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MORPHOLOGY Reduplication

Kadek Angga Nata Kusuma E1D110026 VA

Human is gifted with ability to use language. Part of the language competence involves the ability to construct and interpret words in language. Human language makes use of a variety of operations that can modify a words structure, either by adding some element to it or by making an internal change. Reduplication is one of common morphological processes which duplicates all or part of the base to which it applies to mark a grammatical or semantic contrast in a language. Reduplication is clearly a word formation procedure and not phonologically motivated. Because of this particular characteristic, there are two levels for the categorization of the different types of reduplication; full and partial reduplication. Full reduplication means the repetition of the entire word, as in the following data from Turkish and Indonesian. Base Turkish tabuk Java Iji Gyzel Indonesian Orang Anak Mangga Man Child Mango Orang orang Anak anak Mangga manga All sorts of men All sorts of children All sorts of mangoes Quickly Slowly Well Beautifully tabuk tabuk Java Java Iji Iji gyzel gyzel Very Quickly Very Slowly Very Well Very Beautifully Reduplicated form

Full word reduplication looks identical it is still defined as one word which consists of two segmentally identical parts. In contrast, partial reduplication copies only part of the word which contains a certain segmental string twice. In the following data from Tagalog, for instance, reduplication affects only the first consonant-vowel sequence of the base. Base Takbuh Lakad Pili? Run Walk choose Reduplicated form Tatakbuh Lalakad Pipili? Will run Will walk Will choose

Partial reduplication can be further differentiated as to the position. The position of the part of the word which is reduplicated can be initial, internal or final. Initial reduplication in Agta. Base urab aaj Afternoon A long time Reduplicated form uurab aaaj Late afternoon A long time (in years)

Internal reduplication in Samoan. Base Savali Alofa He/she walks (sing) He/she loves (sing) Reduplicated form Savavali Alolofa They walk (pl) They love (pl)

Final reduplication in Dakota. Base Hska Wate Tall (sing) Good (sing) Reduplicated form Hskaska Watete Tall (pl) Good (pl)

In a word, reduplication is a process that repeats the morphological base entirely or only partially. Full reduplication reduplicates the whole word base whereas partial reduplication only reduplicates a part of the word base.

Reference

1. Anonymous. 2002. Morphological Processes. http://www2.hawaii.edu/~bender/index.html

2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reduplication 3. Ogrady, William. 2008. Contemporary linguistic analysis. NY: Pearson Longman 4. Matthews, P.H. 1974. Morphology: An introduction to the theory of word structure. NY:
Cambridge University Press.

5. Rubino, Carl. 2001. Morphological Reduplication.


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