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You are on page 1of 34

Groth c 2010

2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

Coverage of this section:

Compressible Flows

1

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.1 Review of Tensor Notation

Tensor notation is used extensively throughout the textbook and

this course and is therefore briey reviewed before moving to a

discussion of the conservation equations for turbulent ows.

2

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.2 Navier-Stokes Equations for a Compressible Gas

The Navier-Stokes equations describing the ow of compressible

gases are a non-linear set of partial-dierential equations (PDEs)

governing the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy of the

gaseous motion. They consist of two scalar equations and one

vector equation for ve unknowns (dependent variables) in terms

of three independent variables, the postion vector, x or x

i

, and

time, t.

We will here review briey the Navier-Stokes equations for a

polytropic (calorically perfect) gas in both tensor and vector

notation. Integral forms of the equations will also be discussed.

3

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.2 Navier-Stokes Equations for a Compressible Gas

2.2.1 Continuity Equation

The continuity equation is a scaler equation reecting the

conservation of mass for a moving uid. Using vector notation, it

has the form

t

+

(u) = 0

where and u are the gas density and ow velocity, respectively.

In tensor notation, the continuity equation can be written as

t

+

x

i

(u

i

) = 0

4

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.2.1 Continuity Equation

For the control volume and control surface above, the integral

form of the continuity equation can be obtained by integrating the

original PDE over the control volume and making using of the

divergence theorem. The following integral equation is obtained:

d

dt

_

V

dV =

_

A

u n dA

which relates the time rate of change of the total mass within the

control volume to the mass ux through the control surface.

5

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.2 Navier-Stokes Equations for a Compressible Gas

2.2.2 Momentum Equation

The momentum equation is a vector equation that represents the

application of Newtons 2nd Law of Motion to the motion of a gas.

It relates the time rate of change of the gas momentum to the

forces which act on the gas. Using vector notation, it has the form

t

(u) +

_

uu + p

_

=

f

where p and

are the gas pressure and uid stress dyad or tensor,

respectively, and

f is the acceleration of the gas due to body forces

(i.e., gravitation, electro-magnetic forces). In tensor notation, the

momentum equation can be written as

t

(u

i

) +

x

j

(u

i

u

j

+ p

ij

ij

) = f

i

6

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.2.2 Momentum Equation

For the control volume, the integral form of the momentum

equation is given by

d

dt

_

V

u dV =

_

A

_

uu + p

_

n dA+

_

V

f dV

which relates the time rate of change of the total momentum

within the control volume to the surface and body forces that act

on the gas.

7

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.2 Navier-Stokes Equations for a Compressible Gas

2.2.3 Energy Equation

The energy equation is a scalar equation that represents the

application of 1st Law of Thermodynamics to the gaseous motion.

It describes the time rate of change of the total energy of the gas

(the sum of kinetic energy of bulk motion and internal kinetic or

thermal energy). Using vector notation, it has the form

t

(E) +

_

u

_

E +

p

u +q

_

=

f u

where E is the total specic energy of the gas given by

E =e +u u/2 and q is the heat ux vector representing the ux

of heat out of the gas. In tensor notation, it has the form

t

(E) +

x

i

_

u

i

_

E +

p

ij

u

j

+ q

i

_

= f

i

u

i

8

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.2.3 Energy Equation

For the control volume, the integral form of the energy equation is

given by

d

dt

_

V

E dV =

_

A

_

u

_

E +

p

u +q

_

n dA+

_

V

f u dV

which relates the time rate of change of the total energy within the

control volume to transport of energy, heat transfer, and work

done by the gas.

9

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.2 Navier-Stokes Equations for a Compressible Gas

The Navier-Stokes equations as given above are not complete

(closed). Additional information is required to relate pressure,

density, temperature, and energy, and the uid stress tensor,

ij

and heat ux vector, q

i

must be specied. The equation set is

completed by

thermodynamic relationships;

constitutive relations; and

expressions for transport coecients.

When seeking solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations for either

steady-state boundary value problems or unsteady initial boundary

value problems, boundary conditions will also be required to

complete the mathematical description.

10

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.2 Navier-Stokes Equations for a Compressible Gas

2.2.4 Thermodynamic Relationships

In this course, we will assume that the gas satises the ideal gas

equation of state relating , p, and T, given by

p = RT

and behaves as a calorically perfect gas (polytropic gas) with

constant specic heats, c

v

and c

p

, and specic heat ratio, , such

that

e = c

v

T =

p

( 1)

and h = e +

p

= c

p

T =

p

( 1)

where R is the gas constant, c

v

is the specic heat at constant

volume, c

p

is the specic heat at constant pressure, and =c

p

/c

v

.

11

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.2 Navier-Stokes Equations for a Compressible Gas

2.2.5 Mach Number and Sound Speed

For a polytropic gas, the sound speed, a, can be determined using

a =

_

=

_

RT

and thus the ow Mach number, M, is given by

M =

u

a

=

u

RT

12

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.2 Navier-Stokes Equations for a Compressible Gas

2.2.6 Constitutive Relationships

The constitutive relations provide expressions for the uid stress

tensor,

ij

, and heat ux vector, q

i

, in terms of the other uid

quantities. Using the Navier-Stokes relation, the uid stress tensor

can be related to the uid strain rate and given by

ij

=

__

u

i

x

j

+

u

j

x

i

_

2

3

ij

u

k

x

k

_

(

ii

= 0, traceless)

where is the dynamic viscosity of the gas. Fouriers Law can be

used to relate the heat ux to the temperature gradient as follows:

q

i

=

T

x

i

or q =

T

where is the coecient of thermal conductivity for the gas.

13

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.2 Navier-Stokes Equations for a Compressible Gas

2.2.7 Transport Coecients

In general, the transport coecients, and , are functions of

both pressure and temperature:

= (p, T) and = (p, T)

Expressions, such as Sutherlands Law can be used to determine

the dynamics viscosity as a function of temperature (i.e.,

=(T)). The Prandtl number can also be used to relate and

. The non-dimensional Prandtl number is dened as follows:

Pr =

c

p

conductivity can be related to viscosity using the preceding

expression for the Prandtl number.

14

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.2 Navier-Stokes Equations for a Compressible Gas

2.2.8 Boundary Conditions

At a solid wall or bounday, the following boundary conditions for

the ow velocity and temperature are appropriate:

u = 0 , (No-Slip Boundary Condition)

and

T = T

wall

, (Fixed Temperature Wall Boundary Condition)

or

where T

wall

is the wall temperature and n is a unit vector in the

direction normal to the wall or solid surface.

15

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.3 Navier-Stokes Equations for an Incompressible Gas

For low ow Mach numbers (i.e., low subsonic ow, M<1/4), the

assumption that the gas behaves as an incompressible uid is

generally a good approximation. By assuming that

the density, , is constant;

temperature variations are small and unimportant such that

the energy equation can be neglected; and

the viscosity, , is constant;

one can arrive at the Navier-Stokes equations describing the ow

of incompressible uids.

16

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.3 Navier-Stokes Equations for an Incompressible Gas

2.3.1 Continuity Equation

Using vector notation, the continuity equation for incompressible

ow reduces to

u = 0

In other words, the velocity vector, u, is a solenoidal vector eld

and is divergence free. In tensor notation, the solenoidal condition

can be expressed as

u

i

x

i

= 0

17

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.3 Navier-Stokes Equations for an Incompressible Gas

2.3.2 Momentum Equation

Using vector notation, the momentum equation for an

incompressible uid can be written as

u

t

+u

u +

1

p =

1

equation is given by

u

i

t

+ u

j

u

i

x

j

+

1

p

x

i

=

1

ij

x

j

18

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.3 Navier-Stokes Equations for an Incompressible Gas

2.3.3 Constitutive Relationships

For incompressible ows, the Navier-Stokes constitutive relation

relating the uid stresses and uid strain rate can be written as

ij

=

_

u

i

x

j

+

u

j

x

i

_

=

_

u

i

x

j

+

u

j

x

i

_

= 2S

ij

where =/ is the kinematic viscosity and the strain rate tensor

(dyadic quantity) is given by

S

ij

=

1

2

_

u

i

x

j

+

u

j

x

i

_

As in the compressible case, the uid stress tensor for

incompressible ow is still traceless and

ij

=0.

19

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.3 Navier-Stokes Equations for an Incompressible Gas

2.3.4 Vorticity Transport Equation

The vorticity vector,

, is related to the rotation of a uid element

and is dened as follows:

=

u or

i

=

ijk

u

k

x

j

For incompressible ows, the momentum equation can be used to

arrive at a transport equation for the ow vorticity given by

t

u

=

2

20

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.3.4 Vorticity Transport Equation

Using

u

=

u u

equation can be re-expressed as

t

+u

u =

2

i

t

+ u

j

i

x

j

j

u

i

x

j

=

2

i

x

j

x

j

21

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.4 Reynolds Averaging

As discussed previously, turbulent ow is characterized by irregular,

chaotic motion. The common approach to the modelling of

turbulence is to assume that the motion is random and adopt a

statistical treatment. Reynolds (1895) introduced the idea that the

turbulent ow velocity vector, u

i

, can be decomposed and

represented as a uctuation, u

i

, about a mean component, U

i

as

follows:

u

i

= U

i

+ u

i

Develop and solve conservation equations for the mean quantities

(i.e., the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations) and

incorporate the inuence of the uctuations on the mean ow via

turbulence modelling.

22

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.4 Reynolds Averaging

2.4.1 Forms of Reynolds Averaging

1. Time Averaging: appropriate for steady mean ows

F

T

(x) = lim

T

1

T

_

t+T/2

tT/2

f (x, t

)dt

F

V

(t) = lim

V

1

V

_

V

f (x, t)dV

3. Ensemble Averaging: most general form of averaging

F

E

(x, t) = lim

N

1

N

N

n=1

f

n

(x, t)

where f

n

(x, t) is nth instance of ow solution with initial and

boundary data diering by random innitessimal

perturbations.

23

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.4.1 Forms of Reynolds Averaging

For ergodic random processes, these three forms of Reynolds

averaging will yield the same averages. This would be the case for

stationary, homogeneous, turbulent ows.

In this course and indeed in most turbulence modelling approaches,

time averaging will be considered. Note that Wilcox (2002) states

that Reynolds time averaging is a brutal simplication that loses

much of the information contained in the turbulence.

24

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.4 Reynolds Averaging

2.4.2 Reynolds Time Averaging

In Reynolds time averaging, all instantaneous ow quantities,

(x

i

, t) and a(x

i

, t), will be represented as a sum of mean and

uctuating components, (x

i

) and

(x

i

, t) and A(x

i

) and a

(x

i

, t),

respectively, such that

(x

i

, t) = (x

i

) +

(x

i

, t) or a(x

i

, t) = A(x

i

) + a

(x

i

, t)

For the ow velocity, we have

U

i

(x

, t) = U

i

(x

) + u

i

(x

, t)

25

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.4.2 Reynolds Time Averaging

The time averaging procedure is dened as follows and yields the

time averaged quantities:

(x

i

, t) = (x

i

) = lim

T

1

T

_

t+T/2

tT/2

(x

i

, t

)dt

a(x

i

, t) = A(x

i

) = lim

T

1

T

_

t+T/2

tT/2

a(x

i

, t

)dt

the mean quantity:

U

i

(x

) = lim

T

1

T

_

t+T/2

tT/2

U

i

(x

)dt

= U

i

(x

)

26

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.4.2 Reynolds Time Averaging

Similarly by denition, time averaging of time-averaged quantities

yields zero:

u

i

(x

, t) = lim

T

1

T

_

t+T/2

tT/2

_

u

i

(x

, t

) U

i

(x

dt

= 0

27

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.4 Reynolds Averaging

2.4.3 Separation of Time Scales

In practice, the time period for the averaging, T, is not innite but

very long relative to the time scales for the turbulent uctuations,

T

1

( i.e., T T

1

).

This denition of time averaging and T works well for stationary

(steady) ows. However, for non-stationary (unsteady ows), the

validity of the Reynolds time averaging procedure requires a strong

separation to time scales with

T

1

T T

2

where T

2

is the time scale for the variation of the mean.

28

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.4 Reynolds Averaging

2.4.3 Separation of Time Scales

t

u

(

x

,

t

)

T

1

T

2

T

1

T T

2

29

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.4.3 Separation of Time Scales

Provided there exists this separation of scales, the time averaging

procedure for time-varying mean ows can be dened as follows:

(x

i

, t) = (x

i

, t) =

1

T

_

t+T/2

tT/2

(x

i

, t

)dt

a(x

i

, t) = A(x

i

, t) =

1

T

_

t+T/2

tT/2

a(x

i

, t

)dt

with T

1

T T

2

.

30

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.4 Reynolds Averaging

2.4.4 Properties of Reynolds Time Averaging

31

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.5 Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations

2.5.1 Derivation

Applying Reynolds time-averaging to the incompressible form of

the Navier-Stokes equations leads to the Reynolds Averaged

Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations describing the time variation of

mean ow quantities.

Application of time-averaging to the continuity equations yields

u

i

x

i

= 0

or

U

i

x

i

= 0

32

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.5 Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations

2.5.1 Derivation

For the incompressible form of the momentum equation we have

u

i

t

+ u

j

u

i

x

j

+

1

p

x

i

=

u

i

t

+ u

j

u

i

x

j

+

1

p

x

i

=

1

ij

x

j

Considering each term in the time-average equation above we have:

u

i

t

=

U

i

t

1

p

x

i

=

1

p

x

i

=

1

P

x

i

33

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.5 Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations

2.5.1 Derivation

1

ij

x

j

=

1

ij

x

j

=

2

S

ij

x

j

= 2

S

ij

x

j

where the mean strain,

S

ij

, is dened as

S

ij

=

1

2

_

U

i

x

j

+

U

j

x

i

_

34

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.5 Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations

2.5.1 Derivation

u

j

u

i

x

j

=

x

j

(u

i

u

j

) u

i

u

j

x

j

=

x

j

_

U

i

U

j

+ u

i

u

j

_

x

j

(U

i

U

j

) +

x

j

_

u

i

u

j

_

U

j

U

i

x

j

+ U

i

U

j

x

j

+

x

j

_

u

i

u

j

_

U

j

U

i

x

j

+

x

j

_

u

i

u

j

_

Thus we have

U

i

t

+ U

j

U

i

x

j

+

1

P

x

i

=

1

x

j

_

2

S

ij

u

i

u

j

_

35

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.5 Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations

2.5.2 Summary

In summary, the RANS describing the time-evolution of the mean

ow quantities U

i

and P can be written as

U

i

x

i

= 0

U

i

t

+ U

j

U

i

x

j

+

1

P

x

i

=

1

x

j

(

ij

+

ij

)

where

ij

is the uid stress tensor evaluated in terms of the mean

ow quantities and

ij

is the Reynolds or turbulent stress tensor

given by

ij

= u

i

u

j

36

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.6 Reynolds Turbulent Stresses and Closure Problem

2.6.1 Closure or RANS Equations

The Reynolds stresses

ij

= u

i

u

j

incorporate the eects of the unresolved turbulent uctuations

(i.e., unresolved by the mean ow equations and description) on

the mean ow. These apparent turbulent stresses signicantly

enhance momentum transport in the mean ow.

The Reynolds stress tensor,

ij

, is a symmetric equation

incorporating six (6) unknown or unspecied values. This leads to

a closure problem for the RANS equation set. Turbulence

modelling provides the necessary closure by allowing a means for

specifying

ij

in terms of mean ow solution quantities.

37

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.6 Reynolds Turbulent Stresses and Closure Problem

2.6.2 Reynolds Stress Transport Equations

Transport equations for the Reynolds stresses,

ij

=u

i

u

j

can be

derived by making use of the original and time-averaged forms of

the momentum equations.

38

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.7 Turbulence Intensity and Kinetic Energy

2.7.1 Turbulent Kinetic Energy

Turbulent kinetic energy contained in the near-randomly

uctuating velocity of the turbulent motion is important in

characterizing the turbulence.

The turbulent kinetic energy, k, can be dened as follows:

k =

1

2

u

i

u

i

=

1

2

_

u

2

+ v

2

+ w

2

_

=

1

2

ii

=

1

2

(

xx

+

yy

+

zz

)

where u

2

=

xx

/, v

2

=

yy

/, and w

2

=

zz

/.

39

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.7 Turbulence Intensity and Kinetic Energy

2.7.2 Turbulence Intensity

Relative turbulence intensities can be dened as follows:

u =

_

u

2

U

, v =

_

v

2

U

, w =

_

w

2

U

where U

is a reference velocity.

For isotropic turbulence, u

2

= v

2

=w

2

, and thus

u = v = w =

2

3

k

U

2

=U

,

u>0.10, and the turbulence is anisotropic such that

u

2

: v

2

: w

2

= 4 : 2 : 3

40

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.7.2 Turbulence Intensity

41

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.8 Turbulent Kinetic Energy Transport Equation

2.8.1 Derivation

Can derive a transport equation for the turbulent kinetic energy

through contraction of the Reynolds stress transport equations

using the relation that

k =

1

2

u

i

u

i

=

1

2

ii

k

t

+U

i

k

x

i

=

ij

U

i

x

j

+

x

i

_

k

x

i

i

1

2

u

i

u

k

u

k

_

i

x

j

u

i

x

j

As for the Reynolds stress equations, a number of unknown

higher-order correlations appear in the equation for k requiring

closure.

42

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.8 Turbulent Kinetic Energy Transport Equation

2.8.2 Discussion of Terms

Terms in this transport equation can be identied as follows:

k

t

: time evolution of k

U

i

k

x

i

: convection transport of k

Production:

ij

U

i

x

j

: production of k by mean ow

43

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.8.2 Discussion of Terms

Diusion:

k

x

i

: molecular diusion of k

1

i

: pressure diusion of k

1

2

u

i

u

k

u

k

: turbulent transport of k

44

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.8.2 Discussion of Terms

Dissipation:

i

x

j

u

i

x

j

= : dissipation of k at small scales

where is the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy.

45

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.9 Kinetic Energy Spectrum and Kolmogorov -5/3 Law

2.9.1 Denition

Further insight into the energy contained in the unresolved

turbulent motion can be gained by considering the turbulent kinetic

energy spectrum. The turbulent kinetic energy can be expressed as

k =

_

0

E()d

where E() is the spectral distribution of turbulent energy,

is the wave number of the Fourier-like energy mode, and is the

wave length of the energy mode such that

E()d = turbulent energy contained between and +d

and where

=

1

46

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.9 Kinetic Energy Spectrum and Kolmogorov -5/3 Law

47

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.9 Kinetic Energy Spectrum and Kolmogorov -5/3 Law

DI

EI

Dissipation

range

Inertial subrange Energy-containing range

Slope 2

Slope -5/3

E

(

48

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.9 Kinetic Energy Spectrum and Kolmogorov -5/3 Law

2.9.2 Range of Turbulent Scales

The large-scale turbulent motion ( 0) contains most of the

turbulent kinetic energy, while most of the vorticity resides in the

small-scale turbulent motion ( 1/), where , the Kolmogorov

scale, is the smallest scale present in the turbulence.

The dissipation of the turbulence kinetic energy occurs at the

Kolmogorov scale and it follows from Kolmogorovs universal

equilibrium theory that

dk

dt

= , and =

_

_

1/4

49

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.9.2 Range of Turbulent Scales

For high Reynolds number turbulence, dimensional analysis and

experimental measurements conrm that the dissipation rate, ,

turbulent kinetic energy, k, and largest scale representing the large

scale motions (i.e., scale of the largest eddies),

0

, are related as

follows:

k

3/2

0

When discussing features of turbulence, it was noted that it

contains a wide range of scales. This implies that

0

50

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.9.2 Range of Turbulent Scales

Using the expression above for

0

, an examination of the length

scales reveals that

=

0

(

3

/)

1/4

0

3/4

_

k

3/2

0

_

1/4

_

k

1/2

_

3/4

Re

3/4

t

where Re

t

is the turbulent Reynolds number. Thus

0

for high

turbulent Reynolds number ows (i.e., for Re

t

1). The latter is

a key assumption entering into Kolmogorovs universal equilibrium

theory.

51

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.9 Kinetic Energy Spectrum and Kolmogorov -5/3 Law

2.9.3 Kolmogorov -5/3 Law

Kolmogorov also hypothesize an intermediate range of turbulent

scales lying between the largest scales and smallest scales where

inertial eects dominate. He postulated that in this inertial

sub-range, E() only depends on and . Using dimensional

analysis he argued that

E() = C

k

2/3

5/3

or

E()

5/3

52

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.9 Kinetic Energy Spectrum and Kolmogorov -5/3 Law

53

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.9.3 Kolmogorov -5/3 Law

Although the Kolmogorov -5/3 Law is not of prime importance to

RANS-based turbulence models, it is of central importance to DNS

and LES calculations. Such simulations should be regarded with

skeptism if they fail to reproduce this result.

54

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.10 Two-Point Correlations

2.10.1 Two-Point Velocity Correlations

So far we have only considered single-point or one-point

correlations of uctuating quantities. Two-point correlations are

useful for characterizing turbulence and, in particular, the spatial

and temporal scales and non-local behaviour. They provide formal

denitions of the integral length and time scales characterizing the

large scale turbulent motions.

There are two forms of two-point correlations:

Both forms are based on Reynolds time averaging.

55

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.10.1 Two-Point Velocity Correlations

Two-Point Autocorrelation Tensor (In Time):

R

ij

(x

i

, t; t

) = u

i

(x

i

, t)u

j

(x

i

, t + t

)

Two-Point Velocity Correlation Tensor (In Space):

R

ij

(x

i

, t; r

i

) = u

i

(x

i

, t)u

j

(x

i

+ r

i

, t)

For both correlations,

k(x

i

, t) =

1

2

R

ii

(x

i

, t; 0)

56

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.10 Two-Point Correlations

2.10.2 Integral Length and Time Scales

The integral length and time scales, and , can be dened as

follows:

(x

i

, t) =

3

16

_

0

R

ii

(x

i

, t; r )

k(x

i

, t)

dr

(x

i

, t) =

_

0

R

ii

(x

i

, t; t

)

2k(x

i

, t)

dt

where r =|r

i

| =

r

i

r

i

and 3/16 is a scaling factor.

57

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.10 Two-Point Correlations

2.10.3 Taylors Hypothesis

The two types of two-point correlations can be related by applying

Taylors hypothesis which assumes that

t

= U

i

x

i

This relationship assumes that |u

i

| |U

i

| and predicts that the

turbulence essentially passes through points in space as a whole,

transported by the mean ow (i.e., assumption of frozen

turbulence).

58

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.11 Favre Time Averaging

2.11.1 Reynolds Time Averaging for Compressible Flows

If Reynolds time averaging is applied to the compressible form of

the Navier-Stokes equations, some diculties arise. In particular,

the original form of the equations is signicantly altered. To see

this, consider Reynolds averaging applied to the continuity

equation for compressible ow. Application of time-averaging to

the continuity equations yields

t

+

x

i

(u

i

) = 0

t

_

+

_

+

x

i

_

( +

)

_

U

i

+ u

i

_

_

= 0

59

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.11.1 Reynolds Time Averaging for Compressible Flows

The Reynolds time averaging yields

t

( ) +

x

i

_

U

i

+

i

_

= 0

The introduction of high-order correlations involving the density

uctuations, such as

i

, can complicate the turbulence modelling

and closure. Some of the complications can be circumvented by

introducing an alternative time averaging procedure: Favre time

averaging, which is a mass weighted time averaging procedure.

60

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.11 Favre Time Averaging

2.11.2 Denition

Favre time averaging can be dened as follows. The instantaneous

solution variable, , is decomposed into a mean quantity,

, and

uctuating component,

, as follows:

=

+

(x

i

, t) =

1

T

_

t+T/2

tT/2

(x

i

, t

)(x

i

, t

)dt

where

(x

i

, t)

1

T

_

t+T/2

tT/2

(x

i

, t

)(x

i

, t

)dt

0

61

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.11 Favre Time Averaging

2.11.3 Comparison of Reynolds and Favre Averaging

Decomposition

Reynolds : =

+

, Favre : =

+

Time Averaging

Reynolds : =

+

=

, Favre : = (

) =

Fluctuations

Reynolds :

= 0 , Favre :

= 0

62

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.11.3 Comparison of Reynolds and Favre Averaging

Further comparisons are possible. For Reynolds averaging we have

=

=

Thus

or

=

+

63

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.11.3 Comparison of Reynolds and Favre Averaging

We also note that

= 0

To see this, start with

=

=

Now applying time averaging, we have

= 0

64

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.11.3 Comparison of Reynolds and Favre Averaging

Returning to the compressible form of the continuity equation, we

can write

u

i

= U

i

+

i

= u

i

and therefore the Favre-averaged form of the continuity equation is

given by

t

( ) +

x

i

( u

i

) = 0

It is quite evident that the Favre-averaging procedure has

recovered the original form of the continuity equation without

introducing additional high-order correlations.

65

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.12 Favre-Averaged Navier-Stokes (FANS) Equations

Continuity Equation:

t

( ) +

x

i

( u

i

) = 0

Momentum Equation:

t

( u

i

) +

x

j

( u

i

u

j

+ p

ij

) =

x

j

_

ij

u

i

u

j

_

Favre-Averaged Reynolds Stress Tensor:

= u

i

u

j

Turbulent Kinetic Energy:

1

2

u

i

u

i

=

1

2

ii

=

k

66

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.12 Favre-Averaged Navier-Stokes (FANS) Equations

Energy Equation:

t

_

_

e +

1

2

u

i

u

i

_

+

1

2

u

i

u

i

_

+

x

j

_

u

j

_

h +

1

2

u

i

u

i

_

+

u

j

2

u

i

u

i

_

=

x

j

__

ij

u

i

u

j

_

u

i

q

j

_

+

x

j

_

u

j

h

1

2

u

j

u

i

u

i

+ u

i

ij

_

Turbulent Transport of Heat and Molecular Diusion of Turbulent

Energy:

q

t

j

= u

j

h

, u

i

ij

Turbulent Transport of Kinetic Energy:

1

2

u

j

u

i

u

i

67

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010

2.13 Turbulence Modelling

Turbulence Modelling provides a mathematical framework for

determining the additional terms (i.e., correlations) that appear in

the FANS and RANS equations.

Turbulence models may be classied as follows:

1-Equation Models

2-Equation Models

68

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