1
2.1 Consider the following transition section:
(a) The flow from left to right is constant at Q =12 m
3
/s. What is the total acceleration of a
water particle in the x direction at x=5 m? Assume that water is incompressible and that the
X component of velocity is uniform across each cross section.
Since the discharge and the area are known the velocity can be easily determined:
u x ( )=
Q
A
=
1 2t
t 3 0.1 5 x ( )
2
Acceleration is defined as the derivative of velocity over time then:
d u
d t
=
cu
ct
+
cu
cx
cx
ct
=
cu
ct
+u
cu
cx
Since the flow is constant:
cu
ct
= 0 and the variation of velocity along the horizontal axis is due to
the truncated conical section:
du
dt
x
( )
=
12
3 0.15 x
( )
2
24 0.15
3 0.15 x
( )
3
=
12 24 0.15
3 0.15 x
( )
5
du
dt
5
( )
=
12 24 0.15
3 0.15 5
( )
5
=
43.2
57.67
= 0.749~ 0.75m s
2
(b) The flow of water from right to left in given by:
Q t ( )= t t
2
Calculate the total acceleration at x=5m for t=2s. Make the same assumptions as before.
Since the flow is going from right to left, the velocity can be now defined as:
u x, t
( )
=
Q
A
=
t t
2
t 30.1 5 x
( )
2
Water Wave Mechanics, Spring 2012 Carlos Serrano Moreno
2
following the same procedure as before, but taking into account that this time it is not possible to
neglect the partial derivative of velocity over time, the acceleration will be:
du
dt
x,t
( )
=
2 t
30.15 x
( )
2
t
2
30.15 x
( )
2
2 t
2
0.15
( )
30.15 x
( )
2
=
2 t
30.15 x
( )
2
+
2t
4
0.15
30.15 x
( )
5
( )
( ) ( )
2
5
4
2
707 . 0
5 15 . 0 3
15 . 0 2 2
5 15 . 0 3
2 2
2 , 5 s m
dt
du
=
+
=
2.4 If the water (assumed inviscid) in the Utive is displaced from its equilibrium position, it
will oscillate about this position with its natural period. Assume that the displacement of the
surface is:
q t
( )
= A cos
2t
T
t

\

.

where the amplitude A = 10 cm and the natural period T is 8s. What will be the pressure at a
distance 20cm below the instantaneous water surface for q= +10, 0, and 10cm?
Assume that g=980cm/s
2
and =1g/cm
3
.
As the displacement of the water surface is know the expressions for velocity and acceleration can
be easily obtained:
w t ( )= A
2t
T
sin
2t
T
t

\

.

dw
dt
t
( )
= A
2t
T

\

.

2
cos
2t
T
t

\

.

The fluid is known to be inviscid, then all the shear stress tensions can be neglected and Eulers
Equation can be applied:
Water Wave Mechanics, Spring 2012 Carlos Serrano Moreno
3
dw
dt
t
( )
=
cw
ct
t
( )
+ w
cw
cz
t
( )
=
1
cp
cz
g
cp
cz
= g + A
2t
T

\

.

2
cos
2t
T
t

\

.

= g +
2t
T

\

.

2
q t
( )
cp
cz
dz
z
0
q
}
= g +
2t
T

\

.

2
q t
( )
dz
z
0
q
}
= g +
2t
T

\

.

2
q t
( )

\

.


q z
0
( )
p q
( )
p z
0
( )
= g +
2t
T

\

.

2
q t
( )

\

.


q z
0
( )
0 p z
0
( )
= g +
2t
T

\

.

2
q t
( )

\

.


q z
0
( )
Since =1g/cm
3
, g=980cm/s
2
, A = 10cm, T is 8s and
q z
0
( )=20cm and assuming that there is no
pressure in the free surface,
p q
( )
= 0.
Finally, the pressure at the desired points can be easily obtained:
q
pq20cm
( )
10 cm
19476 .62
g
cm s
2
1947.662
N
m
2
0 cm
19600
g
cms
2
1960
N
m
2
10 cm
19723 .37
g
cm s
2
1972.337
N
m
2
2.6 Derive the following equation for an inviscid fluid and a non divergent steady flow:
cp
cz
g =
cuw
cx

\

.

+
cvw
cy

\

.

+
cw
2
cz

\

.

Again, if the fluid is inviscid, shear stress terms can be neglected. Taking a look to Eulers
equation:
Dw
Dt
=
1
cp
cz
g
Dw
Dz
=
cw
ct
+u
cw
cx
+v
cw
cy
+w
cw
cz
=
1
cp
cz
g
As the fluid is non divergent:
cu
cx
+
cv
cy
+
cw
cz
= 0. Playing with the equation above:
cw
ct
+u
cw
cx
+v
cw
cy
+w
cw
cz
+w
cu
cx
+
cv
cy
+
cw
cz

\

.

=
1
cp
cz
g
Assuming that the fluid is steady and reorganizing the terms and applying the chain rule of
derivatives:
Water Wave Mechanics, Spring 2012 Carlos Serrano Moreno
4
u
cw
cx
+ w
cu
cx

\

.

+ v
cw
cy
+ w
cv
cx

\

.

+ w
cw
cz
+ w
cw
cz

\

.

=
1
cp
cz
g
cuw
cx

\

.

+
cvw
cy

\

.

+
cw
2
cz

\

.
 =
1
cp
cz
g
2.9 For a particular fluid flow, the velocity components u,v and 2 in the x, y and z directivons
respectively are:
u = x +8 y +6 t z +t
4
v =8 x 7 y +6 z
w=12 x +6 y +12 z cos
2 t t
T

\

.
 +t
2
a) Are there any times for which the flow is non divergent? If so, when?
If the flow is non divergent:
cu
cx
+
cv
cy
+
cw
cz
= 0
cu
cx
=1,
cv
cy
= 7,
cw
cz
=12 cos
2 t t
T

\

.

1 7+12 cos
2 t t
T

\

.
 = 0 cos
2 t t
T

\

.
 =
1
2
2 t t
T
=
t
3
t =
T
6
However, since the solution comes from a cosinus: t = T/6 + kT, (k = 1,2,...) is also valid.
b) Are there any times for which the flow is irrotational? If so, when?
If the flow is irrorational:
i
j
k
c
cx
c
cy
c
cz
u v w
= 0 =
cw
cy
cv
cz
,
cu
cz
cw
cx
,
cv
cx
cu
cy

\

.

= 6 6, 6 t 12,88
( )
Then t=2s.
c) Develop the expression for the pressure gradient in the vertical (z) direction as a function
of space and time.
Dw
Dz
=
cw
ct
+ u
cw
cx
+ v
cw
cy
+ w
cw
cz
=
1
cp
cz
g
cp
cz
= g
cw
ct
+ u
cw
cx
+ v
cw
cy
+ w
cw
cz

\

.

since
cw
ct
=
24t
T
zsi n
2tt
T

\

.

+2t,
cw
cx
=12,
cw
cy
=6,
cw
cz
=12 cos
2tt
T

\

.

cp
cz
= g
24 t
T
z s i n
2 t t
T

\

.
 +2 t +12 u +6 v +12 cos
2 t t
T

\

.
 w

\

.

substituting the velocity values:
Water Wave Mechanics, Spring 2012 Carlos Serrano Moreno
5
cp
cz
= g
24 t
T
z si n
2 t t
T

\

.

+2 t +12 x +8 y +6 t z +t
4
( )
+ 6 8 x 7 y +6 z
( )
+
12 cos
2 t t
T

\

.
 12 x +6 y +12 z cos
2 t t
T

\

.
 + t
2

\

.


\

.




2.12 The pressures
p
A
t
( )
and
p
B
t
( )
act on the massless pistons containingg the inviscid,
incompressible fluid in the horizontal tube shown below. Develope an expression for the
velocity of the fluid as a function of time = 1 gm/cm
3
.
Note:
p
A
t
()
=C
A
sinot
( )
and p
B
t
()
=C
B
sinot+o
( )
where:
o=0.5rads, o=
t
2
, C
A
=C
B
=10dyn cm
3
Once again, since the fluid is inviscid, shear stress terms can be neglected. Eulers equation
along the xaxis:
Du
Dt
=
1
cp
cx
Du
Dz
=
cu
ct
+u
cu
cx
+v
cv
cy
+w
cv
cz
=
1
cp
cx
Pressure just depends on time. All convective acceleration terms can be neglected. Then:
cu
ct
=
1
cp
cx
cp
cx
=
p
B
p
A
100
=
10si n 0.5 t +
t
2

\

.

+10si n 0.5 t
( )
100
cu
ct
=
1
1
10si n0.5 t +
t
2

\

.

10si n0.5 t
( )
100
=
1
10
si n0.5 t +
t
2

\

.

+si n0.5 t
( )

\

.

u t
( )
=
1
10 0.5
cos 0.5 t +
t
2

\

.

cos 0.5 t
( )

\

.

+C
If t = 0
u 0 ( )=
1
5
cos
t
2

\

.
 cos 0.5 0 ( )

\

.

+C = 0C=
1
5
u t ( )=
1
5
cos 0.5 t +
t
2

\

.
 cos 0.5 t ( )

\

.

+
1
5
cm s