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The buckling of cross-ply laminated

non-homogeneous orthotropic composite conical


thin shells under a dynamic external pressure
A. H. Soyev, Isparta, Turkey and E. Schnack, Karlsruhe, Germany
Received June 13, 2002; revised December 10, 2002
Published online: May 8, 2003 Springer-Verlag 2003
Summary. The subject of this investigation is to study the buckling of cross-ply laminated orthotropic
truncated circular conical thin shells with variable Youngs moduli and densities in the thickness direction,
subjected to a uniform external pressure which is a power function of time. After obtaining the dynamic
stability and compatibility equations we reduce both of them to a time dependent ordinary dierential
equation with variable coecient by using Galerkins method. The critical dynamic and static loading, the
corresponding wave numbers, the dynamic factors, critical time and critical impulse are found analytically
by applying the Ritz type variational method. The dynamic behavior of cross-ply laminated truncated
conical shells is investigated with: (a) lamina that present variations in the Youngs moduli and densities,
(b) dierent numbers and ordering of layers, (c) variable semi-vertex angles, and (d) external pressures
which vary with dierent powers of time. It is concluded that all these factors contribute to appreciable
eects on the critical parameters of the problem in question.
Notations
E
k1
0S
; E
k1
0h
Youngs moduli of the homogeneous orthotropic materials in the layers
E
0
Youngs modulus of the isotropic material in a single layer shell
G
k1
0
Shear moduli of the homogeneous materials in the layers
F Stress function
2h Thickness of the shell
K
d
Dynamic factor
M
S
; M
h
; M
Sh
Internal moments per unit length of the cross-section of the shell
n Power of time in the external pressure expression
N
S
; N
h
; N
Sh
Internal forces per unit length of the cross-section of the shell
N
0
S
; N
0
h
; N
0
Sh
Membrane forces prior to buckling
N Number of layers
b Wave number in the circumferential direction
b
st
; b
d
Wave number corresponding to the static and dynamic critical loads
P
st
cr
; P
d
cr
Static and dynamic critical loads
P Loading parameter
R
0
; R
1
Average radii of the small and large bases of the conical shell
Sh1 Curvilinear coordinate system on the middle surface of the conical shell
Acta Mechanica 162, 2940 (2003)
DOI 10.1007/s00707-002-1001-2
Acta Mechanica
Printed in Austria
S The coordinate axis through the vertex on the curvilinear middle surface
h The angle of rotation around the longitudinal axis starting from a radial plane
S
0
; S
1
The inclined distances of the bases of the cone from the vertex
t Time
t
cr
Critical time
w Displacement of the middle surface in the inwards normal direction 1
v
S
; v
h
; v
Sh
Curvatures of the middle surface
e
S
; e
h
; e
Sh
Strains in the curvilinear coordinate directions
e
0
S
; e
0
h
; e
0
Sh
Strain components on the middle surface of the conical shell
c One half of the vertex angle of the cone
s Dimensionless time parameter
q
k1
0
Density of the homogeneous materials in the layers
q
0
Density of the homogeneous material in a single layer shell
m
k1
Sh
; m
k1
hS
Poissons ratios of the homogeneous orthotropic materials in the layers
m Poissons ratios of the homogeneous materials in the layers
l Youngs moduli and densities variation coecient
l
0
A parameter that depends on the geometry of the shell
r
S
; r
h
; r
Sh
Stress components
u
k1
1
" 11 Variation function of the elasticity moduli in the layers
u
k1
2
" 11 Variation function of the density in the layers
n
1
t; n
2
t Time dependent amplitudes
1 The coordinate axis in the inwards normal direction of the middle surface
1 Introduction
The improvements of the strength properties of materials used in the production of structural
elements in contemporary technology aims at decreasing their sizes and weights. In this way it
is essential that computation methods take the actual behavior of materials into consider-
ation. This fact has drawn the attention of researchers to the elasticity problems of
objects made of non-homogeneous material in the last decades, see e.g. Lomakin [1]. The
non-homogeneity of materials stems from production techniques, surface and thermal
polishing processes, eect of radiation, etc. They cause the physical properties of materials to
change from point to point as continuous functions of the coordinates. In the referenced
works, and in most of available solutions to elastic non-homogeneity, it is assumed that the
material is isotropic or orthotropic, Poissons ratio is constant, and Youngs moduli or density
are either exponential or a power functions of a spatial variable [2][11].
Laminated structural elements composed of non-homogeneous materials with dierent
elastic properties are frequently used in contemporary engineering applications. The wide use
of laminated structural elements is due to the progress in the manufacturing of new com-
posites, leading to materials with the capability of attaining desired strengths and stinesses
for specic applications [12]. The basic information for the buckling behavior of laminated
composite shells and plates was described and summarized by Leissa [13]. In recent years,
numerous research works have been published, concerning the vibration and stability of
shells. In these problems, generally the dynamic stability problem has been solved numeri-
cally. This type of solutions necessitates a huge amount of computations and yield results
showing peculiar characteristics [14][25].
30 A. H. Soyev and E. Schnack
As pointed out above, there are many solution methods in order to obtain the static critical
loads at dierent loading and limit conditions, which are consistent with experiments. Research
publications on conical shells made of non-homogeneous orthotropic composite materials
under an external pressure, which is a power function of time, are very limited in number
because of the complexities encountered during manufacture and theoretical analysis; in the
case of laminated shells such complexities are further increased. One such problem, not con-
sidered till today, is the buckling of cross-ply laminated orthotropic composite conical shells
under the eect of an external pressure, which is a power function of time. The solution of a
dynamic problem is reduced to the determination of the dynamic factor for certain loading
cases. The dynamic factor can be found, using dierent methods, depending on the manner in
which the loading is applied, particularly on the loading parameter [26][30].
The aim of the present research is to study the buckling problem of cross-ply laminated
truncated conical thin shells, made of orthotropic composite materials with Youngs moduli
and densities varying piecewise continuously in the thickness direction, subjected to an external
pressure varying as a power function of time, by using the Ritz type variational method.
2 Problem formulation
Consider a circular conical shell as shown in Fig. 1. It is assumed to be thin, laminated and
composed of N layers of equal thickness d of non-homogeneous orthotropic composite ma-
terials perfectly bonded together. A set of the curvilinear coordinates 1; h; S is located on the
middle surface. The S-axis lies on the curvilinear middle surface of the cone, S
0
and S
1
being the
coordinates of the points where this axis intersects the small and large bases, respectively. R
0
and R
1
indicate the radii of the cone at its small and large ends, 2h is the thickness, and c is the
semi-vertex angle. Furthermore, the 1-axis is always normal to the moving S-axis, lies in
the plane generated by the S-axis and the axis of the cone, and points inwards. The h-axis is in
the direction perpendicular to the S 1 plane. The axes of orthotropy are parallel to the
curvilinear coordinates S and h.
The Youngs moduli and densities of all layers are dened as continuous functions of the
thickness coordinate 1 as
bE
k1
S
"11; E
k1
h
"11; G
k1
"11c " uu
k1
1
"11bE
k1
0S
; E
k1
0h
; G
k1
0
c;
q
k1
"11 q
k1
0
" uu
k1
2
"11; 1 k
"
dd "11 1 k 1
"
dd;
"
dd d=h; "11 1=h; k 0; 1; 2; . . . ; N 1; 1
S1
S0
R
0
P(t)
P(t)
S
N
k
2

(
k
-
1
)

(
N
-
1
)

1
h
h
2
h
R
1
O

Fig. 1. Geometry and the cross-section of a conical thin shell with N layers
Buckling of cross-ply laminated thin shells 31
where E
k1
0S
and E
k1
0h
are Youngs moduli in the S- and h-directions for the layer k 1,
respectively, G
k1
0
is the shear modulus on the plane of the layer k 1, and q
k1
0
is the density
of the homogeneous orthotropic material for the layer k 1, d 2h=N is the thickness of the
layers. Additionally
" uu
k1
a
"11 1 lu
k1
a
"11; a 1; 2; 2
where u
k1
a
"11 are continuous functions giving the variations of Youngs moduli and den-
sities in the layers, satisfying the condition u
k1
a
"11

1, and l is a variation coecient


satisfying 0 l < 1. The middle surface 1 0 is located at a layer interface for even values
of N, whereas for odd values of N the middle surface is located at the center of the middle
layer.
The shell is subject to a uniform external pressure varying as a power function of time in the
form [9][11], [27], [28]:
N
0
S
0; N
0
h
SPt
n
tanc; N
0
Sh
0; 3
where N
0
S
; N
0
h
and N
0
Sh
are the membrane forces for the condition with zero initial moments, P
is the loading parameter, t is time and n ! 1 is the power expressing the time dependence of the
pressure.
According to the shell theory, the stress-strain relations for a thin laminated orthotropic
layer are given as follows:
r
k1
S
r
k1
h
r
k1
Sh
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

Q
k1
11
Q
k1
12
0
Q
k1
12
Q
k1
22
0
0 0 Q
k1
33
_

_
_

_
e
S
e
h
e
Sh
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
; 4
where r
k1
S
; r
k1
h
and r
k1
Sh
are the stresses in the layers. The quantities Q
k1
ij
; i; j 1; 2; 3,
for orthotropic laminae are
Q
k1
11

E
k1
0S
" uu
k1
1
"11
1 m
k1
Sh
m
k1
hS
; Q
k1
22

E
k1
0h
" uu
k1
1
"11
1 m
k1
Sh
m
k1
hS
;
Q
k1
12
m
k1
hS
Q
k1
11
m
k1
Sh
Q
k1
22
;
Q
k1
33
2G
k1
0
" uu
k1
1
"11; k 0; 1; 2; . . . ; N 1; 5
where m
k1
Sh
and m
k1
hS
are Poissons ratios, assumed to be constant.
By Loves rst approximation theory the strain-displacement relations are given by
e
S
; e
h
; e
Sh
e
0
S
; e
0
h
; e
0
Sh
_ _
1 v
S
; v
h
; v
Sh
; 6
where e
0
S
and e
0
h
are the normal strains in the curvilinear coordinate directions S and h on the
middle surface, respectively, whereas e
0
Sh
is the corresponding shear strain; v
S
and v
h
are the
curvatures of the deformed shell in the directions S and h, respectively, whereas v
Sh
is the twist
of the middle surface. The last three entities are given by
v
S
; v
h
; v
Sh

@
2
w
@S
2
;
1
S
2
@
2
w
@/
2

1
S
@w
@S
;
1
S
@
2
w
@S@/

1
S
2
@w
@/
_ _
; 7
where / hsinc and w is the small incremental displacement of the middle surface in the
normal direction [29].
32 A. H. Soyev and E. Schnack
The well known force and moment resultants are expressed by [6], [14][15]
N
S
; N
h
; N
Sh
; M
S
; M
h
; M
Sh

N1
k0
_
hk1d
hkd
1; 1 r
k1
S
; r
k1
h
; r
k1
Sh
_ _
d1: 8
The relations between the forces N
S
; N
h
and N
Sh
and the stress function F are given by
N
S
; N
h
; N
Sh

1
S
2
@
2
F
@/
2

1
S
@F
@S
;
@
2
F
@S
2
;
1
S
@
2
F
@S@/

1
S
2
@F
@/
_ _
: 9
Substituting expressions (3)(9) in modied Donnell type dynamic stability and compatibility
equations a system of dierential equations for the stress function F and the normal dis-
placement w can be obtained in matrix form as [910], [29]
L
11
L
12
L
21
L
22
_ _
F
w
_ _

0
0
_ _
; 10
where L
ij
; i; j 1; 2 are partial dierential operators, which are given in the Appendix.
3 Solution of the problem
If the shell is simply supported along the peripheries of both bases, there exists a solution for
the equations of motion in the form [29]
w n
1
te
l
0
r
sinb
1
rcosb
2
/; F n
2
tS
1
e
l
0
1r
sinb
1
rcosb
2
/; 11
where n
1
t and n
2
t are time dependent amplitudes, b
1
p=, r lnS=S
1
, lnS
1
=S
0
,
b
2
b=sinc and b is the wave number in the circumferential direction. For a truncated cone the
parameter l
0
varies with the geometric parameter as follows [30]:
< 2:7 when l
0
1:2;
2:7 3:5 when l
0
1:6; and
> 2:7 when l
0
2:0:
12
Applying the transformation r lnS=S
1
to the systemof Eqs. (10) and taking derivatives with
respect to the variables / and S each at a time, it is noted that the functions involved should be
steeply increasing with respect to / and slowly varying with respect to S [29]. Taking these
properties into consideration, neglecting small terms, multiplying the rst equation by wS
2
1
e
2r
drd/ and the second by FS
2
1
e
2r
drd/, then taking Eq. (11) into account, for 0 / 2psinc and
r 0, applying Galerkins method and eliminating n
2
t from the equations, it results
d
2
n
1
s
ds
2
K
1
K
2
s
n
n
1
s 0; 13
where
K
1

t
2
cr
~ qq
C
1
b
4
2

C
2
b
4
2
_ _
; K
2

PC
3
t
n2
cr
~ qq
~
bb
2
1
; 14:1; 2
C
1

b
11
c
24
c
21
b
14
d
1
b
11
S
4
1
; C
2

d
0
b
2
1
l
2
0
_ _
cot
2
c
b
11
S
2
1
; C
3

d
1=2
tanc
S
1
; 14:35
Buckling of cross-ply laminated thin shells 33
d
g

b1 e
2l
0
g
cbb
2
1
l
0
1
2
cl
0
1
b1 e
2l
0
1
cbb
2
1
l
0
g
2
cl
0
g
; g 1; 0; 1=2 14:6
in which s t=t
cr
, t
cr
being the critical time and 0 s 1 the dimensionless time parameter.
An approximating function will be chosen as
n
1
s Ae
Us
s U 2 =U 1 s 15
satisfying the initial conditions
n
1
0 0; and
@n
1
1
@s
n
0
1
1 0; 16
where U is an unknown coecient and the displacement amplitude A is found from the con-
dition of transition to the static condition.
Applying the Ritz type variational method [26] to Eq. (13), i.e. multiplying it with n
0
1
s and
integrating with respect to s from 0 to s and from 0 to 1, in that order, the following char-
acteristic equation for nding the critical load is obtained:
Pt
n
cr
X
0
C
1
C
3
b
2
2

C
2
C
3
1
b
6
2
_ _

X
1
~ qq
t
2
cr
C
3
1
b
2
2
; 17
where
X
0

_
1
0
n
1
s
2
ds
2
_
1
0
_
s
0
k
n
n
0
1
kn
1
kdkds
; X
1

_
1
0
n
0
1
s
_
2
ds
2
_
1
0
_
s
0
k
n
n
0
1
kn
1
kdkds
: 18
Minimizing Pt
n
cr
with respect to the parameter b
2
2
and employing it in Eq. (17), the equation for
the minimum critical load is found in the form
Pt
n
cr
2X
0
C
1
C
3
b
2
2

C
2
C
3
1
b
6
2
_ _
: 19
For large values of P, eliminating t
cr
from (17) and (19) and solving the resulting equation for
the wave parameter b
2
and taking the relation b
2
b=sinc into consideration, it results [9], [26]
b
4
d

P
2
X
n
1
~ qq
n
4X
n2
0
C
2
3
C
n2
1
_ _
1=n1
sin
4
c; 20
where b
d
is the wave number corresponding to the dynamic critical load. The dynamic critical
load is found by substituting Eq. (20) into (19),
P
d
cr
Pt
n
cr

4P
2=n
X
0
X
1
~ qqC
1
C
2
3
_ _
n=22n
: 21
The critical time can be found from (21) as
t
cr
P
1=1n
4X
0
X
1
~ qqC
1
C
2
3
_ _
1=22n
: 22
The coecient U for which this dynamic critical load takes its minimum value is the ordinate of
the minimum point of the parabola P
d
cr
; U and for external pressures given as a power
function of time. It can be shown by computations that it corresponds to U n 1. For the
34 A. H. Soyev and E. Schnack
static condition t
cr
!1; P !0, replacing Pt
n
cr
=X
0
by P
st
cr
, the static critical load is found to
be
P
st
cr

4C
3=4
1
C
1=4
2
3
3=4
C
3
; 23
and from K
d
P
d
cr
=P
st
cr
, the dynamic factor is given by
K
d

3
3=4
4
4P
2=n
X
0
X
1
~ qqC
2=n
3
C
n1=2n
2
C
n3=2n
1
_ _
n=22n
: 24
The corresponding critical impulse is obtained as
I
cr

_
t
cr
0
Pt
n
dt
Pt
n1
cr
n 1

2
n 1
X
0
X
1
~ qqC
1
C
2
3
_ _
1=2
: 25
At is seen from Eq. (25), the critical impulse value does not depend on the loading parameter,
when the loading parameter is big enough.
When l 0, N 1 the appropriate formulae for a truncated conical shell made of a homo-
geneous orthotropic material are found as a special case of Eqs. (20)(25).
4 Numerical computations and results
Numerical computations in order to obtain the critical parameters given by (20)(25) were
carried out for graphite/epoxy composites with the following material properties [12][15], [17],
shell and loading parameters [29], [30]:
E
k1
0S
1:724 10
5
MPa; E
k1
0h
7:79 10
3
MPa; m
k1
Sh
0:35; m
k1
hS
0:016;
q
k1
0
1:53 10
3
kg/m
3
; R
1
8 10
2
m; R
0
2:25 10
2
m;
h 2:5 10
4
m; P 200 10
3=2n
MPa/s
n
:
For the numerical computations cross-ply laminated truncated conical shells up to 5 layers
are considered. For the homogeneous case l 0 and for the non-homogeneous case
0 < l < 1 in which u
k1
a
"11 are even functions, the critical parameters are independent of
the stacking sequences (cases 90

=0

= . . .) and (0

=90

= . . .) for an even number of layers N


(Table 1).
The variation eect of Youngs moduli and densities on the values of the critical parameters,
for dierent semi-vertex angles c, number and ordering of layers, when the variation function is
given as u
k1
a
"11 e
0:1 " 11 j j
cos 0:2" 11 ; a 1; 2, are tabulated in Table 1. As the semi-vertex angle
c increases, the values of the dynamic critical load and critical impulse decrease, whereas the
values of the dynamic factor decrease for c 45

and increase for c > 45

. A variation of the
Youngs moduli and densities resulting from another values of c do not change the behavior of
the critical parameters.
In homogeneous and non-homogeneous cases, at the 0

=90

= . . . ordered and 90

=0

= . . .
ordered shells that have an even number of layers and at the 0

=90

= . . . ordered shells that


have an odd number of layers, as the number of layers increases, the values of the dynamic
critical load and critical impulse increase, but the values of the dynamic factor decrease whereas
at the 90

=0

= . . . ordered shells that have an odd number of layers, as the number of layers
Buckling of cross-ply laminated thin shells 35
increases, the values of the dynamic critical load and critical impulse decrease, but the values of
the dynamic factor increase (Table 1).
Values of dynamic critical loads and dynamic factors are shown in Table 2 for the odd
variation functions u
k1
a
" 11 " 11; a 1; 2. The variation of the material densities a 2
does not inuence the critical parameters shown, being consequently not explicitly given in the
Table. The variations of Youngs moduli for l 0:9 present the more pronounced eect for a
shell with one layer 0

. In that case P
d
cr
is reduced by 7.57% and K
d
is increased by 17.04%.
For u
k1
a
" 11 " 11 the eect of the variation of Youngs moduli on the 0

=90

= . . . shells is
almost negligible for a small number of layers, but as this number increases the maximum eect
on the critical parameters becomes almost the same as that of the shell 0

. For the stacking


sequences 90

=0

= . . . with an even number of layers the maximum eect is observed for


N 4; P
d
cr
is reduced by 14.96% and K
d
is increased by 32%. Then, for increasing N these
eects decrease to the level of the one-layered shell. For 90

=0

= . . . shells with an odd number


of layers the maximum eect is observable for N 3; P
d
cr
is reduced by 11.34% and K
d
is
increased by 27.22%. For increasing N these eects reduce and converge to the ones corre-
sponding to the one-layered shell. For the variation function u
k1
a
" 11 " 11 the roles of
0

=90

= . . . and 90

=0

= . . . shells are interchanged.


The variation eect of the time dependent pressure on the values of the dynamic critical load
and dynamic factor, for 0

=90

=0

ordered shells, when the variation function of Youngs


Table 1. Variation of the critical parameters for dierent number and ordering of layers, dierent semi-
vertex angles c and Pt Pt, for k 0; 1; 2; 3; 4
N Stacking
sequence
u
k1
a
" 11 e
0:1 " 11 j j
cos0:2" 11 a 1; 2
P
d
cr
MPa K
d
I
cr
10
1:5
MPa s
l 0 l 0:9 l 0 l 0:9 l 0 l 0:9
c 30

1 (0
o
) 0.448 0.607 7.479 5.536 0.0005 0.0009
2 Layers 0.645 0.876 4.230 3.119 0.0010 0.0019
3 (0
o
/90
o
/0
o
) 0.517 0.703 6.157 4.540 0.0007 0.0012
3 (90
o
/0
o
/90
o
) 0.962 1.304 2.082 1.536 0.0023 0.0043
4 Layers 0.791 1.074 2.813 2.074 0.0016 0.0029
5 (0
o
/90
o
/...) 0.682 0.928 3.627 2.669 0.0012 0.0022
5 (90
o
/0
o
/...) 0.919 1.244 2.194 1.625 0.0021 0.0038
c 45

1 (0
o
) 0.404 0.548 6.477 4.794 0.0004 0.0008
2 Layers 0.583 0.792 3.664 2.702 0.0009 0.0016
3 (0
o
/90
o
/0
o
) 0.467 0.635 5.332 3.931 0.0005 0.0010
3 (90
o
/0
o
/90
o
) 0.869 1.178 1.803 1.178 0.0019 0.0035
4 Layers 0.715 0.971 2.436 1.796 0.0013 0.0024
5 (0
o
/90
o
/...) 0.616 0.838 3.141 2.312 0.0001 0.0018
5 (90
o
/0
o
/...) 0.830 1.124 1.900 1.408 0.0018 0.0032
c 60

1 (0
o
) 0.340 0.461 7.479 5.536 0.0003 0.0005
2 Layers 0.490 0.666 4.230 3.119 0.0006 0.0011
3 (0
o
/90
o
/0
o
) 0.393 0.534 6.157 4.539 0.0004 0.0007
3 (90
o
/0
o
/90
o
) 0.731 0.991 2.082 1.536 0.0013 0.0025
4 Layers 0.601 0.816 2.813 2.074 0.0009 0.0020
5 (0
o
/90
o
/...) 0.518 0.705 3.627 2.669 0.0007 0.0010
5 (90
o
/0
o
/...) 0.698 0.945 2.194 1.625 0.0012 0.0022
36 A. H. Soyev and E. Schnack
moduli and densities is given as u
k1
a
" 11 " 11
2
; a 1; 2 is tabulated in Table 3. As n
increases, the values of the dynamic critical load and dynamic factor decrease. Another point
to be noted is that as n increases the eect of the variation of Youngs moduli on the dynamic
critical load increases, whereas the eect on the dynamic factor decreases. Besides, in the case of
materials with Youngs moduli and densities both varying in the thickness direction the eect
on the dynamic critical load is more pronounced, whereas when the density is kept constant the
eect on the dynamic factor is more pronounced.
The same problem for an isotropic truncated one layered conical shell was solved numeri-
cally, using energetic method, Lagrange equation and Runga-Kutta method by Shumik [28].
Sachenkov and Klementev [30] solved the same problem by an experimental method. The
comparisons were carried out for the following material properties, shell and loading para-
meters [28], [30]:
E
0
2:11 10
5
MPa; m 0:3; q
0
8 10
3
kg/m
3
; 2h 1:3 10
4
m;
R
1
8 10
2
m; R
0
2:25 10
2
m; n 1; P 225 MPa/s; c 40

:
The present method gives the critical dynamic load P
d
cr
0:0719 MPa and dynamic factor
K
d
2:6277, which is almost equal to P
d
cr
0:081 MPa, K
d
2:7 given in experimental results
[28] and P
d
cr
0:0693 MPa, K
d
2:5317 given in numerical results [30].
Table 2. Variation of the dynamic critical load P
d
cr
and dynamic factor K
d
for Pt Pt, c 30

for
k 0; 1; 2; 3; 4
N Stacking
sequence
u
k1
a
" 11 " 11; a 1 u
k1
a
" 11 " 11; a 1
P
d
cr
MPa K
d
P
d
cr
MPa K
d
l 0 l 0:9 l 0 l 0:9 l 0 l 0:9 l 0 l 0:9
1 (0
o
) 0.4476 0.4137 7.4787 8.7532 0.4476 0.4137 7.4787 8.7532
2 (0
o
/90
o
) 0.6450 0.6558 4.2303 4.6715 0.6450 0.5876 4.2303 4.6765
2 (90
o
/0
o
) 0.6450 0.5876 4.2303 4.6765 0.6450 0.6558 4.2303 4.6715
3 (0
o
/90
o
/0
o
) 0.5172 0.5090 6.1574 6.3553 0.5172 0.5090 6.1574 6.3553
3 (90
o
/0
o
/90
o
) 0.9620 0.8529 2.0823 2.6490 0.9620 0.8529 2.0823 2.6490
4 (0
o
/90
o
/...) 0.7909 0.7913 2.8133 2.9774 0.7909 0.6726 2.8133 3.7132
4 (90
o
/0
o
/...) 0.7909 0.6726 2.8133 3.7132 0.7909 0.7913 2.8133 2.9774
5 (0
o
/90
o
/...) 0.6821 0.6541 3.6271 3.9441 0.6821 0.6541 3.6271 3.9441
5 (90
o
/0
o
/...) 0.9185 0.8247 2.1941 2.7217 0.9185 0.8247 2.1941 2.7217
Table 3. Variation of the dynamic critical load P
d
cr
and dynamic factor K
d
for Pt Pt
n
; c
30

; l 0:9, for (0
o
/90
o
/0
o
)
n P
d
cr
l 0
K
d
u
k1
a
" 11 " 11
2
u
k1
a
" 11 " 11
2
P
d
cr
MPa K
d
P
d
cr
MPa K
d
a 1; 2 a 1 a 2 a 1; 2 a 1 a 2 a 1; 2 a 1 a 2 a 1; 2 a 1 a 2
1 .52 6.16 0.593 0.555 0.552 5.22 4.887 6.575 0.428 0.468 0.473 7.895 8.632 5.632
2 .095 1.13 0.114 0.103 0.104 1.00 1.230 0.917 0.074 0.084 0.829 1.358 1.001 1.529
3 .046 0.55 0.056 0.051 0.051 0.50 0.602 0.449 0.035 0.040 0.040 0.637 0.478 0.728
Buckling of cross-ply laminated thin shells 37
5 Conclusions
The buckling of cross-ply laminated orthotropic composite truncated conical shells with
Youngs moduli and densities varying piecewise continuously in the thickness direction, subject
to an external pressure given by a power function of time, was studied. For large loading
parameter values, the analytical solution for the dynamic and static critical loads, the corre-
sponding wave numbers, critical time and critical impulse of the cross-ply laminated ortho-
tropic composite conical shells with varying Youngs moduli and densities in the thickness
direction have been found. In addition to these, it was seen that the critical impulse value does
not depend on the loading parameter. Numerical computations were carried out for power and
exponential variations of the Youngs moduli and densities, and for the variations of the
ordering and number of layers, the semi-vertex angle and the power of time in the external
pressure expression. The values of the dynamic critical load and dynamic factor for a single
layer conical shell match with the numerical and experimental results given in Refs. [28]
and [30] well, which supports the validity of the method presented in this study.
Appendix
The partial dierential operators in Eq. (10) are given by
L
11
c
12
@
4
@S
4

c
11
2c
12
c
22
S
@
3
@S
3

cotc
S

c
21
S
2
_ _
@
2
@S
2

c
21
S
3
@
@S

c
21
S
4
@
4
@h
4
1

c
11
2c
31
c
22
S
2
@
4
@S
2
@h
2
1

2 c
31
c
11

S
3
@
3
@S@h
2
1

2 c
11
c
31
c
21

S
4
@
2
@h
2
1
;
L
12

c
24
S
4
@
4
@h
4
1

c
14
c
23
2c
32
S
2
@
4
@S
2
@h
2
1

2c
14
c
32

S
3
@
3
@S@h
2
1

Pt
n
Scotc

2c
14
c
32
c
24

S
4
_ _
@
2
@h
2
1
c
13
@
4
@S
4

c
23
c
14
2c
13
S
@
3
@S
3

c
24
S
2
@
2
@S
2

Pt
n
cotc

c
24
S
3
_ _
@
@S
~ qq
@
2
@t
2
;
L
21

b
11
S
4
@
4
@h
4
1

2b
31
b
21
b
12
S
2
@
4
@S
2
@h
2
1

2b
31
b
21

S
3
@
3
@S@h
2
1

2 b
31
b
21
b
11

S
4
@
2
@h
2
1

b
11
S
3
@
@S

b
21
b
11
S
2
@
2
@S
2

b
21
2b
22
b
12
S
@
3
@S
3
b
22
@
4
@S
4
;
L
22

b
14
S
4
@
4
@h
4
1

2b
32
b
13
b
24
S
2
@
4
@S
2
@h
2
1

2b
24
b
32

S
3
@
3
@S@h
2
1

2 b
32
b
24
b
14

S
4
@
2
@h
2
1

b
14
S
3
@
@S

b
14
S
2

cotc
S
_ _
@
2
@S
2

b
13
b
24
2b
23
S
@
3
@S
3
b
23
@
4
@S
4
:
The expressions for the ~ qq, and b
ij
; i; j 1; 2; 3; 4; are:
c
11
a
1
11
b
11
a
1
12
b
21
; c
12
a
1
11
b
12
a
1
12
b
22
; c
13
a
1
11
b
13
a
1
12
b
23
a
2
11
;
38 A. H. Soyev and E. Schnack
c
14
a
1
11
b
14
a
1
12
b
24
a
2
12
; c
21
a
1
21
b
11
a
1
22
b
21
; c
22
a
1
21
b
12
a
1
22
b
22
;
c
23
a
1
21
b
13
a
1
22
b
23
a
2
21
; c
24
a
1
21
b
14
a
1
22
b
24
a
2
22
; c
31
a
1
33
b
31
; c
32
a
1
33
b
32
a
2
33
;
b
11
a
0
22
L
1
0
; b
12
a
0
12
L
1
0
; b
13
a
0
12
a
1
21
a
1
11
a
0
22
_ _
L
1
0
;
b
14
a
0
12
a
1
22
a
1
12
a
0
22
_ _
L
1
0
; b
21
a
0
21
L
1
0
; b
22
a
0
11
L
1
0
; b
23
a
0
21
a
1
11
a
1
21
a
0
11
_ _
L
1
0
;
b
24
a
0
21
a
1
12
a
1
22
a
0
11
_ _
L
1
0
; b
31
1=a
0
33
; b
32
a
1
33
=a
0
33
; L
0
a
0
11
a
0
22
a
0
21
a
0
12
;
~ qq h

N1
k0
q
k1
0
_
12k1=N
12k=N
" uu
k1
2
" 11d" 11:
Finally, the expressions for the factors a
k1
ij
; k
1
0; 1; 2; are (i; j not from 1 to 4):
a
k
1
11
h
k
1
1

N1
k0
E
k1
0S
"h
k1
1 m
k1
Sh
m
k1
hS
; a
k
1
12
h
k
1
1

N1
k0
m
k1
hS
E
k1
0S
"h
k1
1 m
k1
Sh
m
k1
hS
;
a
k
1
22
h
k
1
1

N1
k0
E
k1
0h
"h
k1
1 m
k1
Sh
m
k1
hS
; a
k
1
21
h
k
1
1

N1
k0
m
k1
Sh
E
k1
0h
"h
k1
1 m
k1
Sh
m
k1
hS
;
a
k
1
33
2h
k
1
1

N1
k0
G
k1
0
"h
k1
; "h
k1

_
12k1=N
12k=N
" 11
k
1
" uu
k1
1
" 11d" 11:
Acknowledgement
This research project was initiated with the support of DAAD when Dr. Soyev was in Germany for
a research project. The project was successfully accomplished with generous support of TUBITAK
(The Scientic and Technical Research Council of Turkey).
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Authors addresses: A. H. Soyev, Department of Civil Engineering of Suleyman Demirel University,
Isparta, Turkey (E-mail: asoyev@mmf.sdu.edu.tr); E. Schnack, Institute of Solid Mechanics, Karlsruhe
University, Karlsruhe, Germany
40 A. H. Soyev and E. Schnack: Buckling of cross-ply laminated thin shells