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Guide for Mentors

University of Asia and the Pacific


First Edition (June 2010)

Table of Contents
Chapter 1. What is Mentoring? 1 UA&Ps Commitment to Mentoring 1.1 Mentoring Defined 1.2 Goals of Mentoring 2 Mentoring as Competency Development 2.1 Competency Defined 2.2 Competency & Character 2.3 Which Competencies? 3 The Method of Mentoring 3.1 Components of Mentoring 3.2 The Mentoring Conversation 3.3 The Tools for Mentoring 4 The Mentor 4.1 Commitment of the Mentor 4.2 Dispositions of the Mentor 4.3 Competencies of the Mentor Chapter 2. Mentoring Freshmen 1 Profile of Freshmen 1.1 Freshmen & Adolescence 1.2 Immediate Interests of Freshmen 1.3 Dispositions Towards Mentoring 2 Approach to Freshman Mentoring 2.1 Student Information 2.2 Freshman Goals 2.3 First Sessions 3 Freshman Competencies 3.1 Communication (Basic) 3.2 Study Method 3.3 Time Management 3.4 University Lifestyle 3.5 Stress Management 4 Suggested Mentoring Plan Chapter 3. Mentoring Upperclassmen 1 Developmental Needs of Upperclassmen 1.1 Where Am I Now? 1.2 Where Do I Want to Go? 1.3 How Do I Get There? Competency Development for Upperclassmen 2.1 Reflection 2.2 Communication (Advanced) 2.3 Decision-Making 4 4 4 5 6 6 8 10 13 13 14 16 18 18 18 19 20 20 20 20 20 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 26 28 29 31 33 33 33 33 34 36 36 38 41 2

2.4 Effort 2.5 Initiative 2.6 Empathy 2.7 Social Skill 2.8 Teamwork 3 Suggested Mentoring Plan Chapter 4. Mentoring Graduating Students 1 Professional Orientation 1.1 Internship 1.2 Postgraduate and Doctoral Studies 1.3 Job Placement 1.4 Office of Alumni Affairs 2 Professional Lifestyle 2.1 General Work Ethic 2.2 Specific Competencies

43 45 46 48 49 51 53 53 53 54 55 56 57 57 58 59 59 59 60

Chapter 5. Mentoring Foreign Students 1 2 3 Specific Needs First Session Second Session

Appendices 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Habits of Character Habits of Success Alternative Frameworks for Mentoring Planner Themes Coaching Competencies Appraisal Tools Action Plan Execution and Review Administration of Mentoring 61 63 67 70 82 84 88 91 92

Acknowledgements This experimental edition of the Mentoring Guide was cobbled from the following sources: the University of Navarra's Guia de Asesor, Pablo Cardona's How to Develop Leadership Competencies (2005), and Varsolo Sunio's Coaching University Students (2010).

Chapter 1. What is Mentoring?


1 UA&P's Commitment to Mentoring
At the University of Asia and the Pacific, we have identified mentoring as an essential part of the education we impart to our students, a crucial component of our commitment to personalized education and holistic formation. By choosing to work in UA&P as an educator, the faculty or staff member makes the very important and fundamental decision to take as his or her own the university credo, down to its last implications. Believing that the focal point of education is the individual person and its primary purpose is the person's integral formation requires more than just a commitment to teach subjects--it demands a commitment to helping attain the fullest development of our students. 1.1 Mentoring Defined Student mentoring in UA&P has an overarching purpose: to strengthen the foundations for the students life-long growth in character. Mentoring is a program of regularly scheduled private conversations with a mentor. The mentor is a faculty or staff member of the University charged with guiding students in the fullest exercise of personal freedom by helping them learn how to integrate, at the deepest and most comprehensive level, the many facets of everyday existence, beginning particularly with the education and life they lead in the university. Mentoring has specific characteristics that make it different from other relationships that may exist between the teacher and the student. Mentoring is a one-on-one activity. A mentoring session is essentially a private conversation between the student and his or her mentor, where the student shares his or her progress and concerns in school and life, and receives personalized advice and guidance from the mentor. Mentoring as a service is offered to all students, including exchange or postdoctoral students who stay in the University only for a short period of time. However, mentoring is neither graded nor part of the academic curriculum. This makes it different from other class activities such as laboratory work or practicum coaching, which is given within the framework of an academic course and graded. The free character of mentoring should make it easier for the student to see that on deciding to study in UA&P, he or she has effectively chosen to form part of an institution where personal dealings are a commitment, not an academic requirement. Nevertheless, as an integral part of our students education, mentoring is not merely an option offered to them. It is a commitment of the University to our students, a college-level activity directed towards adult and responsible persons. The mentor commits himself or herself to guiding

each mentee in the discovery, development, or reinforcement of the skills that are necessary to live virtuously. There may be occasions when it is appropriate for the mentor to take the initiative--for example, in the first session or when he foresees that the student is about to run into a serious problem--but such interventions do not replace the student's responsibility for his or her own personal growth. The voluntary character of mentoring should make it easier for the student to see that choosing to study in UA&P is effectively becoming part of an institution characterized by personal dealings and whose teachers are specifically committed to mentoring. 1.2 Goals of Mentoring Mentoring helps the student, through the mentor's useful advice and experienced perspective, in such a way that he or she learns to develop his or her potential and make the most of his or her university studies. Mentoring therefore answers the universal need to count on the counsel and support of a more senior and experienced person in order to advance effectively in any area. Moreover, given that the formative aim of the University goes beyond what is strictly professional, mentoring contributes to the students discovery of other horizons (e.g., his or her cultural life, how to live in solidarity with others) that would help round out his or her formation as a cultured citizen with values. More specifically, mentoring aims to

Inform and orient the student at the start of his or her university studies, which is a period that particularly requires special support from the mentor, who can give detailed information about the most important aspects of university life and the University's distinctive characteristics. Part of the mentors task is to orient the student with regard to his or her active participation in the university community, and to advise him or her how to manage time as well as other foreseeable deficiencies or difficulties in his or her learning experience. Contribute to the student's acquisition of desirable personal habits and professional competencies. Its personal character makes mentoring an excellent tool for developing the students habits and attitudes. The mentors awareness of the students strong and weak points as well as personal circumstances allows the mentor to propose an effective plan of personal formation for the student. Both mentor and student can agree on a personalized plan that facilitates the development of those habits and attitudes necessary for the latter to competently undertake his or her studies or pursue his or her future professional plans. Orient the student on his or her academic growth. As the student naturally moves to higher academic levels and is faced with more choices in terms of subjects and programs of study, the advice and experience of the mentor becomes important, if only to make sure that the student's choices are made in accordance with his or her capabilities and interests and, in the final analysis, with his or her real situation. In addition, students very often go to the mentor with various questions about academic processes, transactions, rules, and other topics. Assist the student in deciding on his or her professional direction. As the students studies progress, it becomes necessary that he or she professionally defines himself or herself in accordance with his or her personal preferences, needs, and qualities. If the mentor has

followed the development of the student closely, his or her opinion often becomes a point of reference for the student, whenever he or she needs to make decisions concerning his or her professional development. These four aims of mentoring may be achieved specifically through the development of a students competencies, which serve as the framework for the Universitys mentoring program.

2 Mentoring as Competency Development


Student mentoring has its eye trained on character, but as the listing of mentoring goals shows, it essentially fulfills this purpose in an indirect fashion by developing the students competencies. Nonetheless, the University understands the acquisition of competencies not only as a part of the students professional qualification but also as a means for university education to attain its objectives. [UNAV Guia] 2.1 Competency Defined Competencies are defined as observable and habitual conduct that makes it possible for a person to succeed in any activity or function. As such, competencies refer to habits or skills that enable the person to live effectively and freely in the various aspects of his or her life. As a skill, a competency is not limited by fixed levels of personality traits or ones temperament, but rather takes on the characteristics of a behavior or set of behaviors that may be learned, practiced, and refined by those who are motivated to do so. As such, the acquisition, practice, and refinement of competencies imply a context in which this development occurs, such as the context of a mentoring relationship in a university. The acquisition of competencies in the University may be understood broadly as a part of the students professional qualification and as a pedagogical objective of university education, in which individualized attention to the development of the whole person, and not merely technical skill, engages the student in the fullest possible exercise of freedom that leads to the formation of an effective professional and refined person. The UA&P mentor is ideally positioned to provide the context in which this development can occur: a one-on-one relationship with a special focus on guiding the student through the process of acquiring and developing basic and advanced competencies that are necessary for him or her to grow as a cultured citizen with values ultimately to grow in freedomand for maintaining the motivation to do so. When construed as habits of conduct or behavioral skills, competencies are objective inasmuch as they are observable by others. However, the observers perception of a competency is at the same time dependent on his or her subjective assessment of the degree to which it has been acquired by a person and there is often a difference between the student's perception of his or her own level of competence and that which is perceived by a third party, such as the mentor. Given the tendency for this kind of subjectivity in evaluation, one of the first and most important

functions of mentoring is to help the student assess correctly his or her level of competence. The likelihood of an accurate, and therefore helpful, assessment increases dramatically when two parties have a common language for discussing the competencies, such as the classification guide presented in Appendix 1 and 2. The concept of competencies came into use in the early nineteen seventies, with McClellands studies on career success. According to McClelland, neither intelligence tests nor aptitude tests nor academic results were sufficient to make reliable predictions about career success. The concept of competencies emerged as the container for all the factors that do in fact allow such predictions to be madefactors related more to experience than to cognitive processes or personality traits. [Cardona HDLC 31-32] In the 1980s and 1990s, however, studies showed that aptitude and intelligence tests can indeed be valid predictors of part of a persons job performance. The latest trends show that aptitudes, intelligence and competencies are best considered as complementary factors in the search for valid and reliable predictions. All three are necessary for success in the performance of a given function or task. Subsequently, in the 90s, Woodrufe defines competencies as observable behaviors that contribute to a persons success in a task or function [and] that means they can be measured. [Cardona HDLC 31-32] Building on the above definition, Cardona and Chincilla map out the field of competencies even more precisely by defining them as observable and habitual behaviors. Thus defined, competencies are clearly oriented to action, which knowledge and personality traits are not. Undoubtedly, a certain amount of knowledge and certain aptitudes are required in order to perform the actions corresponding to a particular competency; but that is merely a necessary, not a sufficient, condition. There is no denying that knowledge, aptitudes, personality and competencies are closely related concepts: ultimately, they all relate to the human person, his learning, and the actions that follow from it. But for [our] purpose[s] it is essential to keep them separate. [Cardona HDLC 31-32] Here are the salient characteristics of competencies [adapted from Cardona HDLC 33]: 1. Competencies are behaviors. They are not personality traits or features of a persons temperament. Neither are they knowledge content, though competencies are involved in acquiring such content, as the competency for language; nor values, though one's choice of competencies to develop often reflects the values one holds, as the competency for coaching in a business firm that espouses management by competencies. The development of competencies is directly oriented to action. 2. They are observable. Therefore, we can measure not only how well developed they are in a particular person at any given moment, but also that persons progress and learning over time. 3. They are habitual. They form part of a persons everyday activity. Developing a competency therefore means acquiring new habits of behavior, which, though a slow process at times, involving repetition of acts, nevertheless implies a real possibility of learning and acquiring stable dispositions to right action. 4. They lead to success in a function or task. In the case of the competencies that are to be developed during the four or five years of university schooling, they lead to success in achieving for oneself the mission of the University.

2.2 Competency and Character Competencies are rooted in habits a person should have to exercise a sense of direction and purpose over time. But experience also tells us that these habits of success can never be more than means to an end. Even the best of competencies, placed at the service of an anemic purpose, can produce nothing but a mediocre professional. And if the purpose itself is perverse or manipulative, then those same habits become harmful to the person who uses them and anyone who comes within their circle of influence [Cardona HDLC 128]. In other words, the abstract notion of competency is ethically neutral. For this reason, it is very important to distinguish between competency and character, corresponding to the cautionary question about whether a certain good thief was good because he was good at thieving or in spite of his or her thieving. Self-improvement literature sometimes makes a very sharp distinction between competency and character, as seen in the following excerpt: In the workplace, its not only the competence that counts; character does too. You dont only need competence; you also need to espouse certain values and virtues. Hence there are two things you have to consider building: credential and behavioral habits. A person with only good credentials may be admired, while a person with virtues only may be liked, but only a person with winning credentials and virtues is trusted and loved. Only this person will ultimately be able to [wield] influence and be very effective [Sunio CUS 10]. While not entirely incorrect, these self-improvement models are somewhat different from the one we are following. In our mentoring scheme of competency development, values and virtues are, to borrow from Aristotle, both first in intention and last in execution but with the habits of success being the focus of attention. What this means is that mentoring must require the effort to bridge the habits of success and the habits of character, and somehow translate competency development into character formation. For this to happen, the mentor should understand well the relationship between character and competency. Character is a complex of traits and qualities distinguishing the individual nature of a person. Its essential elements are temperament, an understanding of the world and the human condition, habits of the will, and a vision of who I want to be. These elements intertwine in the center of a persons inner freedom and coalesce into a personal missionto become who I want to be. A broad notion of character may itself be ethically neutralwe could just as well talk of the leadership character of a Hitler as of a Gandhi. It is when personal mission is enlightened by principles consistent with the good life and fortified by virtue, that character can project integrity and moral force, and create a path of moral achievement for the person and often for others to follow. In our context, character is understood as good character, which is grounded on the Christian worldview that likewise grounds the entire content of the liberal arts program in the freshman and sophomore years (for the habits of character, see Appendix 1). Both character and competency are oriented to action in different ways. Character refers to the inner make-up that gives a persons decisions a certain style and consistency across the entire range of human activity. Competency, on the other hand, focuses on personally appropriated enablers that operate, in a stable manner, within specific scopes of results-driven activity relevant to a persons social or professional role. Both character and competency can be described in the abstract as being composed of similar elementsinnate characteristics, knowledge, habits, and motivations.

Experientially however, in the build-up of personality through the free decisions a person makes over time, both resist analysis into compartments where the component elements develop in watertight isolation. In particular, character does not decompose into sets of operationally discrete habitse.g. the cardinal virtues are co-implicated in any decision to do good. For competency too there are many ways to cut the cloth of habit, depending on the task or function in question. A broad classification, applicable across a wide range of functions, might even include mental habits distinct from volitional habits (the notion of character does not usually include mental skills), and might distinguish within the latter, intellectual-volitional, emotional-volitional, and social-volitional habits (for an example of such a classification of habits of success, see Appendix 2). The useful cut would be one that serves the task or function under consideration, but the relevant one, for our mentoring scheme, would keep an eye on the habits of character. Both character and competency can coincide in deploying a persons life goal as the key motivation, albeit in different ways. Within the horizon set by a personal mission, character drives the effort to develop the set of competencies appropriate to the tasks and functions that are encountered along the way. On the other hand, when motivated by personal mission, the effort to develop competencies can serve to reinforce the habits of character. To see why this is so, we first note that [personal] mission has a profound impact on the habits a person acquires or does not acquire. A rich mission exerts a pull, requiring better capabilities [and a strong] sense of what for is an impressive strength that makes people capable even of heroism. Conversely, a short-range mission tends not to lead to any great development of competencies. In extreme cases, when a persons only mission in life is to enjoy him or herself, he remains in a state of profound immaturity [that] greatly hampers the development of competencies [Cardona HDLC 129]. Secondly, we note that highly successful people in general are in the habit of reflecting on the reasons for the choices they have to make, on how these reasons serve their personal goals and values, on how these goals and values measure up to their worldview, and on the basis of these reflections decide, take initiative, expend the necessary effort. Thirdly, in a volatile environment, people may face daily enticements to shift their worldview in favor of success. If upon reflection they decide in favor of good character, good character is reinforced. Significant for our purposes is the fact that this would happen even in cases where success happens to be compatible with good character, by strengthening moral rectitude. These insights can point to a way for mentoring to attain its purpose of forming the habits of character, even if its immediate goals are habits of student success. First, the mentor would select competencies that hew close to moral virtue, while directly addressing the specific tasks and functions of the student. This is not too difficult since the successful student is culturally understood, especially in our context, to be a person who is on his or her way to becoming a mature person, and a mature [person] takes advice in order to make better decisions; holds his or her values against wind and tide; shows courage and withstands exhaustion; and maintains his or her emotional balance under pressure. The immature [person], by contrast, makes decisions without having sufficient information; is prepared to sacrifice integrity if there is enough external pressure; avoids conflict and anything arduous; and soon falls prey to stress or emotional manipulation [Cardona HDLC 133-134]. The section that follows immediately discusses a possible listing of competency goals during the years of undergraduate studies that closely parallel the habits of good character. Secondly, the mentor would use a methodology that motivates reflection down to the level of personal mission, which enfolds the things one values most, and his or her worldview. Reflection itself is one of the competencies suggested for mentoring beginning sophomore year. But, in the

scheme we are following, the skill of eliciting the exercise of reflection is deployed frequently during the mentoring conversation to encourage the orientation of the students intentions toward moral rectitude. The general method of mentoring is discussed in the section 3 below). 2.3 Which Competencies Since mentoring is done in the context of university life, it is logical that mentoring addresses the expectations and functional areas a student faces throughout his or her stay in the university. Leaving to classroom instruction the development of academic mental skills (e.g., grammar, logical argumentation, numerical algorithms), mentoring can focus on the students adjustment to a university lifestyle at the start of university studies, his or her motivational orientation toward academic and professional growth, the relationships he or she establishes or desires to establish with peers and superiors, and the decisions that will define his or her professional direction and role in society. For Freshmen Focusing on the needs of freshman students, we note four mentoring goals:

behavior arising from the ability to understand written and spoken text, memorize, analyze, deduce; from the ability to identify, organize, and effectively process information that is relevant for specific purposes, and to see interconnections among information coming from diverse sources; from the ability to take down appropriate notes during lectures and class discussions, and to prepare for and perform well in examinations; behavior arising from the ability to prioritize objectives, schedule activities appropriately, and execute them in the time provided; from the ability to establish a hierarchy of values and courses of action; from the ability to organize ones things; behavior that arises from the ability to understand and adjust to the values that the University upholds, in its work culture, in professional good manners, and in personal style, as shown in ones dress and appearance; and behavior that arises from the ability to react to each situation with the appropriate emotions and states of mind; from the ability to choose feelings and filter emotions so as to define, reinforce or change spontaneous motivation; from the ability to avoid creating stressful situations that affect ones performance.

Typically, university students find themselves in the development stage between adolescence and adulthood (i.e., within roughly the ages 18 to 25). After completing, often by the end of freshman year, the last stages of adolescent processesbiological (rapid body growth), psychological (development of higher-order cognitive abilities), and social (autonomy and individuation)the student is ready for individual identity explorations in the areas of love, work, and worldview [that] go beyond those [initially formulated] within adolescence but stop short of adulthood [Baer & Peterson, in Miller & Rollnick, 2002]. For Upperclassmen Generally, by sophomore year, the student has sufficiently adjusted to the university environment and can turn his or her energies to reasoning out the deep and all-embracing meanings that can

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shape a personal life goal and to testing peer leadership capabilities. From the second half of junior year to graduation, attention must be stretched to acquiring specialized skills that are meant to prepare the student for self-support and for adult roles. At the same time, however, these emerging adults can pursue novel and intense experiences more freely than adolescents because they are less likely to be monitored by parents, and can pursue them more freely than adults because they are less constrained by roles [Arnett, in ibid.], and much time and attention can be lost or dissipated. Mentoring can counteract by encouraging personal reflectionon the reasons for students decisions, on the personal mission that supports these reasons, on the worldview that grounds personal mission. We sense a common curiosity and openness to philosophical questions among young people, which might make motivational [approaches in mentoring] particularly helpful [because such application] naturally supports explorations of worldviews and continued efforts towards [identity and] autonomy [op. cit.]. In turn, the results of reflection can become the launching pad for decision, initiative, and commitment. Four competencies for mentoring come to mind:

behavior arising from the ability to understand what sort of person one is and how one reacts in different circumstances, in personal and university life; from the ability to accept and come to terms with ones own limitations and errors; from the ability to acquire new knowledge, change ones habits and be open to change; from the ability to allow ones activity to be directed by personal convictions and to respond to real situations, avoiding superficiality in ones manner of thinking and of being; and from the ability to assimilate a rich and coherent system of values that takes into account the effect of ones action on others and on oneself; behavior arising from the ability to make the right decisions at the right time, to think before deciding, to count on the opinions of the right people, and to bear the consequences; behavior arising from the ability to behave entrepreneurially, to be self-propelled, to initiate and drive forward the necessary changes forcefully and with a sense of personal responsibility; from the ability to see the positive side of things, to have faith in ones own abilities and face difficulties with enthusiasm; and from the ability to set high goals for oneself and others, and to pursue them resolutely; and behavior arising from the ability to undertake costly actions, to sacrifice something here and now in the interest of future benefit, to control the impulses of spontaneous motivation, and thus to be constant with ones commitments.

We should note that the grounds for personal convictions about God, the world, and the human condition that may have been carried over from childhood are now shifting from imagination and intuition to rational motivation. Preferably, the emerging worldview would be continuous with that held heretofore by intuition and imagination so that the transition is smooth and ones personal mission of who I ought to become is kept intactbut this is not always the case. Whatever the case, however firmly the adolescent personality has been shaped to favor justice, temperance, fortitude, and prudence, the growth of character is an ongoing processif the student does nothing to improve character, it is very likely to deteriorate. Let us observe at this point that the field in which natural morality feels most at home, and least deficient, is the field of our temporal activities, or of political, civic, and social morality; because the virtues proper to this field are essentially natural ones, directed toward the good of the [earthly community]; whereas in the field of personal morality, the whole scope of the moral life cannot be comprehended by reason with regard to our real system of conduct in actual existence, without taking into account the supra-temporal destiny

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of man [Maritain, Education at the Crossroads, 1843, pp. 94-95]. Mentoring can therefore lay stress on what may be called the ethics of political life and of civilization. Which is all to the good (for here it enjoys its maximum strength and practical truth) provided that it resist the temptation of neglecting or disparaging personal morality, which is the root of all morality [ibid., p. 95]. The competencies that come to mind, in regard to establishing relationships, including leadership relationships, with ones peers, are:

behavior that arises from the ability to listen and get ideas across effectively, using the right channels at the right times, and providing specific data to back up ones observations and conclusions; behavior arising from the ability to put oneself in the place of others, to listen to them, to find out the reasons for their conduct, and to understand their thoughts and feelings easily; generally, behavior that arises from interest in social issues; specifically, from the ability to relate to people, with an interest to helping develop their potential; and in particular, from the ability to diagnose, deal with, and resolve interpersonal conflicts promptly, without allowing personal relationships to suffer as a result; and behavior that arises from the ability to foster an atmosphere of collaboration, communication, and trust among team members; from the ability to forge agreements that are satisfactory to all involved, by discovering or creating elements that add value to the relationships; and from the ability to obtain team members commitment, inspire their confidence, give meaning to their work and motivate them to achieve their objectives; from the ability to use economic and material resources in the most appropriate, timely, economical, and effective way to obtain team goals; from the ability to ensure that everyone in the team has the information and resources he or she needs to make decisions and accomplish objectives; from the ability to value the team beyond the bounds of one's own function.

For Graduating Students Finally, beginning where applicable in internship and as graduation approaches, mentoring can encourage the student to set his or her eyes on developing competencies defined in terms of the practice of a profession:

behavior that arises from the ability to continue ones education that will provide sufficient grounds for correct decision making in the practice of the profession; behavior that arises from the ability to make efficient and transparent use of the resources made available in the practice of the profession; behavior that arises from the ability to accept and work fruitfully with a plurality of values, ideas, and opinions while keeping faithful to ones principles and vision; and behavior that arises from the ability to work for the good of an institution beyond ones personal goals.

Corresponding then to these multiple layers of concerns are four competency areas suggested as goals in the university mentoring program:

adjustment: study methods, time management, university lifestyle, and stress management; growth: reflection, decision making, initiative, and effort; relationships: communication, empathy, social skill, and teamwork; and

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professional lifestyle: functional decision-making, fiduciary responsibility, strategic compromise, and institutional commitment.

For alternative frameworks, see Appendix 3.

3 The Method of Mentoring


Competencies are the result of the innate characteristics, knowledge, motivations, and skills of a person. Innate characteristics are a given and are largely unchangeable. What must be done, therefore, is to focus on the aspects that can improve: the knowledge, the skills, and the motivations. The channels by which each of these improvements is addressed are information, coaching, and formation, respectively. [UNAV Guia] 3.1 The Components of Mentoring [Cardona HDLC 112-114]

Information. Knowledge comes from acquiring new quantitative and qualitative information about the world. The first step in developing a competency is, precisely, to acquire specific information about the areas and the methods of self-improvement. It is usually done by going on specialized courses, reading up on a subject, etc. There might not seem to be much of a role for mentoring at this phase of competency development, as it is up to the person in question to attend the course or read the book, etc. And yet, we all know that not even acquiring information--that is, collecting data about the world--can be done automatically. The role of mentoring can be invaluable for knowing where to look for such information, or more frequently, supplying such information. Apart from information regarding the University, its values, and the various possibilities it offers for the development of competencies, the mentor is often responsible for defining the relevant competencies that the student needs to develop in terms that the student can relate to, then analyzing the competency into component skills that the student needs coaching on, and finally pointing to value-criteria and role models that the student can draw his or her motivations from. Coaching. Skills are operational capabilities that enable action. A person who wishes to improve his or her ability to manage his or her time better, for example, will need to develop skills such as scheduling, designing work plans, etc. Skills are habits, and habits are acquired through persistent, guided practice, as any sportsperson will appreciate. Here, the specific attention of mentoring is best described as coaching, that is, identifying the appropriate exercises that will assist the generation of new and more effective habits and ways of doing things, and establishing programs to monitor progress. Without coaching, the student may likely fail to identify the right skills or even acquire bad habits that will prevent him or her from developing the desired competency satisfactorily. Formation. Through information, the student improves his or her knowledge about a certain competency. That is not to say, however, that he or she will necessarily feel the need or inclination to put that competency into practice. It is crucial to consider the student's motivations. "Motivations are what drives a person to act. And developing the right motivation

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requires a process of [formation] that enables a person to anticipate the consequences of his or her actions and omissions." Through formation, the student receives values and decision criteria. Formation is ordinarily acquired through the example of others and the surrounding social culture. Part of the task of mentoring is to help the student think his or her decisions through and to choose appropriate role models for the competency he or she is trying to develop. Mentoring also plays a decisive role in keeping the student's morale high in the face of difficulties and temporary setbacks, which are very common when one is trying to acquire habits--giving up ingrained habits is not easy, nor is a competency acquired quickly. 3.2 The Mentoring Conversation Knowledge, skills and motivations do not develop in isolation: they dynamically interact to build competencies on the basis of each person's innate characteristics and the free decisions he makes over time. Correspondingly, information, coaching and formation intertwine during the mentoring conversation, and since mentoring is intended to be an individualized task, there is no rigid rule of procedure that can be advised. Nonetheless, in characterizing the way the mentoring conversation can be handled, it is possible to speak of a fundamental spirit, four generic approaches, and general strategy. [Cardona HDLC 114] Generally, the projects of adolescence [and emerging adulthood]developing autonomy and [identity]require questioning and pushing against authority figures. Ambivalence is common, and will extend beyond specific risk behaviours to quite general issues of roles. [Mentoring] styles that are respectful, that acknowledge choices and ambivalence, and that do not increase resistance seem to be logical choices. [An] approach that not only minimizes arguing but also uses ambivalence to develop motivation for change should be a welcome addition [Baer & Peterson, in Miller & Rollnick, 2002, p. 322]. This clearly has implications for [mentoring]. When [a student] comes for [mentoring], there may be an assumption that [he or she] is already motivated for change. Indeed, many [educational] approaches devote little attention to motivation and assume its presence. The [student] who does not follow through with advice that is given may then be faulted for being unmotivated, rather than considering that the difficulty (and the solution) may lie in the interpersonal context. Our perspective is that exploring and enhancing motivation for change is itself a proper task, at times even the most important and necessary task, within [mentoring] [Miller MI 22]. In other words, the pivot of mentoring is formation, i.e., enhancing intrinsic motivation. Motivation is in many ways an interpersonal process, the product of an interaction between people. This departs somewhat from the popular notion that motivation is internal, residing within the individual as a personal state or trait. Motivations for change can, not only be influenced by but in a very real sense, arise from an interpersonal context [ibid.]. Correspondingly, the mentor should seek to develop a style of conversation that is animated by the following fundamental spirit [described in Miller MI 34]:

Autonomy. In [the mentoring conversation], responsibility for change is left with the [student] which, by the way, is where we believe it must lie. Another way to say this is that there is respect for the [students] autonomy. The [student] is always free to take counselor not. The overall goal is to increase intrinsic motivation, so that change arises from within rather than being imposed from without and so that change serves the [students] own goals and values. When the mentoring conversation is done properly, it is the [student] rather than the mentor

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who presents the arguments for change, [especially when what needs to change are the very goals and values of the student].

Collaboration. One key component of the spirit of [the mentoring conversation] is its collaborative nature. The [mentor] avoids an authoritarian one-up stance [and, instead, communicates] a partner-like relationship. The method [to be followed] involves exploration more than exhortation, and [encouragement for reflection] rather than persuasion or argument. The [mentor] seeks to create a positive interpersonal atmosphere that [by supporting the students self-esteem becomes] conducive but not coercive to change. The collaborative nature of the method [also] implies being attuned to and monitoring [the students as well as the mentors own] own aspirations, which frequently differ. Without awareness of [both sets of] opinion and investment, [the mentor] has only half the picture. Evocation. Consistent with a collaborative role, the [mentors] tone is not one of imparting things (such as wisdom, insight, reality) but rather of eliciting, of [skillful reflective listening] and finding these things within and drawing them out from the person. To draw a parallel distinction from education, the Latin verb docere (a root of doctor, doctrine, and indoctrination) implies an expert role, an imparting or inserting of knowledge in the student. In contrast, the verb ducare means to draw, as one draws water from a well, so that educare is to draw out. It is the latter form of education, with Socratic roots, that is an apt analogy for the process [to be used in the mentoring conversation]. It is not an instilling or installing but, rather, an eliciting, a drawing out of motivation from the person. It requires finding intrinsic motivation for change within the person and evoking it, calling it forth. [We should note, however, that this does not necessarily mean a labored exercise in Socratic questioning; there will be students who would prefer simply to be told what to do and will then do it, working out the appropriate motivations on their own.]

Nonetheless, students will find themselves in one of four possible situations, and it is possible to speak of four generic approaches to the mentoring conversation:

The student does not recognize his or her need to improve. He or she believes that he or she is all right but external indicators show he or she isnt. Mentoring should be geared towards improving self-concept by guiding the student to assess what really is the case. In hard cases, the mentor should speak clearly to show the reality of his or her situation. In extreme situations, where the student is clearly headed for trouble, it is entirely appropriate to adopt a strong and urgent tone to emphasize the reality of his or her situation. The student acknowledges areas for improvement. He or she can be helped to set goals and to develop will and self-discipline. In some cases, the student would prefer simply to be told what to do and will then do it. The student does well but does not know it. The mentors support and trust as well as the concrete advice that helps the student face difficulties can result in the student's reaching levels of excellence in performance and personal growth. The student does well and knows it. In this case, the mentor should help open new horizons, that is, encourage the student's enthusiasm for growth so that it translates into a work plan that will enrich his or her education and gradually configure his or her professional profile languages, readings and research work, attendance in seminars, volunteer work, etc. It would be good to sustain his or her interest in mentoring and help the student make demands on himself or herself.

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Whatever the situation of the student and whatever general approaches adopted by the mentor, it is possible to identify one general strategy that can be kept in mind for the mentoring conversation.

First, encourage the student to freely own his or her decisions for personal development. Second, encourage the student to reflect always on the reasons for his or her decisions. Third, encourage the student to develop a personal mission and so he or she can link this to his or her decisions. And fourth, encourage the student to ground his or her personal mission on truths regarding God, man, and the world such as those he or she encounters in the liberal arts program.

In other words, reflection is not only one among the competencies the student is encouraged to develop during his or her stay in the University, but the key instrument in the mentoring conversation for enhancing intrinsic motivation. Through reflection, mentoring becomes education for freedom and in freedom. Ultimately, the exercise of reflection can be encouraged to shape, deepen, or strengthen personal mission and worldview in a way that is compatible even with the right to freedom of religion. A final practical detail. In order to make mentoring really effective and relevant to the personal formation and development of the students, continuity in mentoring sessions is necessary. Experience shows that short and frequent meetings are more effective than long and occasional meetings. For this reason, it is advisable that mentoring during the first year is done twice a month at least during the first semester. For the rest of his or her studies, nine meetings a year would suffice. [UNAV Guia]

3.3 The Tools for Mentoring The two tools needed for mentoring are the Guide for Mentors and the Student Planner. 3.3.1 The Guide for Mentors This Guide for Mentors was developed as a practical help for the mentor to acquire ideas and content for the mentoring sessions. It aims to help the mentor conduct mentoring in a continuous manner and to make mentoring really useful in addressing specific needs (for example, adjustment of freshmen to university life or legal requirements of foreign students) and in providing integral formation. Some sections of the Guide suggest concrete objectives for students in different stages of development and possible courses of action, or at the very least serve as orientation and reference for mentoring conversations. This experimental edition was cobbled from the following sources: the University of Navarre's Guia de Asesor, Pablo Cardona's How to Develop Leadership Competencies (2005), and Varsolo Sunio's Coaching University Students (2010). The Guide is a work in progress, and mentors are invited to collaborate in producing the subsequent editions by sending notes of experience (see Appendix no. 9.8).

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3.3.2 The Student Planner At the beginning of each school year, students of the University are given a Student Planner prepared by the Center for Students and Alumni which contains various topical themes--i.e., formative information about the University, its Christian identity and culture, important details on University lifeas well as short write-ups on specific competencies that students are helped to develop during their stay in the University. The Planner's content serves as a framework for the mentoring conversations (incorporating the specific mentoring goals specific to a year level, as seen in Chapters 2 to 4 of this Guide) and provides a starting point for mentoring sessions throughout the year. The Planner also complements the Student Information Handbook distributed to the freshmen during Freshman Orientation (the Student Handbook is also accessible from the official UA&P website). The themes included in the Planner are the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. Identity of the University UA&P & Opus Dei Research & Communication Values Formation People Development Liberal Education Professional Specialization University Life: Mentoring University Life: Chaplaincy & Liturgical Celebrations University Life: Student Activities University Life: Student Government Study Methods Time Management University Lifestyle: UA&P Work Culture University Lifestyle: Professional Good Manners University Lifestyle: Personal Style Stress Management Reflection Communication Decision-making Effort Initiative Empathy Social Skill Teamwork Internship Professional Lifestyle

A full write up for each planner theme may be found in Appendix 4 or in the Student Planner.

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4 The Mentor
Mentoring is a commitment that a teacher of UA&P assumes. Together with research, teaching and extension, dedication to individual student mentoring is an essential part of his or her work. The involvement of teachers in personal mentoring is an essential feature of their commitment to the University's mission, and the possibilities they have, through their constant and direct dealings with the students, of guiding their formation. Above all, one expects from a faculty member good example, availability, interest and personal initiative to help the students improve in these aspects whenever necessary. Aside from these, the commitment to mentoring requires certain dispositions and competencies.

4.1 Commitment of the Mentor All university personnel are committed to using the venues made available to them through their tasks and functions in the organization to form the students, especially those who are just starting their university studies, in the values that the University upholds and their practical consequences. When this takes place in a mentoring conversation, general ideas can be adapted to specific circumstances, questions or doubts can be resolved, and concrete examples can be given to motivate improvement or change. [UNAV Guia] In a nutshell, the mentor commits himself or herself to Getting to know the student deeply enough to do the next two things well. Guiding the student in drawing up an improvement plan. Encouraging the student along the development process.

4.2 Dispositions of the Mentor Although mentoring is focused on observable behavior, effective mentoring is not at all impersonal. The mentor must have a passion for developing students, for starting them off, picking them up and rousing those who have lost their enthusiasm. The mentor seeks to build a relationship with his or her mentee, through a constant effort to win over his or her confidence and friendship. Often, this is only earned over time, so that time and again, the mentor has to make himself or herself available, to show sincere interest, and to exercise initiative in identifying areas where the student can improve in a well-rounded way. [Sunio CUS 7] Other basic attitudes required of the mentors can be summarized below:

Good Example. The mentor can earn the students trust if he or she offers him or her an example of personal integrity and sincere concern for his or her problems or specific needs through dealings marked by serenity, consideration, cordiality, and fairness. Establishing personal relationship will not be easy if the student feels he or she is treated unfairly, if the student does not feel accepted as he or she is, or if the student notices that there is a gap between what the mentor says and how he or she lives his or her own life. Trust and Respect. Trust is of utmost importance in personal relationships. It is advisable that the mentor makes it easy for the student to talk candidly about different matters, be they personal

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or matters related to the University. The mentor should always take the students word, which fosters the latters sense of responsibility, and respect his or her personal freedom and opinions but without neglecting to present arguments that would allow him or her to discover possible errors or deficiencies. He should always respect the students preference not to disclose private matters. Respect for privacy is also part of the commitment assumed in mentoring.

Positive Outlook. Encouragement is usually more effective than correction. It is necessary to discover the positive aspects of each situation in order to use them as support and help the student to improve and face problems with optimism and sporting spirit, emphasizing that, although sometimes the objectives are not reached, the effort exerted will have contributed to ones personal development. Negative comments about other persons or sarcasm should be avoided because they could give rise to distrust. If the student feels he or she is understood, it is easier to make him or her face problems or difficulties and to find solutions.

4.3 Competencies of the Mentor Mentoring requires that the mentor put into practice a set of capabilities deemed absolutely critical:

The ability to instill high ideals and a refusal to be satisfied with mediocrity; The ability to set high standards that are nonetheless realistic and incremental; Honesty in giving appropriate feedback, however hard it may be; Discipline to monitor the student's improvements (or backsliding); A passion for developing students, for starting them off, picking them up and rousing those who have lost their enthusiasm; and Empathy to listen to each student's problems and detect each student's limits.

In the mentoring conversation itself, the mentor needs to deploy the following competencies [adapted from Miller MI 36-41]: 1. Expressing empathy. Skillful reflective listening is fundamental, and acceptance, even of ambivalence, facilitates change. 2. Developing discrepancy. Change is motivated when the student (rather than the mentor) perceives a discrepancy between present behavior and important personal goals or values, and when the student (rather than the mentor) presents the arguments for change. 3. Rolling with resistance. Resistance is a signal to respond differently without directly opposing it, and to invite new perspectives without imposing them. 4. Supporting self-efficacy. Since the student is responsible for choosing and carrying out change, the students belief in the possibility of change is an important motivator; however, the mentors own belief in the students ability to change can become a self-fulfilling prophecy. See also Appendix 5.

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Chapter 2. Mentoring Freshmen


1 Profile of Freshmen
Freshman year in the University carries unique characteristics that make the task of the mentor especially important. This section contains reflections about the situation that freshman students may find themselves in and possible considerations for mentoring at this level.

1.1 Freshmen and Adolescence Oftentimes freshman students are still at the last stage of adolescence. Hence they may show attitudes and deficiencies that gradually disappear throughout the academic year. The difficulties they face can be motivated by the following:

A certain sense of insecurity and affective dependence or personal immaturity; Lack of basic knowledge; and Absence of study skills or that their study skills are not appropriate to university studies.

One should also take into account the different needs of students who come from urban families, those who live in the rural areas, or those who come from other countries. Foreign students definitely need more support than most other students. For this reason a mentoring scheme specifically appropriate to them has been developed (see Chapter 5 for more details). 1.2 Immediate Interests of Freshmen The immediate interests of freshman students usually revolve around three areas:

Acquiring a good method of studying to take full advantage of the course; Knowing how to manage ones time in order to do everything one needs to do; and Adjusting to the environment, winning friends.

In order to attain these objectives, the students have to overcome the difficulties of adjustment and face new challenges in his or her method of studying, time management, and human relations. 1.3 Dispositions Towards Mentoring Among students who are beginning their university studies we can find different attitudes or dispositions towards mentoring.

Insecurity, immaturity. This attitude is that of persons who take their mentor for someone to whom they can transfer their responsibility for self-improvement. They should learn to do things with some degree of independence. The mentor has to try to make understanding and

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closeness compatible with a kind of treatment that shows they are the ones mainly responsible for their formation.

Flattery. If this type of attitude shows in a student, the mentor should avoid any manifestation of familiarity or preferential treatment. Indifference. This attitude characterizes students who lack motivation either because they think that mentoring is useless (at least for them). In such cases they frequently evaluate the result of each mentoring session and use it as basis for deciding if it is worthwhile to come back for the succeeding sessions or not. The mentor should exert effort to ensure that the students receive take-home lessons each time they come for mentoring. If mentoring motivates them or if it gives them effective help, a good mentoring relationship may ensue. Fear of inconveniencing others. These are students who never show up for mentoring due to lame excuses, e.g., timidity, cant find or coincide with the mentor, not wanting to inconvenience him or her, etc. In such cases, the mentor should get in touch with them to make at least the first meeting easy, and try not to end each session without setting the next appointment or even the next topic to cover. Avoidance. There may be cases when a student views mentoring as a kind of intrusion or control. The mentor should clearly underscore the features that show mentoring is a university activity. In such cases, extreme prudence has to be exercised when talking about more personal topics if the student himself or herself does not bring up some matters.

2 Approach to Freshman Mentoring


The immediate integration of a freshman into the university environment, his or her academic performance, and the focus that he or she gives to university studies can depend on an adequate orientation. At the same time, the task of the mentor becomes easy in the coming years if, right from the first year, a constructive dialogue and a relationship built on trust is established with the student. This section explains the principal goals of mentoring at freshman year, as well as some suggestions for approaching mentoring at this stage.

2.1 Student Information The mentors knowledge of each of his or her mentees is the basis of the effectiveness of the academic and personal help that he or she can extend to the mentee. The mentor should keep in mind that mentoring is a meeting between two persons, i.e., each student is different and that rigid rules cannot be applied. In any case, some factors that can be taken into account in mentoring freshman students are given below: The students intellectual level (the level he or she shows during the first meeting) External data that indicates real situation, e.g., high school grades, how the student is at home, his or her friends, individual test results from the Guidance Office, etc. See also Appraisal Tools in Appendix 6. 21

2.2 Freshman Goals The help the mentor extends is geared towards giving the student the following:

Information. Transmit some aspects of the nature of the University in a personalized manner in such a way that the student would find it easier to immediately integrate himself or herself into the University. Specifically, the mentor should cover, during the first meetings and in an individualized way, topics such as the Christian identity of the University and the conduct expected of a university student. [Note: The Student Planner is of particular help in this aspect, as Topic Nos. 1-11 as well as 14-16 of the Student Planner were written expressly to help freshman students grasp key aspects of UA&P life. See also Appendix 4 of this Guide.] Coaching. Help the student acquire a stable know-how of basic skills and methods that can help him or her/her attain higher-level competencies with ease. Primary attention should be given to developing good study habits and time management techniques, and covering possible gaps or lack of foundation in basic subjects. Coaching should address attainable objectives that are periodically reviewed. This dimension of mentoring requires a certain level of frequencyonce a fortnightand continuity. Formation. Stimulate the student's motivations for self-improvement. Much will be accomplished if from the beginning the student realizes the importance of having an adequate study method and time management skills so that dedication and effort can be sustained throughout the year and deadlines of the different educational requirements are met. At the same time, mentoring should contribute to the appreciation of all the dimensions of university life. While giving due importance to studies, it is good to encourage the student to develop other facets of his or her personality, e.g., cultural life, sports, solidarity with others, etc.

2.3 First Sessions Some tips for the first sessions:

Meet the student immediately. Give the Planner on the first day if possible. To overcome the initial barrier between mentor and student, it may help at the beginning to have some kind of group meeting with the other mentees for them to get to know one another and to receive the first essential information about orientation activities, the schedule of classes, the organization of the University, etc. Also, at the beginning, the conversation can be facilitated by talking about matters other than the student himself or herself, or by inviting him or her to talk about less difficult topics, e.g., ones family, hobbies, etc. It is important that empathy and rapport be established in the first sessions. Explain mentoring well: you may want to use the Mentoring Readiness Checklist in Appendix 4.8 as reference, though it would not ordinarily be necessary for the student to actually fill out the form. Explain mentoring well. Build faith and trust by showing openness and a positive disposition towards possibilities of improvement. Show real interest in the mentee, i.e., by remembering personal information already given or subject matters that have already been taken up.

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From the very beginning, concentrate your efforts on guiding the academic development of the student, which is the nucleus of his or her link with the University. At the same time, help the students discover that the Universitys aim is to offer integral formation that develops them as persons. You may want to refer to the sample form in Appendix no. 4.8 for the "terms of engagement" in mentoring, but there is no need to come up with a formal written agreement. Based on experience, it is best to set the day and time of the next meeting during the mentoring session itself. Email or instant messaging tools can also be used with prudence to set appointments with the student.

3 Freshman Competencies
Below are specific action plans for the development of five habits that are especially relevant in freshman year:

Communication (Basic) Acquisition or improvement of study habits Planning and organizing one's time Adjustment to a university lifestyle Stress management

Possible topics to cover and the approach to mentoring are described further below. Sections of the planner that can serve as reference for the student are also indicated.

3.1 Communication (Basic) For freshmen, the mentors also serve as writing coach for English essays (or Filipino, if the mentor teaches Filipino and prefers to coach in the language) that the respective English subject teachers will ask the students to write. Coaching is focused on helping the student improve his or her written work (hence his or her thinking and writing skills) in any one or combination of the five basic elements of writing: (a) content, (b) grammar, syntax and mechanics, (c) word usage, (d) organization or coherence, and (e) sufficiency of details. Guide for the Mentor The format is personal and individual conversation, with the coach having received and read the work earlier, and the paper placed in front of the coach and the student during the coaching session. The coach gives his or her own observations and comments as an ordinary reader and allows the student to respond to the comments and suggest corrections to his or her work.

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The mediate objective of the scheme is the student's integral personal formation in life competencies through writing. The immediate objectives of the scheme are two: (a) to provide the mentor with a possible raw material to direct the mentoring conversations, sliding from the essay content to the corresponding aspect(s) of the student's perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, dispositions and lifestyle; and (b) to help the student acquire better communication skills through the eye and mind of an adult, more mature, reader, who helps translate writing skills to channels of selfexpression. Coaching does not and cannot cover all aspects of the written work. The coach decides what element to focus on and need not cover all errors or deficiencies. The important point would be for the students to be helped to notice flaws in his or her work and introduce corrections themselves. The coach may even program what element to focus on in a given session depending on the student's state of language skills. Action Plans for the Student The student submits his paper to the mentor a week before the session. After the session, the student consolidates the comments arising from the conversation and does a rewritten version for submission to the coach a week after the session, who upon some degree of satisfaction, signs his or her name on the paper to a "seen and okayed" remark. The student submits his or her "seen and okayed" work to the English (or Filipino) teacher, who evaluates it and gives it a rating. Thus the "seen and okayed" remark of the mentor coach is simply a conditional go-signal for the teacher to grade the work according to departmental standards, with no necessary reference to the mentor coach's appreciation of the work. Any conflict in observations, which should really rarely happen, can be resolved in favor of the English (or Filipino) teacher's judgment. Part of the Planner That Can Help the Student

Communication

See also Appendix 4.19. 3.2 Study Methods Freshman year is important for the acquisition of intellectual habits that all educated persons would generally need, as well as specific habits necessary for university studies. To assist them in their reflection and subsequent plan of action in this regard, the students can make use of a questionnaire about their study method. It may be helpful to ask them to accomplish the questionnaire and comment on it during the first mentoring sessions. It is important to take into account the capacity of each of the students, the type of education they previously received, and the possible gaps they may have. The following discussion of the competency called Information Management [Cardona, HDLC 172173] can also be easily contextualized for university studies. Information management refers to behavior arising from the ability to identify and effectively process information that is relevant to one's academic goals. Everyday, we are on the receiving end of an avalanche of unfiltered information, some of it important, some utterly trivial, some well founded, some mere opinion, rumor or commentary. Besides the information that comes to us, we also go out to proactively

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search for information, which can be very time-consuming. Lastly, we need to treat every piece of information differently: discard it, keep it, work on it (expand it or summarize it), and/or communicate it to others. The vital thing, therefore, is to manage information effectively, so that nothing relevant gets lost and our files are not swamped with material that is of no interest to us. Specifically, information management implies

Having clear criteria for distinguishing information that is important from information that is trivial, from information that is urgently needed to information that can wait, so that from whatever information is received the essential message is readily extracted Having clear criteria for assessing the accuracy of information Having the necessary (physical and technological) means to store the important information according to how it is to be used Have the necessary determination to discard whatever is not likely to be useful in the medium term and/or whose accuracy is seriously questionable

Guide for the Mentor

Coach the student in the core skills of study method: understanding, memorization, analysis, and deduction. Discuss with the student the results of the Study Method Questionnaire (see Study Method Questionnaire in the Student Planner). Items marked 4-5 in the questionnaire may indicate weaknesses in study method. Orient the student on how to approach his various classes depending on the type of subjects. In helping the student improve his or her study method, underscore the importance of being constant and persistent. A method is a process. Allow time for study habits to be formed. Recommend the practice of habitual reading as an excellent intellectual sport that, among its many benefits, improves the capacity to concentrate.

Action Plans for the Student

Ask the student to analyze study methods he or she acquired in high school. Use the Questionnaire (under Study Method in the Student Planner) as a point of reference by discussing the results with him or her. Determine his or her weaknesses vis--vis his or her method of studying, i.e., if he or she simply reasons, memorizes, reads, or makes outlines. Get precise information about how he or she fares in a subject in order to allot the necessary amount of time for studying. Suggest that the student determine the amount of time needed for studying each subject by getting feedback from teachers about how he or she is faring. Suggest concentration exercises to find out what distracts him or her. Suggest the amount of time he or she needs for each of the subjects. Make use of the recommended bibliography and the available reference materials for each of the subjects, choosing the relevant ones. Ask the student to come for mentoring before and after exams in order to evaluate the efficacy of the study methods he or she used. Detect possible gaps in the basic knowledge the student needs for his or her university studies. Help the student apply the means to address the gaps. Encourage the student to ask himself the following questions: Do I read everything that comes my waynewspapers, magazines, Internet material, etc.or, on the contrary, do I try to select what is genuinely interesting?

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Is my desk usually covered in reading/study materials that seemed interesting at one time but I have never gotten around to reading? Do I have an effective system for archiving study/class notes? Do I regularly set aside time for organizing this material? Do I keep up to date with all the information/study material relevant to the subject? Do I spend some time every week reviewing and managing the information I have stored for later use? Where possible, arrange for the student to see you before or after major examinations to evaluate the results of the study method used.

Part of the Planner That Can Help the Student

Study Method (Questionnaire)

See also Appendix 4.12. 3.3 Time Management Time management is the persons ability to Prioritize competing objectives, Identify the deliverables for each objective, Estimate the time needed for each deliverable, Schedule activities needed to complete the deliverables, and Execute (appropriately) the activities in the time provided. Order, planning, and the efficient use of time are habits that are interesting to work on especially with freshman students. These contribute to the improvement of student performance and to the avoidance of distraction. Some manifestations of these habits are as follows:

Mental order: knowing how to establish a hierarchy of values and courses of action; learning to have mental discipline and control over ones imagination. Material order: having things organized. Knowing how to prioritize tasks: putting important tasks ahead of what appears to be urgent, and give importance to those that are really important. Knowing how to manage ones time as a function of the goals and objectives to be met. Using ones time well.

Since time is one resource that is both scarce and unrepeatable, it should be managed well. Students could be helped to constantly ask themselves two questions: What do we want to do? (determining objectives and making plans) and When do we have to do them? (prioritizing and scheduling). St. Josemara Escriva once said, Urgent things should wait. Indeed, many times, students get overwhelmed by urgent things and neglect important ones. On one hand, it becomes so easy putting off more important things in the process of settling urgent, perhaps less important, ones. Or, in not paying attention to the important, one ends up having to face things with urgency. A case in point is cramming the making of a paper. In not planning well for this important submission, doing the paper eventually becomes urgent, and the result is haphazard work, done for the sake of submission.

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Time management as a means for success, is a perennial goal and can never be beyond improvement. Having clear objectives, planning ones strategies and activities, using a planner, scheduling, identifying responsibilities, delegating, checking out the planner, assessing status these are always steps to time management. But even more important than these is identifying what is called thieves of our own timeand the biggest thief of all, is our lack of self-control. Guide for the Mentor

By using concrete cases, teach the student to distinguish between what is important and what is not, and between what is urgent and what is not. Give guidelines as to the time required for different activities. Suggest a flexible and realistic schedule. Since actual performance is key, give more importance to what the student actually does than to what he or she intends to do. A mentor can evaluate the cultivation of this habit through the following illustrative examples: How conscious the student is in identifying his personal priorities; How focused the student is on the conversation or activity taking place; How the student puts order in his personal things; How well he distinguishes between what is urgent and what is important; How he makes a plan of action for major undertakings; How he evaluates his plan and its implementation, including, among other factors, the quality of his work method, the time he spent carrying out tasks, what went wrong and what went right, and the lessons learned.

Action Plans for the Student The mentor can give the student the following pointers:

Be punctual for appointments and requirements. Briefly make a note of things to be done daily; arrange them in a hierarchy and assign the time you intend to perform the task. At the end of the day, check if the objectives have been met or not. Make a realistic study schedule. One suggestion is to start with the difficult subjects to ensure freshness as you approach them. Use your planner. Make allowances for unforeseen events. Set a deadline for each plan. Think medium-term and long-term. Try to complete the work a few days before the submission date. Take advantage of small pockets of time between classes by resolving questions or completing notes. Learn to concentrate and dominate your imagination and memory. Examine the real time devoted to tasks, checking if it has been necessary or proportionate, and which tasks have been left undone. Know how to prioritize tasks: give importance to what is really important, and distinguish between what is urgent from what is important. Maintain order on ones study table, notes, and bedroom. Rest is not idleness. Make a plan: reading, sports or cultural activities.

Part of the Planner That Can Help the Student

Time Management

See also Appendix no. 4.13. 27

3.4 University Lifestyle Integration into the University represents a change that usually requires significant effort in adjustment. To help this along, one of the tasks of the mentor is to inform freshmen about the values that the University upholds and their practical consequences in terms of the students way of living or being. When this takes place in a personal conversation, questions or doubts are easier to resolve, general ideas mentioned above can be adapted to specific circumstances, or concrete examples can be given. Integration into a new environment that demands certain qualities or behaviors presupposes that the student acquires:

a good understanding of the Universitys mission and of the formation it offers; a sense of belongingness coming from active participation in all dimensions of university life; and proper communication, e.g., engaging in frank dialogue in mentoring, expressing ones difficulties or deficiencies to the right persons such as ones teachers, mentor, family, or friends.

Hence, specific facets of the Universitys lifestyle can be discussed with the student. These are grouped into (a) UA&P Work Culture (see Appendix 4.14), (b) Professional Good Manners (Appendix 4.15), and (c) Personal Style (Appendix 4.16). Guide for the Mentor

Explain what (university) academic levels mean and describe ways of coping. Give concrete examples. Introduce the student to university life, i.e., cultural, social, sports activities in the University. Help him or her overcome timidity, which can hinder the development of ones sense of responsibility and the performance of ones professional duties. Show him or her the value of confidentiality and respect for persons: how to vent negative emotions and thoughts through proper channels; resolve problems by talking; give information only to the appropriate persons; exercise control and discernment about what to say and whom to say it.

Action Plans for the Student

Ask the student to focus on specific themes in the Planner that give an introduction to the University (specifically the Universitys Christian identity) and discuss these during mentoring. Explain the kind of behavior expected of a university student through the help of available material (i.e., the Student Handbook and the Student Planner). If possible, use specific examples or warn the student about what could be considered inappropriate behavior. Inform the student about opportunities for engaging in volunteer work, for being involved in student government, and encourage their participation in student activities. Suggest that they participate in class or in public life and in activities organized by their respective schools. Brief the student on various channels by which constructive feedback and matters for improvement or viewed to be negative can be addressed.

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Parts of the Planner That Can Help the Student


Identity of the University UA&P & Opus Dei University Life: Mentoring University Life: Chaplaincy & Liturgical Celebrations University Life: Student Activities University Life: Student Government University Lifestyle: UA&P Work Culture University Lifestyle: Professional Good Manners University Lifestyle: Personal Style

See also Appendix 4.1-12 and 4.14-16.

3.5 Stress Management Stress can have a devastating effect on ones health, and also on ones personal and family life, as well as ones professional life. Therefore, it is essential to learn to identify the early signs of stress, avoid situations that produce stress and know how to cope with it if, in spite of everything, it appears. Generally speaking, a balanced life, with the appropriate amount of time given over to leisure, friends, family, and work, is the most effective way to prevent stress. Stress management is a set of habitual behaviors that are important to avoid creating stressful situations that affect ones performance, especially during times when work accumulates or when one has not been able to manage his or her time well. Some manifestations of successful stress management are as follows:

Keeping calm before stressful situations or when under pressure. Not being carried away by impulse, desires, and moods. Controlling instances of hyperactivity or apathy if they occur. Behaving with emotional maturity when subjected to pressure. Doing what one thinks has to be done independently of what other people will say or do.

Guide for the Mentor

Make them describe situations they find overwhelming. Help them to view these objectively, identifying those that can be solved and suggest the means to apply. Be positive and listen until the end. Develop in the student a sense of personal security. Consider the influence of the environment, friends, mainstream or popular culture, etc. If mood swings are clearly seen as a manifestation of deeper problems such as personal or family problems, professional help should be sought, e.g., a medical doctor, chaplain. Correct errors without putting the student down or giving him or her excuses. It may also help to identify the students strengths (or conversely be on the lookout for deficiencies) in effective stress management, as follows [Cardona HDLC 174-175, 186-187]: Characteristic Behaviors of Effective Stress Management: Able to detect symptoms of stress and takes steps to relieve it 29

Devotes enough time to rest Has balanced life habits Finds time to relax and forget about work Capable of leaving work behind when with family or friends Maintains a balance between personal and professional life

Symptoms of Deficiency in Effective Stress Management: On a physical level, the symptoms of stress are very varied: irritability, loss of appetite, sleep disturbances, tachycardia, etc. On a psychological plane, the most common symptoms are: inability to concentrate, ill temper, hyperactivity, emotional instability, etc. As stress is a general disorder (i.e., symptoms vary widely from one person to the next), the clearest sign is any major change in behavior: for example, if a normally withdrawn person starts to behave expansively, or vice versa. Conflicts between work responsibilities and family responsibilities. Action Plans for the Student

Make the student relate situations that he or she finds overwhelming. Help the student try to view them objectively, identifying those that can be solved and apply the means. Encourage him or her to play sports regularly, even habitually. See whether he or she eats well and gets enough sleep. Help the student determine if it is better to start studying the hard way or least preferable way. If this strategy seems useful, encourage the student to follow it strictly. Help the student accept corrections from family members, friends, and teachers without making any excuses for himself or herself. Ask him or her to describe the circumstances of mood swings. Why does it happen? What things are affected? How long does it last? How does he or she overcome it? Ask the student to reflect on the following questions Do I know what factors cause me stress? Am I capable of dealing with such stress situations? Do I have symptoms of stress, e.g., frequent headaches, mood swings, lack of concentration, etc.? Am I able to forget about schoolwork when I am done with it? How many hours do I rest? Do I devote the right amount of time to my social life, seeing friends, being with my family? Propose the following suggestions for self-improvement in managing stress Get to know yourself better, so that you know what weapons you have available for dealing with stress and the situations that cause it. Learn to control your own emotions and relax, finding the right moment with the right techniques. Broaden your social support network (friends, family, etc.) as much as possible and nurture deep interpersonal relationships. Be more sensitive to factors that produce stress, and avoid circumstances that produce them. Develop the strength of will to respect, as far as possible, the hours set aside for sleep, rest, etc.

Parts of the Planner That Can Help the Student


Time Management Stress Management

See also Appendix no. 4.17.

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4 Suggested Mentoring Plan


Mentoring is both a craft and an art. As craft, there are certain principles governing, among other elements, mentor-student relationship, gradation of themes and topics according to the developmental stage of the student, dos and donts in mentoring conversations according to the temperament and dispositions of the student and even the mentor as well as the appropriateness of conversation topics according to the pace of school work. In the end, however, mentoring is an art based on the mature judgment and feel of the mentor at the moment of conversation. Planned topics should give way to the students concerns of the moment. Mentoring, it is said, is a walk-through the students day-to-day struggle towards personal excellence. Frequency of mentoring in the freshman year is fortnightly in order to facilitate student acquisition and stability of habits and characteristics. The freshman student is beginning to know the university life and adjust to its nuancesthis is a whole new world to them, particularly given the authority-dependence and restrictions of high school life. In a phrase, the goal of the freshman is full integration into the University academic community and lifestyle, and this takes time and constancy. Below is a listing of conversation topics and writing topic per mentoring session (see also Section 3.1 on Communication (Basic) above, which describes the role of the mentor as writing coach for freshmen). The mentor can use this as a firm schedule of mentoring sessions based on the freshman competencies already described previously, without losing sight of the reality of mentoring being an art much more than a craft. Mentors can consider this list of topics a lesson plan, and as a good, seasoned teacher discards the lesson plan when faced with the unforeseeable day-to-day reality of a class, the mentor may do likewise. Session / Period 1 16-30 June Writing Perspective (Planner Theme Reference) None Mentoring Chat Getting to Know Each Other (Basis: Student Information Profile) (Give Out: Planner) Quick Terms of Our Mentoring (Goal: Leveling of Expectations) (Take-Home: Study Q) University Lifestyle: Deportment (Review: Study Q Responses) (Review: Optimizing Planner) (Take-Home: Daily Schedule) Planning the Day, Week, Month (Review: Daily Schedule) (Take-Home: Teacher Interview) Feedback on Classes (Review: Teacher Interview) (Take-Home: The Makings of UA&P)

01-15 July

Transition to University (see Student Planner themes: Study Methods, University Identity) Order and Scheduling (Time Management, Stress Management, Study Method) My Life and the University (University Identity, Liberal Education, UA&P and Opus Dei)

3 4

16-30 July 01-15 Aug

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5 6

16-30 Aug 01-15 Sep

First Impressions of UA&P (University Identity, UA&P and Opus Dei) School Life Beyond Class (Student Activities, Student Government, Personal Style) Rest and Leisure (Stress Management, Time Management) Friendship with God (UA&P and Opus Dei, Chaplaincy & Liturgical Activities) Feeling for the Other (Empathy, Social Skill) Fashion and Bearing (Personal Style, Professional Good Manners) Thinking Things Through (Reflection) From Priorities to Decisions (Values Education. DecisionMaking, UA&P Work Culture) One-Ten Years From Now (Professional Specialization) Family Life (Stress Management, People Development, Social Skill) None

16-30 Sep

8 9

15-30 Nov 01-15 Dec

10

01-15 Jan

11 12

16-30 Jan 01-15 Feb

13 14 15

16-28 Feb 01-15 Mar 16-30 Mar

Christian Identity of UA&P (Review: What Makes UA&P, UA&P) (Take-Home: Officer Interview) Student Activities: Kultura, Sports, Civics (Review: Officer Interview) (Take-Home: Planning for Exams) Detoxifying, De-Stressing Optimizing Semestral Break (Review: Planning for Exams) (Take-Home: Looking Back at Sem 1) Doctrinal-Spiritual Formation (Review: Looking Back at Sem 1) (Take-Home: Friends Made, Not Made) All Things to All Men Planning the Christmas Break (Review: Friends Made, Not Made) (Take-Home: A Personal Lifestyle) Considerations in Lifestyle (Review: A Personal Lifestyle) (Review: The Christmas Break) (Take-Home: Things I Think About) Basics and Nuances of Reflection (Review: Things I Think About) (Take-Home: Thought to Resolve) Knowing-Keeping Priorities Making-Pursuing Decisions (Review: From Thought to Resolve) (Take-Home: Plans for Next Year) The UA&P Specializations (Review: Plans for Next Year) (Take-Home: Family History) Keeping a Family and Relations (Review: Family History) (Take-Home: Planning for Summer) Perseverance: To the Last Drop Our Mentoring: An Assessment (What We Talked About, Lessons You and I Learned, The Planner) (Review: Planning for Summer) Goodbyes Till the Next Learning Adventure

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Chapter 3. Mentoring Upperclassmen


1 Developmental Needs of Upperclassmen
After successfully adjusting to university life, the student is ready to tackle other habits of success. Though they have already been introduced in freshman mentoring, self-knowledge, self-criticism, and self-esteem become crucially important at this stage. 1.1 Where Am I Now? Competencies are objective inasmuch as they are observable but the perception thereof depends to a large extent on the observer. This subjectivity in evaluation can cause ones perception of ones own competencies to diverge from what is observable. For this reason, one of the first and most important functions of mentoring is to help diagnose correctly the level of competence of a student. Self-knowledge is necessary for personal learning. In order to know oneself, a person needs to reduce his or her blind area. That can be done through active and passive self-criticism: seeking and accepting feedback attentively and with the intention to improve. To develop self-criticism, one must overcome fear of change in ones self-image or temporary loss of self-esteem. Besides selfcriticism, it is important to know the bases of our personality, and distinguish between what can be developed and what cannot. Competencies, being habits, are always capable of being developed. But because personality and competencies are related, people find some competencies easier to develop than others, depending on their personality. Lastly, as competencies are habits, developing them involves, first, being aware of the need to develop them, and then making the effort to acquire them, until finally they become (co-natural) habits. [Cardona HDLC 72] There are various methodologies to obtain information from a persons environment about the degree to which that person possesses the relevant competencies. For each methodology, there is a variety of concrete tools for doing this, and many schools/guidance offices opt to design their own tools. The choice of one method or another will depend on a variety of circumstances: the use to which the study will be put, the climate surrounding the organization, its internal culture, etc. [Cardona HDLC 82] The outlines of the methodology and tools suggested in this Guideand the many others described in the specialized literaturemay prove complementary. Using a variety of information gathering techniques makes it easier to monitor and counteract any bias that a particular measurement tool may add to the measurement. Aside from the choice of method and tool, the most important thing is to respect the spirit that should inform the entire evaluation process: the desire to ensure that every student recognizes his or her improvement areas and strengths, so as to implement a personalized improvement plan. 1.2 Where Do I Want to Go? To have character is, essentially, to have the capacity to lead our own lives in accordance with principles that are consistent with a right understanding of the world and of ourselves, so as

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eventually to live a good life. To do that, we need to set ourselves a personal mission, which is the project that defines our identity: who I want to be. The strength of that mission will depend on its content, credibility and urgency. To fulfill our mission, we will need to continually monitor and correct our course. [Cardona HDLC 137-138] Begin With a Vision in Mind [Sunio CUS 8] The end is the first in intention but last in execution [Aristotle] Among the first tasks a mentor needs to do is to help the student formulate a vision that he or she sees as noble, achievable, and above all, compelling. The mentor then provides direction and guidance to guarantee the fulfillment of this vision. A vision is an idealized state desired three, five, or ten years down the strategic road. It is what one wants or imagines oneself to be in the future. There are generally two types of vision: long-term and short-term. A clear long-term vision is harder to formulate. Most of the time, what we are able to formulate is a long-term vision that is only provisional; we are even a bit half-hearted in our commitment to pursue it. Nonetheless, it is important to formulate ones long-term vision, no matter how tentative it may be, because our short-term vision depends largely on it. The point is not to define a vision that is final and already written in stone, but some idea of what it is. 1.3 How Do I Get There? The will is the engine of personal change: it takes sides between rational and spontaneous motivation, orchestrating changes in our behavior. The will is, therefore, the center of our freedom and, precisely for that reason, the center of our personal history: in the end, we become the person we have chosen to be. The will, in turn, acts through certain intimate habits, which we have called habits of character. Depending how well those habits are developedhow mature a person is the will has more or less freedom of action. Conversely, immaturity damages freedom, leaving the individual at the mercy of his or her own impulses. [Cardona HDLC 138] Besides personal [vision and] mission, there is one other factor that is crucial for inner change: selfesteem. If the will is the engine of change, it would not be unfair to say that self-esteem is the fuel that drives the engine. Without self-esteem, or with impaired self-esteem, the will cannot function properly. [Cardona HDLC 134-135] Self-esteem is crucial to personal development because it generates an attitude towards change. Low self-esteemdue, perhaps, to failed efforts to change or negative feedback from others produces an attitude of aversion to [the] challenge for improvement: the person is discouraged and his will seems to have been drained of energy for change. In contrast, positive self-esteem, that is, a certain personal optimism about ones own ability to change, produces a positive attitude toward [the] challenge: the person is encouraged [to] change. Falsely positivethat is to say, unrealistic self-esteem also has its dangers: for one thing, the person may unwisely reject the need for personal change; for another, he may underestimate the difficulty of the change, which may lead to disillusion or frustration in the future.

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The state of a persons self-esteem may be more contextualto meet a specific challengeor more general. A general state of low self-esteem, such as depression or chronic insecurity, may be due to a variety of physical (stress, exhaustion, illness) or psychological causes (deriving from the persons personality or some particularly salient experience). The more or less pathological cases lie beyond the scope of mentoring and the mentor can only advise anyone who experiences such symptoms to seek medical help [to find] the best possible solution. What interests us here is what to do in cases of contextual low self-esteem: for example, when a person does not believe he can improve certain deeply rooted habits, or is tempted to abandon a plan for personal change after initial setbacks. In such cases, we must look for ways to boost selfesteem and fill the will with energy for change. There are at least five mechanisms for strengthening contextual self-esteem [Cardona HDCL 135136]: 1. Challenge the reasons why the student thinks he or she cannot change. To do that, review the students mental models and seek new information and/or advice to get a better perspective on the problem. If the student is, in fact, not capable of making sufficient progress in a given field, trying to artificially bolster his or her self-esteem may be harmful or even unfair, to him or her, as the experience of failure is hard to endure and will end up undermining the students selfesteem even more. 2. Adopt a gradual strategy, starting with easier challenges and slowly building up to more difficult ones. It is important for the student to experience small victories that reinforce his or her selfesteem, rather than trying to change a habit overnight. However, advancing too slowly is neither effective nor reinforces self-esteem. Finding the right pace of progress is one of the great secrets of successful learning. 3. Help the student find examples successful persons to take as models. It is important to learn to watch how other persons do what the student is trying to achieve, without being frightened to ask them for advice if necessary. Students who do not find good models to imitate have little capacity for self-improvement. 4. If necessary, encourage the student to seek the help of a person other than the mentor himself or herself who understands this type of challenge. The person does not have to be perfect at doing whatever the student is trying to learn (just as a football coach does not have to have a better technique than the player). But that person does have to understand the kind of problem involved, so as to be able to offer help and support in the process. If one lacks selfesteem, trusting another person who believes in ones ability to change may give one the energy one needs not to throw in the towel. 5. Focus the learning effort. Sometimes, it is very difficult to succeed in a personal change process when one has to attend to a variety of things at once. Diversification of responsibilities leads to stress as also the feeling that one cannot possibly manage it all. In the end the student grows discouraged and abandons the improvement effort. That is when he or she needs to prioritize and focus efforts toward just one or two improvement tasks. It is no use trying to change everything at once. The student needs to start with just one dimension of the problem and to be patient with the ones he or she cannot deal with just yet.

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2 Competency Development for Upperclassmen


In addition to the five competencies suggested for freshman mentoring, eight others have been singled out for mentoring during the rest of the students' stay in the University. A detailed definition is provided for each of these eight, as well as orientations for the mentoring sessions and possible action plans. These eight competencies are so closely related to the 28 competencies described in Appendix no. 2 that, alternatively, one can select from the list those that refer more directly to the students particular situation. (See also Appendix no. 2.)

2.1 Reflection This competency enables the student to direct his or her activity according to personal conviction, and to respond adequately to what is real, as opposed to what is merely perceived or imagined. It enables the student to avoid superficiality in thinking and manner of being. Some general manifestations of this competence are as follows:

The capacity for observation; for turning to concrete evidence and data when inquiring into the reasons for things and events The capacity for induction and deduction; for moving from general to specific and vice versa The capacity to verify intuitions; to make judgments based on real data; to assign the right causes to concrete situations The capacity to develop a global perspective or worldview The capacity to articulate a personal who I want to be vision, coherent with ones worldview

The last item listed above marks a specific application of the habit of reflection that will enable the student to grow in self-knowledge, which is in a sense, the primordial competency: it is the starting point for diagnosing the areas for personal development. That is why the motto inscribed on the Delphic oracle is such a classic: Know thyself. Knowing oneself requires an effort of introspection and the capacity to analyze ones own behavior by the light of reason, seeking an explanation of the various reactions, sensations and sentiments that one experiences. A person who is superficial, proud or impetuous will find it difficult to enter his own world and understand himself [Cardona HDLC 178]. A person who exercises the competency of reflection/self-knowledge will exhibit the following characteristic behavior:

Examines his or her own behavior in order to know himself or herself better Analyzes his or her feelings and how they affect ones performance and relations with others Reflects on his or her experiences in order to gain perspective Asks feedback from colleagues and from superiors regarding his or her behavior Exhibits knowledge of his or her own weaknesses and strengths in acquiring only those commitments he or she can meet and in setting realistic objectives and deadlines

The capacity for reflection as such operates on the speculative plane. To orient it toward action, it must be supplemented with the capacity to learnto change, not for the sake alone of change, which is usually a sign of frivolity, impetuousness and, above all, immaturity [Cardona HDLC 180], but in order to improve. The ability to learn does not necessarily deteriorate with age, but there is a certain youthfulness about it: a youthful person is one who retains his or her ability to learn something new, however old he may be; conversely, an aged person is one who, however young he may be, contents him or herself with what he is and aspires to nothing more [Ibid.].

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Learning involves other habits, for example:


Exhibiting confidence in ones potential for learning a new subject or skill by planning to learn it Seeking situations and relationships that will support self-improvement and enrichment Setting specific medium-term goals to reach a final objective Maintaining a positive attitude toward setbacks by perceiving them as learning opportunities Avoiding excuses along the lines of thats just the way I am

Guide for the Mentor


Instill in the students mind that the search for truth is at the very root of university education. Teach the student to avoid unfounded generalizations, but to support assertions with data or with well-argued reasons. Constructively channel suggestions for improvement, avoiding negative criticisms. Do not argue for change; rather, lead the student to present the arguments for change. Do not spoon-feed by giving solutions; lead the student to discover them through questions. Specify the most favorable frequency for mentoring sessions and encourage the student to discover specific areas for mentoring.

Action Plans for the Student

Ask the student to ask himself or herself the following questions: Do I often take on tasks or commitments that are beyond me? Would it be relatively easy for me to list those of my behaviors or habits that need improving? Have I identified my own strengths, the things I do really well? Do I regularly use my strengths to offset my weaknesses? Right now, do I have any clear and specific personal improvement objective? Do I have enough patience and tenacity to monitor my weaknesses and try to improve them? Do I try to learn from new situations, even if it demands more effort? Have I succeeded in changing any bad habit in recent months? Help the student detect the strong and weak points of his or her personality, study techniques, the basic knowledge he or she needs. Ask about the causes of his or her personal failures and successes. Ask him or her to assign the right weights to the influence of external circumstances on his or her actions. Encourage the student to ask for feedback from those who know him or her and whom he or she trusts. Suggest that the student acquire a clear understanding of the Christian inspiration of the University. Help him or her to form his or her own criteria or bases of judgment based on reality and not on prejudices. Point out that he or she should take note of and analyze his or her own emotional reactions: What makes me angry? Who do I feel uncomfortable with? What makes me really happy? Ask the student to do the exercises suggested in the planner insert on Reflection. Encourage him or her to be inquisitive. Suggest that he or she ask other people how they do it so he can do the same. Help the student design a personal improvement plan and commit to it. Encourage him or her to share that commitment with someone close whom he or she trusts. Remind him or her that, in the process of learning, one cannot expect immediate results. Tell him or her the following: Dont expect miracles. But dont be discouraged by difficulties, either. Look for support at the toughest moments of the learning process. Ask the student to maintain a healthy mindset of continuous personal improvement. The aim is not to attain a predefined level but to keep on learning.

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Part of the Planner That Can Help the Student

Reflection

See also Appendix no. 4.18.

2.2 Communication (Advanced) At its most basic, communication is the capacity to express oneself and be understood by the rest, using a language which fits ones interlocutor, is understandable and familiar, and requires listening and transmitting ideas in an effective way. Expanding on what was already mentioned in Section 3.1, communication is the ability to listen and read (comprehension) and get ideas across effectively (expression), using the right means at the right times (efficiency), and providing specific data to back up ones observations and conclusions. Communication is preceded by a message with a particular content. In every instance of good communication, there is value added depending on the learning that takes place between the two parties. This learning, in turn, depends on the right timing, the right place, the right tone, and the right attitude and disposition between people interacting. A statement is communicated whenever two people interact, whether in silence, through body language, or through words. This is why the need to listennot in order to rebut but to understandis of extreme importance in life. If among freshmen, the competency focus is on the craft (skills) of writing and speaking, among upperclassmen, the focus is the art of communication. This is the ability to communicate well and succinctly (i.e., concisely) in a language that fits the topic, the objective of the discourse, and the level of the readers or listeners. This includes the ability to use language as a tool to convince people of the soundness behind the ideas presented by the writer (speaker) and to persuade them to act accordingly. The upper years taken together are actually the most opportune (and necessary) time for every teacher to be a language teacher, working on the content, grammar and mechanics, coherence and organization, sufficiency of details, and word usage. Papers required by subjects should have rubrics for the substance and form. Of course, the main source of rating the paper is still its content or substance: Does the paper answer the question or topic posed? Does the paper back up claims and opinions? Does the writer contribute a fresh perspective in his or her treatment of the topic? A corollary question as well: Is the paper merely a clever paraphrase of an existing material? Passing or failing should depend on the answer to these questions. Grammar and syntax should always be considered. If these elements are bad enough to make the paper incomprehensible, the paper should clearly receive a failing mark. If, despite the grammar and syntax, the substance of the paper is clearly communicated, the paper passes but perhaps with grave numerical penalty. Coherence, details, and usage do influence the appreciation of the paper, so the favorable or adverse consequences to rating are natural. In the end, advanced communication skill is a function of (a) the number of papers required by the faculty, (b) the stress given to clarity of expression (through the inclusion of communication in the

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rubrics of evaluation), and (c) individual coaching to make the students aware of their writing deficiencies, albeit in general terms, with perhaps one or two concrete resolutions for writing improvement. Guide for the Mentor

Have the capacity to listen. Look for the appropriate time to decide on matters. Help the student say what he wants to say to achieve the desired effect: give examples, insist on something in a very attractive way. Go through communicative situations and teach the student to choose the appropriate channel for communication, depending on the context. For guiding the student on writing, refer to the Additional Considerations for Teaching Written Communication at the end of this section.

Action Plans for the Student The mentor can suggest the following to the student

Summarize what has been taken up in class or in a conference. Analyze how you talk, if the people understand what you say. Analyze how you listen: if you establish eye contact with the person youre talking to, if you are capable of repeating what you have heard. Dont beat around the bush.

Part of the Planner That Can Help the Student

Communication

See also Appendix no. 4.19. Additional Considerations for Teaching Written Communication [Dr. Antonio N. Torralba, May 2010] 1. Writing is both art and craft and must be taught as such in all classes. As an art it communicates a human experience that forces us to take a second, closer look at reality. It casts a light on life, on the ordinary humdrum reality that surrounds us. It is generally characterized by intensity, although intensity must not be understood to mean overdramatization (it may be quiet and gentle). As a craft, it follows rules: of grammar, syntax, punctuation, mechanics, spelling, word usage, paragraph construction, and logic. The teacher instructs on the craft, but he can only guide with respect to the art. Before the student who is an artist, the student who is a craftsman must yield. Thus, if it should ever happen that a student leaves much to be desired in the following of rules, but nevertheless communicates, and communicates with intensity, sensitivity, then he is justifiably favored.

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2. The teaching of writing must not be limited to English or Filipino classes, but should extend to all subjects. Is this necessary? Yes, otherwise the students tend to be careful in their writing only in their writing or language classes. 3. The grade in English should be based on written works, not on drills, exercises, or objective tests. Students should pass or fail on the basis of essays or other papers. One rule of thumb is to require at least seven essays to serve as basis of a terms grade. There should be no hesitation to pass the student for the semester if his or her last four compositions have attained competent levels. 4. The students must write and write a lot. Hence they must be brought to enjoy writing. Writing should not be an activity limited to the home, although we should not make the opposite error either and limit it to the university. How can students be brought to enjoy writing? By praising good pieces publicly, reading them aloud, exhibiting them, publishing them, fussing over them in other words, to declare why they are good. 5. Let the students begin by writing what they know, by writing about their own experiences. Writing should put people in touch with reality, not the reverse. We should not fall into the error of thinking that the only good writing is the bizarre or the cute or head-breaking topics to challenge their imagination The students must be able to write about the simple, the commonplace, the ordinary, but in an observant way, a sensitive way, that precisely sheds light on the real and makes us re-discover its perennial newness. The students must be taught to seeby reading what other people have written, by talking to their classmates and other peopleabout objects, events, ideas, and persons. The teachers should help students make good use of their reading classes, pointing out turns of phrases, techniques of description, ways of writing paragraphs or introducing pieces, and above all words and the use of words. Teachers should awaken in the students the power of the wordits ability to pin down, define, and describe, as also its opposite ability to evoke, hint, and suggest. Writing as art communicates to both mind and heart, and students should be made to see how words can do this precisely. 6. There are five general criteria to judge the worth of a piece of student writing: meaningful content, basics, details, language, and organization. Meaningful Content means writing on something worth writing about, not the topic but about the topic. Content is not meaningful if it is half-baked, vague, unclear, meaningless, conventional, expected, full of clichs and hackneyed expressions, or pa-impress. Teachers should squelch especially this last type. Insincerity, affectation, artificiality are odious, above all in the arts. Basics refers to fundamental rules of grammar, syntax, punctuation, mechanics, spelling, and usage. It is possible that a student writes so sophisticatedly that the teacher finds himself or herself teaching rules normally mastered by students a year or two later. That is the way things should be. Rules exist to facilitate communication, and they are, therefore, determined to a large extent by what one wants to say. Rules should make sense to the student, and they do only if they serve as aid to what he wants to say here and now. Otherwise, rules become tedious matter for memorization, forgotten in less time than it took to learn them. Details implies writing that is definite, specific, and concrete, but without being weighed down by useless details. The prime criterion to judge the use of details is their relevance, i.e., their contribution to a more comprehensive grasp of the message by the readers.

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Language refers to vocabulary, correct usage, and the use of idiomatic expressions. Vocabulary should be vibrant, precise. The demand for good vocabulary does not mean we cultivate pedantic, pompous, or affected writing. In the same manner, the idiomatic expressions used should neither be too American nor British. They should be expressions that an ordinary welleducated Filipino would understand. Correct usage covers smooth expression, the contrary of awkward phrasing. Organization or coherence is violated by circumlocutions, the circuitous, jumps in logic, repetitiveness, unnecessary remarks or paragraphs, deviations from the subject matter. In the end, the judgment of compositions is a matter of taste and instincts, which in turn are developed by the teacher through reading good literature, by writing and receiving corrections for ones work, and by doing these over time until ones taste and instincts become reliable. 7. We should correct written works with love, with care, with respect, becoming the particular student whose paper we are correcting. In this way, we correct in a manner that is in harmony with the intention of the writer. Thus, we not only correct grammar and the rest of basics (for which one need not become the student) but also the students style, his or her use of words, his or her structure. We must correct all mistakes, even if a mistake seems sophisticated, even if the explanation of a correction may be beyond the students capacity to appreciate. We must get the student used to reading fine English (as we ourselves should too). We can use the margin of the paper to talk to the student, to tell him or her how good a word is, how cheesy or clichd an expression might be, how deep an insight is. 8. Unless an essay is spotless, it should always pass through a second draft. It is best that the second draft receive the final mark. If the work is deficient in any of the five criteria, then the student should receive a deficient mark. How do we know what grade to give a student? By instinct (that is, judgment with minimal deliberation), not without basis but effortlessly and speedily because of the teachers experience. On a scale of Poor, Fair ... Good means what is reasonably expected of a student at his or her age. The merits of any work must be recognized and even praised, if it deserves that, even if the work does not receive a passing mark. 9. As a parting word, we reiterate: Every teacher should be a language teacher.

2.3 Decision-Making Decision-making is the process by which a person chooses between two or more alternatives. Guide for the Mentor

Underscore the need for reflection and analysis when making decisions, and for the exercise of

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the students personal freedom, without excessive hesitation. Help define correctly the problems or difficulties that crop up in order to find possible alternatives and be able to make a correct decision. Faced with a matter for decision or a problem, help the student learn how to select information relevant for taking sides or for solving the problem. Encourage the student to assess the consequences of his or her decisions. The mentor may also make use of the following tools [adapted from Cardona HDLC 182-183] for evaluating the students current decision-making ability and identify areas for growth: Steps for Effective Decision-Making 1. Define the problem or situation that the decision is about. 2. Gather the necessary information to be able to identify reasonable alternatives. 3. Generate action alternatives that would resolve the problem, anticipating the consequences of each one. 4. Determine criteria for choosing among the alternatives. 5. Choose an alternative, in light of the criteria defined previously. All correct decisions are made following those steps. But a correct decision is not necessarily the right decision: there is an element of uncertainty in every decision, factors that are beyond our control. And because of those factors, a correct decision may turn out not to have been the right decision. Even then, however, the fact of having adhered to a rational decision-making process will always serve as justification for the decision. Characteristic Behaviors for Effective Decision-Making are seen when the mentee Is able to select the information relevant for solving a problem, Attempts to analyze the root cause of the problem, rather than being content with the obvious explanation, Systematically explores several alternatives and analyzes their foreseeable consequences, Defines and weighs the criteria for choosing among alternatives, Makes his or her decisions at the right time, and Submits his or her decisions to other peoples judgment before putting them into effect. Symptoms of Deficiency in Effective Decision-Making are seen when the mentee Is carried away by hasty conclusions or makes snap judgments about situations and people, Does not move on to second or third options, but stops at the first and most obvious one, Leaves problems half-solved or creates even more difficulties in resolving them, and Does not draw up an action plan but acts in an impulsive and disorganized fashion.

Action Plans for the Student

Ask the student to consider the following suggestions: Study the different options in ones studies with an active attitude so you can choose your academic or professional orientation with the right criteria. Consult academic or personal decisions before acting on them; ask the right people for advice. Dont act hastily or allow yourself to go with the flow. Before making a decision, analyze the pros and cons before you choose. Make a deep analysis of the causes of a problem, and avoid being deceived by first impressions. Carry out concrete action plans for each decision, foreseeing where the plans may go wrong and thinking of alternative solutions in case the first solution does not work out.

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Commit yourself to joining social, cultural, and sports activities. Ask the student to reflect on the following questions Do I spend enough time defining the problem, analyzing all the attendant circumstances, and gathering all the relevant information? Do I try to look for other alternatives or content myself with the first thing that comes to mind? Do I analyze each alternative, weighing the pros and cons and trying to foresee the consequences of each one? Once I have made a decision, do I design a realistic and detailed action plan? Propose the following suggestions for self-improvement in managing stress When tackling a problem, start by analyzing its main causes. Develop alternatives that eliminate one or more of the main causes of the problem. Specify the criteria that are relevant for choosing among the various alternatives. Draw up detailed action plans for each decision, thinking of what might go wrong and what other solution might work if the one we have chosen fails.

Part of the Planner That Can Help the Student

Decision-Making

See also Appendix no. 4.20.

2.4 Effort This competency actually encompasses the notion of constancy and commitment, since the exertion of effort is most efficacious if it is done frequently (i.e., with constancy) and driven by a persons commitment to completing the effort. Commitment is the ability to carry out a promise or a pledge to fulfill an obligation, a purpose or a line of conduct. Sense of commitment is achieved when a person has a set of sound principles and beliefs and faithfully adhering to them with ones behavior. It starts with the conviction of the common vision and purpose within the organization and exerting the habit to live a coherence of life characterized by consistency, effort, and constancy. The importance of self-mastery is an essential element in making a commitment. Commitment, in other words, is the ability to act in accordance with what one believes one must do without taking the easiest, least complicated or most spectacular way out. Constancy is shown in ones tenacity in conduct, by pursuing the fulfillment of the objectives, although difficulties and obstacles arise in the process of attaining them. This is an indispensable quality to attain the proposed objectives; it requires constant training through concrete decisions. Some manifestations of this competence are as follows:

Doing freely what one has to do at every moment, with or without the desire to do so. Repeating efforts until what is difficult to do becomes easy. Making decisions. Thinking before deciding and bearing consequences. Counting on the opinions of the right kind of people. Taking on commitments. Bringing things to completion.

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Guide for the Mentor


Be very positive about progress. Propose short and attainable goals. Know to what extent one wants but is unable to or the lack of motivation that prevents the student from making the necessary effort. Advising the student to read books that exemplify and show everything good that can be achieved by exerting effort can be useful. Establish the right pedagogy for orienting the student so that he or she knows, understands, and lives the mission-vision of the university without rush. Train the student to meet small commitments in time management, meeting appointments, submitting assignments on time, fulfilling ones promises, prioritizing hierarchy of values. Demonstrate that true commitment is most difficult and most readily proven during tough times. Thus, the need for constancy and consistency in the students behavior is essential. Orient him or her towards the concept of serving the common good that starts with the serious effort to improve oneself in being good students, fulfilling their obligations with their parents and siblings, fellow classmates, teachers, and authorities of the university.

Action Plans for the Student


Help the student to evaluate his or her own willpower. Encourage him or her to study constantly until the objectives are reached. Encourage him or her to take on commitments. Propose non-academic activities during the entire year, e.g., joining some kind of voluntary work, a sports team, or the student council. Remind the student to attend classes habitually, trying to make the most of each class by preparing for the classes and participating actively. Warn him or her against indulging in escapist modes of entertainment and recreation such as alcohol as well as soft (mild) drugs that lead to a loss of capacity for effort and self-control. Encourage the student to participate in sports activities to develop a capacity for exerting effort Emphasize to the student the importance of self-development and continuous improvement. Ask him or her to look at the following areas: making good use of ones free time, types of entertainment or leisure one pursues, books or periodicals one reads, seminars one attends, and the extracurricular activities in which one participates. Help the student raise his capacity for commitment to an even higher level. Commitment means a willingness to look for a better way and to learn from the process. It focuses on eliminating complacency, confronting what is not working, and providing incentives for improvement. The spirit of improving is rooted in challenging current expectations and ultimately taking the risk to make changes. Encourage love for people and a spirit of service. Encourage participation in university activities and organizations without prejudice to their home or academic obligations. Get the student involved in activities that help others, such as outreach initiatives, visits to the poor, etc. Encourage him to develop leadership by example.

Part of the Planner That Can Help the Student

Effort

See also Appendix no. 4.21.

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2.5 Initiative Initiative is the ability to act and make decisions without waiting to be told or advised by other people. This also refers to the attitude of initiating and driving forward the necessary changes forcefully and with sense of personal responsibility. Showing initiative means taking responsibility for making things happen, rather than passively waiting for someone else to do something or for things to happen by themselves. Any attempt to bring about changes in oneself or the environment should be the result of carefully meditated and responsible decisions. Initiative is therefore related to action-orientation. It consists in being self-propelled, not waiting for things to be served up on a plate. Some manifestations of this competency are as follows:

Broadmindedness. Professional ambition. Having ones own important and professional project. Promoting a healthy curiosity and interest for everything. Setting goals and objectives that have to be reached, with timetables. Determining realistically ones capacity for influence and action: to what extent can difficulties be solved or objectives reached and what matters remain out of our control. Initiative. Not waiting for things to be provided on a silver platter; using the means to reach ones objectives. Optimism. Focusing on positive aspects in order to surmount difficulties. Not allowing oneself to be overwhelmed.

Guide for the Mentor


Set ambitious goals right from the very beginning. Suggest co-curricular or extra-curricular activities that widen the students interests. Help the student develop an active attitude towards academic difficulties. Foster in the student the concern to promote improvements in ones class. Elicit participation in generating new ideas for study improvement. Analyze problems and difficulties and welcome new angles, approaches, and disagreements. Help the student overcome the built-in tendency of resistance to change. Impart a healthy attitude towards making mistakes. Make the student understand that committing mistakes is part of the learning process. Teach the student how to act independently in ones field of action without the need for consultation at every step.

Action Plans for the Student

Help the student develop an interesting reading plan: literature, essays, etc. Read the newspaper. Look for reviews or references of movies and literature. Encourage the student to attend university activities that he or she find interesting; use available channels of communication. Suggest that he or she plan at least an activity for each month. Encourage him or her to play sports regularly. Help him create an attractive plan for the summer months: do practicum, attend language classes, participate in social projects or in activities organized by the Chaplaincy, etc.

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Help the student set three objectives to work on for the year and identify the means to attain these objectives. For example, the student can participate actively in some work, to contribute ideas to the student council, working for a university project, etc. Too much analysis leads to paralysis. Guide the student in developing self-confidence so he or she can work independently without being afraid of committing mistakes. Help the student distinguish the distinction between what undertakings need to be consulted and what amounts to a personal initiative. Encourage new ideas, promote the practice of making suggestions to improve ways of doing thingssuch as improvements to ones class, school, or the University in general. Encourage questions, a healthy curiosity of discovering why and what things are, going out of the thinking box knowing how to distinguish between what is open to opinion and what is not. Encourage him or her to adapt a flexible (as against a rigid) approach and style in study and learning methods, which also means being proactive in finding his own sources to fill study gaps.

Part of the Planner That Can Help the Student

Initiative

See also Appendix no. 4.22.

2.6 Empathy It is the disposition to put oneself in the place of the others, listen to them, find out the reason for their conduct, and understand their thoughts and feelings easily. The empathy of another person is often necessary for those who are ambivalent to experience a spark in their motivation to commit themselves to a course of action. It is possible to accept and understand a persons perspective while not agreeing with or endorsing it. Neither does an attitude of acceptance prohibit [you] from differing with the [other persons] views and expressing that divergence. Paradoxically, this kind of acceptance of people as they are seems to free them to change... [Miller & Rollnick, 2002, p. 37]. Guide for the Mentor

Teach the student to put himself or herself in the others shoes and analyze the situation from the point of view of others. Point out the need to interpret non-verbal communication correctly: what does the tone of the voice of the person one is speaking to mean, how does one interpret pauses, etc. Remind him or her not to engage in another activity while speaking with another person. The mentor may also make use of the following tools [Cardona HDLC 154-155, 160-161] to identify the mentees strengths and areas for growth in his or her development of the skills that constitute a disposition of empathy: Characteristic Behaviors of Empathy: Devotes the appropriate amount of time and attention to others Show genuine interest in others circumstances, needs and interests Demonstrates a basic trust in others, without making premature judgments Knows when and how to give feedback, based on specific facts Accepts disagreements on matters of opinion

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Looks for points of agreement between contrasting positions, trying to be constructive and seeking dialog Takes the emotional content of any conflict into account, so as not to harm the personal relationship Intuitively detects possible sources of conflict and can find a solution before it is too late Knows when to stop talking and when to listen attentively Able to nuance the meaning, feelings, and context of others interpersonal communication

Symptoms of Deficiency in Empathy: Impatience with others defects Inaccessible to others Unable to take others perspectives Unable to identify ones own and others feelings Does not devote any time to understanding others or helping them succeed Perceives disagreements as personal matters and reacts defensively Incapable of detecting conflict situations Seeks unity at all costs and does not allow any room for healthy and constructive argument Unwilling to apologize, even when one knows he is wrong Convinced that one is always right In situations of open confrontation, does not know how to steer the situation back to the terrain of rational argument, repairing any emotional upset arising from the conflict Ridicules others for their weaknesses Action Plans for the Student

Point out the following considerations for the student: Ask the others. Try to listen when speaking with another person, instead of just minding what you are saying. Think of matters that can annoy other people in order to avoid such matters. Think of how other people are in order to put yourself easily in their shoes. Take into account the nonverbal aspects of language: the face, the tone of the voice, movements, etc., to understand your interlocutor better. Do not interrupt others by voicing out contrary opinions and to respond only after having listened. Listen actively. Ask the student to reflect on the following questions Am I aware of the personal circumstances, interests, and expectations of the people I spend most of my time with? Do I really care about the development of those with whom I associate closely? Am I willing to invest part of my time in listening to others and helping them develop? Do others mistakes or shortcomings irritate me and do I tend to lose my temper? Am I accepting of others defects as areas for growth or am I hypercritical towards them? Am I able to identify my own feelings? Am I able to identify accurately others feelings and the meaning of their interpersonal communication? Do I accept disagreement or criticism of my point of view and take it in a constructive spirit rather than as a personal attack? When there are disagreements, do I bear in mind the need to protect the personal relationship by being careful what I say and how I say it? Do I deal with potential conflict situations promptly? Am I capable of apologizing and accepting apologies from others?

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Propose the following suggestions for self-improvement in managing stress Convince yourself that devoting time to other people is an essential part of who you are as a human being. Ask and listen to others to find out about their needs. Practice identifying your own feelings and the feelings of others. Practice understanding accurately the meaning of what others say. Focus on the issues, without getting personal. Always be polite in your language and tone. Accept disagreements as an opportunity to be constructive, searching for new areas of agreement.

Part of the Planner That Can Help the Student

Empathy

See also Appendix 4.23

2.7 Social Skill Social skill comprises the ability (and capacity) to relate with people, to have remedies for different social situations, and to generate genuine and working interest in people and human conditions and situations. It is likewise the ability (and capacity) to generate a broad network of relationships with people of varied sectors, especially the University. These skills enable students to have easier access to information one needs to know: opportunities, trends, developments, and sources of support, among other important knowledge. Clearly, developing social skill has certain requirements:

Having leisure time (outside of work) because building up a network cannot be programmed; Willingness to work for the true good of the other or to return favors properly at the opportune time; Commitment and effort to sustain and keep active relations made.

Guide for the Mentor

Make the student see the repercussions that his or her actions have on the groups he or she belongs to, the whole class, or on entire the University (i.e., The ways of every man increases or diminishes me.). Help him to think of the needs and possible difficulties of ones classmates and acquaintances. Show possibilities of positively influencing ones environment and strive to help in any way. Encourage him to consider the University as his or her own and thus think of starting initiatives to improve things.

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Action Plans for the Student The mentor can suggest the following pointers to the student:

Talk in between classes, during free time, or during the on-the-job training with people, even those who do not belong to your circle of friends. Look for common points of interest (e.g., shared hobbies) among your classmates, dorm-mates, or friends and pursue them together. Maintain the cleanliness of things you use or of the places for common use. Respect others especially older people. Learn how to present yourself appropriately according to the occasion. For example, not to use sports clothes when attending academic classes. Initiate topics of conversations and get interested in the opinions and preferences of people whom you know very little. See if there are isolated persons in class or people with difficulties; take the initiative and offer your help. Take advantage of your participation in social, cultural, and sport activities in order to improve your social relations and your ability to handle situations.

Part of the Planner That Can Help the Student

Social Skill

See also Appendix no. 4.24.

2.8 Teamwork Teamwork refers to the ability to foster an atmosphere of collaboration, communication and trust among team members. In any job that involves different stages and various work processes, teamwork among a groups members is an essential element to achieve its goal efficiently and effectively. A team consists of a small number of people with complementary capabilities who have a common purpose and shared objectives for which they are mutually responsible. The results of a teams work cannot be reduced to the sum of the individual contributions. The heart of the team is its mission. A teams identity and commitment depend on the depth and transcendence of the mission. The relationship among the members of a team is one of interdependence and collaboration that requires a certain unity of mind and action. For that reason, it is not uncommon for there to be conflicts, which have to be dealt with. That requires specific rules of communication, decision-making and action, so that in all circumstances team members have clear, shared expectations. This competency therefore refers to behavior that arises from the ability to foster an atmosphere of collaboration, communication, and trust among team members, by forging agreements that are satisfactory to all involved, by discovering or creating elements that add value to the relationships. This competency also includes conduct that manifests the ability to use economic and material resources in the most appropriate, timely, economical, and effective way to obtain team goals. Furthermore, a good team player will ensure that everyone in the team has the information and resources he or she needs to make decisions and accomplish his or her objectives in the team. If in addition a person has leadership capability, he or she will also show charisma, i.e., the ability to obtain team members commitment, inspire their confidence, give meaning to their work, and 49

motivate them to achieve their objectives. A person with teamwork competency will also exhibit behavior that shows the capacity to value the team beyond the bounds of his or her own function within the team. Guide for the Mentor The mentor can encourage the student to acquire the necessary skills for working in a (and eventually leading a) group. Moreover, as the student goes through the experience of working in teams both for academic requirements as well as for extra-curricular activities, the mentor can discuss the following considerations:

Encourage a homogenous composition of members in a team. Provide an example of team rules and agreements for orientation. Foster social skills in learning how to disagree without being disagreeable. Teach the student how to identify the teams objectives and make them ones own. Instill morale and enthusiasm in the team where one belongs. Promote constructive dialogue among team members. Attend, participate, and give priority to team meetings.

Action Plans for the Student The mentor can give the following suggestions to help develop a facility for teamwork:

Get to know the members of the team. Learn to turn disputes into proposals for improved team rules or working procedures and go for a win-win relationship. Everyone is given an opportunity to participate and be heard. Envision the teams mission that is based on real service. Feel and identify the membership in the teams objectives as ones own, carry out allotted tasks responsibly, and enjoy the common achievements. Participative management. Organize team planning sessions, revisit mission and objectives, conduct performance appraisal together. Develop friendship, camaraderie and bonding spirit among the team members equally being open to everyone without favoritism or discrimination of any kind.

Part of the Planner That Can Help the Student

Teamwork

See also Appendix no. 4.25.

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3 Suggested Mentoring Plan


The scheme adopted here can be described as a "five-step mentoring model" [Sunio, CUS, 2010], as follows: 1. Step 1: Define. This involves defining important mentoring goals and desired outcomes. This is crucial because it helps us recognize success when we achieve it. To help us define our goals, we can ask ourselves, What will success look like for me? 2. Step 2: Assess. Also known as the diagnostic phase, this refers to analyzing our personal situation. The purpose is to obtain relevant, valid and timely data on which to base subsequent mentoring plans and activities. 3. Step 3: Plan. This involves developing a customized action plan. A major goal might be broken into several component goals. The plan serves as the mentoring road map and consists of specific action steps and target dates of completion. A method for measuring final results is also identified. 4. Step 4: Act. This is the execution phase, where the heavy lifting of achieving ones goals occurs. Designated activities and tasks get accomplished. The mentor oversees and facilitates the progress. 5. Step 5: Review. The final step deals with evaluating the mentoring results. Were the students goals attained? Has the student actually reached success, as he or she understood it, or moved significantly in this direction? If not, why not? Mentoring sessions for upperclassmen can be scheduled at least once a month. Two or more competencies can be addressed together but no more than four simultaneously. Improvement in some of aspects of one competency positively impacts on other aspects, hence one should encourage the student to focus on the improvement of one of these competencies, at least for some time. By tackling two competencies each semester it is possible to reach at least a stable level in all eight competencies by the end of junior year, with senior year given to reinforcement.

3.1 Session 1 In the first session, it would be good to explain to the student what competencies are, how they are acquired, and their interest in the formative process that takes place in the University as well as in their future as professionals. The mentor can then guide him or her to use the planner themes so that he or she may reflect on personal strong and weak points (i.e., points for improvement) and decide which skills he or she wants to develop (see Appendix 4.18-25). Alternatively, he or she can be advised to take the psycho-professional tests of the Guidance Office. A third option is for the mentor to guide the student in creating an appraisal tool similar to what is found in Appendix 6, suited to the student's situation. This first session encompasses steps 1 and 2 in the five-step mentoring model.

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3.2 Session 2 Once the competencies that the student wants to develop have been identified, the mentor and the student can craft a plan of action. At this stage of the process, the student should take the initiative with the mentor helping him or her create a suitable plan, limit his or her objectives, and mark out the means to attain them. The student can also be encouraged to take into account the wider perspective that includes the other persons in his or her environment. This will complete the data about him or her, which will be tackled in the next session. This session encompasses step 3 in the five-step mentoring model. For a thorough discussion of the action plan, see Appendix 7.

3.3 Session 3 This session is the occasion to orient the student on the attitude that he or she should develop towards certain events: complementary activities that he or she can engage in, subjects or educational activities that can complement the formation that he or she needs in order to attain the proposed objectives, etc., that may enhance his or her motivation to improve. If necessary, the mentor may break the schedule of mentoring sessions and see the student earlier, e.g., fifteen days after session 2, to check if the objectives he or she has set are adequate.

3.4 Session 4-5 The rest of the sessions (one or two more) can consist in reviewing the plan of action: achievements that he or she has realized by this time with respect to the competencies aimed at, possible difficulties and how to surmount them, etc. These sessions correspond to steps 4 and 5 in the five-step mentoring model. For a fuller discussion of execution and review, see Appendix 8.

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Chapter 4. Mentoring Graduating Students


1 Professional Orientation
Mentoring in the final year has two specific objectives which are added to the general objectives of the mentoring done in UA&P: to give professional orientation to the student and to inform him or her about continuing involvement with the University after graduation. Below are some general aspects of the professional orientation that can be taken into account. However, the diversity of possibilities according to the different areas makes it advisable that the mentors get informed about the specific circumstances and activities of each of the schools, programs, or centers: i.e., what residency and internships, or postgraduate programs they offer, if they organize informative sessions about job placements, etc.

1.1 Internship The Internship Program Majority of the programs require a practicum in companies, laboratories etc. This experience provides educational opportunities to the students since it can lead him or her to: Discover the competencies and skills that he or she needs to develop Reflect on his or her professional profile Establish a plan for personal development Get in touch with the world of work Due to this educational dimension, it would be good to include the practicum in mentoring. The general requirements for doing the practicum are the following: Finish 50 percent of the total units of the program curriculum. Depending on the degree program, the practicum is either obligatory or optional. The mentor should inform himself or herself about the specific characteristics and requirements of the practicum program offered in each of the schools or centers. On-the-job training done on the students initiative can be credited as optional units. Obligatory ones are ordinarily taken as an ordinary subject. The following may take part in coordinating the practicum:

The Practicum Coordinator. The coordinator is ordinarily a professor of the school or graduate program given the assignment of coordinating with companies. He gathers information about the quantity of students these companies need, the needed profile or the type of work the students are required for. The student should be put in contact with the coordinator a few months before the start of the practicum. The Graduate Schools are the units of the University that makes arrangements for the practicum. Through the Schools, the University may sign MOAs with companies, establish mutually agreed-upon

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internship performance criteria, and obtain insurance coverage for the student during the on-the-job training period.

The Graduate Schools are also responsible for establishing the learning objectives of the practicum programs and the requirements for crediting the programs. The mentor, in some schools, assumes the function of a practicum tutor to keep track of the students formation or training, and to supervise the preparation of the practicum report.

Suggested Mentoring Plan June-July: Interest in going through a practicum Motives for carrying out the practicum: academic standing and requirements. Type of company and place where he or she wants to do it. It is advisable that the student him or herself take the initiative, speak with the coordinator, and get informed about the possibilities being offered. August-September: Professional competencies If this has not been done yet, the mentor can bring up with the student his or her interest in identifying the competencies that he or she will need to do the practicum. The student may be encouraged to take the psycho-professional tests as starting point for identifying the competencies, or to refer him or her to the available material discussed in Chapter 3. October: Things to take into account before embarking on internship Proposing the objectives the student wishes to attain in the chosen company. Mentor and student can talk about the attitudes that will help him or her take full advantage of the training: initiative, sense of responsibility, knowing how to show ones difficulties. It would be good to tackle some questions about professional lifestyle which will be dealt with shortly. February-March: Evaluation of training Assessment of the practicum (see the Questionnaire under Internship in the Student Planner). Submission of the report to the mentor (as the case may be). Possible plan of formative development. See also Appendix 4.26.

1.2 Postgraduate and Doctoral Studies More often than not, degree programs are brought to completion with postgraduate studies that may have two orientations: to allow the student to specialize, or to prepare him or her for a doctorate degree and get into research. If the mentor has followed the development of the student throughout the years, he or she will be in a good position to orient the student on postgraduate studies. It is important to make the student see that the decision to start these studies should not be motivated by the inertia to continue studying or by a certain rejection of the uncertainties that ordinarily accompany ones professional life.

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The mentors guidance can be especially relevant for students who have had good grades and who show interest in the academic and research career. The mentors own professional experience and knowledge about the University help a lot in giving orientation such as the following:

To give information about the research training that doctoral studies provide To provide orientation on the best school to make the thesis in according to the students profile or interests: the University, another university or research center. To give specific advice on the steps that the student has to take, applying for scholarships, or how to get in touch with possible thesis directors.

1.3 Job Placement Mentoring of graduating students will frequently include consultations about finding a job. Consider the following tips in orienting the students on how to make his or her professional plan:

Identify the area of his or her work: in which fields of the profession is he or she interested Identify personal preferences (country, occupation) Specify the characteristics of the job that he or she considers appropriate for his or her professional plans, real possibilities, strong points (research, teaching, management). Analyze the job market: look at the demand in the area of work that he or she is interested in. Identify the position which he or she wants to occupy: what type of functions and tasks he or she is interested in taking on. Get informed about the demands of the position. Know the conditions required (knowledge, skills, languages, previous experience) and if he or she satisfies these requirements. Identify the competencies that he or she needs to develop to reach his or her professional objectives. If the students plan of study or curriculum does not give him or her the needed preparation for the profession of his or her choice, his or her plan of study can be adjusted, e.g., include the study of languages, enroll in further studies).

Once the job position that the student is interested in has been identified, it may be appropriate to refer him or her to the University services or offices that take care of job placements.

The Center of Student Affairs (CSA) has services especially for graduating students. Alumni may also avail of the same resources: The UA&P Job Fair, which is usually held in the first quarter of the calendar year. Graduate Directory for Employment. OSA offers graduating students the possibility of being included in its Graduate Directory. Graduating students are given forms to fill out so that they may explicitly express their desire to be included in the database. Employers avail of this database for HR recruitment purposes. Job postings on the OSA Bulletin Board. Upon request from companies who have vacancies, OSA posts job openings on its bulletin board. The Office of Alumni Affairs (OAA) also provides the following: Online Job Board. OAA has Alumni Employment Partners (AEPs) who post directly on the UA&P Job Board at http://jobs.uap.asia/. As of June 2010, OAA has 62 AEPs. On-campus Job Board. Starting SY 2010-2011, OAA will display job openings on campus through an LCD TV located right outside its office.

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1.4 Office of Alumni Affairs UA&P's Office of Alumni Affairs is the unit officially tasked to coordinate efforts in the University in order to serve the alumni. Its services to alumni include the following:

The UA&P Alumni Portal at http://alumni.uap.asia/ The UA&P Alumni Card which alumni can apply for Online communications via Twitter Facebook group and page LinkedIn group Yahoo! group Mailing of Universitas to alumni Dragon Link, UA&P's e-mail newsletter for alumni The UA&P Job Board Assistance for alumni-initiated projects Alumni-related events

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2 Professional Lifestyle
The internship program is a valuable means for learning professional competencies. Even if there is no contractual bond between the student and the host company, the relationship between them is a professional type and it is important for the student to act as one of the employees. Moreover, the manner of working, behaving, and self-presentation of those working in these companies have an impact, negative or positive, on the company image. It would be good to transmit to the students important considerations regarding the general work ethic expected in the professional context and specific competencies that UA&P graduates are expected to have.

2.1 General Work Ethic In the professional setting, ones behavior should reflect specific values, such as how much we take advantage of time, seriousness, and sense of responsibility or of initiative. Consequently, one has to avoid expressions that do not fit the professional environment (raucous laughter, loud behavior) as well as behavior that suggests informality, e.g., useless conversations, extended coffee breaks, sluggish response to phone calls, or to give the impression that one is not responsible or knowledgeable about something that is incumbent on him or her.

The practicum is an occasion to initiate oneself into the professional world and in the development of a work ethic, which is generally acquired in the context of a team. It is important to put maximum effort and sense of responsibility to produce quality work. Some aspects that can be taken into account, among others, are as follows: To begin work punctually; to give advice if a delay or an unexpected event is foreseen or crops up. To work well: with intensity, without doing a botched job, finishing the work down to the last detail, putting ones heart and mind to it. To talk about doubts that may come up, to say honestly that something is not understood, or if necessary to ask for help. To maintain order and cleanliness in everything used for carrying out the job in such a way that in ones absence, others may find the information they need or continue an unfinished task. To be flexible: to be capable of dedicating some additional time to the work or to carry out a task that was not in the original plan. To collaborate with others; to have a disposition to serve.

Professional image: ones manner of dressing reflects not only ones personal preferences but also the type of relation that we establish with the others. It is important that ones apparel be in accord with that of others in ones surroundings, the indicated dress code, or the company image. Even if the type of practicum and its requirements may change (inasmuch as image is concerned), as a general rule it would not be good to use sports clothes and shoes, old-looking clothes and revealing clothes in a professional environment. In case of doubt, it would be good to ask if the company has some kind of dress code. In any case, discretion is always a safe bet. Respect for others. Good manners show respect and attention to persons. It is important to take care of these aspects of refinement in the workplace:

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To greet and say goodbye, to give thanks for favors, or to apologize for a mistake. To take care of ones language, not to use bad words or excessively colloquial words; to ask if it is appropriate to address the people you work with in an informal way. If such is the case, it would be good to be especially cautious in email or telephone conversations. To use work implements appropriately: to contribute to the workplaces general order and cleanliness.

2.2 Specific Competencies The UA&P graduate is expected to have the following competencies:

Functional decision-making: behavior arising from the ability to commit to continuing education that can be crucial for decision making in the exercise of one's profession Fiduciary accountability: behavior arising from the ability to make efficient and transparent use of the resources that are made available in the practice of one's profession Strategic compromise: behavior arising from the ability to navigate successfully through a plurality of opinions, intentions, and worldviews while remaining true to one's vision and values Institutional commitment: behavior arising from the ability to work for the good of a larger reality company, institution, community, nation, the global communitybeyond one's personal goals

See also Appendix 4.27.

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Chapter 5. Mentoring Foreign Students


More and more foreign students can be expected to come to UA&P. These students may have specific needs that should be tackled during the initial mentoring sessions.

5.1 Specific Needs In general, international students are very receptive: they appreciate the orientation and the advice given by the mentor and are very open to know the different facets of university life. Due to the practical difficulties they sometimes face, it would be good to get in touch with them without delay and, after the first session, to set the dates for the succeeding ones. As is done with the freshmen, it would be good to tackle the questions that are explained in section 3 of this chapter. It is also especially important to give them information about the Christian identity of the Universitygiving them the essay on the subject to achieve this end (see Appendix 4.1 and 4.2)and discuss the manner of living and deportment proper to a university student. Most likely they expect to receive this type of information since it is often the case in other countries that foreign students are thoroughly briefed on the mission and principles of their host institutions as well as on practical aspects (e.g., cultural norms and traditions, the common way of presenting oneself, expected behavior) of living in their host country. Below are some specific suggestions on questions that may be good to bring up during mentoring. Moreover, the mentor can go to the Center for Students and Alumni for any questions related to international students.

5.2 First Session In the case of international students, the mentor may want to verify during the first session if the basic necessities for their stay in the University and in the country have already been secured, as a pre-condition to the stable pursuit and attainment of their academic objectives.

Lodgings: it may be good to ask about the students living arrangements (i.e., what kind of lodgings he or she has, where the student lives) and evaluate if these are already adequate for the student. Many times, timely advice on lodging provisions can help a lot in the persons adjustment to the University. Enrollment: it is advisable also to ask whether the students enrollment has been finalized, e.g., he or she has received proper student identification and secured access to various services such as the library. Otherwise, the mentor can refer them to the appropriate University office. Paperwork for foreign nationals: check if he or she has secured a residence permit, identification, and other related documentation in compliance with local laws. Check if the student already has a contact directory of people or offices he or she may have frequent need of, e.g., the University Registrar, Office of Student Affairs, Office of Admissions, 59

the program director of his or her School, etc.

Get sufficient data on his or her economic situation: if the student has resolved any financial difficulties he or she might have, whether he or she has to work at the same time as study, if he or she is studying for academic units or credits, or he or she needs some further orientation. Academic questions: In a general and brief way, the mentor may want to verify the students academic objectives and the level of his or her linguistic competence. The mentor has to keep in mind the culture shock that frequently confronts foreign students. In the first weeks, for example, they may find themselves in disconcerting situations or even face discouragement on account of certain bureaucratic matters, e.g., documents that they have to update and submit within a deadline. Their needs are normally real and urgent.

5.3 Second Session The mentor can briefly review matters taken up in the previous session and check if these have been resolved. The mentor may also want to go into further detail on the following areas:

Academic issues. The mentor can give a short explanation of the Philippine university system, credits, types of subjects, advisability of attending classes, characteristics of magisterial lectures, practicum, exams, and convocations. Basic academic regulations in the classroom and in the University. The mentor, for example, can explain that food and drinks are not allowed in the classroom, proper dressing must be observed, and one has to contribute to the order and cleanliness of the facilities. It is advisable not to take anything for granted and tell him or her in a natural way that their culture and customs may be very different from ours. Manner of studying. Check if he or she understands the explanations given in class, if he or she has adequate books and study material, and if reading additional material in his or her native language can help for classes. Talk about the advisability of taking down notes, address the number of study hours required for every class hour, etc. Subjects enrolled. Check if the number of units is adequate and the student is capable of handling the load. Try to discover where he or she may have difficulties. If the student names a specific course or subject, it would be good to refer him or her to the appropriate subject teacher. The mentor may also give information to the professor about some specific circumstance of the student, assuming the student consents to the mentor divulging such information. Non-academic matters. In broad strokes, the student can take fuller advantage of ones stay in the University if he or she is encouraged to mingle with people from the host country and not only with his compatriots. The mentor may also want to see what aspect of the culture the student finds difficult to live with and to give him or her tips on how this can be overcome.

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Appendices
Appendix 1

The Habits of Character


The will is the engine of personal change: it takes sides among rational and spontaneous motivation, orchestrating changes in our behavior. The will is, therefore, the center of our freedom and, precisely for that reason, the center of our personal history: in the end, we become the person we have chosen to be. The will, in turn, acts through certain intimate habits, which we have called habits of character. Depending how well those habits are developedhow mature a person is the will has more or less freedom of action. Conversely, immaturity damages freedom, leaving the individual at the mercy of his own impulses. [Cardona HDLC 138] Among the habits that a profound and authentic mission deploys, some make up what we call character. As the person navigates through life toward his mission, inner conflicts come from misalignment between rational motivation (what my head tells me; what I think I ought to do in a given situation) and spontaneous motivation (what my heart tells me; what comes most naturally in that situation). Whenever there is a conflict between the two types of motivation, our willwhich is our center of inner freedomtakes sides, either with the dictates of reason or with the promptings of the heart. There are times when the hearts intuition mobilizes the will to question our reasoning. Other times, it is reason that requires the support of willpower to overcome tiredness or disheartenment. These inner conflicts between reason and feeling are part of being human. "If we never had any, it could be because we are more or less consciously avoiding them, which would prevent us from improving and developing good habits. But such conflicts are not always easy to resolve: it is as much a mistake to think one should always follow ones heart as that the promptings of the heart should be ignored when making decisions (a rule of practical wisdom goes this way: reason is only truly reasonable if it takes the heart into account; e.g., there are times when reason wants to keep things simple and avoid risks, but without that exercise of intuition or faith in the wisdom of the heart that demands bolder measures, very few people would ever commit to a lifelong relationship). Each person is a whole, and both head and heart give clues as to how best to act in a given situation. [Cardona HDLC 130-131, 133] To keep the balance between head and heart, the will relies on strengths that are intimately bound up with it. These strengths are special habits that are so crucial for decision making that they have gone down in history under the name of [moral] virtue. These strengths of the will can also be called habits of character, which is, in a sense, the style and strength that a persons will acquires as a result of the decisions he makes or does not make in the course of his life. Character is therefore "related to personality, as it has a certain stability that gives it predictive power. That is why we can say that some people are more energetic or more apathetic, more emotional or more cerebral, more passionate or more serene. However, because it is made up of habits, character can always change: it can be educated, and it can also degenerate. Whereas, after a certain age, temperament remains fixed, it is never too late to enrich character. In common speech, we use the term maturity to refer to the part of a persons personality that is the result of acquired habits of character. [Cardona HDLC 130-131, 133] Among the moral virtues, four are called cardinal. The name comes from the Latin cardo, expressive of the classical wisdom that the other moral virtues hinge on them. These are: prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance. [Cardona HDLC 131-132]

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Prudence is the ability to choose whatever information is needed in order to define, reinforce or change rational motivation. A person may voluntarily reject information that disturbs him; conversely, he may seek further information and ask for advice if he considers it necessary. A prudent person is open to relevant information, is capable of reflecting on it in an unprejudiced way, and knows when and from whom to seek advice. By contrast, an imprudent person forms his rational motivation in a superficial way, avoids conflicting information, and may even wittingly or unwittingly manipulate his own perceptions of reality, so as to deceive himself. [Cardona HDLC 131-132] Justice is the ability to assimilate a rich and coherent system of values that takes into account the effects of the persons actions on others and on himself. A just person takes his or her cue from what ought to be, however difficult, and is able to strike a balance between the rights and duties of all those affected by his decision, including his duties to himself. For an unjust person, by contrast, rational motivation carries no weight, even if correctly formatted. Tender-hearted people who allow themselves to be dominated by the impulses of their heart may be unjust to the people around them and even to their personal values. [Cardona HDLC 131-132] Fortitude is the ability to control the impulses of spontaneous motivation. Colloquially, it is also known as courage. A courageous person is one who does not shrink from difficulty, who does not give in to tiredness, and who welcomes new challenges, scorning fear of failure. A courageous person is not one who has no feelings, but one who is able to control his feelings when necessary. A weak person, by contrast, is at the mercy of his spontaneous urges, even knowing that he should not let him or herself be carried away. [Cardona HDLC 131-132] Temperance is the capacity to choose feelings and filter emotions, so as to define, reinforce or change spontaneous motivation. A temperate person is one who is able to moderate his affects and control his feelings. An intemperate person does not master his emotional experiences and does not control the effect they have on the structure of his spontaneous motivation. Consequently, the persons heart grows willful and his spontaneous impulses become tyrannical, so that even if he has a reasonable degree of fortitude, he still finds it difficult to follow the dictates of reason. That is the case, for example, when a person acts in the grip of panic or passion. [Cardona HDLC 131-132]

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Appendix 2

The Habits of Success


2.1 Classification of competencies This section provides a classification of three broad areas of competence and describes specific competencies belonging to each area. This classification is offered as a possible scheme for mentoring goals, presented as competencies that the mentor strives to help the student acquire. It also serves as a guide for assisting the mentor and student in gauging the students level of competency. The list of skills covers much ground; however, it is not exhaustive. Individual mentors are encouraged to contribute to the refinement of the classification system based on previous mentoring experience or new experiences as one develops the skill of mentoring. Competencies Intellectual-Volitional

Emotional-Volitional

Social

Evaluation Intuition Process Orientation People Orientation Analysis Conceptualization Acceptance of Norms Innovation Planning Organization Perseverance Decision

Relaxation Emotional Control Optimism Flexibility Initiative Dynamism Ambition Motivation

Communication Persuasion Leadership Social skill Independence Relation Empathy Working in Groups

2.2 Intellectual-Volitional Competencies

Evaluation. The capacity to stick to the facts, to look for evidence and concrete data, to make precise analyses of situations. This capacity implies a good command of the objective and quantitative data by using logic and arguments based on testable evidence. This is a factor very close to the principle of reality. Intuition. The skill to foresee events without need for concrete data. This is typical of inspired people who deduce causes or consequences of an action based on little evidence, without relying on clear indicators. Process Orientation. The facility to work in tasks related to the operation of things and with activities linked with the use of instruments. This is typical of people who like observing and fiddling with concrete objects and who concentrate on taking the necessary steps to attain their objectives and on following an exhaustive (comprehensive) methodology. 63

People Orientation. This capacity is characterized by the interest in everything related to persons: their interaction, motives, or the reasons for the conduct of other persons. Analysis. The capacity to detect critical points and to unpack the elements of complex structures. It is related to the proficiency for differentiating what is essential from what is merely incidental, and also to the attention given to details and the concrete elements of situations. Conceptualization. This is a habit that allows one to have a global vision of things, a capacity to abstract and formulate laws and hypotheses based on concrete data. People with this capacity can simplify what is complex and to distill a huge amount of information. They are generalists and theoretical persons. Acceptance of Norms. This capacity is founded on the skills with which one orders ones life and develops a motivation for order. This is typical of disciplined persons who allow themselves to be governed by established social norms, because of the perceived benefit from this governance. It is closely linked to the cultivation of an appreciation of tradition and established ways of doing things. Innovation. This is a quality closely related to creativity. Innovative persons are imaginative, and they have new and pioneering ideas. They easily generate solutions to problems or complex situations. They can create a lot of ideas sooner than one can expect. Planning. It is the capacity to foresee events, by thinking and deciding in advance how to realize such events. This is typical of persons who tend to program an action before carrying it out and who manage the time they have available. They set objectives and limit the stages and resources necessary for the fulfillment of such objectives and they indicate a sequential forecast of events. Organization. It is a skill typical of methodical, precise and organized persons who have the capacity to handle in the best way possible all available data for future use. Perseverance. This is shown in the tenacity in ones conduct by pursuing the attainment of objectives even though difficulties and obstacles may get in the way. It is typical of persons who insist again and again without getting discouraged until what is sought after is achieved. They maintain great constancy and they bring to completion anything that they begin working at. Decision. It is the capacity to choose an option with agility. Decisive persons act quickly, although excessive speed in some occasions may lead to hasty choices.

2.3 Emotional-Volitional Competencies

Relaxation. The capacity to maintain calmness even in tense situations. This is typical of persons who can face difficult or conflict situations with serenity. Emotional Control. This capacity refers to the mastery or regulation of ones thoughts and

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actions associated with ones emotional responses in both negative and positive situations. With enough practice at regulating ones thoughts and actions, one may gain enough control over ones emotions to decrease the intensity of an emotional response when this is disproportionate to an event, or to eliminate the response when it is not consistent with reality. With regard to positive events, one may also develop the skill of increasing ones positive emotions that will complement ones initiative and provide the energy to perform a task at hand.

Optimism. This is the capacity to see the positive side of things, to actively find the benefit in ones daily experiences, especially the negative ones. Persons who exercise this capacity communicate enthusiasm, joy, and a sense of gratitude. Flexibility. This is the capacity to adjust to changes and unforeseen situations. It is highly developed in people who can adapt to different situations and remain open in such a way that they do not shut down when faced with surprises or when confronted with completely new approaches or situations. Initiative. This is the capacity to act without needing to be prodded and pushed. When this capacity is developed, a person actively searches for new opportunities and possibilities for improvement. In exercising the skill of initiative, a person is able to do more than what is expected, improve results, and avoid future problems. At this level of development, there is usually no need to supervise the persons work or to stimulate him or her. It is closely related to the capacity for motivation. Dynamism. This capacity implies being an active person, with energy and vitality, and the ability to carry out various things simultaneously. A dynamic person also normally engages in physical exercise. Ambition. This is typically seen in go-getters who face challenges even if they are difficult to meet. It refers to the capacity to set goals, aspire for the acquisition of these objectives in all facets of life, and to challenge oneself by evaluating progress toward goals with actual results. Motivation. This capacity is a behavior probability, or the likelihood a particular behavior will be performed. Ones motivation or likelihood of performing a particular behavior may be enhanced by changing ones thoughts that are associated with that behavior and finding a personally meaningful reason to perform the behavior.

2.4 Social Competencies

Communication. This is the capacity to transmit ones own ideas. A good communicator is able to express her/him or herself and get his or her message across. He or she transmits what he or she wishes to and ordinarily uses ordinary and familiar language. Persuasion. It is the capacity to convince others. Persons who stand out in this skill succeed in influencing others. This is one such competence that is very convenient for tasks such as those carried out by a good negotiator or salesman.

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Leadership. This is the capacity to give orientation, to support and direct the rest of the members of a group. People who stand out in this trait usually take responsibility for the others and are normally taken seriously by the group who follows them and asks for their advice and guidance. Social Skill. This is the capacity to act in partnership with others, to conduct oneself correctly in interpersonal situations by doing the most appropriate thing at each moment. A person with social skill is capable of initiating and maintaining social relations in a way which is fitting, and of defending the basis of his or her judgments and points-of-view in a most effective way. Independence. This is a capacity that assumes knowing how to work with autonomy, without need for support from the group or for its approval before proceeding. In some people, this trait manifests itself in the desire to work alone insofar as this set-up provides them with greater freedom. Relation. This refers to the ability to create and nurture connections to the stakeholders of ones primary tasks. It also means the capacity to develop and maintain a constructive alliance with others, particularly on a collaborative effort. Empathy. This refers to the ability to put oneself in the place of the others, listen to them, find out the reason for their conduct, and understand their thoughts and feelings easily. Working in Groups. This refers to behavior that arises from the ability to foster an atmosphere of collaboration, communication, and trust among team members, by forging agreements that are satisfactory to all involved, by discovering or creating elements that add value to the relationships.

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Appendix 3

Alternative Frameworks for Mentoring


This Appendix discusses alternative frameworks for student mentoring [adapted from Sunio, CUS, 2010]. While closely aligned to the model suggested in the main text of this Guide, it offers alternative cuts or categories for the habits of student success. 3.1 Spheres of Growth In order to identify mentoring goals, mentors may share with the student the following take on the Spheres of Personal and Professional Growth. Some mentors have found this conceptual model helpful because it situates competency development within the framework of an idealized growth trajectory. Mentors help the mentees grow, and growing is all about growing in influence. We cannot say we have grown to be very sociable and a good friend, unless our peers affirm so. We cannot say we have grown to be competent professional, unless our professional colleagues affirm soin other words, unless we have earned their respect and gained a certain level of prestige. The student is sure that he or she has reached a certain level of growth when his or her influence expands. In which areas or levels? We can identify seven: Oneself. The student must above all be committed to continuous improvement in self-mastery, to a lifelong effort to compete against him or her/herself. Without the interior strength of character, anything that is built stands on a fragile foundation. In this first sphere, the mentor can help the student develop the habits of order (to organize and manage ones daily life) and industriousness (to overcome sloth or laziness). Result: virtues. Peers. The next stage is for the student to work in such a manner that peers (friends, block mates, group mates, org mates, etc.) acknowledge his or her positive influence on them, that they come to know and remember the student as hard-working, reliable, loyal, and trustworthy. In this second sphere, mentoring can help the student improve in the so-called social virtues such as refinement, friendliness, charity, and trustworthiness. Result: respect and trust of fellow-students. Superiors. The next stage is to earn the acknowledgment of superiors such as teachers and mentorsessential for good recommendations in the future. In this third sphere, students can be helped to develop good habits very much related to study: professionalism, efficiency, and initiative. Result: respect and trust of professors, academic and administrative staff. Institutions. To be acknowledged by institutions such as the university for achievements means that one is meeting the institutions standards of excellence. This is the highest recognition one can obtain as a student. This means doing ones work as a student according to the highest standards of academic evaluation. In this fourth sphere, mentoring can support student development in academics, leadership, research, service, etc.areas that constitute credentials. Result: Latin honors or any academic distinction. Local Professional Organizations (Intra- and Inter-University Student Organizations). This means being acknowledged by the students colleagues in his or her own areas of interest and expertise. Result: active participation and recognition in intra- and inter-university student organizations. Community and Nation. The next sphere is to be acknowledged for ones contribution to service and volunteer areas that create an impact on the community and nation. Result: service recognition by national institutions for participation in common good enterprises.

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Global Community. Next is to be acknowledged by the global community for ones contribution to the advancement of his or her own field and the building of the common good for all. Result: service recognition by regional and international organizations. Clearly growth in all these spheres continues well beyond the university setting, with the mentors role defined more precisely in terms of preparation and foundation-building. It should also be kept in mind that development in all seven spheres may be beyond the circumstances and capacity of many students, and that a mentor who makes a significant impact on even just the first four spheres will have already achieved much for the student to be ready, competent, and confident about his or her future professional career. 3.2 Key Performance Areas Ones vision, no matter how noble it is, is an idea that is useful only insofar as it spurs one along the right track. It is another matter altogether to specify actionable goals that will make the vision closer to becoming a reality. The student then has to set key specific, measurable, attainable, relevant and time-bound goalsprecisely what he or she needs to start doing, keep doing, and (when appropriate) stop doing. Vision should translate to goals. To help the student formulate and set goals, the following list of key performance areas can be useful. The list contains the elements for building ones credentials and increasing ones value. In a survey, the following question was asked, If you were the President or the HR Head of a top company, what are the qualities you will be looking for in a graduate? They identified the following key performance areas: Academics. The first measure of student performance is academic performance. This is the primary obligation of a student. Performance indicators: Latin honors or any academic distinction; high grades in core subjects. Leadership. Challenges confronting the nation need leaders who will transform it for the common good. Leading school organizations is the best way to develop student leadership skills and prepare the student for leadership roles in professional life. Performance indicators: top positions in student organizations. Professional Service Work and Development Projects. Gaining experience in managing projects and in working with several sectors and people will both enhance skills and increase societal concern and exposure. Performance indicators: portfolio of projects that establish track record and credentials. Awards, Distinctions, Recognitions. Winning in prestigious national and international competitions is good material for a resume, since it speaks of skill and talent. Performance indicators: awards in national and international competitions. Conferences and Seminars. Involvement in international conferences gives exposure and allows the student to learn novel ideas from peers. Performance indicator: attendance in national and international fora. Research Background. In a global and knowledge-based economy, keeping oneself updated of the latest knowledge is everything. Research productivity is important too. This is especially true for research courses. Performance indicators: publications, presentation of research in conferences. Sports. Sports help students learn many things: virtues, teamwork, leadership, execution and self-

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disciplinein other words, it builds character. It also fosters lifetime camaraderie with ones teammates. Performance indicator: varsity player status. Skills. Oral and written skills are important especially in getting others to listen to ones ideas. In a world like ours today, technology does a lot of wonders. To be proficient and skilled in the use of it is certainly a plus. Analytical and mathematical skills are essentially especially for intellectual disciplines that demand rigorous analysis. Globalization demands from people to learn languages different from their own native tongue. Performance indicators: oral and written communication skills, being technology-savvy, power-dressing, interpersonal abilities, analytical and mathematical skills, proficiency in several languages, being entrepreneurial, being humanistic. Resources and Linkages. This refers to growth in ones social circle and sphere of influence. Performance indicators: number of memberships in organizations, of friends, acquaintances, and contacts. Two words of caution, however. First, remember that key performance areas vary from student to student. Some mentors have found the key performance areas presented above helpful in their task, but it is good to keep in mind that high performance means different things to different students, and it is the mentors job to help his mentee establish what constitutes high performance for the latter, taking into account individual strengths and capabilities. Second, it is also necessary to note that the list above refers to credentials, i.e., what gets recorded in ones curriculum vitae, with character being either assumed or unconsidered. 3.3 Leadership Domains According to Rath and Conchie, there are four domains of leadership: executing, influencing, relationship-building and strategic thinking. We recommend this model for evaluating the students leadership strengths, which are described (for each domain) as follows: Executing. Does the student know how to make things happen? When you need someone to implement a solution, is the student one of those who will work tirelessly to get it done? Themes: achiever, consistency, focus, arranger, deliberative, responsibility, belief, discipline, restorative. Influencing. Does the student help his or her team reach a much broader audience? When one needs someone to take charge, speak up, and make sure the team is heard, is the student one of those who can be relied upon? Does the student exhibit the unique ability to create teams and organizations that are much greater than the sum of their parts? Themes: activator, competition, significance, command, maximizer, woo, communication, self-assurance. Relationship Building. Is the student the glue that holds the team together, without whom the group is simply a composite of individuals? Does he or she have the ability to create groups and organizations that are greater than the sum of their parts? Themes: adaptability, empathy, developer, individualization, harmony, relator, connectedness, includer, positivity. Strategic Thinking. Does the student constantly absorb and analyze information and help the team make better decisions? Does he or she keep the team focused on what could be? Does he or she continually stretch the team members thinking for the future? Themes: analytical, ideation, learner, context, input, strategic.

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Appendix 4

Planner Themes

4.1 Theme 1: Identity of the University Christian identity. The University of Asia and the Pacific is an educational project inspired by Christian ideals. It is important for the mentor to realize the full import of this statement so he can contribute to meeting a specific demand of mentoringto provide students the information they need to enable them to fully participate in the life of the University, such participation ultimately being premised on an understanding of the University's Christian identity. The students know that they have the right to information and they appreciate it when they are informed about the fundamental aspects of the institution where they study. We must also emphasize the fact that UA&P opens its arms to people of different provenances and religions, and that it promotes its aims in an environment of freedom and respect for the religious beliefs, political ideas, and opinions of professors and students. Integral personal development (formation) and shared values. Education in UA&P is oriented towards the integral personal development of the students. Such an education implies not only the formation of ones intellect but also of ones attitudes and values. This focus is a consequence of the fact that in a person, knowledge and qualities are closely related. Furthermore, the nature of the mission of the University is such that it is not limited to purely technical training but aims to form integral persons, with virtues, committed to the truth, and who contribute to the improvement of society. Personal integrity, to which university formation contributes, includes interior aspects (respect for the truth, responsibility, the ethical consideration of problems, respect for persons, etc.) and exterior aspects. The latter are an expression of the former, i.e., more than simple conventions or fashions, ones work ethic, personal conduct, and dealings with others manifest ones attitudes and values. In this sense, the University offers a university life marked by work that is excellently done, respect for others, and care for material thingsvalues that require personal qualities such as responsibility, good manners, and sobriety. These principles are a guide for all: working or studying in UA&P presupposes adopting them as a framework for coexistence. University hallmarks. In its institutional programs and activities, UA&P puts due emphasis on the individual; the family; the community; and the world. Each unit of the University thus strives to be a center of excellence, particularly in three areas: values formation, people development, and research and communication. These are the hallmarks of UA&P as an educational institution. An environment created among everyone. The transmission of values in the University takes place in all areas (in the classroom, library, sports facilities, outdoors) and in all situations (i.e., in classes, tutorial and mentoring sessions, informal meetings with classmates or the administrative personnel, sports, leisure, culture, in the arts, etc.). For this reason, together with the course offerings, the University commits itself implicitly to offer a fitting environment to the students, which would facilitate study and work and which would favor the acquisition of good intellectual and human habits. This is achieved through the quality and care for the facilities, but more so through a human environment that we create among ourselves. Attitudes such as respect and attention, punctuality, good grooming, and refinement in speech contribute decisively to the creation of such an

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environment. Everything in the University is formative, and each one forms everyone else in the University. For this reason, we can ask the students to personally contribute to the creation of a suitable environment. This consists in transmitting to them the importance of learning the values mentioned above as a way of stimulating the respectful coexistence that befits a university and of facilitating ones own university formation and that of others. Charity, Justice, and Respect for Freedom. Finally, the Christian identity is seen in the dealings with persons characterized by charity, justice, and respect for freedom. These values may not be exclusively Christian but the University is especially committed to them. In the words of the Grand Chancellor, Monsignor Javier Echevarra: To love persons, all and each one, to respect them as they deserve, requires in the first place to discover each individual in his own singularity: his needs, his way of being, his capabilities, his circumstances. They should never be considered as mere resources, or as statistics, or as elements of a design for a specific strategy (Christian Humanism in Business Management, Inaugural Speech of the Symposium of IESE on its 50th Anniversary). See also Identity of the University in the Student Planner.

4.2 Theme 2: UA&P and Opus Dei The Center for Research and Communication, parent institution of the University of Asia and the Pacific, was an initiative of St. Josemara Escriv, founder of Opus Dei, an institution of the Catholic Church whose aim is to contribute to the evangelizing mission of the Church by spreading the universal call to holiness and the sanctifying value of ordinary work. St. Josemara was born in Barbastro (Spain) on January 9, 1902. He was ordained priest in Saragossa in 1925. By divine inspiration he founded Opus Dei on October 2, 1928. He died in Rome on June 26, 1975 and was canonized by John Paul II on October 6, 2002. His remains lie in the church of Holy Mary of Peace in Rome (Viale Bruno Buozzi, 75). His feast day is celebrated on June 26. Right from the start, St. Josemara had wanted the Center for Research and Communication to be oriented towards service. This characteristic has given direction to the daily work of those who form part of the University: to contribute to the material and moral betterment of society. All in all, it is to know in order to serve. He said that work is an opportunity to develop ones personality, a bond of union with others, () and a means of aiding in the progress of all humanity (Christ is Passing By, no. 47). As a consequence of this vision, work well done and care for details in both intellectual and material tasks are values held highly in UA&P because all types of work have the same dignity if done with love and spirit of service. On three occasions, the Prelate of Opus Dei and Honorary Grand Chancellor of the University visited UA&P and met with professors, employees, and students--in the person of Bishop Alvaro del Portillo In 1982, and in the person of Bishop Javier Echevarria in 2002 and 2008. See also UA&P and Opus Dei in the Student Planner.

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4.3 Theme 3: Research and Communication As an academic community, UA&P carries on the foundational aims and tradition of its forerunner, the Center for Research and Communication (CRC). The University has retained the name for one of its hallmark centers, so that through CRC the University continues to undertake high-level, interdisciplinary research for the good of society and to communicate the results of such research through various media and varied audiences. Research at UA&P aims, above all, at a synthesis of humanistic, professional, scientific, and technical knowledge, inspired by a Christian view of man. The ideals of research and communication can be best described in terms of its practitioners [CAS Polity, 1995]:

As they study a work, they apply their own minds to those works and, like the original thinkers, to wrestle with the central issues. They know what it means to understand something and are adept in testing their degree of understanding through honed dialectical skills. They know how to reflect upon its underlying assumptions and method of argumentation, the nature of the enterprise, and its relation to other disciplines. In both reading and discussion, they are habituated to looking for the principles upon which a position is based and which give it shape, to considering its implications, and to attending to the inherent relation between part and whole. They are adept at measuring the various positions according to the canons of logic and the principles proper to the investigation. They see the starting points and order of procedure appropriate to all or nearly all branches of knowledge as insiders, instead of as outsiders looking in, and they are in the most advantageous position to advance profitably in any one of them. They are educated persons who, while not possessing a complete and finished knowledge of all subjects, are able, paraphrasing Aristotle, to judge successfully what is well thought-out and well stated and what is badly thought-out or badly stated. They are not just scholarsinterested merely in understanding others truth-claims. They strive to possess the truth genuinely, in itself, and as a correction of manifold and divers errors, without fear of being first perplexed by the problems or issues, which the truth eventually resolves. And they know what it means to arrive, through reasoning and intelligent opinions, to the truth. In making judgments about a position, they are disposed to consider the position in the light of the reasons that are advanced for it. They strive for intellectual virtue, which is always the golden mean between vicious extremes of saying too much or saying too little -dogmatic affirmations in excess or skeptical denials in defect. They are also fairly well practiced at presenting and defending their views, at listening carefully to the views expressed by others, at raising relevant questions, at separating what is central from what is peripheral. They appreciate the importance of logic and argument in the life of the mind and are ready to support their opinions with reasons, expecting others to do the same. They are eager to achieve, through this measure, solidarity in knowing what it means to ask the question why?, the habit of wonder, and what it means to come to know something, the habit of reflective learning. They know the joy and delight consequent upon winning an insight that resolves a perplexing problem, and the sharing of the insight that heightens the joy. By successfully grappling with difficult questions in a community of individuals eager to know, they have come to appreciate both the challenges of the intellectual life and the satisfaction of meeting them. Their confidence in the fecundity of the life of reason and of faith blossoms

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because they cultivate its fruit in themselves rather than passively receive it. The years spent in UA&P mark the beginning of a life-long love for the life of the soul and for the pursuit of wisdom.

They aspire to a unity between thought and action that is open both to timeless truths and the flux of contemporary reality. They are concretely aware of the demands of life in society, and know the importance of a sense of dignity and self-discipline, collective autonomy, and collective honor. They address the responsibilities of freedom and the qualities of mind proper to citizenship and professionalism. Thus, while they give study habits and skills sufficient attention, they strive for integral growthfor a unified and integrated universe of knowledge and action. They strive to contribute actively to an environment in which intellectual and moral growth is everywhere nourished by an authentic Christian humanism.

See also Research and Communication in the Student Planner.

4.4 Theme 4: Values Formation UA&P is committed to the inculcation of universal human values and attitudes, particularly discipline, diligence, spirit of enterprise, integrity, social solidarity, and a universal outlook. The Universitys academic programs always include courses in social and professional ethics. Corporate Culture Framework. The UA&P is one large but united community. Its goal is to reach out of itself and contribute to people development. Its unity proceeds precisely from three fundamental relationships guided by the norms of conduct that characterize the National Culture of Excellence: unity with respect to

Others, which is guided by the principle of solidarity within the context of the family (family unity), society (civic responsibility), and all the people the whole world over regardless of sex, race, color, or creed (universality), and manifested by thoughtfulness, self-sacrifice, generosity, teamwork, civic-mindedness, openness, cooperation The Profession, which is guided by the principle of integrity within the context of excellence and discipline, and manifested by punctuality, thoroughness, the spirit of service; and Work, which is guided by the principle of enterprise, duly supported by an attitude of diligence and orderliness, and manifested by sportive spirit, initiative, sense of aesthetics, attention to detail, care for little things.

These relationshipsand their guiding and supporting normsare (expected to be) appropriately manifested in various forms of behavior characteristic of individuals who practice them. UA&P is committed to the inculcation of universal human values and attitudes, particularly discipline, diligence, spirit of enterprise, integrity, social solidarity, and a universal outlook. The Universitys academic programs always include courses in social and professional ethics. See also Values Formation in the Student Planner.

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4.5 Theme 5: People Development The strong call to solidarity that the University makes to the students has deep Christian roots. It encourages them to participate in activities of volunteerism and to give part of their time to the most needy. Solidarity is considered not only as an activity that most effectively complements university formation, but also as an attitude that the students should develop in their professional work, i.e., serving society with their future work. UA&P works through its social development arm, the Center for Social Responsibility, to help build model communities through integrated development programs that enable people, particularly the poor and marginalized, to help themselves. These programs include savings mobilization, values formation, general and technical education, health and nutrition, environmental quality, and cooperativism. Social Responsibility with a Heart People Development is the institutional hallmark through which the University extends its reach beyond its own community and its own campus to its broader environment. In pursuing its commitment to this particular mission, the University shows the UA&P communitys collective willingness to serve its closest neighbors (our University, the rest of Pasig), the wider environment (Metro Manila and Luzon), and the rest of the country. Some considerations of worthwhile note as we strive to live, strengthen, and sustain this hallmark: 1. Our solidarity with our neighbors, especially those who are in most need of help in society, is expressed not through dole-outs but through spending time, effort and resources towards the development of peoples knowledge, skills, and attitudes. 2. One key strength of the University, going back to its predecessor, CRC, has been its capacity to bring people together: private business, non-governmental organizations, and local governments, towards the integral (economic, socio-political, cultural, and lifestyle) development of peoples. 3. The channel of our direct help is what we do best because of our own mission: education in knowledge, learning skills, character formation, development planning, and community services. 4. In order to ensure efficiency and effectiveness of our service to society, UA&P (and before it, CRC) has made it a point to engage in serious research on community needs and optimum development paths. People development not backed up by needs assessment and evaluation is akin to shooting blindly in the dark. We dream of the less privileged striving to help themselves attain their dreams with dignity and selfrespect. We contribute to this endeavor by, first, being noteworthy students (woe to those who immerse themselves in poor communities but dont take care of their academic obligations as students preparing themselves to become effective professionals) and, second, by disposing ourselves at every opportune time and place to reaching out to persons and communities in need. Our ceremonial mace, which is used at the Universitys formal academic exercises, bears the visual representation of fish, agricultural land, hearts and pearls. This is an apt portrayal of the People

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Development hallmark because we work with those who have less in life (fishermen, farmers, laborers), through the gift of our time, effort, and talents (pearls), giving these with the full disposition of our will (hearts), not just because we have to (as an academic or curricular obligation) but because we want to. When this disposition becomes a virtue, we truly live our responsibility for people development, for social responsibility, with a heart. See also People Development in the Student Planner.

4.6 Theme 6: Liberal Education The liberal arts develop the predispositions for genuine intellectual discipline. They do not aim to give specialized knowledge or technical training in any finished professional sense, but neither are they merely preparatory to specific specializations. Rather the liberal arts are conceived as the prerequisite of acquiring any specialized knowledge. The aim is to enable those who undergo it to become their own teachers --which is to say, those who have learned how to learn. The teaching and research program of the humanities is a response to a Christian sense of person, world and society, and aims at a coherent unity of faith, thought and life. The formation that the University provides for all students, whether believers or not, should move them to ask the ultimate and most radical questions: Whats the meaning of my life? Why does evil exist? What is the basis of the dignity of the person? What makes me happy? The orientation of our whole existence depends on the answer to these questions. We insist that the development of the sense of values is not the privilege of some category of subjects. Genuine humanities and genuine liberal arts embrace not only mathematics but physics and all natural sciences, as well as the human sciences, and even technology, as well as literature, fine arts, history, and philosophy. These subjects are valuable not only in the intellectual formation that can be obtained through them, but also in the development of a sense of proper values. In fact one of the great tasks of education in the moral field is connected with the attempt to offer to students genuine images of grandeur and heroism. Man cannot do without the appeal of the herothe attraction exercised by the great figures who act on us, through the imagination, by their example, having led, in love and dedication, a life superior to our ordinary lives. The need to have a moral ideal embodied in a concrete human being who shows us the way is one of the basic needs of moral growth. Students should become aware of the immense effort of good will and generosity through which civilizations have developed. They should become familiar not only with the great figures of our national history and with the moral convictions and spiritual flame that animated them, but also with the great figures and heroes of world history. Moreover, the University offers students the possibility of deepening their knowledge of the Christian faith, through the study of theological subjects, convinced that a university student who wants to live according to his or her faith needs a solid preparation that is at par with his or her intellectual development in other fields. See also Liberal Education in the Student Planner.

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4.7 Theme 7: Professional Specialization See Professional Specialization in the Student Planner.

4.8 Theme 8: University Life: Mentoring Mentoring, which is above all a collaborative meeting between professors and students, addresses the objectives of the entire University, most especially its educational aims, which is to provide integral formation to the students in such a way that they are not only trained professionally but are provided guidance to prepare to become responsible professionals with a high ethical sense of life and of work. [UNAV Guia] See also the Mentoring Readiness Questionnaire and the Mentoring under University Life: Mentoring in the Student Planner.

4.9 Theme 9: University Life: Chaplaincy and Liturgical Celebrations See University Life: Chaplaincy and Liturgical Celebrations in the Student Planner.

4.10 Theme 10: University Life: Student Activities See University Life: Student Activities in the Student Planner

4.11 Theme 11: University Life: Student Government According to the nature of things, the field in which the natural law feels most at home, and least deficient, is the field of political, civic, and social activities. This is so because the virtues at play in this field are essentially natural virtues, directed, even when they are strengthened by supernatural virtues, toward the good of civil life or of human civilization. Here the beginnings of the habits and virtues of freedom and responsibility take place in actual exercise. The students of UA&P are not merely receptive elements in the life of the "educational republic" but actively participate in it. The co-curricular program provide opportunities to exercise responsibility for the discipline of their members and their progress in workthey themselves propose their own projects, and examine themselves on how the group behaves. They have regular contact with the school authorities, to whom they convey suggestions, experiences, and problems. The students are vitally interested in the organization of studies, the general discipline, the political life of the University, and they play a consultative part in the activity of the educational republic. Thereby students become concretely aware of the demands of life in society, while a sense of dignity and self-discipline, collective autonomy, and collective honor develops in them. In the manner adapted to the age and capacity of undergraduates, the University is a workshop in the responsibilities of freedom and the qualities of mind proper to citizenship. This not only makes the common institutional discipline more alive,

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but also provides students with more effective beginnings of a real formation of the will. See also University Life: Student Government in the Student Planner

4.12 Theme 12: Study Method See Questionnaire under Study Method in the Student Planner.

4.13 Theme 13: Time Management Order, planning and the efficient use of time are qualities that are interesting to work on especially with the freshman students. These contribute to the improvement of student performance and to the avoidance of distraction. Some manifestations of these habits are as follows:

Mental order: knowing how to establish a hierarchy of values and courses of action; learning to have mental discipline and control over ones imagination; Material order: having things organized; Knowing how to prioritize tasks: putting important tasks ahead of what appears to be urgent, and give importance to those which are really important; Knowing how to manage ones time as a function of the goals and objectives to be met; Evaluating the implementation of the plan and the quality of the method of work. The output of the time dedicated to studying and to the fulfillment of tasks, etc.; and Using ones time well.

See also Time Management in the Student Planner.

4.14 Theme 14: University Lifestyle: UA&P Work Culture Students are expected to work with a sense of responsibility and initiative by facing problems and difficulties. The professors seek to provide orientation, counsel, suggestions, but they do not substitute for the effort or usurp the role of being students. Free from grave actions that can have disciplinary implications (copying during an examination, plagiarizing written material), their work has to be well done in all aspects. Some consequences are as follows:

Attending classes, cultural activities, or sports practice punctually; Presenting ones work and taking examinations with care; Maintaining order and cleanliness in everything that one uses, e.g., classrooms, library, places for group works, laboratories; writing suggestion/repair slips when imperfections are noticed; and Cooperating with classmates, or being available to help.

See also University Lifestyle: UA&P Work Culture in the Student Planner.

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4.15 Theme 15: University Lifestyle: Professional Good Manners See University Lifestyle: Professional Good Manners in the Student Planner.

4.16 Theme 16: University Lifestyle: Personal Style See University Lifestyle: Personal Style in the Student Planner.

4.17 Theme 17: Stress Management The attainment of emotional freedomthe positive integration of feelings and passions with a right understanding of the world and oneselfis the goal of all education of character." [Llano, La Vida Lograda, Barcelona, Ariel, 2002, 85] This habit is important to avoid creating stressful situations that affect ones performance, especially during times when work accumulates or when one has not been able to manage his or her time well. Some manifestations are as follows:

Keeping calm before stressful situations or when under pressure. Not getting carried away by impulse, desires, and moods. Controlling instances of hyperactivity or apathy if they occur. Emotional maturity when subjected to pressure. Doing what has to be done independently of what people will say or do.

See also Stress Management in the Student Planner.

4.18 Theme 18: Reflection This capacity allows ones activity to be directed by personal convictions and to respond to real situations. It avoids superficiality in ones manner of thinking and of being. Some manifestations of this competence are as follows:

Having the capacity of observation; adjusting to events, concrete evidence and data to arrive at the reasons of things and events. Verifying intuitions or the causes that we attribute to a specific effect; making judgments based on real data. Having an overview/global perspective. Having the capacity of induction and deduction; knowing how to move from general to specific and vice versa.

See also Reflection in the Student Planner.

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4.19 Theme 19: Communication Basic Communication. Coaching is focused on helping the student improve his or her written work (hence his or her thinking and writing skills) in any one or combination of the five basic elements of writing: (a) content, (b) grammar, syntax and mechanics, (c) word usage, (d) organization or coherence, and (e) sufficiency of details. Advanced Communication: This is the capacity to express oneself and be understood by the rest, using a language that fits ones interlocutor, is understandable and familiar. It also means receiving and transmitting ideas in an effective way. See also Communication in the Student Planner.

4.20 Theme 20: Decision-Making See Decision-Making in the Student Planner.

4.21 Theme 21: Effort Constancy is shown in ones tenacity in conduct, by pursuing the fulfillment of the objectives, although difficulties and obstacles arise in the process of attaining them. This is an indispensable quality to attain the proposed objectives; it requires constant training through concrete decisions. Some manifestations of this competence are as follows:

Doing freely what one has to do at every moment, with or without the desire to do so. Repeating efforts until what is difficult to do becomes easy. Making decisions. Thinking before deciding and bearing consequences. Counting on the opinions of the right kind of people. Taking on commitments. Bringing things to completion.

See also Effort in the Student Planner.

4.22 Theme 22: Initiative This is related to action-orientation. It consists in being self-propelled, not waiting for things to be served up on a plate. Some manifestations of this competency are as follows: Broadmindedness. Professional ambition. Having ones own important and professional project. Promoting a healthy curiosity and interest for everything. Setting goals and objectives that have to be reached, with timetables. Determining realistically ones capacity for influence and action: to what extent can difficulties be solved or objectives reached and what matters remain out of our control. Initiative. Not waiting for things to be provided on a silver platter; using the means to reach ones objectives.

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Optimism. Focusing on positive aspects in order to surmount difficulties. Not allowing oneself to be overwhelmed.

See also Initiative in the Student Planner.

4.23 Theme 23: Empathy Empathy arises from the ability to put oneself in the place of others, to listen to them, to find out the reasons for their conduct, and to understand their thoughts and feelings easily. Empathy is the skill of making another person feel understood and accepted. It embodies an attitude of acceptance of others as human beings, even if and often one does not agree with their views or motivations. It is expressed in the effort to understand the feelings, thoughts, and motivations of others, through the use of accurate listening skills, and without arguing, passing judgment, blaming, or criticizing the other person. It is possible to accept and understand a persons perspective while not agreeing with or endorsing it. Neither does an attitude of acceptance prohibit [you] from differing with the [other persons] views and expressing that divergence. Paradoxically, this kind of acceptance of people as they are seems to free them to change... [Miller & Rollnick, 2002, p. 37].

4.24 Theme 24: Social Skill See Social Skill in the Student Planner.

4.25 Theme 25: Teamwork See Teamwork in the Student Planner.

4.26 Theme 26: Internship Majority of the programs in the University require a practicum in companies, laboratories. etc. The internship experience provides educational opportunities to the student which lead him or her to:

Discover the competencies and skills that he or she needs to develop Reflect on his or her professional profile Establish a plan for personal development Get in touch with the world of work

See also the Questionnaire under Internship in the Student Planner.

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4.27 Theme 27: Professional Lifestyle For an upperclassman, the internship requirement can be used as an opportunity to develop ones own personal and professional qualities as well as learn from the others one works with. It therefore makes good sense to approach the internship by cultivating a receptive and attentive attitude towards learning from other people in order to selectively identify and develop the virtues and values of a capable and productive professional. The internship can be used as an opportunity to develop the following important professional competencies in particular:

Functional decision-making: behavior arising from the ability to commit to continuing education that can be crucial for decision making in the exercise of one's profession; Fiduciary accountability: behavior arising from the ability to make efficient and transparent use of the resources that are made available in the practice of one's profession; Strategic compromise: behavior arising from the ability to navigate successfully through a plurality of opinions, intentions, and worldviews while remaining true to one's vision and values; Institutional commitment: behavior arising from the ability to work for the good of a larger realitycompany, institution, community, nation, the global communitybeyond one's personal goals.

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Appendix 5

Coaching Competencies
Core Competencies of a Coach [Sunio, CUS, 2010] The following eleven core coaching competencies were developed to support greater understanding about the skills and approaches used within today's coaching profession as defined by the International Coaching Federation (ICF) and used as basis for the ICF Credentialing Process Examination. Though in our scheme "mentoring" is broader than and in fact includes "coaching", the discussion below can help the mentor calibrate the level of alignment between the expected coachspecific competencies and the training he or she has received. The assignment of competencies in four clusters and the order of listing are not weightedthe competencies are all equally critical. Setting the Foundation 1. Meeting Ethical Guidelines and Professional Standards. Understanding of coaching ethics and standards and ability to apply them appropriately in all coaching situations. 2. Establishing the Coaching Agreement. Ability to understand what is required in the specific coaching interaction and to come to agreement with the prospective and new client about the coaching process and relationship. Co-Creating the Relationship 3. Establishing Trust and Intimacy with the Client. Ability to create a safe, supportive environment that produces ongoing mutual respect and trust. 4. Coaching Presence. Ability to be fully conscious of the client and to create spontaneous relationship with him or her, employing a style that is open, flexible, and confident. Communicating Effectively 5. Active Listening. Ability to focus completely on what the client is saying and is not saying, to understand the meaning of what is said in the context of the client's desires, and to support client self-expression. 6. Powerful Questioning. Ability to ask questions that reveal the information needed for maximum benefit to the coaching relationship and the client. 7. Direct Communication. Ability to communicate effectively during coaching sessions, and to use language that has the greatest positive impact on the client. Facilitating Learning and Results 8. Creating Awareness. Ability to integrate and accurately evaluate multiple sources of information, and to make interpretations that help the client to gain awareness, and thereby achieve agreedupon results. 9. Designing Actions. Ability to create with the client opportunities for ongoing learning, during coaching and in work/life situations, and for taking new actions that will most effectively lead to

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agreed-upon coaching results. 10. Planning and Goal Setting. Ability to develop and maintain an effective coaching plan with the client. 11. Managing Progress and Accountability. Ability to hold attention to what is important for the client, and to leave responsibility for taking action with the client.

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Appendix 6

Appraisal Tools
General Appraisal Tool [Sunio, CUS, 2010] Mentoring must be conducted on the basis of hard data about the student. To produce the best possible outcomes, a thorough fact-finding process is necessary. Without appraising or assessment, mentors can never be effective. The best he can do is only to give motherhood advice. Appraisal involves assessing the student from multiple anglesusually coming from multiple sources (e.g. peers, parents, superiors, etc), known as the 360-degree feedback system. The advantage of conducting an appraisal is that it allows the mentor to assess the baseline performance of the studenthis strengths and weaknesses. For this reason, appraisal is often called the diagnostic phase, similar to what doctors do prior to giving prescription. Relevant data from the three areas of personal, interpersonal and situational contexts can be obtained from the following people or sources:

Self-appraisal. This involves the student assessing himselfi.e., how he sees himself. Peer appraisal. Peers may be able to provide good feedback about his weak and strong points. Family appraisal. His family, especially the parents, can advise about how he behaves at home. Superior appraisal. His teachers may provide useful information about the specifically academic context, inside and outside the classroom.

After appraisal, the mentor will have a better profile of the student: and as such we can think of appraisal as the profiling phase. With hard data about the student at his or her disposal, the mentor is now in much better position to guide the student. What information is relevant to mentoring? Here we present the four levels of internal diagnosis for evaluating the student that can be useful for freshman mentoring. Evaluating Academic Performance. In trying to evaluate the academic capabilities of the mentee, we would ask the following questions:

Is the student capable of a topnotch academic position in his batch? Can he get a top academic rank? Can he be a candidate for Latin honors? The student cant notch an excellent academic distinction, but can he be in the honors list? If the student is academically challenged in other subjects, can he nevertheless excel in the core courses? Many students who do poorly in the humanities subjects soar high in core analytical and mathematical subjects. In the resume of students like them, they can choose to put their performance in those subjectsand that is already impressive enough. If the student has serious academic limitations, what can we do to improve his study habits, his mindset, and his capabilities? In most cases, academic performance can always be improved.

Evaluating Personal Habits. In our experience, there is also a need for the mentor to diagnose the students character. We can ask the following:

Does the student live order in his or her room and at home? Does he or she live order in scheduling his activities throughout the day? 84

Does he waste time? Does he keep himself busy? What is he doing well? What is the one behavior I like to see him improve on? How is his relationship with the family? With friends?

Evaluating Affiliations, Alliances, and Linkages. Knowing the connections the student has in his own social network could help us identify later on people who can serve as the students change partnersthose who can help him achieve his goals.

What are the students organizational affiliations? What is the profile of his peers and of the friends in his social circle?

Evaluating Personal Vision and Goals. Some questions we may find helpful:

Does the student have a vision and goal already, no matter how provisional they may be? Does he have a professional plan? What does he want to accomplish by the time he graduates? How about after that? Are his goals aligned with his strengths and capabilities?

What Method Can Be Used to Gather Information? There many methods a mentor can use to collect useful information from multiple sources. We recommend the following:

Interviews. Sitting down with the person is a common fact-finding technique. The mentor may meet the students peers, parents, or superiors for an interview about the student. Survey. In cases when conducting a personal interview is difficult, a survey form may be given to the peer, parents or superiors.

Some Exercises in Self-Appraisal [Sunio, CUS, 2010] Answers to the questions below may be obtained from multiple sources, whenever applicable from the mentee himself, his peers, his superiors and his parents. 1. Hedgehog Concept Analysis Identify (1) what the mentee can be the best in the world at, (2) what he is deeply passionate about, and (3) what drives his economic engine. (See also Reflection in the Student Planner.)

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2. Leadership Strengths Diagnosis Domain of Leadership Executing Influencing Relationship Building Strategic Thinking Over-all Assessment: The mentee is strong in ______________________ (specify leadership domain). Evidence of Leadership Strength

3. Long Term Visioning Ask the student to formulate his or her own vision in life.

4. Short Term Visioning What are the mentees top-value goals (i.e. goals with the highest priority) by the time of graduation? What competencies, values and virtues should the student develop by graduation in order for him or her to move a step closer to realizing his or her long-term vision?

5. Assessing Baseline Performance Assess the students baseline performance in the following areas Criteria Academics Leadership Projects Awards Conferences Sports Research Skills Linkages Current Not applicable

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6. Setting Target Performance After accomplishing No. 5 above, the mentor can then help the student set specific targets for each area by the time he or she graduates Criteria Academics Leadership Projects Awards Conferences Sports Research Skills Linkages Current Not applicable

7. Relationship and Influence Evaluation Evaluate the students degree of influence in each of the following areas. The coach may conduct interview or survey with concerned parties. Sphere Oneself Peers Superiors (professors) Family Assessment

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Appendix 7

Action Plans
[Sunio, CUS, 2010] We will see in this section how the first three steps in the Five-Step Coaching Modelidentifying coaching goals, assessing and planningcan help us create a powerhouse action plan. After a series of preliminary conversations with the student as well as appraisal, the mentor now is in the position to help the student identify top-value goals, assess well the students capabilities and limitations to achieve these goals, and eventually to work an action plan that guides proper execution. An action plan is a tactical road map that identifies specific action steps toward achieving top goals. It converts strategic goals into executable tactical goals. Anatomy of an Action Plan What are the typical components of an action plan? Goal statement: What do I want to achieve? Benefits of goals: How will I be better off? How will my organization be better off? Obstacles to goals: Whats likely to prevent me from achieving this goal? Solutions to obstacles: How will I remove or overcome these obstacles? Action steps: What specific activities or skills do I need to get there? Progress measures: How will I know Ive completed this step? Plan or change partners: Whose help will I need to make this happen? Due Date: By when will I complete this step? The Assessment Connection In the assessment phase, relevant data are collected from a variety of sources. The mentor and the student are then able to devise an action plan based on this comprehensive or 360-degree data mirror. Here are the ways the assessment results inform the mentoring action plan:

Goals. Are the goals selected the highest priority based on needs, others feedback, and how is performance to be evaluated? Are the goals realistic when tested against the facts? Is there a solid assessment data for making decisions? Benefits of goals. What are the probable rewards associated with the goals? Obstacles to goals. Assessment information can be used to pinpoint potential threats to the action plan. Solutions to obstacles. By the same token, the assessment results may provide the information necessary to find solutions to barriers or threats. If not, they may still point the way to the sources and resources that we need to consult. Action steps. We achieve a mentoring goal by undertaking certain tasks and activities that involve behaving in new or different ways. The assessment results often indicate or confirm what behaviors or capabilities the student needs to acquire. Progress measures. The methods and tools used for the initial assessment can inform how the progress is measured. Plan or change partners. Besides the mentor, who else is important to achieving the goals? A sponsor? The assessment data will help identify change partners.

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Due dates. Interim and final due dates are set realistically and fit into the life and lifestyle of the mentee.

How to Prepare the Action Plan Preparing an action plan often takes a while since reflection is needed. Based on experience, it takes three mentoring sessions to prepare a final version of the plan. During the first session, the mentor may simply introduce the basics of an action plan and then inform the student of its anatomy and the benefits of making one. In the second session, the first draft is made. We could do this by holding a guided yet casual and interactive conversation with the student, and by asking the following questions:

What is your top-value, highest priority goal? What are the benefits of achieving these goals? To yourself? What obstacles or barriers can prevent you from achieving your goals? What are the solutions to these obstacles? What specific action steps will move you toward each goal? For each action step, are other partners involved? For each action step, how will you measure your progress? By what date will you accomplish each action step?

Once we have a draft on paper, we simply refine and finalize the working version during the third session. On Setting SMART Goals Action plans should include short and mid-range activities. This is not to say though that the longterm goals are not considered. In fact, the long-term goals keep the big picture in sight. Nonetheless, there is a world of difference between the big picture strategic objectives and the specific actionable goals to get there. The mentor should make sure that they set SMART goals with the student. It is not simply enough to urge the student to do his best. More than a thousand experiments have revealed that those who are given a SMART goal show superior performance, compared with those who are simply urged to do their best. Some additional key pointers about setting effective goals, according to Dr. Gary Latham, a consultant and international coach:

Set high but attainable goals. SMART goals have to be challenging and high priority, but not impossibly high. Set three to seven goals. Set the right kind of goals. SMART goals fall into two types: performance or outcome goals and learning goals. A performance goal focuses on the outcome or result. A learning goal, as the name implies, focuses attention on the discovery of effective strategies for goal attainment. Set goals for an uncertain future. Among the biggest impediments to the effectiveness of goal setting is the uncertainty of the futurethat is, environmental uncertainty. The more uncertain the environment, the more difficult it becomes to set a SMART goal. The solution is to set sub-goals that act as stepping-stones towards the final goal.

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To illustrate SMART goal setting, compare these two statements: Statement 1: I want to get a leadership position in some school organization. Statement 2: I want to become the president of AISEC within the next 2 years. Statement 1 is vague and seems more like wishful thinking than an actionable objective. By contrast, statement 2 meets the SMART goal criteria. Its detailed enough in terms of what and when, so that discrete action steps can be developed to move the goal forward.

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Appendix 8

Execution and Review


[Sunio, CUS, 2010] We have now reached the execution phase of the mentoring program. After preparing the action plan, what is needed now is to execute the plan. Execution spells the difference between a mere plan and the results. The focus now is to make sure that the plan gets executed. There is no one single method when it comes to execution, but a diligent follow-up from the mentor and a well-designed mentoring session may help. In principle, this is how a mentoring session may proceed. Three things are covered in a mentoring session: the past, the present, and the future matters.

Past events. The mentor will be eager to know what the mentee has been up to since the last session. The mentor may ask: What action steps from the written plan has the student taken? What other mentoring-related developments have occurred in the interim?

Present analysis and interpretation. Collaboratively, the mentor and the student review what has been reported in the update. The mentor evaluates what has been described, elicits additional data to flesh out key points, and helps the student analyze and make sense of the results. The mentor may test the thinking of the student and guide him through the discovery and consolidation of new information and perspectives. The mentor may ask: How did the efforts of the student turn out? What were the results? Did he achieve his aim? If not, why not? What do the results mean? How did the student feel? What has he or she learned? What will he or she do differently next time?

Future planning. Together the mentor and the student will look at whats next on his action plan and upcoming school demands. The mentor will help the student identify practice opportunities to apply what he has learned. The mentor may ask: What pressing issues or performance concerns are coming up for the student? What tools, capabilities, or resources will he need to be successful? What action steps or activities associated with action steps will he do next? When and where can he practice or try out what he has learned?

After execution comes the results evaluationor the review phase. In the end, mentoring is all about raising the performance of the student. For mentoring to be effective, it needs to pass the acid test of elevating the students performance. We can ask the following questions: Did the student accomplish his coaching objectives? What can he do now that he could not do before? Is he demonstrably more effective? What is the proof? What are the tangible benefits?

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Appendix 9

Administration of Mentoring
The following policies and procedures govern student mentoring in general: 9.1 In principle, all full-time faculty members are considered student mentors. Student-mentoring potential shall be explicitly included among the criteria for faculty hiring. New hires who cannot mentor students immediately shall undergo a program that will prepare them as part of the probationary requirement. A Framework for the Distribution of Faculty Hours will be implemented as a guide for faculty loading. In this framework, mentoring will be capped at 16 students and shall not require release from teaching. In principle, students keep their mentors until senior year; the freshman mentor shall, numbers permitting, be a full-time faculty member of the school corresponding to the students chosen degree or major. To resolve the unavoidable gaps in mentor-mentee matching in freshman year, a simple system for mentor-mentee changes will be established. Mentors will be provided with profile information of their mentees to facilitate mentoring beginning in freshman year. Mentors shall submit mentoring statistics, which will include information on topics or themes discussed, to be analyzed and commented on by the Operations Committee under whom the mentor belongs. A centralized oversight system for student mentoring shall be established under the Center for Students and Alumni. This oversight system will (1) consolidate the monthly student mentoring statistics for submission to the Management Committee, (2) oversee the revisions of the Guide for Mentors and Planner, and (3) send an annual report to the relevant Operations Committee on the contributions of the mentors. The Guide for Mentors is a work in progress to which mentors are invited to send notes of experience for subsequent editions. A team will be appointed to evaluate these contributions, which can also earn mentors additional points in their total performance evaluation. There will be regular (at least quarterly) get-togethers of mentors, divided according to year level and gender, and an annual seminar or workshop.

9.2

9.3

9.4 9.5 9.6

9.7

9.8

9.9

9.10 Mentoring competency will be among those matters to be addressed in the mentoring of faculty and staff.

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