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Prototype example: Solve y = f (t , y , y ) en a t b with the boundary conditions y (a) = , y (b) = . Boundary conditions on the derivatives of the solution or mixed boundary conditions can be also considered y (a) + y (a) = , ...

Shooting Methods:

1. Linear Shooting Methods: Consider the linear ODE y = p(t )y + q (t )y + r (t ) y (a) = , y (b) = . These problems can be transform into two IVPs as the following theorem shows:

Theorem Let u (t ) the solution of the IVP u = pu + qu + r u (a) = , u (a) = 0 and v (t ) the solution of the IVP v = pv + qv v (a) = 0 , v (a) = 1 then, if v (b) = 0 (v (t ) = 0), y (t ) = u (t ) + cv (t ) with c = the solution of the problem y = py + qy + r y (a) = , y (b) = . u (b) is v (b)

Therefore, the resulting algorithm for solving linear 2nd order BVPs will be: Solve the inhomogeneous equation with u (a) = , u (a) = 0. Solve the homogeneous equation with v (a) = 0, v (a) = 1. Compute y (t ) = u (t ) + u (b) v (t ) . v (b)

% The function linear implements the shooting methods for linear problems function [t,y,C]=linear(fun1,fun2,xi,xf,a0,b0,eps) %The function fehlb implements a Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg scheme [t1,y1]=fehlb(fun1,xi,xf,[a0 0]',eps); l1=length(t1); [t2,y2]=fehlb(fun2,xi,xf,[0 1]',eps); l2=length(t2); C=(b0-y1(2,l1))/y2(2,l2); [t,y]=fehlb(fun1,xi,xf,[a0 C]',eps);

2. Nonlinear Shooting Methods: Consider the (in general nonlinear) ODE y = f (x , y , y ) y (a) = , y (b) = The nonlinear shooting method consists in nding the solution (for different values of the parameter k ) of the IVP y = f (x , y , y ) y (a) = , y (a) = k The algorithm will stop when a k value is found for which y (b) = . We will start from two values of the parameter (0 , 1 ) and then apply the secant method in order to estimate the rest of values for this parameter.

y (1, b)

y (0 , b)

y ( , b) y (1, b)

Step k=2 Step k=1

y (0 , b)

2 3

Algorithm: Nonlinear shooting method

Input: 0 , 1 , Solve the IVP: (tolerance)

y = f (x , y , y ) y ( a ) = , y ( a ) = 0

y (0 ; x )

err =

+ 1; k = 0

y = f (x , y , y ) y ( a ) = , y ( a ) = k

y ( k ; x )

k + 1 = k

k k 1 y (k ; b) y (k 1 ; b)

( y ( k ; b ) )

y (x ) = y (k ; x )

Finite Difference Method

The shooting method is inefcient for higher-order equations with several boundary conditions. Finite Difference method has the advantage of being direct (not iterative) for linear problems, but requires the solution of simultaneous algebraic equations. The scheme for the nite difference method consists of the following steps:

1 2

Consider a partition of the domain in n interior discrete points. Write a nite divided difference expression for the ODE at each interior point. Use the known values of y at x = x0 and x = xf . Set-up the n-linear equations with n-unknowns. Realizing that the system is banded and often symmetric, solve with most efcient method.

3 4

Merits of Different Numerical Methods for ODE Boundary Value Problems:

Shooting method

1 2

3 4

Conceptually simple and easy. Inefcient for higher-order systems w/ many boundary conditions. May not converge for nonlinear problems. Can blow up for bad guess of initial conditions.

1 2 3 4

Stable Direct (not iterative) for linear problems. Requires solution of simultaneous algebraic eqns. More complex.

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