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Past Simple / Present Perfect Simple

Choose the correct answer.

1. Im really hungry. I (havent eaten / didnt eat) yet.


2. They (arrived / have arrived) a week ago.
3. We (have worked / worked) here for three years.
4. They (didnt recognise / havent recognised) me at yesterdays meeting.
5. Our neighbour (was / has been) in hospital since Friday.
6. (Have you travelled / Did you travel) abroad many times?

Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. Use the Past Simple or the Present Perfect
Simple.

1. John ........................... (not call) me recently.


2. They ........................... (buy) a new car last month.
3. The teacher ........................... (not return) the tests yet.
4. How long ........................... she ........................... (know) about this problem?
5. ........................... you ever ........................... (hear) such an unbelievable story?
6. When I was a child, I ........................... (live) in England for two years.
7. He ........................... (buy) me a beautiful gift for my birthday.
8. I am so excited to have a dog. I ......................................... (always / want) one.

Correct the error in each of the sentences.

1. Have you ever eat Chinese food?


............................................................................
2. She has moved to another city last year.
............................................................................
3. They have sent out the invitations yet.
............................................................................
4. Jack hasnt seen Jill since she has graduated.
............................................................................

5. Mr Brown already left the office.


............................................................................
6. We havent been abroad since a year.
............................................................................
7. The lesson has started ten minutes ago.
............................................................................
8. Did she just leave?
............................................................................

Complete the passage with suitable words.


I 1.............................. always been very fit and healthy, and I have 2.............................. had a serious illness.
However, a couple of weeks 3.............................. , I caught the flu. I must admit that until then, I
4..............................

not realised just how unpleasant the flu could be. I had a high temperature for nearly a

week, and my whole body hurt. I dont think I have 5.............................. felt so miserable. Its taking me ages to
get my strength back. It really bothers me that I havent had enough energy to play football 6..............................
I got ill. In fact, I have 7.............................. been to the doctor to ask if its normal to feel weak for so long. He
says Ill soon feel better. Apparently Im lucky. For some people, especially the old and the weak, the flu can be
very serious. Doctors have tried 8.............................. years to find a cure for the flu, but they havent found one
9...............................

. Fortunately, researchers have developed a vaccine which gives effective protection against

the disease. According to my doctor, most of his elderly patients have


shots.

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10..............................

received their flu

Past Simple / Present Perfect Simple Answers


A 1. havent eaten
2. arrived
3. have worked

4. didnt recognise
5. has been
6. Have you travelled

B 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

hasnt called / has not called


bought
hasnt returned / has not returned
has known
Have heard
lived
bought
have always wanted

C 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Have you ever eaten Chinese food?


She moved to another city last year.
They havent sent out the invitations yet.
Jack hasnt seen Jill since she graduated.
Mr Brown has already left the office.
We havent been abroad for a year.
The lesson started ten minutes ago.
Has she just left?

D 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

have
never
ago
had
ever

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6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

since
already / just
for
yet
already

Future Tenses
A

Match I to II to form sentences.


I

II

1. Hurry up! Were leaving

.. a. one day.

2. Theyll be lying on the beach

.. b. in five minutes.

3. We will have arrived

.. c. next summer.

4. Its definite. My friends and I are going to travel

.. d. at this time next week.

5. I think he will be rich and famous

.. e. by this time tomorrow.

Choose the correct answer.


Jeffs family usually comes to stay with us for Christmas, but

1.

(by this Christmas / this Christmas) we are

going to visit them instead. They live on the coast of Queensland in South Australia. I can hardly wait I
2.

3.

(will have / will be having) a fantastic time there. School holidays

(are going to start / will start) on Friday,

and we are going to leave the following morning. At this time next week, I

4.

(will be swimming /

will have swum) in the sea, and snorkelling with Jeff. Hes an expert snorkler, and he
will have practised) with me every day.

6.

5.

(is going to practise /

(By / On) the last day of our visit, Jeffs dad is going to take us to

visit the Great Barrier Reef. I hope by then I

7.

(will have improved / will be improving) enough to snorkel at the

reef and see the magnificent coloured corals and brightly coloured fish close up. The reef is 2,200 kilometres
long and people say its an underwater wonderland. Next year I

8.

(am going to learn / will learn) scuba diving,

because only serious divers can dive in the deeper waters on the outer edges of the reef.

Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets. Use the Future Simple, be going to,
Future Perfect or Future Continuous.

1. The concert ................................... (start) at exactly 10 oclock.


2. See you at the station! I ................................... (wear) a red jacket.
3. Dont worry! I ................................... (not leave) without you.
4. We certainly ................................... (not finish) all the work by this time tomorrow.
5. Anne ................................... (invite) some of her friends for dinner after work.
6. ................................... she ................................... (remember) to call us this afternoon?
7. What ................................... you ................................... (do) at the weekend?

Complete each sentence using the verb in brackets and the Future Simple, be going to, Future Continuous
or Future Perfect.

1. Tennis practice starts at 10, and we plan to play for two hours. (finish)
By 12 oclock, ........................................................................................................................................ .
2. The phone is ringing! (answer)
I .............................................................................................................................................. the phone.
3. Do you want to come to the disco with us? (come)
.................................. you ..................................................................................................................... ?
4. Look at those clouds. (rain)
Do you think .......................................................................................................................................... ?
5. Their plane lands at 7.30. Lets get there earlier. (wait)
At 7 oclock, we ..................................................................................................................................... .

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Future Tenses Answers


A 1. b
2. d

3. e
4. c

5. a

B 1.
2.
3.
4.

this Christmas
will have
will start
will be swimming

5.
6.
7.
8.

C 1.
2.
3.
4.

will start
will be wearing
wont leave
wont have finished

5. is going to invite
6. Will remember
7. are going to do

D 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

we will have finished playing tennis / we will have finished our tennis practice
will answer
Are going to come to the disco with us
it will rain
will be waiting for their plane to arrive / land

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is going to practise
On
will have improved
am going to learn

Modals
A

Choose the correct answer.

1. I was worried. You (may have / should have) called to say youd be late.
2. He cant manage alone. We (have to / can) help him.
3. Diane did nothing wrong. Jim (shouldnt have / couldnt have) shouted at her.
4. She cant find her glasses. She (must have / could have) left them at home.
5. Take an umbrella because it (may / should) rain this afternoon.
6. Its a holiday tomorrow, so we (mustnt / neednt) get up early.

Complete the passage with the modals below.


couldnt

shouldnt

must have

can

must

might

neednt

ought to

should have

Times have changed. Nowadays you 1.............................. rush off to a travel agent to book tickets for a journey.
You 2.............................. sit at home and book them over the Internet. However, the experience of one British
couple 3.............................. be a warning to everyone. You 4.............................. assume that if you book on the
Net, mistakes wont happen. Thats why you 5.............................. always check bookings carefully. If you dont,
you 6.............................. find yourselves in the wrong part of the world. Thats exactly what happened to Emma
Dunn and Raoul Sebastian. They set off from London in a large plane, thinking they were on their way to Sydney,
Australia. They 7.............................. understand what was happening when they landed at an airport and were
asked to transfer to a much smaller plane. It 8.............................. been quite a shock when they finally discovered
they were in Canada. They 9.............................. read their tickets more carefully because they were booked for
Sydney, Nova Scotia.

Rewrite the sentences using a modal. Do not change the original meaning.

1. Its forbidden to walk on the grass.


You .................................... walk on the grass.
2. Its not possible that these diamonds are real.
These diamonds .................................... be real.

4. We were expecting you to call us.


You .................................... called us.
5. Im certain that Dan is at work.
Dan .................................... be at work.

3. Its not necessary to bring food with you on the trip.


You .................................... bring food with you.

Complete the sentences with the verbs in brackets. Use modals or modal perfects.

1. The grass is very wet. It ................................... (rain) last night.


2. Im too busy to visit you at the moment, however I ................................... (visit) later.
3. I remember your phone number, so I ................................... (not write) it down.
4. Dan didnt know that the lesson was cancelled. Someone ................................... (tell) him.
5. He doesnt remember where he left his keys. They ................................... (be) on his desk.

Correct the error in each of the sentences.

1. There are no tickets left. We might have come earlier.


..............................................................................
2. Its impossible! It mustnt be ten oclock already.
..............................................................................
3. That book looks interesting. Am I able to see it?
..............................................................................

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4. You look so tired. I think you can go to bed early.


................................................................................
5. The traffic light is red. You neednt cross now.
................................................................................
6. She failed every exam. She shouldnt have studied.
................................................................................

Modals Answers
A 1. should have
2. have to
3. shouldnt have

4. must have
5. may
6. neednt

B 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.

neednt
can
ought to
shouldnt
must

C 1. mustnt
2. cant
3. dont have to /
neednt

might
couldnt
must have
should have

4. should have
5. must

D 1. must have rained


4. should have told
2. can visit
5. must be
3. dont have to write /
neednt write
E

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

There are no tickets left. We should have come earlier.


Its impossible! It cant be 10 oclock already.
That book looks interesting. May / Can / Could I see it?
You look so tired. I think you should / ought to go to bed early.
The traffic light is red. You mustnt cross now.
She failed every exam. She should have / couldnt have studied.

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The Conditional
A

Choose the correct answer.

1. If Tom comes to town, we .. him.


a. visit
b. visited
c. will visit

4. If walls could talk, they .. many secrets.


a. would tell
b. would have told
c. told

2. If they had known he was in trouble, they .. him.


a. would have helped
b. would help
c. will help

5. As
a.
b.
c.

3. Hell fix the machine after he .. the instructions.


a. will read
b. has read
c. read

6. I wont be able to travel unless I .. some money.


a. will save
b. save
c. saved

soon as he .. , he will look for a job.


will graduate
graduates
may graduate

Match I to II to form sentences.


I

II

1. If he had a lot of money,

.. a. unless it rains.

2. I wouldnt eat that

.. b. he would rent a bigger flat.

3. If I had known you were ill,

.. c. Ill travel all over the world.

4. Mark wouldnt be so tired

.. d. if he didnt have so much work.

5. If I get the opportunity,

.. e. I would have called.

6. They will play tennis this afternoon

.. f. if I were you.

Complete each sentence with the correct form of the verb in brackets.

1. Hell call us before he .................................. (leave).


2. .................................. you .................................. (go) to the party if he had asked you?
3. If the phone rings, I .................................. (answer) it.
4. You would feel better if you .................................. (eat) healthier food.
5. Her parents .................................. (not be) angry if she had called.
6. If I had more free time, I .................................. (exercise) more often.
7. As soon as the guests .................................. (arrive), well begin the lecture.
8. They wont be able to hear you unless you .................................. (speak) louder.

Complete the passage with the words below.


when

had

hadnt

were

would

if

will

should

have

could

My wife and I seldom travel. In fact, if we 1.............................. received a wedding invitation from family in
Cape Town, we wouldnt 2.............................. thought of travelling. But my wife was very excited. Lets make
a holiday of it, she suggested. 3.............................. we go, we 4.............................. do some touring. And
that is what we did. If you have the opportunity, you 5.............................. travel to South Africa. You can rent a
car 6.............................. youre there, but if I 7.............................. you, I would also include a train trip. Our
relatives suggested that we take the famous Blue Train for the journey north. If we 8.............................. stuck
to our original plan, we 9.............................. have missed this wonderful experience. The Blue Train travels
from Cape Town to Zimbabwe. It has luxurious compartments, private bathrooms and wonderful food. If you
decide to take the train, you

10..............................

relaxing in a luxury hotel on wheels.

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have the pleasure of seeing wonderful scenery while

The Conditional Answers


A 1. c
2. a

3. b
4. a

B 1. b
2. f
3. e

5. b
6. b
4. d
5. c
6. a

C 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

leaves
Would have gone
will answer
ate
wouldnt have been
would exercise / could exercise
arrive
speak

D 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

hadnt
have
If
could
should

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6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

when
were
had
would
will

The Passive
A

Choose the correct answer.

1. A new law on health care (passed / was passed)


by the government last month.

5. Notices (have sent / have been sent) to all the


members of the club.

2. School uniforms (arent worn / dont wear) at our


school.

6. The offices (were cleaning / were being cleaned)


all afternoon.

3. We (will meet / will be met) you at the station at


10 oclock.

7. Dave (hadnt finished / hadnt been finished) the


exam when the bell rang.

4. We believe that endangered animals


(should be protected / should protect).

8. Dogs (mustnt take / mustnt be taken) into shops.

Rewrite the sentences in the passive. Omit the agent when possible.

1. Both teams must agree on the date for the match.


...........................................................................................................................................
2. The postman may have delivered the letters to the wrong address.
...........................................................................................................................................
3. We didnt see the famous painting because somebody had stolen it.
...........................................................................................................................................
4. The doctor is examining the patient now.
...........................................................................................................................................
5. The prisoner escaped while the police were questioning him.
...........................................................................................................................................

Correct the error in each of the sentences.

1. Why is that car being taking away by the police?


.............................................................................
2. A lot of food ate at the party.
.............................................................................
3. You shouldnt have been read my diary.
.............................................................................
4. This book mustnt take out of the library.
.............................................................................

5. John hasnt seen by anyone all week.


.............................................................................
6. English spoken in many countries of the world.
.............................................................................
7. His article will publish in tomorrows newspaper.
.............................................................................
8. I couldnt enter the room because the floor was
washing.
.............................................................................

Complete the passage with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. Use the active or passive.
Many people use the Internet, or the Net as it 1.............................. (call). Some people consider it as an
encyclopedia, which 2.............................. (can / use) to get information. However, when it 3..............................
(invent), the Internet had a different purpose. Until then, people 4.............................. (communicate) by radio
and telephone, but these means of communication 5.............................. (not consider) safe ways of sending
private messages. A new way of sending private or secret information 6.............................. (need).
Researchers in the American Defence Department studied the problem, and in 1969 they
7...............................
8..............................
9...............................

(establish) the Internet. Since then, the Net has grown and changed. In recent years, it
(use) for e-mail, shopping and chatting to people all over the world. Millions of people
(connect) to it. Perhaps, in the future, phones

10..............................

(replace) entirely by

e-mail, but for the time being, there are still many people who prefer to chat on the phone.

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The Passive Answers


A 1.
2.
3.
4.

was passed
arent worn
will meet
should be protected

B 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The date for the match must be agreed on by both teams.


The letters may have been delivered to the wrong address.
We didnt see the famous painting because it had been stolen.
The patient is being examined now.
The prisoner escaped while he was being questioned.

C 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Why is that car being taken away by the police?


A lot of food was eaten at the party.
You shouldnt have read my diary.
This book mustnt be taken out of the library.
John hasnt seen anyone all week. / John hasnt been seen by anyone all week.
English is spoken in many countries of the world.
His article will be published in tomorrows newspaper.
I couldnt enter the room because the floor was being washed.

D 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

is called
can be used
was invented
had communicated
werent considered /
were not considered

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5.
6.
7.
8.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

have been sent


were being cleaned
hadnt finished
mustnt be taken

was needed
established
has been used
are connected
will be replaced

Relative Pronouns
A

Complete each sentence with a word below.


who

whose

when

where

which

1. Jim cant remember the room ........................... he left his glasses.


2. He showed us the car ........................... he wants to buy.
3. Thats the man ........................... stole my bag.
4. I still remember the moment ........................... I first saw her.
5. We have never met the neighbours ........................... flat is above ours.

Combine each pair of sentences with a relative clause. Make any necessary changes.

1. I bought my first car ten years ago. I was a salesman then.


......................................................................................................................................................................
2. There is a girl in my class. Her family emigrated from India.
......................................................................................................................................................................
3. Marks sister is getting married tomorrow. She has just graduated.
......................................................................................................................................................................
4. Lots of people walk in the park. I jog there every morning.
......................................................................................................................................................................
5. My uncles farm is twenty kilometres from here. We often visit it.
......................................................................................................................................................................
6. The young boy was given a reward. He had saved the drowning child.
......................................................................................................................................................................

Correct the error in each of the sentences.

1. The boy which sits next to me in class is very clever.


......................................................................................................................................................................
2. Our cat, that we all loved very much, died last week.
......................................................................................................................................................................
3. The man who car was stolen was very upset.
.......................................................................................................................................................................
4. The school which I had studied as a child was destroyed in a fire.
......................................................................................................................................................................
5. At the weekend, that my family is at home, we have breakfast together.
......................................................................................................................................................................

Complete the passage with suitable words. There may be more than one correct answer.
March 17th is an Irish holiday

1.

............................... honours the patron saint of Ireland, St Patrick,

2................................

brought Christianity to the Irish people. According to tradition, St Patrick,

3................................

father was a wealthy man, was actually born in England. At the age of 16, he was

kidnapped by pirates and sold as a slave. Some years later, he escaped to France, 4................................ he lived
for many years and became a priest. At the age of 60, 5................................ he returned to Ireland, he built his
first church. On March 17th, the day 6................................ St Patrick died, people wear green clothes decorated
with the shamrock, 7................................ is the national symbol of Ireland.

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Relative Pronouns Answers


A 1. where
2. which
3. who

4. when
5. whose

B 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

I bought my first car ten years ago, when I was a salesman.


There is a girl in my class whose family emigrated from India.
Marks sister, who has just graduated, is getting married tomorrow.
Lots of people walk in the park where I jog every morning.
My uncles farm, which we often visit, is twenty kilometres from here.
The young boy who had saved the drowning child was given a reward.

C 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The boy who / that sits next to me in class is very clever.


Our cat, which we all loved very much, died last week.
The man whose car was stolen was very upset.
The school where I had studied as a child was destroyed in a fire.
At the weekend, when my family is at home, we have breakfast together.

D 1.
2.
3.
4.

that / which
who
whose
where

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5. when
6. when
7. which

Reported Speech
A

Choose the correct answer.

1. Well be coming to see you later, John (told / said).


2. Lets go to a film this evening, she (offered / suggested).
3. Its a busy restaurant. You should reserve a table, Anne (advised / asked) us.
4. Leave the building at once, (ordered / suggested) the police.
5. Im so sorry I didnt write to you, she (apologised / wondered).

Choose the correct answer.

1. I am going to travel abroad.


She said that she ..... travel abroad.
a. was going to
b. is going to

4. The children are watching TV.


Mum said that the children ..... TV.
a. had watched
b. were watching

2. Will you visit this evening?


He asked us if we ..... that evening.
a. would visit
b. are visiting

5. When did the pain begin?


The doctor asked Sam when the pain ..... .
a. began
b. had begun

3. I work in a shop.
She says that she ..... in a shop.
a. worked
b. works

6. I must leave at once.


She said that she ..... leave at once.
a. must
b. had to

Write the sentences in direct speech.

1. Jane said that she had been ill the previous week.
.............................................................................................................................................................
2. Toms mother wanted to know why he was eating those chocolates.
.............................................................................................................................................................
3. Mike told me not to call him at work.
.............................................................................................................................................................
4. They suggested having a picnic that weekend.
.............................................................................................................................................................
5. She said she was sure that she had never been there before.
.............................................................................................................................................................
6. The caller asked what time the performance would begin that night.
.............................................................................................................................................................

Change the sentences into reported speech.

1. Dont touch the oven.

4. Were leaving now.

The mother told her child .....................................

He told me ...........................................................

........................................................................... .

........................................................................... .

2. Lets buy tickets for this concert.

5. There will be no sports lessons today.

Mike suggested ...................................................

The headmaster announced ................................

........................................................................... .

........................................................................... .

3. I dont like sweets, cakes and chocolates.

6. I cant help her.

John says ............................................................

She apologised ..................................................

........................................................................... .

........................................................................... .

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Reported Speech Answers


A 1. said
2. suggested
3. advised

4. ordered
5. apologised

B 1. a
2. a
3. b

4. b
5. b
6. b

C 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

I was ill last week, said Jane.


Why are you eating these chocolates? Toms mother asked.
Dont call me at work, Mike said.
Lets have a picnic this weekend, they suggested.
I am sure I have never been here before, she said.
What time will the performance begin tonight? the caller asked.

D 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

not to touch the oven


[that] we buy tickets for that concert / buying tickets for that concert
[that] he doesnt like sweets, cake and chocolates
[that] they were leaving then
[that] there would be no sports lessons that day
that she couldnt help her

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Present Perfect Continuous / Past Perfect Continuous


A

Choose the correct answer.

1. I love this writers books. I (have been reading / had been reading) them for years.
2. His clothes were dirty because he (has been working / had been working) in the garden.
3. Where have you been? We (had been waiting / have been waiting) for you for ages.
4. He hasnt decided on a career yet, but he (has been thinking / had been thinking) about it lately.
5. After she (has been playing / had been playing) the violin for ten years, she joined an orchestra.

Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. Use the Present Perfect Continuous or the
Past Perfect Continuous.

1. Mike has never had an accident and he ....................................... (drive) for years.
2. She had no idea it was so late because she ....................................... (not / watch) the time.
3. ....................................... (you / take) your medicine regularly, Mrs Smith? Yes, doctor.
4. They eventually found the dog after they ....................................... (look) for it all night.
5. How long ....................................... your father ....................................... (work) for the company when he retired?

Complete the sentences with a suitable word or expression.


for

by tomorrow

so far

the week before

since

1. Our TV hasnt been working .......................... last week.


2. The Browns invited us to dinner although we had only met .......................... .
3. They will have finished painting the house .......................... .
4. We had been writing .......................... nearly an hour when the bell rang.
5. They have interviewed three suspects .......................... .

Choose the correct answer.

1. Dont come before seven. I .......................... my homework.


a. havent finished

b. wont have finished

c. hadnt finished

2. She loves animals. She .......................... a dog for as long as she can remember.
a. has had

b. had had

c. will have had

3. Jack wanted to know why Sally .......................... to him yet.


a. hasnt written

b. hasnt been writing

c. hadnt written

4. We .......................... him, so we were very surprised to see him.


a. havent been expecting

b. havent expected

c. hadnt been expecting

5. His playing has improved because he .......................... all month.


a. will have practised

b. has been practising

c. had practised

Correct the errors in the following sentences.

1. Jane has lost weight. She had been dieting for months now.
...........................................................................................................................
2. Everything was white when we woke up because it has been snowing all night.
...........................................................................................................................
3. I was so happy when he asked me to marry him. I have been loving him for years.
...........................................................................................................................
4. That man is making me nervous. He has stared at me all evening.
...........................................................................................................................
5. Hurry up, or they have sold all the tickets by the time we get there.
...........................................................................................................................
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Present Perfect Continuous / Past Perfect Continuous Answers


A 1. have been reading
2. had been working
3. have been waiting
B 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

4. has been thinking


5. had been playing

has been driving


hadnt been watching
Have you been taking
had been looking
had ... been working

C 1. since
2. the week before
3. by tomorrow

4. for
5. so far

D 1. b
2. a
3. c

4. c
5. b

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Jane has lost weight. She has been dieting for months now.
Everything was white when we woke up because it had been snowing all night.
I was so happy when he asked me to marry him. I have loved him for years.
That man is making me nervous. He has been staring at me all evening.
Hurry up, or they will have sold all the tickets by the time we get there.

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Relative Clauses
A

Choose the correct answer.

1. We went to see the house (that / where) we had lived as children.


2. He opened the drawer (in which / that) the money was hidden.
3. Im friendly with Johnny Collins, (whose / who) father is our family doctor.
4. The French film, (that / which) lasted three hours, wasnt very good.
5. Do you remember the day (when / which) we first met?
6. The tennis club (that / where) I belong to is in this neighbourhood.

Combine each pair of sentences with a defining or non-defining relative clause. Use commas when necessary.

1. His latest album is amazing. It came out last week.


...........................................................................................................................
2. Joe Harris has been elected again. Hes been mayor for twenty years.
...........................................................................................................................
3. The village has become a popular resort. We spent our honeymoon there.
...........................................................................................................................
4. Its a new sport. I know absolutely nothing about it.
...........................................................................................................................
5. The Browns were making a lot of noise. Their flat is directly above ours.
...........................................................................................................................

Rewrite each sentence in formal English.

1. The letter which we had been waiting for finally arrived.


...........................................................................................................................
2. My older brother, who I sometimes work for, is a successful lawyer.
...........................................................................................................................
3. I buy fashionable clothes, which I dont spend a lot of money on.
...........................................................................................................................
4. The disease which little was known about was fatal.
...........................................................................................................................
5. The new film, which everyone is talking about, is very frightening.
...........................................................................................................................

Correct the errors in the following sentences.

1. This is the drawer which in I keep all my old letters.


...........................................................................................................................
2. Marks flat, that is very small, is on the first floor.
...........................................................................................................................
3. John, who sister is my best friend, is a gym instructor.
...........................................................................................................................
4. This is a moment when Ill never forget.
...........................................................................................................................
5. Ill meet you on Monday, where Ill have more free time.
...........................................................................................................................

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Relative Clauses Answers


A 1. where
2. in which
3. whose

4. which
5. when
6. that

B 1. His latest album, which came out last week, is amazing. / His latest album, which is amazing,
came out last week.
2. Joe Harris, who has been mayor for twenty years, has been elected again. /
Joe Harris, who has been elected again, has been mayor for twenty years.
3. The village where we spent our honeymoon has become a popular resort.
4. Its a new sport which I know absolutely nothing about. / Its a new sport about which
I know absolutely nothing.
5. The Browns, whose flat is directly above ours, were making a lot of noise.
C 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The letter for which we had been waiting finally arrived.


My older brother, for whom I sometimes work, is a successful lawyer.
I buy fashionable clothes, on which I dont spend a lot of money.
The disease about which little was known was fatal.
The new film, about which everyone is talking, is very frightening.

D 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

This is the drawer in which I keep all my old letters.


Marks flat, which is very small, is on the first floor.
John, whose sister is my best friend, is a gym instructor.
This is a moment which / that Ill never forget.
Ill meet you on Monday, when Ill have more free time.

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Modals and Modal Perfects


A

Match the modals or modal perfects in I with their uses in II.


I

II

1. Shall I help you with that heavy bag?

..... a. a logical conclusion about a past event

2. You should have done all the homework.

..... b. formal request

3. She didnt answer the phone so she


must have left.

..... c. prohibition
..... d. offer

4. I need to clean my room. I promised my

..... e. unfulfilled expectation

mum that I would.

..... f.

obligation

5. I think that they might have left.

..... g. advice which was not followed

6. Would you sign your name here, please?

..... h. a guess about something which happened

7. Its not fair. I ought to have received a prize too.


8. You mustnt use this computer.

Choose the correct answer.

1. She (could walk / could have walked) before she was a year old.
2. The party was supposed to be a secret. You (shouldnt say / shouldnt have said) anything.
3. Im not sure, but I (might leave / might have left) early tonight.
4. Im not afraid to go alone. You (neednt have come / neednt come) with me.
5. Its late. You (must be / must have been) very tired.
6. You (ought to introduce / ought to have introduced) me to your friends. I didnt know anyones name.

Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. Use a modal perfect.

1. Nobody told her anything about the argument. She ....................................... (know) about it.
2. We arrived too early. We ....................................... (be) in such a hurry.
3. She ....................................... (leave) the office because her coat and bag arent here.
4. I ....................................... (drive) to work, but the weather was so nice that I decided to walk.
5. Its possible that I ....................................... (forget) to tell Joe about the meeting.
6. You ....................................... (call) her on her birthday. She never forgets to call you.

Rewrite each sentence using a modal or modal perfect. There may be more than one answer.

1. It isnt necessary for them to finish the job tonight.


They ......................................................................................................................
2. Its possible that I took your jacket by mistake.
I ......................................................................................................................
3. That man knows how to speak four languages.
That man ......................................................................................................................
4. I didnt wear a sunhat, and now my head hurts.
My head hurts. I ......................................................................................................................
5. It rained last night so the grass is wet.
It ...................................................................................................................... . The grass is wet.
6. The man you saw wasnt Jack. Hes been abroad since the summer.
You ......................................................................................................................

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Modals and Modal Perfects Answers


A 1.
2.
3.
4.

d
g
a
f

B 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

could walk
shouldnt have said
might leave
neednt come
must be
ought to have introduced

C 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

couldnt have known


neednt have been / shouldnt have been
must have left
could have driven
might have forgotten / may have forgotten
should have called / ought to have called

D 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

They neednt / dont have to finish the job tonight.


I may / might have taken your jacket by mistake.
That man can / is able to speak four languages.
My head hurts. I should have / ought to have worn a sunhat.
It must have rained last night. The grass is wet.
You couldnt have seen Jack. (Hes been abroad since the summer.)

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5.
6.
7.
8.

h
b
e
c

Grammar Review
A

Choose the correct answer.

1. She lived during an age (when / which / where) women didnt have the right to vote.
2. The speaker told the listeners that hed been in Africa (last month / the following month / the previous month).
3. My eyes are tired. I (have read / have been reading / was reading) for hours.
4. Jacks arm and leg are in plaster. He (could have / must have / should have) had an accident.
5. The wedding invitations (are being printed / are printing / are printed) today.
6. He (hadnt apologised / didnt apologise / wouldnt have apologised) to you if he hadnt felt ashamed.
7. I wish I (wouldnt / didnt / dont ) share a room with my sister because we always fight.
8. Mary asked me when (we will see / we would see / would we see) each other again.

Rewrite the following sentences using the words in brackets so that their original meanings do not change.

1. I havent got enough money to buy a new car. (If)


.........................................................................................................................................................................
2. They havent chosen the team yet. (The team)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
3. Lets invite the Smiths over this evening. (Jane suggested)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
4. Its a shame that you cant come to our wedding. (I wish)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
5. I waited for two hours and then I left. (After)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
6. They were angry because you didnt apologise. (If)
.........................................................................................................................................................................

Complete the passage with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.

Most of us

1.

.......................... (never / be) close to snakes except in zoos, where they

(keep) safely in cages. If we saw one anywhere outside a cage, we


from Australia isnt scared of snakes. If he was, he
job

5.

serious, but others

8.

explained that if they


10.

7.

..........................

.......................... (be) terrified. But Graeme Gow

.......................... (not do) his job. Gow is a researcher whose

.......................... (involve) handling all kinds of snakes, even poisonous ones. He

Australias greatest snake expert. Incredibly, Gow

Gow

4.

3.

2.

6.

.......................... (say) to be

.......................... (bit) 146 times. Some of the bites werent too

.......................... (can / be) fatal. Luckily, the doctors identified the types of poison. Gow
9.

.......................... (not identify) the poisons, they wouldnt have been able to treat his bites.

.......................... (tell) us that one of his few fears is being bitten one day by an unfamiliar snake. That could

put a very nasty end to his career.

Correct the errors in the following sentences.

1. If I was you, I wouldnt spend so much money. ...............................................................................................


2. She announced that she is leaving the following day. .......................................................................................
3. Our old car, that we want to sell, has got a puncture. .....................................................................................
4. They said that the house had totally destroyed in the fire. ...............................................................................
5. Well go for a trip as soon as you will feel strong enough. ................................................................................
6. That mustnt be John. Hes travelling in Australia this month. ...........................................................................
7. I dont like these shoes. I wish I wouldnt have bought them. ...........................................................................
8. In my opinion, children couldnt watch violent films. .........................................................................................
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Grammar Review Answers


A 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

when
the previous month
have been reading
must have
are being printed
wouldnt have apologised
didnt
we would see

B 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

If I had enough money, I would buy a new car.


The team hasnt been chosen yet.
Jane suggested inviting / that we invite the Smiths over that evening.
I wish (that) you could come to our wedding.
After I had waited for two hours, I left. / After waiting for two hours, I left.
If you had apologised, they wouldnt have been angry.

C 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

have never been


are kept
would be
couldnt do / wouldnt do
involves
is said
has been bitten
could have been
hadnt identified
told

D 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

If I were you, I wouldnt spend so much money.


She announced that she was leaving the following day.
Our old car, which we want to sell, has got a puncture.
They said that the house had been totally destroyed in the fire.
Well go for a trip as soon as you feel strong enough.
That cant be John. Hes travelling in Australia this month.
I dont like these shoes. I wish I hadnt bought them.
In my opinion, children shouldnt watch violent films.

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