instructed myself in many things
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Vorbind i discutnd deschis despre toate, am ajuns s nv i eu multe... ...je pense quen lui exposant les choses dune manire vidente, je minstruisis moi-mme... Besides their morphological coincidence, the examples given above have the same syntactical function in their sentences adverbial modifier of manner in all the three compared languages. The Romanian variant of the last example, still, is an exception; Gerund there may be analysed as adverbial modifier of time because it highlights the simultaneity of the action of the Gerund with the action of the finite verb. We have noticed a strong relation between the English preposition by and the French particle en. From the whole number of examples picked up from the book almost all English gerunds preceded by the preposition by are translated into French as gerund, too. The next day, in searching the woods, I found a tree... Colindnd prin pdure, gsii un pom... En cherchant dans les bois, je trouvai un arbre... The action of the Gerund is labeled as being prior to the action of the finite form of the verb. It functions as an adverbial modifier of time, being rendered in Romanian and French by Gerund with the same syntactical function. I was surprised one morning early, with seeing no less than five canoes all on shore... ntr-o diminea am fost surprins, vznd nu mai puin de cinci brci la rm. ...je fus surpris un matin, en ne voyant pas moins de cinq canots... Upon seeing the boat, Friday stood musing... Vznd barca, Vineri a rmas ngndurat... En apercevant cette embarcation, Vendredi demeura...

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In this case we also have the syntactical function of an adverbial modifier, but it is already of time. This idea is given by the prepositions that precede the gerunds and which express the idea of an immediate succession of two actions. The English Gerund is translated into Romanian and French by a Gerund with the same syntactical function. After analysing the above examples with Gerund translated into Romanian and French as Gerund we may state that in all the cases the syntactical function of the English Gerund coincides with those of Gerund in Romanian and French. In these sentences prevails Gerund with the function of adverbial modifier of manner. 2.1.2. Gerund and Infinitive She was first staved by dashing against the ships rudder Aceasta se zdrobise lovindu-se de crma noastr... Il stait dfonc force de heurter contre le gouvernail... With inexpressible hacking and hewing, I reduced both sides of it ...dup nesfrit trud, cioplind i ciocnind, ajungeam s-l reduc... ... force de hacher et de tailler, je rduisis les deux cotes... The English Gerund is translated into Romanian as Gerund and into French as Infinitive, having, in the first two languages the function of adverbial modifier of manner and of indirect object in the last language. In both cases the action expressed by the Gerund is prior to the action of the finite form of the verb as it shows the means by which a certain result was achieved. I worked very hard in carrying all my goods to my new habitation. Am lucrat din greu, aducndu-mi toate lucrurile n noua mea locuin. Jai travaill rudement transporter tous mes bagages...

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The eating of grapes killed several of our Englishmen by throwing them into fluxes and fevers. ...vzusem murind de dizinterie i de febr pe civa dintre englezi, care mncaser struguri n exces. Je me ressouvenais davoir vu mourir plusieurs de nos anglais pour avoir gagn la fivre et de tnesmes... The syntactical function of the English Gerund is an adverbial modifier of manner and it is translated into Romanian also by a Gerund functioning as adverbial modifier of manner, while in French it is translated as Infinitive with its function of adverbial modifier of purpose and of cause respectively. Speaking about the action expressed by Gerund, we may assert that it is, in the first case, simultaneous and, in the second, it is prior to the action of the finite verb form. and after going something farther than I had gone the day before, I found the brook and savannas began to cease. ...naintnd puin mai mult ca n ajun, vzui c rul i pajitile nu se ntindeau mai departe. ...aprs mtre avanc un peu plus, je vis que le ruisseau et les savanes ne stendaient pas au- del... The function of adverbial modifier of time coincides in the three languages being expressed, in English and French, by the prepositions by and aprs, stressing the fact that the action of the gerund is prior to the action of the predicate. In the Romanian sentence the preposition lacks, but the meaning of priority is present as well. I began to think of making some provisions... M-am gndit s le redau puterile pregtind o mncare bun. Je songeai de faire quelques provisions...

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The function of prepositional object of the English Gerund is transformed in an adverbial modifier of manner into Romanian and in an indirect object into French. But I was not perfectly easy at lying so open Apoi, un timp am fost nelinitit, vzndu-m expus... Je ntais pas trs aise de me voir ainsi dcouvert. The English Gerund, functioning as a prepositional object, is translated into Romanian as a Gerund performing the function of an adverbial modifier of manner and into French as Infinitive with the function of indirect object. The action of the Gerund coincides with that of the finite form of the verb. making a pretty large fire for cooking my meat, I found a piece S-a ntmplat c, prjind o bucat de carne, s gsesc cioburi de oal... ...ayant fait un assez grand feu pour rtir la viande... The English Gerund functions in this sentence as a prepositional object. This sentence presents the Infinitive performing the function of adverbial modifier of purpose, while the Romanian Gerund functions as adverbial modifier of manner. In this subgroup the predominant function is that of adverbial modifier with its varieties. The degree of coincidence is lower if compared with the previous subgroup; still there are sentences that have the same syntactical function in the three languages. The majority of the examples present the action of the Gerund as being prior to that of the finite form of the verb. 2.1.3. Infinitive Had a prospect of raising my fortunes... Aveam posibilitatea de a ajunge la o situaie material nfloritoare... ...tu as lassurance de faire ta fortune...

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The syntactical function of the English Gerund of raising, that is the attribute, is conditioned by the presence of the preposition of and coincides in Romanian and French, but it is translated into these languages by means of Infinitive, namely de a ajunge and de faire. ...the wild and indigested notion of raising my fortune... ...gndul bizar i periculos de a-mi cuta norocul... ...lide extravagante et indtermine de faire fortune... The Gerund is translated into the other two languages by Infinitive with the same syntactical function attribute. ...my foolish inclination of wandering... ...pasiunii mele de a cutreiera lumea... ... ma folle inclination de courir le monde... The syntactical function is identical in the three languages. It accomplishes the function of an attribute, but the English Gerund is rendered into Romanian and French by Infinitive. ...but hope of furnishing myself with necessaries encouraged me... Dorina de a-mi procura cele necesare m nv cum s procedez... Mais lesprance de me procurer le ncessaire me poussait faire bien audel... As in the previous examples, the function of the underlined words remains the same in the three compared languages attribute. My mind was filled with thoughts of revenge and of bloody putting to sword twenty or thirty of them... ...eram mnat de dorina de a ucide vreo 20, 30.

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...jtais rempli des sentiments de vengeance, et de lide den passer vingt ou trente au fil de lpe... The Romanian and French equivalent for the English Gerund is the Infinitive. It is to be noticed that the Gerund is separated from its preposition by an intensifier, which tends to characterize our example as a prepositional object. ...the dread and terror of falling into the hands of savages... M urmrea groaza de a cdea n minile canibalilor. ...car la crainte et la frayeur de tomber entre les mains de sauvages... The English Gerund is translated into Romanian and French as Infinitive, while the syntactical function (the attribute) is identical in the three languages. I never had the least encouraging prospect of putting it in practice. ...n-aveam nici cea mai mic ans de a-mi pune planul n aplicare. ...je nentrevis jamais la moindre chance favorable de le raliser. The syntactical function of this example remains unchanged in all its variants, while the morphological situation is different the English Gerund is rendered by Infinitive in the other two languages. The fear of being swallowed up alive made me that I never slept in quiet... Teama de a nu fi ngropat de viu nu-mi ddea linite ca s pot dormi nuntru... La crainte dtre englouti vivant mempchait de dormir... Speaking about the syntactical function of the underlined words in the above sentences, we may affirm that there is practically an absolute coincidence in the three compared languages because all the analysed words have the function of an attribute, but the English Gerund is translated into Romanian and French by means

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of Infinitive. In the majority of cases, the Gerund is preceded by the preposition of, which is responsible for attributing namely this syntactical function. ...without asking Gods blessing, or my fathers, I went on board of a ship bound to London. ...fr a le cere binecuvntarea, m urcai la bordul corabiei care pleca la Londra. ...sans demander la bndiction de Dieu ou de mon pre, jallai... In this example we notice that the syntactical function of the Gerund coincides with that of the Infinitive in Romanian and French. The function is adverbial modifier of manner. I should have my equal share of the Negroes without providing any part of the stock. ...mi fgduiau o parte egal ca a lor, fr a mai plti nimic pentru aceast ntreprindere. ...jaurais ma portion contingente de ngres sans fournir ma quote-part dargent. The English Gerund expresses an action that is simultaneous to the action of the finite form of the verb in the future. It is rendered into Romanian and French by Infinitive, but its function in the sentence adverbial modifier of manner is valid for the other two languages, too. I pleased myself with the design, without determining... Lucrai ca un nebun , fr a ti dac snt n stare... Je me complaisais dans ce dessein sans dterminer si jtais capable... This sentence has a similar situation as the previous example has, that is the syntactical function is adverbial modifier of manner and the English Gerund is translated into the two other languages as Infinitive.
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...to write down only the most remarkable events of my life, without continuing a daily memorandum... ...mulumindu-m s scriu numai ntmplrile cele mai nsemnate, fr a mai nota toate nimicurile zilnice. ...et de noter seulement les vnements les plus remarquables de ma vie, sans continuer un mmorandum journalier... In this case we deal with another function that prevails adverbial modifier of manner and which is identical in all three languages. The English Gerund is also translated by Infinitive into French and into Romanian. In these sentences the preposition without suggests us the syntactic function and shows that the action, which is expected to accompany the action of the predicate verb, does not take place. It is worth mentioning the relation, namely the absolute equivalence, of a preposition in the three languages. The English preposition without corresponds to the Romanian fr and to the French sans. ...for the ship remained there in providing his loading... ...acesta rmase trei luni pentru a-i ncrca vasul... ...son navire demeura environ trois mois faire son chargement... According to the type of relation between the action of the Gerund and that of the finite verb, we have in this example simultaneity, since the action denoted by Gerund coincides with that of the predicate verb. The syntactical function is unique for all the variants adverbial modifier of manner. In the English sentence it is conditioned by the preposition in, which is one of the indicators of this function. This time I spent in putting all my things n order within doors. Mi-am petrecut timpul pentru a-mi aranja lucrurile n cas. Je passai ce temps mettre mes effets en ordre...

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Adverbial modifier of manner used for the English Gerund changes into a modifier of purpose, while the Gerund is replaced by an Infinitive in both Romanian and French languages. My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself... Urma s m hotrsc asupra modalitii de a m pune la adpost... Mon esprit ne soccupa plus qu chercher les moyens de me mettre en sret... The Gerund with the function of the prepositional object is translated as Infinitive functioning as an attribute. It was to no purpose to think of reaching to their own ship... Nu putea fi vorba de a ajunge bastimentul... Il eut inutile de prtendre atteindre leur btiment... They were such as mere very handy and convenient for my laying things up in, or fetching things home in. ...se dovedeau folositoare pentru a aeza n ele multe lucruri i a le transporta. ...ne laissaient pas de mtre fort commodes pour entreposer bien des choses et en transporter dautres a la maison... In these two cases the function coincides as the prepositional object is considered to be an equivalent for the indirect object, while morphologically, the English Gerund does not have equivalents in Romanian and French, being translated as Infinitive. I could not forbear getting up to the top of a little mountain... Nu mi-am putut nfrnge dorina de a m urca n vrful unui deal... Je ne pouvais encore mempcher de gravir sur le sommet...
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The indefinite Gerund performing the function of the direct object is rendered by Infinitives which function as attribute, in the Romanian variant, and as an indirect object in the French example. While analysing the Gerund in English and its translation into Romanian and French, we may state that Gerund gets as an equivalent the Infinitive in the scientific, elevated style. The syntactical function in most cases corresponds, if not in all three languages, at least in two of them. Exception makes the function of prepositional object, which is equivalent to the indirect object in Romanian and French. 2.1.4. Participle and that my father, after showing a great concern at it, said to her with a sigh ...am aflat mai trziu c i-a vorbit tatei care, ptruns de durere, suspinase... ...elle rapporta tout mon pre, qui, profondment affect, lui dit... The English Gerund functions in the sentence as adverbial modifier of time, this being determined by the preposition after, which precedes the Gerund. It is translated into Romanian and French by Participle, having the function of an adverbial modifier of manner. Due to the preposition after, the Gerund expresses that its action is prior to the action of the finite form of the verb. I left my lamp burning in the cave... Lsai lampa aprins i plecai s m culc. ...laissant ma lampe allume dans ma grotte... The syntactical function of adverbial modifier of manner is identical for the three languages, but the gerund is translated by means of Participle. or whether, on my going thither, I should meet with no obstruction to my possessing my just right in the moiety.
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...i dac, sosit acolo, voi ntmpina greuti pentru a intra n posesia bunurilor mele. ...si, allant sur les lieux, je ne rencontrerais pas dobstacles pour rentrer dans mes droits la moiti. This group is characterized by the coincidence of syntactical functions, since we have here only the adverbial modifier. On the morphological level we have to say that the English Gerund is translated into the two other languages as Participle. I had been fed even by miracle, even as great as that of feeding Elijah by ravens. ...hrnit n chip la fel de minunat ca i prorocul Ilie. ...par un miracle aussi grand que celui dElie nourri par les corbeaux. Here, the syntactical function is the attribute and it also coincides with the examples of the other languages, but the Gerund does not have an equivalent, being translated into other two languages by Participle. 2.1.5. Participle and Gerund and there fastened and moored her by sticking my two broken oars into the ground ...unde am nepenit-o cu ajutorul a doi pari nfipi n pmnt... ...ou je lattachai ou amarrai en fichant dans la terre mes deux rames... The action denoted by the English Gerund is prior to that of the finite form of the verb. The syntactical function is the same for English and French variants adverbial modifier of manner, while in Romanian it is rendered as an attribute. On the morphological level we have a similar situation: the English Gerund has an equivalent in French, while in Romanian it is translated by means of Participle. Thus I lived mighty comfortably, my mind being entirely composed by resigning to the will of God
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Triam destul de confortabil, supus voinei lui Dumnezeu... Mon esprit stait calm en se rsignant la volont de Dieu... The function in the sentence is conditioned by the preposition by, which points to an adverbial modifier of manner. This function is valid for other languages, too. The English Gerund is translated into Romanian by Participle, while into French it is also Gerund. I thickened my wall with continual bringing earth out of my cave Astfel obinusem un perete interior dublu, cptuit la baz cu pmntul scos din grot. Du ct extrieur je lpaissis de dix pieds, en amoncelant conte toute la terre... In this case, the adverbial modifier is imposed in the English sentence by the preposition with. This function is preserved only in French, because in Romanian the underlined word, which is the semantic equivalent of the English Gerund, performs the function of an attribute. The relation between the action of the Gerund and that of the finite form of the predicate verb is that of priority. Adverbial modifier of manner is, in the most of the cases, the only syntactical function in these three sentences in all the three languages. 2.2.English Gerund Corresponding to Noun in Romanian and French The sixth day of our being at sea n a asea zi a drumului pe mare... Le sixime jour de notre traverse In this sentence the Gerund has the function of an attribute, being preceded by the preposition of and modified by a possessive pronoun. It is translated into Romanian and French by noun with the function of an attribute. Sometimes I changed my hours of hunting and working
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Cteodat, schimbam orele de vntoare cu cele de munc... Je changeais mes heures de travail et de la chasse... The syntactical function of the Gerund remains the same in the next two sentences, but the Gerund is translated by means of noun. and no more prospect of being delivered ...i nu am mai mult ndejde de scpare... ...je nentrevoyais pas plus ma dlivrance... The English Gerund is rendered in Romanian and French by nouns; still the syntactical function the attribute is preserved in all the three languages. ...was taken up in the weighty affair of making a cage... ...am fost preocupat de realizarea unei lucrri importante: colivia pentru papagalul meu Poll ...fut absorbe par une affaire importante, la fabrication dune cage... The English Gerund has the function of an attribute and serves to explain its head noun affair. It is introduced into Romanian and French by nouns with the same syntactical function. I began to order my times of work, of going out... ...m-am hotrt s-mi mpart timpul n ore de munc, ore de vnat... Je commenai rgler mon temps de travail et de sortie... In these sentences the Gerund has the function of attribute, being preceded by the preposition of and is translated by noun with the same syntactical function. My father had given me a competent share of learning Tata ncercase s-mi ofere o cretere aleas... Mon pre mavait donn tout la somme de savoir

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The syntactical function of the English Gerund is prepositional object. Its position is after the noun it determines. The Romanian and French variants for it are the nouns functioning as indirect object. ...we heard such dreadful noises of barking, roaring and howling of wild creatures ...auzirm zgomote nspimnttoare, probabil urlete i rgete de animale slbatice... ...nous entendmes un si pouvantable bruit daboiement, de hurlement et de rugissement de btes farouches... The English Gerunds have the syntactical function of prepositional object and are translated as nouns with the function of indirect object. The Romanian nouns is in the plural form. Here we have a various but stable section from the syntactical point of view since the English Gerund, Romanian and French nouns, have a syntactical function of their own; attribute, direct and indirect object respectively. I found he was a most dexterous fellow at managing it... Vineri era destul de ndemnatic la conducerea brcii... Je vis que ctait un compagnon fort a droit la manuvre... ...for otherwise I knew not how I should lose a day out of my reckoning in the days of the week ...cci altfel nu pricep cum m-am ncurcat n socoteala calendarului meu... Je ne sais comment jaurais pu oublier une journe dans mon calcul... In this case the situation is opposite to the previous one, since the examples from each sentence have the function of an indirect object, if it is about Romanian or French noun, or prepositional object, in the case of the English Gerund.

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I spent this day in covering and securing the goods, which I have saved Am fost preocupat de punerea la adpost a avutului... Je passai ce jour-l mettre labri les effets... The preposition in suggests us that it is about an adverbial modifier of manner. The other two variants are adverbial modifiers of place, also being determined by the preposition that precedes them. After I got to the shore and had escaped drowning Scpat de nec... ...aprs avoir chapp la mort... In this example we have the following functions: compound verbal predicate for the English Gerund and indirect object for the other two languages. And it is scarce credible what inexpressible labour everything was done with, especially bringing piles out of the woods, and driving them into the ground Este greu de imaginat i de descris ct efort a necesitat aceasta, n special transportul parilor din pdure i fixarea lor n pmnt. Il est aussi difficile de croire que dexprimer la peine que me cota chaque chose, surtout le transport des pieux depuis les bois, et leur enfoncement dans le sol... The English Gerund is rendered by a noun into Romanian and French. The function of direct object is preserved in all the three languages. ...but it was so tame with being hungry... Foamea l slbise mult i m urma ca un cine... ...mais il tait si mat par linanition...

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The syntactical function of the English Gerund coincides only with that of the French example and it is adverbial modifier of cause. The Romanian noun has the function of a subject. As we have seen from the above examples, the English Gerund has not a perfect equivalent. It is translated by means of the noun with different functions in the sentence. In this subgroup we cannot speak about a predominant syntactical function as we have here almost all the functions of a sentence. It is to be mentioned that the absolute coincidence of the functions is absent, except two or three examples. However, we may say that there are some relations established among the functions in the three languages. The direct object is identical in all the languages; the function of prepositional object in English corresponds to indirect object in Romanian and French. In some cases the attribute also coincides in the three languages, in other cases it is equivalent to direct or indirect object in the other two languages. 2.3.English Gerund Translated by Past Tenses and Infinitive 2.3.1. Imperfect Infinitive I improved myself in all mechanic exercises, which my necessities put me upon applying myself... Am devenit priceput n meteuguri unde cerinele m solicitau... ...je me perfectionnai dans touts les travaux mcaniques auxquels mes besoins me foraient de mappliquer. The prepositional object is the function of the Gerund and has its equivalent in French the indirect object, which is the function of the Infinitive. The English Gerund has the meaning of a repeated action and is translated into Romanian as a verb, indicative mood, Imperfect. ... I had all that I was now capable of enjoying.
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...aveam tot ceea ce m putea bucura... ...javais alors tout ce dont jtais capable de jouir... The function of the English Gerund prepositional object corresponds only to the French variant indirect object. The Romanian example is totally different since it does not function as a verbal anymore, but as a finite form of the verb and it will perform the function of a predicate. I had not the least thought or intention or desire of undertaking it. Gndurile acestea nu le mprteam i eu. Je navais pas le dentreprendre. The syntactical function of the Gerund is the same as that of the French Infinitive attribute. The situation of the Romanian variant is the same as in the previous example. ... but which occurred naturally to my mind upon my searching into them for the information of this poor savage. Dar acum, cnd le cutam, mi-aduceam aminte de ele i de toate cercetrile. ...quand je me pris les fouiller pour lenseignement de ce pauvre sauvage... As in the previous examples, there is a correspondence between the English Gerund and French Infinitive concerning the syntactical function adverbial modifier of time. The Romanian example goes separately as it is translated by a verb, indicative mood, imperfect, which functions as a predicate. I kept my piece in my hand still without firing... Dei aveam puca ncrcat, nu trgeam... Je tenais mon fusil la main sans tirer... The English Gerund performs the action of an adverbial modifier of time and respectively of manner, this function being valid for the French Infinitive, too. Into
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moindre dsir, la moindre intention ou envie

Romanian it is translated as verb, indicative mood, Imperfect, which functions as predicate. While analysing the above sentences, we may observe that the English Gerund is equivalent with the French Infinitive from the point of view of syntactical function. Having different functions, it is always translated into Romanian as verb, Imperfect and it always functions as predicate in the sentence. 2.3.2. Perfectul Simplu Infinitive I made forward for about eleven days more, without offering to go near the shore. mi urmai drumul spre sud aproape unsprezece zile, n care timp nu m mai gndii s m apropii de uscat. ...sans mapprocher du rivage, je continuai ma course... The English Gerund and the French Infinitive have the function of an adverbial modifier of manner determined by the preposition without and sans respectively. They are translated into Romanian as verb, indicative mood, Perfectul Simplu. I continued for near a year after this; and so far I was from desiring an occasion for falling upon those wretches... Aproape un an ntreg cutai aa de puin mijlocul de a ataca pe slbatici... Jtais si loin de rechercher loccasion de tomber sur les sauvages... The relation prepositional object indirect object is established between the functions of the English Gerund and of the French Infinitive. The Romanian equivalent is a finite form of the verb in the indicative mood, Perfectul Simplu, which have the syntactical function of a predicate. I was surprised with seeing a light of some fire upon the shore... Observai, surprins, lumina ce venea de la un foc i care se zrea pe coast... ...je fus surpris de voir la lueur dun feu sur le rivage...
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The situation is repeated: it is the function of the Gerund and of the Infinitive that have changed. Here it is prepositional object and indirect object. After analysing the examples we may state that the English Gerund corresponds in syntactical function only to the French Infinitive. Into Romanian it is translated differently, namely as verb, indicative mood, Perfectul Simplu, which always acts as a predicate. It is also noteworthy that the action expressed by the underlined words comprises time indication and namely it is prior to the action of the finite verb. 2.3.3. Perfectul Compus Infinitive I spent great part of this day in perplexing myself... Aceste gnduri triste m-au copleit ntreaga zi. Je passai une grande partie de la journe tourmenter mon me... The English Gerund is rendered into Romanian by a finite form of the verb and into French by Infinitive. ... I was going to give thanks to God for bringing me to this place. M pregteam s-i mulumesc lui Dumnezeu c m-a adus aici... ...jallais remercier Dieu de mavoir relgu en ce lieu. It is noticed the coincidence between the English Gerund and the French Infinitive concerning the syntactical function, which is adverbial modifier of manner and of cause. The Romanian variant is represented by a verb, indicative mood, Perfectul Compus that functions as predicate in the sentence. 2.3.4. Mai Mult ca Perfectul Infinitive ...but with much chopping and cutting knotty and hard wood, they were all full of notches...

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Din cauz c cioplisem buturugi multe i noduroase, securile erau mai toate tocite... ... force davoir coup et taill des bois durs et noueux, elles taient mousses et brches. The indefinite Gerund has the syntactical function of an adverbial modifier of cause and indicates an action, which precedes the action expressed by the predicate verb. It is translated into French as an Infinitive with the same function, while in Romanian it stands for a finite verb, indicative mood, Mai Mult ca Perfectul, which functions as a predicate. ...my soul blessed God for directing my friend... and for assisting me. ...fr s binecuvntez mna Domnului care fcuse...i tot mna Lui ajutase... ...mon me ne bnit pas Dieu davoir inspir la pense mon ami, et davoir permis... The function of adverbial modifier of reason of the English Gerund is determined by the preposition for. The action expressed by the Gerund is prior to that of the finite form of the verb. It is translated into French and Romanian by Infinitive and verb in indicative mood, Mai Mult ca Perfectul respectively. ...being fatigued with rowing or paddling...and with walking... ...fiind foarte obosit vslisem toat dimineaa i umblasem... ...fatigu davoir ram ou pagay... et march... The Gerund and the Infinitive have a unique function adverbial modifier of cause, while the Romanian Mai Mult ca Perfectul functions as predicate. The action of the Gerund precedes the action of the finite form of the verb, which means that it is anterior to the latter.

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2.4. Specific Ways of Translating the English Gerund 2.4.1. Noun and Infinitive When again I was shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of drowning on this island Naufragiat din nou i n primejdie de moarte... Aprs mon second naufrage, aprs que jeus t ruin et en danger de prir... In these sentences the English Gerund has the function of attribute preceded by the preposition of and serves to explain the meaning of its head noun. It is translated into Romanian by noun and into French by Infinitive, but the syntactical function remains unchanged. I resolved to employ all my study and hours of working to accomplish this great work of providing myself with corn and bread. Am decis s-mi ntrebuinez toate orele de lucru pentru pregtirea celor necesare n vederea obinerii finii i pinii. ...de consacrer toutes mes heures de travail accomplir le grand uvre de me pourvoir de bl et pain. The syntactical function of the English Gerund the attribute is valid for the Romanian and French variants as well, even though it is translated by means of noun and Infinitive respectively. The Gerund serves to explain the meaning of its head noun work. This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing my habitation. Aceast ntmplare mi alung gndul de la mutat... Ceci vint de me distraire totalement de mon dessein de changer dhabitation. The English Gerund preceded by the preposition of serves to explain the meaning of its head noun design.
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...but I saw the boat draw near the shore as if they looked for the convenience of landing. ...am zrit o barc care se apropia de rm, cutnd un loc potrivit pentru acostare. ... lembarcation sapprochait du rivage comme si elle cherchait une crique pour accoster la terre commodment. Here we may notice the absence of equivalents both morphological and syntactical because the English Gerund is rendered into Romanian and French by noun and Infinitive respectively. The attribute from the English example is transformed into indirect object in the other two languages. I employed myself in planting my second rows of stakes Toat vara am muncit la ntrirea gardului... Je me suis occup tout lt planter mes seconds rangs de palis... Being preceded by a preposition, the Gerund acquires the function of a prepositional object, having its equivalent in Romanian and French indirect object. It stands after the verb predicate employed, determining it. ...the things necessary in providing, producing, curing, dressing, making and finishing this one article of bread. ...fapte mrunte ce servesc la procurarea, pregtirea, facerea i terminarea unui singur lucru: pinea. ...des petits objets ncessaires pour entreprendre, produire, soigner, prparer, faire et achever ce seul article : le pain. The English Gerunds have verbal characteristics with the function of prepositional object. It is translated into Romanian as verbal noun and into French as Infinitive with the same syntactical function indirect object.
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2.4.2. Conditional and Infinitive ...I should now tremble at the very apprehensions of seeing a man... Acum tremuram numai la gndul c a putea ntlni o fiin omeneasc! ...je tremblais la seule ide de voir un homme... The English Gerund of seeing is rendered in French by the Infinitive de voir and in Romanian by the verb in the conditional mood a putea ntlni. The Gerund, being preceded by the preposition of, performs the function of attribute, which is preserved into French. The Gerund serves to explain its head noun apprehensions. The function of the Romanian variant is a predicate. ...being still jealous of my being attacked by somebody... ...ntruct nc mi-era team c-a putea fi atacat. ...javais toujours quelque crainte dtre attaqu... In these sentences the Gerund has no equivalents: neither morphological nor syntactical, as its function of prepositional object is transformed, in French, into attribute and, in Romanian, in a verb predicate, conditional mood. It is noteworthy that the passive voice is preserved in all the three examples. ...and out of danger of being heard or discovered, or finding their way out of the woods... ...de unde nu puteau fi vzui, auzii i nici n-ar fi putut gsi drumul prin pdure... ...ou ils taient assez loigns et hors de toute possibilit dtre entendus ou dcouverts, ou de trouver leur chemin pour sortir des bois... The Gerund, used to express a future action, functions as an attribute is translated into French as Infinitive with the same function and into Romanian as a Verb, conditional mood with the function of a predicate. It is noteworthy the fact

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that the future meaning from the English sentence is preserved in the Romanian translation. 2.4.3. Conjunctiv (Subjunctive) and Infinitive ...and had a great mind to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither... ...fiind ispitit s m ndrept ntr-acolo. ...dans lespoir de latteindre... The Gerund accomplishes the function of attribute, this function remaining unchanged with the French Infinitive. The Romanian equivalent is a verb, subjunctive mood. ...in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we were... Ieisem s vd n ce parte a lumii ne aflam... ...dans lespoir de reconnatre en quel endroit du monde nous tions... The Gerund functions as an attribute and serves to explain the meaning of its head noun hopes. The syntactical function of the French Infinitive coincides with that of the English Gerund, while the Romanian variant is a verb in subjunctive mood. ...neither did I see any prospect before me but that of perishing with hunger... ...nu m atepta altceva dect s mor de foame... je navais non plus dautre perspective que celle de mourir de faim... The Gerund has the function of attribute being preceded by the preposition of. It is translated into French as Infinitive with the same function, while into Romanian it is rendered by a verb, subjunctive mood, and active voice. ...I had not heart enough to go over my wall again, for fear of being buried alive...
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Frica s nu fiu ngropat ntre drmturi m copleea. ...je nosais pas encore de repasser par-dessus ma muraille, de peur dtre enterr tout vif... The Gerund serves to explain the meaning of its head noun fear. The rest remains unchanged. I might run the same risk of being driven down the stream, and carried by the island, as I had been before and of being carried away from it. ...eram tot att de ameninat s fiu trt spre coast n loc s fiu dus departe spre larg. ...je pouvais courir le mme risque dtre dross et emport loin de lle... These sentences differ from the above ones just by the fact that the underlined words are in the passive voice, which is present in all the three languages. The function in the sentence is the same as in the previous examples. ...lying at home longer than usual without fitting out his ship... ...banii nefiindu-i suficieni s-i refac echipajul... Mon patron restant alors plus longtemps que de coutume sans armer son vaisseau... The English Gerund has the same function as the French Infinitive, that is adverbial modifier of manner. It is translated into Romanian by means of a verb, subjunctive mood functioning as predicate. No wild creature could come at me without waking me. ...pentru ca animalele slbatice s nu se poat apropia de mine fr s m trezeasc. ...pour que les btes farouches ne pussent venir moi sans m veiller.

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The adverbial modifier of manner is valid for both English and French languages as the function of the Gerund and Infinitive respectively. The Romanian equivalent is a verb, subjunctive mood functioning as predicate. ...for I seldom gave anything over without accomplishing it... ...nu mi se ntmplase niciodat s nu duc la bun sfrit... ...car jabandonnais rarement une chose avant de lavoir accomplie... The English Gerund does not have an equivalent; neither morphological nor syntactical, since its function is adverbial modifier of manner and is translated into Romanian as verb, subjunctive mood, with the function of predicate and into French by Infinitive functioning as an adverbial modifier of time. We could not so much as hope to have the ship hold many minutes without breaking in pieces... i nu speram ca vasul s-o duc mult fr s se sfrme... ...le navire demeurerait quelques minutes sans se briser en morceaux... ...as I made it without considering beforehand... ...o fcusem fr s m gndesc nainte... ...que javais entrepris sans considrer dabord... In these sentences the Gerund has the syntactical function of adverbial modifier of manner, it is preceded by the preposition without and serves to show that the action, which is expected to accompany the action of the predicate verb, does not take place. That is why nothing can be said about the relation between the action expressed by the Gerund and that of the verb predicate. It is translated into French as Infinitive, which, being preceded by the preposition sans, also functions as an adverbial modifier of manner. Into Romanian it is translated as a verb, subjunctive mood.

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I spent eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my cave. Ca s-mi lrgesc pivnia, spai optsprezece zile. ...je passai dix-huit jours entiers largir et creuser ma grotte... The Gerunds have the function of an adverbial modifier of manner, which is preserved for the French Infinitive. In Romanian they have only one translation for both words, functioning as a predicate. The piles, which were as heavy as I could lift, were a long time in cutting and preparing in the woods, and more by far in bringing home. Parii erau aa de grei, nct nu-i puteam ridica cu una cu dou; mi lua mult pn s-i tai n pdure i s le dau forma, i mai mult timp s-i transport acas. Il me fallait longtemps pour les couper et les faonner dans les bois, et bien plus longtemps encore pour les amener jusqu' ma demeure The adverbial modifier of manner is transformed into a predicate represented by a verb, subjunctive mood into Romanian. The French Infinitive takes the form of an adverbial modifier of purpose. These two days I took up in grinding my tools... ntrebuinai ambele zile ca s-mi ascut sculele. Jemployai ces deux jours aiguiser mes outils... The English Gerund and the French Infinitive accomplish the function of adverbial modifier of manner and show that their action is simultaneous to that of the finite form of the verb. Into Romanian the Gerund is rendered by a verb, subjunctive mood, which functions as predicate. It is interesting to notice the fact that the Romanian verb predicate does not possess any reference to the function of the other variants; on the contrary it implies a purpose. ...for carrying away the earth, I made me a thing like a hod...

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Ca s scot pmntul din pivni, m-am servit de un instrument care seamn cu o targ... ...pour emporter la terre que je tirais de la grotte, je me fis une machine... Even if the adverbial modifier of purpose is valid as a function for the English Gerund and French Infinitive, it is implied in the verb from the Romanian variant, which is the equivalent of the Gerund. The purpose is stressed in the three sentences by the position of the subordinate: namely before the main clause. ...gunpowder and shot for getting my food. ...praf de puc s-mi procur carne. ...de poudre et de plomb pour me procurer ma nourriture. The Gerund functions as an adverbial modifier, this structure being identical to the French Infinitive. It is translated into Romanian as verb, subjunctive mood, with the function of predicate. It is worth to be mentioned the relation between the English and French prepositions preceding the words that interest us; they are perfect equivalents e.g. without sans; for pour; in . I thought of nothing but sailing round the island. M hotri s fac cel puin nconjurul insulei. Je ne songeai plus qu faire cette reconnaissance. The Gerund sailing has the function of prepositional object, being used after the preposition of. It encounters an equivalent only into French, since into Romanian it is translated as a verb in the subjunctive mood, which functions as a predicate. ...being more intent upon getting at the ship... ...a fi dorit s m urc la bord... ...jtais alors bien plus dsireux de parvenir au btiment...

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Prepositional object is the generic term when speaking about the syntactical function of the English Gerund, which has as equivalent in French an Infinitive functioning as indirect object. The Romanian variant is introduced by a verb, subjunctive mood, with the function of predicate. ...and sticking too fast for us to expect her getting off... ...nu puteam ndjdui s aducem corabia la linia de plutire... ...tant trop engrav pour esprer de le remettre flot... ...to prevent their landing upon us, and destroying us. ...s nu le permitem s vin aici i s ne nimiceasc pe toi. ...pour les empcher de faire une descente sur nous et de nous exterminer... The morphological structure of this sentence is the following: Gerund, verb in the subjunctive mood and Infinitive, while the syntactical situation is: direct object, predicate and indirect object respectively. As we have seen from the above examples, the gerund with different functions in the sentence is always translated into Romanian as a verb in subjunctive mood (Romanian conjunctiv), which functions as a predicate. In order to bring some statistic data, we are to mention that the situation in the Romanian variants is rather stable: from the all analysed examples 25% are Conjunctiv; Gerund, Infinitive and Noun have 20% each while the rest have only 15% altogether. The statistic for the French language is quite different: Infinitive -65%, Gerund -20%, and 5% for Participle. The situation is like that because of the fact that there are fewer parts of speech which are the English Gerund equivalents than into Romanian.

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Conclusions
After developing and making research on this topic, we have drawn some conclusions concerning both theoretical and practical parts. Studying various materials, we still found several similar ideas that tend to become theoretical facts. The conclusions we have come to in the theoretical part are as follows: The Gerund is a descendent of the Old English verbal noun and the present participle, hence its double nature and its noun and verb characteristics. The verbal noun and present participle had undergone some changes confined to the ending. In the Modern Period they had emerged into one form the Gerund. There are different views concerning the problem of the ing forms. The ing form is divided into two groups: Participle I and Gerund. Some linguists consider that there is no reason to accept those as two different morphological forms, since they do not differ in paradigms. Others consider these forms to be different verbals. The Gerund is the non-finite form of the verb, which combines the properties of a verb and those of a noun. It is formed by adding the ending ing to the root of the verb. The Gerund is not restricted in number and person by any subject. It has no mood distinction as well. Thus the Gerund cannot express predication by itself; it can only be a part of a predicate but for this it must always be in connection with the finite forms of the verb. According to its characteristics, the Gerund performs the respective syntactical functions. Having nominal characteristics it functions as subject, object, and predicative. When the Gerund has verbal characteristics, it has tense and voice distinction. The forms called tenses of the Gerund comprise time indication; they

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indicate whether the action expressed by the Gerund coincides or is prior to the action of the finite verb. The Gerund has several functions in the sentence. It may be a subject, a predicate, a part of the compound verbal predicate, a direct or a prepositional object and an adverbial modifier. We have some conclusions referring to the practical part, too. After analysing about 400 examples with the Gerund from a literary work and translating them into Romanian and French, we may state the following: In the majority of cases the English Gerund is used with prepositions. The situation is quite different with Romanian and French Gerund, which, practically is not accompanied by prepositions. The Romanian and French Gerund corresponds mostly to the English Participle I. The English Gerund can be translated into Romanian and French as Gerund with the same syntactical functions in the most cases. It can be also translated as a noun, but the syntactical functions differ. The function of the prepositional object is equivalent in Romanian and French to the indirect object. If we take the group of examples of Gerund translated as Infinitive, it is to be noticed that the syntactical functions mostly correspond in the three languages.

When the English Gerund is translated as Conjunctiv in Romanian, into French it is rendered by the Infinitive. It is still translated as Infinitive in French and in Romanian it is translated by Conditional, by Perfectul Simplu, Perfectul Compus, Imperfect, Mai Mult ca Perfectul and, in some cases, by Participle.

There are cases when the English Gerund is translated into the other two languages as Participle, but this happens in rare cases. In this category the syntactical function is only one adverbial modifier of manner for all three languages.

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As a result of our research on Gerund in English, Romanian and French, we may assert that the English Gerund does not always correspond to the Gerund of the other compared languages. It may be rendered by means of another part of speech as those presented above.

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