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1 * These goats are widely distributed in osmanabadi, latur and nearby small town places.

* Osmanabadi goats are known due to their reproductive capacity and yeilding milk.Each osmanabadi goats gives birth twice a year.Gestation period is of 5 months. * Twining is common. Triplest and quadruplets may also occurs. Milking ability 1-2 liters per day. Milking period is of 3 months after each pregnancy. * Also there is an insurance facility available from Govt. Of India to insure your goat . A goat of 10,000 rs is insured for 150rs,by united India insurance or any other company. * Kids should provide goat milk for at least 1 months.For first 7 days goat milk is essential as it contains high amount of colostrum. Which is essential for growth and proper development of body and also to survive against diseases. * Osmanabadi goats can accommodate easily in any part of india.They are disease resistant's then any other goats of india.This is the main reason that there demand is very high in all parts of the country. * Osmanabadi goats eats any farm fodder.They doesn't requires any special fodder.you can supply them vegetables,grains,grass etc from local market. Hence their feeding cost is also very low. * Each osmanabadi goat eats 2-3 kg of green fodder and half kg of dry fodder every day.Dry fodder includes cutting of wheat grass,wheat remaining's,pulp of pulses,grains,maze,lentils- which are mostly burned by farmers or thrown away as waste parts of grains.So even dry fodder can easily available at any place. * Dry fodder is essential for lactating goats for greater milk performance.And also for the kids for faster body growth in lesser time. * Kids of above 2 months eats 1kg of green fodder and 100-200gm of dry fodder. Kids of above 6 months eats 2-3 kg of green fodder and half kg of dry fodder. * Lactating Goats and kids are also feeded with the fodder containing high ratio of selenium,zinc,iron,iodine n vitamin E twice a weak.It is easily available in any veterinary medical shop in the form of bricks. Remember sheep fodder is different from goat fodder.Dont buy the fodder on which it is written for goats & sheep's. * water intake of goats is very less as they are desert animals.Each goat drinks less than 500ml of water in a day. * At the end a osmanabadi buck (male goat)of 6 months weights 20-25 kg.And of 10months 32-37kg. And does(female goat) of 8 months 20-25kg.And of 1year its above 40kg. * Meat of osmanabadi goat is a rich source of protein and is low in fats n cholesterol.It provides a great taste than any other goat meat.So demand of bucks is very high in any part of country. * The leather obtained from skin of osamabadi goat is of good quality.It has a high demand too.This leather is of high quality used for furniture's and footwear's in large scale.

Osmanabadi Goats a) History

Historically this breed is known to have existed on our Deccan Plateau since decades. It is believed that there is not only ex our Veterinary Universities of Southern India but also on Internet. The name Osmanabadi goat is derived from their distribu Maharashtra, which is located at a distance of 271 Km from Hyderabad. These Goats are reared mainly in 3 southern states largest contributors to meat production in southern India as their meat is very tasty when compared with local breeds.

b) Performance

Osmanabadi breed shows a very efficient reproductive performance and resistance against diseases not only in well manage but also in severe drought conditions . The age at the first kidding is around 15 months with the lactation length of around 130 days.

The dressing percentage varies from 50- 55 %. In favorable conditions the does will breed twice a year, twinning is commo form 700 gm to 1500 gm.

In the end the leather of osmanabadi goat is fairly of good quality and its meat is preferred by majority of the rural and urb India. c) Distribution

The breed is spread over the greater part of the central peninsular region, comprising the semi-arid areas of Maharashtra, A Karnataka.

It covers the Major part of Southern Maharashtra (especially Osmanabad, Beed, Sholapur, Latur, Parbani and Ahmed Naga Pradesh and North Eastern Karnataka. d) Characteristics

Osmanabadi Goats are mostly medium size animals usually black in color, but in some areas of Maharashtra and Western A spotted ones can also be seen. Mostly the males (89.5%) are horned and the females may be horned or polled. The ears are medium long with a length of around 18.0 cm and the tail is thin, with a length of around 16.6 cm. Adult Males Body weight (Kg) Body length (Cm) Adult Females 40.6 69.12 30.6 67.51

Height at withers (Cm) Chest girth (Cm) e) Mortality

77.87 72.06

74.79 72.04

Mortality among kids younger than 3 months and from the age 3 to 6 months is around 8.4 % and 4.8%. The mortality is 6% months and 3.7% for among adults. If the vaccinations against enterotoxaemia, haemorrhagic septicaemia and PPR, Dewor Ecto Parasites are carried out regularly heavy economic losses to the farmers can be avoided. f) Breeding Seasons

The major breeding season of Osmanabadi does is from May to July, followed by August to October and a small number o October to March.

Origin and distribution: The breed derives its name from its habitat and distributed in Ahmednagar, Solapur and Osmanabad districts in Maharashtra (Motghare et al 2005, Deokar et al 2006) where it is found in purest form. The breed is mainly concentrated and found in Latur, Parbhani, Ahmadnagar and Solapur district of Maharashtra besides Osmanabad. It has spread over a wide range of agro-climatic conditions in Vidharva, Marathada, Western Maharashtra and adjoining parts of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Siddiqui et al (1981) studied early growth performance and estimated heritability for growth for this breed. Mandokmale et al (2009) reported least square means of body weight in kids under field conditions at birth and 3, 6 and 12 months of age which were 1.840.01, 7.690.06, 14.080.10 and 18.620.10 kg, respectively. They also observed significant effect of milk production on kids body weight growth. Koratkar et al (1998) studied reproductive performance and found breeding efficiency as 92 percent. Physical Characteristics:The body colour is mostly black but some animals with white patches on ears, neck and sometimes on body are also found. The hair coat is short and shining face profile is straight, ears are of medium size and drooping. Most of the males are horned but about 5% of the females are polled. Wattles are found in many animals. The adult males and females weight 34 and 32 kg respectively on an average. Deokar et al (2006) characterized Osmanabadi goats and observed that most of them were of black coat colour, with grey white skin, black muzzle, eyelids and hooves, possessing grey straight and backward oriented

4 horns (13.01 cm length), pendulous ears (4.830.08 cm length), convex head type, absence of wattles and beard, and curved, slender and medium-length tail Osmanabadi is a medium sized breed with comparatively long body ad long legs. The average body length, body height and heart girth is 69, 77 and 72 cm in males and 68, 75 and 72 cm in females. Performance: The average age at first kidding and kidding interval is 523 and 214 days respectively. Goats of this breed have very efficient reproduction and in well managed flocks (Koratkar et al, 1998), with 30% twining and 2% triplets. The daily milk yield ranged from 700 gm to 1500 gm under well managed village flocks with lactation length of 130-150 day. Sawaimul et al (2009) observed overall survivability rate of Osmanbadi goat under farmers condition as low as 68.87%, whereas in adult and kids it was found to be 81.60% and 47.16% respectively. Very high mortality in kids suggests early loss of valuable genetic material in farmers condition. Osmanbadi Sahare et al (2009) found that in Osmanabadi goat maintained under farm condition, kidding percentage and twinning ability was 55.87% and 10.52% respectively. Table 1 Average performance of Osmanabadi goat in India as reported by Lawer et al (2008) Trait Age at first oestrus (days) Age at first mating (days) Weight at first conception (kg) Age at first kidding (days) weight at first kidding (kg) kidding interval (days) gestation length (days) oestrus duration (hours) Days open (days) Oestrus cycle duration (days) Twining rate (%) Average 219.340.72 233.020.89 19.660.07 385.952.98 23.680.05 216.771.67 148.870.89 36.250.08 68.210.42 21.490.03 70.67

Kamble et al (2009) observed age at puberty, first service and first conception as 335.313.0, 37014 and 37514 days respectively indication that the breed is

5 early maturing. Mandakmale et al (2007) studied carcass traits in Osmanabadi goat, having pre-slaughter weight of 11.760.13, 13.880.25 and 19.461.88 kg, at ages of 6, 9 and 12 months, respectively. The carcass weight of 4.990.19, 6.370.13 and 9.570.97 kg was found with dressing percentage of 42.431.32, 45.870.30 and 49.171.00 in the same age order, respectively