(
k

1
)
(
N

1
)
1
h
h
2
h
R
1
O
Fig. 1. Geometry and the crosssection of a conical thin shell with N layers
Buckling of crossply laminated thin shells 31
where E
k1
0S
and E
k1
0h
are Youngs moduli in the S and hdirections for the layer k 1,
respectively, G
k1
0
is the shear modulus on the plane of the layer k 1, and q
k1
0
is the density
of the homogeneous orthotropic material for the layer k 1, d 2h=N is the thickness of the
layers. Additionally
" uu
k1
a
"11 1 lu
k1
a
"11; a 1; 2; 2
where u
k1
a
"11 are continuous functions giving the variations of Youngs moduli and den
sities in the layers, satisfying the condition u
k1
a
"11
Q
k1
11
Q
k1
12
0
Q
k1
12
Q
k1
22
0
0 0 Q
k1
33
_
_
_
_
e
S
e
h
e
Sh
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
; 4
where r
k1
S
; r
k1
h
and r
k1
Sh
are the stresses in the layers. The quantities Q
k1
ij
; i; j 1; 2; 3,
for orthotropic laminae are
Q
k1
11
E
k1
0S
" uu
k1
1
"11
1 m
k1
Sh
m
k1
hS
; Q
k1
22
E
k1
0h
" uu
k1
1
"11
1 m
k1
Sh
m
k1
hS
;
Q
k1
12
m
k1
hS
Q
k1
11
m
k1
Sh
Q
k1
22
;
Q
k1
33
2G
k1
0
" uu
k1
1
"11; k 0; 1; 2; . . . ; N 1; 5
where m
k1
Sh
and m
k1
hS
are Poissons ratios, assumed to be constant.
By Loves rst approximation theory the straindisplacement relations are given by
e
S
; e
h
; e
Sh
e
0
S
; e
0
h
; e
0
Sh
_ _
1 v
S
; v
h
; v
Sh
; 6
where e
0
S
and e
0
h
are the normal strains in the curvilinear coordinate directions S and h on the
middle surface, respectively, whereas e
0
Sh
is the corresponding shear strain; v
S
and v
h
are the
curvatures of the deformed shell in the directions S and h, respectively, whereas v
Sh
is the twist
of the middle surface. The last three entities are given by
v
S
; v
h
; v
Sh
@
2
w
@S
2
;
1
S
2
@
2
w
@/
2
1
S
@w
@S
;
1
S
@
2
w
@S@/
1
S
2
@w
@/
_ _
; 7
where / hsinc and w is the small incremental displacement of the middle surface in the
normal direction [29].
32 A. H. Soyev and E. Schnack
The well known force and moment resultants are expressed by [6], [14][15]
N
S
; N
h
; N
Sh
; M
S
; M
h
; M
Sh
N1
k0
_
hk1d
hkd
1; 1 r
k1
S
; r
k1
h
; r
k1
Sh
_ _
d1: 8
The relations between the forces N
S
; N
h
and N
Sh
and the stress function F are given by
N
S
; N
h
; N
Sh
1
S
2
@
2
F
@/
2
1
S
@F
@S
;
@
2
F
@S
2
;
1
S
@
2
F
@S@/
1
S
2
@F
@/
_ _
: 9
Substituting expressions (3)(9) in modied Donnell type dynamic stability and compatibility
equations a system of dierential equations for the stress function F and the normal dis
placement w can be obtained in matrix form as [910], [29]
L
11
L
12
L
21
L
22
_ _
F
w
_ _
0
0
_ _
; 10
where L
ij
; i; j 1; 2 are partial dierential operators, which are given in the Appendix.
3 Solution of the problem
If the shell is simply supported along the peripheries of both bases, there exists a solution for
the equations of motion in the form [29]
w n
1
te
l
0
r
sinb
1
rcosb
2
/; F n
2
tS
1
e
l
0
1r
sinb
1
rcosb
2
/; 11
where n
1
t and n
2
t are time dependent amplitudes, b
1
p=, r lnS=S
1
, lnS
1
=S
0
,
b
2
b=sinc and b is the wave number in the circumferential direction. For a truncated cone the
parameter l
0
varies with the geometric parameter as follows [30]:
< 2:7 when l
0
1:2;
2:7 3:5 when l
0
1:6; and
> 2:7 when l
0
2:0:
12
Applying the transformation r lnS=S
1
to the systemof Eqs. (10) and taking derivatives with
respect to the variables / and S each at a time, it is noted that the functions involved should be
steeply increasing with respect to / and slowly varying with respect to S [29]. Taking these
properties into consideration, neglecting small terms, multiplying the rst equation by wS
2
1
e
2r
drd/ and the second by FS
2
1
e
2r
drd/, then taking Eq. (11) into account, for 0 / 2psinc and
r 0, applying Galerkins method and eliminating n
2
t from the equations, it results
d
2
n
1
s
ds
2
K
1
K
2
s
n
n
1
s 0; 13
where
K
1
t
2
cr
~ qq
C
1
b
4
2
C
2
b
4
2
_ _
; K
2
PC
3
t
n2
cr
~ qq
~
bb
2
1
; 14:1; 2
C
1
b
11
c
24
c
21
b
14
d
1
b
11
S
4
1
; C
2
d
0
b
2
1
l
2
0
_ _
cot
2
c
b
11
S
2
1
; C
3
d
1=2
tanc
S
1
; 14:35
Buckling of crossply laminated thin shells 33
d
g
b1 e
2l
0
g
cbb
2
1
l
0
1
2
cl
0
1
b1 e
2l
0
1
cbb
2
1
l
0
g
2
cl
0
g
; g 1; 0; 1=2 14:6
in which s t=t
cr
, t
cr
being the critical time and 0 s 1 the dimensionless time parameter.
An approximating function will be chosen as
n
1
s Ae
Us
s U 2 =U 1 s 15
satisfying the initial conditions
n
1
0 0; and
@n
1
1
@s
n
0
1
1 0; 16
where U is an unknown coecient and the displacement amplitude A is found from the con
dition of transition to the static condition.
Applying the Ritz type variational method [26] to Eq. (13), i.e. multiplying it with n
0
1
s and
integrating with respect to s from 0 to s and from 0 to 1, in that order, the following char
acteristic equation for nding the critical load is obtained:
Pt
n
cr
X
0
C
1
C
3
b
2
2
C
2
C
3
1
b
6
2
_ _
X
1
~ qq
t
2
cr
C
3
1
b
2
2
; 17
where
X
0
_
1
0
n
1
s
2
ds
2
_
1
0
_
s
0
k
n
n
0
1
kn
1
kdkds
; X
1
_
1
0
n
0
1
s
_
2
ds
2
_
1
0
_
s
0
k
n
n
0
1
kn
1
kdkds
: 18
Minimizing Pt
n
cr
with respect to the parameter b
2
2
and employing it in Eq. (17), the equation for
the minimum critical load is found in the form
Pt
n
cr
2X
0
C
1
C
3
b
2
2
C
2
C
3
1
b
6
2
_ _
: 19
For large values of P, eliminating t
cr
from (17) and (19) and solving the resulting equation for
the wave parameter b
2
and taking the relation b
2
b=sinc into consideration, it results [9], [26]
b
4
d
P
2
X
n
1
~ qq
n
4X
n2
0
C
2
3
C
n2
1
_ _
1=n1
sin
4
c; 20
where b
d
is the wave number corresponding to the dynamic critical load. The dynamic critical
load is found by substituting Eq. (20) into (19),
P
d
cr
Pt
n
cr
4P
2=n
X
0
X
1
~ qqC
1
C
2
3
_ _
n=22n
: 21
The critical time can be found from (21) as
t
cr
P
1=1n
4X
0
X
1
~ qqC
1
C
2
3
_ _
1=22n
: 22
The coecient U for which this dynamic critical load takes its minimum value is the ordinate of
the minimum point of the parabola P
d
cr
; U and for external pressures given as a power
function of time. It can be shown by computations that it corresponds to U n 1. For the
34 A. H. Soyev and E. Schnack
static condition t
cr
!1; P !0, replacing Pt
n
cr
=X
0
by P
st
cr
, the static critical load is found to
be
P
st
cr
4C
3=4
1
C
1=4
2
3
3=4
C
3
; 23
and from K
d
P
d
cr
=P
st
cr
, the dynamic factor is given by
K
d
3
3=4
4
4P
2=n
X
0
X
1
~ qqC
2=n
3
C
n1=2n
2
C
n3=2n
1
_ _
n=22n
: 24
The corresponding critical impulse is obtained as
I
cr
_
t
cr
0
Pt
n
dt
Pt
n1
cr
n 1
2
n 1
X
0
X
1
~ qqC
1
C
2
3
_ _
1=2
: 25
At is seen from Eq. (25), the critical impulse value does not depend on the loading parameter,
when the loading parameter is big enough.
When l 0, N 1 the appropriate formulae for a truncated conical shell made of a homo
geneous orthotropic material are found as a special case of Eqs. (20)(25).
4 Numerical computations and results
Numerical computations in order to obtain the critical parameters given by (20)(25) were
carried out for graphite/epoxy composites with the following material properties [12][15], [17],
shell and loading parameters [29], [30]:
E
k1
0S
1:724 10
5
MPa; E
k1
0h
7:79 10
3
MPa; m
k1
Sh
0:35; m
k1
hS
0:016;
q
k1
0
1:53 10
3
kg/m
3
; R
1
8 10
2
m; R
0
2:25 10
2
m;
h 2:5 10
4
m; P 200 10
3=2n
MPa/s
n
:
For the numerical computations crossply laminated truncated conical shells up to 5 layers
are considered. For the homogeneous case l 0 and for the nonhomogeneous case
0 < l < 1 in which u
k1
a
"11 are even functions, the critical parameters are independent of
the stacking sequences (cases 90
=0
= . . .) and (0
=90
. A variation of the
Youngs moduli and densities resulting from another values of c do not change the behavior of
the critical parameters.
In homogeneous and nonhomogeneous cases, at the 0
=90
= . . . ordered and 90
=0
= . . .
ordered shells that have an even number of layers and at the 0
=90
=0
= . . . ordered shells that have an odd number of layers, as the number of layers
Buckling of crossply laminated thin shells 35
increases, the values of the dynamic critical load and critical impulse decrease, but the values of
the dynamic factor increase (Table 1).
Values of dynamic critical loads and dynamic factors are shown in Table 2 for the odd
variation functions u
k1
a
" 11 " 11; a 1; 2. The variation of the material densities a 2
does not inuence the critical parameters shown, being consequently not explicitly given in the
Table. The variations of Youngs moduli for l 0:9 present the more pronounced eect for a
shell with one layer 0
. In that case P
d
cr
is reduced by 7.57% and K
d
is increased by 17.04%.
For u
k1
a
" 11 " 11 the eect of the variation of Youngs moduli on the 0
=90
= . . . shells is
almost negligible for a small number of layers, but as this number increases the maximum eect
on the critical parameters becomes almost the same as that of the shell 0
=0
=0
=90
= . . . and 90
=0
=90
=0
1 (0
o
) 0.448 0.607 7.479 5.536 0.0005 0.0009
2 Layers 0.645 0.876 4.230 3.119 0.0010 0.0019
3 (0
o
/90
o
/0
o
) 0.517 0.703 6.157 4.540 0.0007 0.0012
3 (90
o
/0
o
/90
o
) 0.962 1.304 2.082 1.536 0.0023 0.0043
4 Layers 0.791 1.074 2.813 2.074 0.0016 0.0029
5 (0
o
/90
o
/...) 0.682 0.928 3.627 2.669 0.0012 0.0022
5 (90
o
/0
o
/...) 0.919 1.244 2.194 1.625 0.0021 0.0038
c 45
1 (0
o
) 0.404 0.548 6.477 4.794 0.0004 0.0008
2 Layers 0.583 0.792 3.664 2.702 0.0009 0.0016
3 (0
o
/90
o
/0
o
) 0.467 0.635 5.332 3.931 0.0005 0.0010
3 (90
o
/0
o
/90
o
) 0.869 1.178 1.803 1.178 0.0019 0.0035
4 Layers 0.715 0.971 2.436 1.796 0.0013 0.0024
5 (0
o
/90
o
/...) 0.616 0.838 3.141 2.312 0.0001 0.0018
5 (90
o
/0
o
/...) 0.830 1.124 1.900 1.408 0.0018 0.0032
c 60
1 (0
o
) 0.340 0.461 7.479 5.536 0.0003 0.0005
2 Layers 0.490 0.666 4.230 3.119 0.0006 0.0011
3 (0
o
/90
o
/0
o
) 0.393 0.534 6.157 4.539 0.0004 0.0007
3 (90
o
/0
o
/90
o
) 0.731 0.991 2.082 1.536 0.0013 0.0025
4 Layers 0.601 0.816 2.813 2.074 0.0009 0.0020
5 (0
o
/90
o
/...) 0.518 0.705 3.627 2.669 0.0007 0.0010
5 (90
o
/0
o
/...) 0.698 0.945 2.194 1.625 0.0012 0.0022
36 A. H. Soyev and E. Schnack
moduli and densities is given as u
k1
a
" 11 " 11
2
; a 1; 2 is tabulated in Table 3. As n
increases, the values of the dynamic critical load and dynamic factor decrease. Another point
to be noted is that as n increases the eect of the variation of Youngs moduli on the dynamic
critical load increases, whereas the eect on the dynamic factor decreases. Besides, in the case of
materials with Youngs moduli and densities both varying in the thickness direction the eect
on the dynamic critical load is more pronounced, whereas when the density is kept constant the
eect on the dynamic factor is more pronounced.
The same problem for an isotropic truncated one layered conical shell was solved numeri
cally, using energetic method, Lagrange equation and RungaKutta method by Shumik [28].
Sachenkov and Klementev [30] solved the same problem by an experimental method. The
comparisons were carried out for the following material properties, shell and loading para
meters [28], [30]:
E
0
2:11 10
5
MPa; m 0:3; q
0
8 10
3
kg/m
3
; 2h 1:3 10
4
m;
R
1
8 10
2
m; R
0
2:25 10
2
m; n 1; P 225 MPa/s; c 40
:
The present method gives the critical dynamic load P
d
cr
0:0719 MPa and dynamic factor
K
d
2:6277, which is almost equal to P
d
cr
0:081 MPa, K
d
2:7 given in experimental results
[28] and P
d
cr
0:0693 MPa, K
d
2:5317 given in numerical results [30].
Table 2. Variation of the dynamic critical load P
d
cr
and dynamic factor K
d
for Pt Pt, c 30
for
k 0; 1; 2; 3; 4
N Stacking
sequence
u
k1
a
" 11 " 11; a 1 u
k1
a
" 11 " 11; a 1
P
d
cr
MPa K
d
P
d
cr
MPa K
d
l 0 l 0:9 l 0 l 0:9 l 0 l 0:9 l 0 l 0:9
1 (0
o
) 0.4476 0.4137 7.4787 8.7532 0.4476 0.4137 7.4787 8.7532
2 (0
o
/90
o
) 0.6450 0.6558 4.2303 4.6715 0.6450 0.5876 4.2303 4.6765
2 (90
o
/0
o
) 0.6450 0.5876 4.2303 4.6765 0.6450 0.6558 4.2303 4.6715
3 (0
o
/90
o
/0
o
) 0.5172 0.5090 6.1574 6.3553 0.5172 0.5090 6.1574 6.3553
3 (90
o
/0
o
/90
o
) 0.9620 0.8529 2.0823 2.6490 0.9620 0.8529 2.0823 2.6490
4 (0
o
/90
o
/...) 0.7909 0.7913 2.8133 2.9774 0.7909 0.6726 2.8133 3.7132
4 (90
o
/0
o
/...) 0.7909 0.6726 2.8133 3.7132 0.7909 0.7913 2.8133 2.9774
5 (0
o
/90
o
/...) 0.6821 0.6541 3.6271 3.9441 0.6821 0.6541 3.6271 3.9441
5 (90
o
/0
o
/...) 0.9185 0.8247 2.1941 2.7217 0.9185 0.8247 2.1941 2.7217
Table 3. Variation of the dynamic critical load P
d
cr
and dynamic factor K
d
for Pt Pt
n
; c
30
; l 0:9, for (0
o
/90
o
/0
o
)
n P
d
cr
l 0
K
d
u
k1
a
" 11 " 11
2
u
k1
a
" 11 " 11
2
P
d
cr
MPa K
d
P
d
cr
MPa K
d
a 1; 2 a 1 a 2 a 1; 2 a 1 a 2 a 1; 2 a 1 a 2 a 1; 2 a 1 a 2
1 .52 6.16 0.593 0.555 0.552 5.22 4.887 6.575 0.428 0.468 0.473 7.895 8.632 5.632
2 .095 1.13 0.114 0.103 0.104 1.00 1.230 0.917 0.074 0.084 0.829 1.358 1.001 1.529
3 .046 0.55 0.056 0.051 0.051 0.50 0.602 0.449 0.035 0.040 0.040 0.637 0.478 0.728
Buckling of crossply laminated thin shells 37
5 Conclusions
The buckling of crossply laminated orthotropic composite truncated conical shells with
Youngs moduli and densities varying piecewise continuously in the thickness direction, subject
to an external pressure given by a power function of time, was studied. For large loading
parameter values, the analytical solution for the dynamic and static critical loads, the corre
sponding wave numbers, critical time and critical impulse of the crossply laminated ortho
tropic composite conical shells with varying Youngs moduli and densities in the thickness
direction have been found. In addition to these, it was seen that the critical impulse value does
not depend on the loading parameter. Numerical computations were carried out for power and
exponential variations of the Youngs moduli and densities, and for the variations of the
ordering and number of layers, the semivertex angle and the power of time in the external
pressure expression. The values of the dynamic critical load and dynamic factor for a single
layer conical shell match with the numerical and experimental results given in Refs. [28]
and [30] well, which supports the validity of the method presented in this study.
Appendix
The partial dierential operators in Eq. (10) are given by
L
11
c
12
@
4
@S
4
c
11
2c
12
c
22
S
@
3
@S
3
cotc
S
c
21
S
2
_ _
@
2
@S
2
c
21
S
3
@
@S
c
21
S
4
@
4
@h
4
1
c
11
2c
31
c
22
S
2
@
4
@S
2
@h
2
1
2 c
31
c
11
S
3
@
3
@S@h
2
1
2 c
11
c
31
c
21
S
4
@
2
@h
2
1
;
L
12
c
24
S
4
@
4
@h
4
1
c
14
c
23
2c
32
S
2
@
4
@S
2
@h
2
1
2c
14
c
32
S
3
@
3
@S@h
2
1
Pt
n
Scotc
2c
14
c
32
c
24
S
4
_ _
@
2
@h
2
1
c
13
@
4
@S
4
c
23
c
14
2c
13
S
@
3
@S
3
c
24
S
2
@
2
@S
2
Pt
n
cotc
c
24
S
3
_ _
@
@S
~ qq
@
2
@t
2
;
L
21
b
11
S
4
@
4
@h
4
1
2b
31
b
21
b
12
S
2
@
4
@S
2
@h
2
1
2b
31
b
21
S
3
@
3
@S@h
2
1
2 b
31
b
21
b
11
S
4
@
2
@h
2
1
b
11
S
3
@
@S
b
21
b
11
S
2
@
2
@S
2
b
21
2b
22
b
12
S
@
3
@S
3
b
22
@
4
@S
4
;
L
22
b
14
S
4
@
4
@h
4
1
2b
32
b
13
b
24
S
2
@
4
@S
2
@h
2
1
2b
24
b
32
S
3
@
3
@S@h
2
1
2 b
32
b
24
b
14
S
4
@
2
@h
2
1
b
14
S
3
@
@S
b
14
S
2
cotc
S
_ _
@
2
@S
2
b
13
b
24
2b
23
S
@
3
@S
3
b
23
@
4
@S
4
:
The expressions for the ~ qq, and b
ij
; i; j 1; 2; 3; 4; are:
c
11
a
1
11
b
11
a
1
12
b
21
; c
12
a
1
11
b
12
a
1
12
b
22
; c
13
a
1
11
b
13
a
1
12
b
23
a
2
11
;
38 A. H. Soyev and E. Schnack
c
14
a
1
11
b
14
a
1
12
b
24
a
2
12
; c
21
a
1
21
b
11
a
1
22
b
21
; c
22
a
1
21
b
12
a
1
22
b
22
;
c
23
a
1
21
b
13
a
1
22
b
23
a
2
21
; c
24
a
1
21
b
14
a
1
22
b
24
a
2
22
; c
31
a
1
33
b
31
; c
32
a
1
33
b
32
a
2
33
;
b
11
a
0
22
L
1
0
; b
12
a
0
12
L
1
0
; b
13
a
0
12
a
1
21
a
1
11
a
0
22
_ _
L
1
0
;
b
14
a
0
12
a
1
22
a
1
12
a
0
22
_ _
L
1
0
; b
21
a
0
21
L
1
0
; b
22
a
0
11
L
1
0
; b
23
a
0
21
a
1
11
a
1
21
a
0
11
_ _
L
1
0
;
b
24
a
0
21
a
1
12
a
1
22
a
0
11
_ _
L
1
0
; b
31
1=a
0
33
; b
32
a
1
33
=a
0
33
; L
0
a
0
11
a
0
22
a
0
21
a
0
12
;
~ qq h
N1
k0
q
k1
0
_
12k1=N
12k=N
" uu
k1
2
" 11d" 11:
Finally, the expressions for the factors a
k1
ij
; k
1
0; 1; 2; are (i; j not from 1 to 4):
a
k
1
11
h
k
1
1
N1
k0
E
k1
0S
"h
k1
1 m
k1
Sh
m
k1
hS
; a
k
1
12
h
k
1
1
N1
k0
m
k1
hS
E
k1
0S
"h
k1
1 m
k1
Sh
m
k1
hS
;
a
k
1
22
h
k
1
1
N1
k0
E
k1
0h
"h
k1
1 m
k1
Sh
m
k1
hS
; a
k
1
21
h
k
1
1
N1
k0
m
k1
Sh
E
k1
0h
"h
k1
1 m
k1
Sh
m
k1
hS
;
a
k
1
33
2h
k
1
1
N1
k0
G
k1
0
"h
k1
; "h
k1
_
12k1=N
12k=N
" 11
k
1
" uu
k1
1
" 11d" 11:
Acknowledgement
This research project was initiated with the support of DAAD when Dr. Soyev was in Germany for
a research project. The project was successfully accomplished with generous support of TUBITAK
(The Scientic and Technical Research Council of Turkey).
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Authors addresses: A. H. Soyev, Department of Civil Engineering of Suleyman Demirel University,
Isparta, Turkey (Email: asoyev@mmf.sdu.edu.tr); E. Schnack, Institute of Solid Mechanics, Karlsruhe
University, Karlsruhe, Germany
40 A. H. Soyev and E. Schnack: Buckling of crossply laminated thin shells