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Formwork

INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................................................3 DESIGNREQUIREMENTS ...............................................................................................................................................4 FACTORSRELATINGTOFORMWORK........................................................................................................................... 6 HIGHWALLFORMWORK..........................................................................................................................................6 TimberFramedFormwork........................................................................................................................................7 SHEATHING...............................................................................................................................................................8 WALLTYINGSYSTEMS..............................................................................................................................................8 CONSTRUCTIONJOINTS............................................................................................................................................9 SLIPFORM...............................................................................................................................................................10 CLIMBINGORJUMPFORMS...................................................................................................................................10 FormworkStriking......................................................................................................................................................11 Standardsrelatingtoformwork.................................................................................................................................12 ERECTIONFORCOLUMNS,BEAMS,SLABSANDSTAIRS............................................................................................. 13 Columns..................................................................................................................................................................13 ColumnFormworkConstruction............................................................................................................................ 13 Columnformsandjoints........................................................................................................................................14

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Columnformsandjoints........................................................................................................................................15 Erectionofformworkforcolumns......................................................................................................................... 17 Columnformworkconstructionstages.................................................................................................................. 18 BEAMANDSUSPENDEDSLABFORMWORK........................................................................................................... 19 Designandconstructionofbeamformwork .......................................................................................................... 19 Markingoutandsettingheightsforfalseworks ..................................................................................................... 20 Constructanderectsidewallsandbeamsoffit..................................................................................................... 20 SUSPENDEDSLABS......................................................................................................................................................21 Designandconstructionofslabformwork............................................................................................................ 21 DeterminingTheBearerSpacing............................................................................................................................ 22 ErectingBearersAndJoists....................................................................................................................................22 PROPRIETARYFORMWORK....................................................................................................................................23 FALSEWORK............................................................................................................................................................24 Settingupfalsework:..............................................................................................................................................24 STAIRFORMWORK.................................................................................................................................................25 StairFormworkconstruction..................................................................................................................................25 TREADS,NOSINGS,BALUSTRADING....................................................................................................................... 26 STRIKING,MAINTENANCE,STORAGEOFFORMWORK.......................................................................................... 27

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INTRODUCTION
Anumberoffundamentalprinciplesapplytoallformwork. Considerationmustbegivento: Acceptabletolerancespermitted; Useofappropriatematerials; Standardsofworkmanship; Constructionforeaseoferectionandstripping; Careandmaintenanceoftheformwork,sothatthemaximumnumberofreusescanbeachieved. Formworkisatemporaryconstruction;howevercaremustbetakentopreventdamagetopermanentwork.Threegeneral principlesgovernformworkdesignandconstruction: Qualityaccuracyoftheconcreteshapeandthefinalfinishedsurfacequality. Safetystrengthoftheformworkstructure.Personalsafetyofpeople,bothcarpenters andthepublic. EconomyThestructuralframeisusuallythemostsignificantcostcomponent,adominantandcriticalfactorinthetimeof construction.

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DESIGNREQUIREMENTS
Whendesigningformwork,considerthefollowing: 1. Strength:Formsandshuttershavetobedesignedtosupportdeadweight,liveloadandhydrostaticpressure. Sheathingmustberigidenoughtoresistbulging. Formworkforverticalconcreteelementsi.e.columnsandwallsaresubjecttopressuresontheformface.Thisiscausedby thefluidactionofthefreshconcrete.Thepressureofthefluidconcreteontheverticalfacesincreasesproportionatelywith thedepthofconcrete.Themaximumpressurebeingatthebottomoftheform.Thismaximumpressureforthefulldepth fluidconcreteisthehydrostaticpressureforconcreteandusuallyoccurswhentheconcreteisplacedveryquickly. Itshouldnotbepossibleforthebracingtobedislodgedbyimpact,orwind,actingfromanydirection.Refertoillustration below.

Design Pressure Distribution

Pressure Distribution

Hydrostatic Pressure P max Vertical stud Walers

2. Speedyerectionanddismantling:Theformworkdesignandthemethodsofassemblymustbeassimpleaspossible toreducetimespentinerectionanddismantling.Theformworkshouldbesimpletoremovewithoutcausingdamagetothe concrete. 3. Tightnessofjoints:Theliquidretainingpropertiesoftheformworkmustbeadequatetopreventleakageofcement andfineaggregatefromtheconcrete.

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4. Rigidity:Braceformworkandsupporttoensurenomovementmaytakeplaceunderwindpressure,orwhenthe concreteisbeingplacedandvibrated.Theshuttersmustberigidenoughtokeeptheconcretememberwithintheallowable tolerances. 5. Reuse:Designforunitconstruction,ifpossible,sothatyoucanstrikeandreuseassoonaspossible.Useclamps, wedges,andsimilardevicestoholdsectionsofformworkinplace.Avoidnailingasmuchaspossible,nailholesandbruising ofthetimberwillspoilformworkforfurtheruse.Theformworkmaterialmustbedurableandcapableofproducingagood surfacefinish. 6. Easeofhandling:Formsandshuttersmustbeofasizeandweightthatcanbehandledbythelabourandplant availableonsite. Adjustment:Arrangeallprops,shores,andstrutssothattheycanbeproperlyadjusted.Theymustbearonsoleplates,so thattheloadissafelydistributedontothestructurebelow. Removalofdebris:Provideallformworkwithspecialcleanoutholestoallowfortheremovalofsawdust,shavings,andother debrisfromthebottomoftheformworkbeforethepourbegins. FormworkTolerancesandvariationsinalignment Columns Piers Walls Variationsfromlevel Variationsfromplanposition Upto3mhigh 3mto6m Above6m 6mmin6m 6mbay over6mbay Nottoencroachoverboundary. Variationsinsizeandpositionof openings,sleeves Variationsincrosssectionalsize 6mm 6mm 10mm 18mm 10mmmax. 12mm 25mm

Upto600mm Over600mm

+6mmor3mm

6mm +25mmor12mm 0.05ofdimension

Variationsinfootings Variationsinconsecutivesteps

Thickness Rise Tread

1.5mm 3mm

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FACTORSRELATINGTOFORMWORK
Todesignandconstructsatisfactoryformworkanappreciationofthetypesofloadsand combinationsofloadsthatactontheformworkisrequired. Theheaviestloadonformsusuallyoccurswhentheconcreteisbeingplaced.Aswellastheweightoftheconcreteitself,(i.e. deadload),allowancefortheconcretinggangandtheirgearmustbeconsidered,(i.e.liveload).Depositingwetconcretein heapscreatesunevenpressureontheformwork.Itisimportanttoevenlyplacetheconcreteinlayers,distributingloads equallyontheformwork.Inwalls,wetconcreteexertshorizontalburstingpressuresontheverticalsoffit.Thepressureis reducedasthesemiliquidconcretehardensandbecomesselfsupporting.Formworkconstructionmustbeableto withstandtheloadsimposed.

HIGHWALLFORMWORK
Therearetwotypesofwallformwork.Onetypeisforwallsrequiringonlyonefaceofformwork,e.g.forbasementwalls. Theotherisdoublefacedformworkforfreestandingwallsinastructure.

Acknowledgement to the Australian Government Publishing Service for the use of their Wall formwork illustrations.

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TimberFramedFormwork.
Thewallformworkframeisconstructedusingeither: Thespacingandsizeofstudsandwalersisdeterminedbytheloadsimposedontheformwork.Theheightofthewall, thicknessofthewall,andthethicknessofthesheathingusedmustbeabletowithstandtheloadsplacedontheformwork. Verticalstudsandhorizontalwalers. Horizontalwalersandverticalsoldierswiththesheathing(sheeting)fixedatrightangles.

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SHEATHING
Therearevarioustypessheathingavailable.Theappropriatesheathingmustbeselectedto obtainthespecifiedfinishrequired.Optionsinclude: Sawnorplanedtimberedgesmaybesquarecutortongueandgrooved,toprevent groutleakage.Analternativeisafoamstripinsertedbetweentheboards. Plywoodexteriorgradeorformplyareavailableinvariousthickness.Thegrainon theouterfacemustbeparallelwiththespanofthewallformworkframing. Temperedhardboardproducesagoodfinish,however,islessresistanttodamageand multipleuse. Plasticliningsgiveagoodfinish,however,itmusthaveasolidbacking. Rubberliningsaresometimesusedfortexturedfinish. Glassfibreorothersimilarmouldsmaybeusedforvariousarchitecturalfeaturesonwallorwindowpanels.

WALLTYINGSYSTEMS
Thefunctionofformworktyingsystemsistoconnectthetwofacesofthedoublefacedformstogetherandeffectthe balanceoftheforcesbetweenthem.Thespacingofthetiesandtheforcestheyhavetoresist,isdeterminedbythewallto bebuiltandtheframingsystemadopted.Whenconsideringtiesforwallforms,selectionismadeonthebasisof: SHEBOLT COILTIE EASICLEANTHROUGHTIE tiecapacity, groutlossatthetieholes, easeofinstallation, finalappearance

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CONSTRUCTIONJOINTS
Stopendsandconstructionjointsmustalwaysbeformedatrightanglestotheconcretepour.Ifkeyedstopendsare required,useanangledfilletorasplitinsertforaparallelsidedslot.Constructionjointsatthetopofapourmayrequirea battenfixedtotheformworktofinishtheconcreteinastraightline.

HorizontalConstructionJoint

Split insert for parallel sided slot

StopEnds

Attheendsofwallsandattheplannedpositionsofconstructionjoints,stopendsmustbeconstructed.Duetoreflection andreboundoftheenergyofvibrationfromthefaceofthestopend,theconcretepressureactingonitcanexceedthat generallyactingontheformface. Inmostcasesthestudsoftheformworkdonotcoincidewiththestopendandasaresult,theplywooddeflectsunderthe concretepressureandgroutandwaterescapespastthestopend. Acommonmethodofresistingtheforcesonthestopendisbywedgingitoffthewallties.

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SLIPFORM
Thisisaformwhichiscontinuallybeingmovedupwards,orsideways,astheconcreteisbeingpoured.Therateofmovement isregulatedsothattheformsleavetheconcreteonlyafteritisstrongenoughtoretainitsshapeandsupporttheweights imposedonit. Verticalstructuressuchaschimneys(HuntlyPowerStation)andcoolingtowers(OhaakiThermalPowerStation)areoften donethisway.Kerbingandchannellingcanalsobeslipformed.Jackingoftheformscanbedonebyscrew,electric, pneumatic,butusuallyhydraulic.

CLIMBINGORJUMPFORMS
Thistypeofformworkisdesignedforconstantfloorheightandlayoutformultistoreybuildings.Theformworkis jumpedupfromonefloortothenextfloorabove.Thesystemisraisedverticallyforconsecutivelifts.Anchorpointsorties usednearthetopoftheformworkarereusedforthebottomofformworkwhenitislifted. SkytowerinAucklanduseda4mhighjumpformfortheconstructionofthe500mmthick,12mdiametermaintower achievingapouraboutevery9days.

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FormworkStriking
Theprocessofremovingtheformwork.Theearliesttimethis canbedoneiswhentheconcretehasdevelopedsufficient strength.Reinforcedconcretestructuralelements needtobeabletocarrythemselvesandanyother superimposedloadsovertheirintendedspans.Strippingtransfer partsorloadstoconcretestructureshouldbegradually transferred.Considerationshouldbegivento: Specificationrequirements,check sitedocumentsfortheconcrete strengthrequiredandstrippingtimes. Striking piece

Theconcreteageandminimum strengthatthetimeofstripping. Themethodandsequenceofstripping.

Limitsontheloadstobeplacedonthestructure. Removeformworkcomponentswithminimumdamage. Theconditionofthecomponentswilldeterminethereuse andcosts.

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Standardsrelatingtoformwork
NZS3109:1997 Concreteconstruction providesminimumrequirementsfortheconstructionofreinforcedconcrete,unreinforcedconcrete,prestressedconcrete oracombinationinelementsofanybuildingorcivilengineeringstructure. Section5ofthestandardcoversrequirementsfor: thedesignofformwork, surfacefinish, tolerances, removalofformsandshores, embeddedsleeves,conduitsandpipes constructionjoints. NZS3124:1987 Specificationforconcreteconstructionforminorworks providesminimumrequirementsfortheconstructionofreinforcedandunreinforcedconcreteinminorworksincluding buildingsoflighttimberframeconstructionwithinthescopeofNZS3604.Alsoconcretemasonryconstructionwithinthe scopeofNZS4229:1999 Concretemasonrybuildingsnotrequiringspecificengineeringdesign Thestandardhoweverdoesnotprovidespecificrequirementsforconcreteconstructionthataresubjectedtoaggressive environments.

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ERECTIONFORCOLUMNS,BEAMS,SLABSANDSTAIRS
Columns
Thefunctionofcolumnformworkistoenabletheconstructionofcolumnsthathavethespecifiedsurfacequalityandare acceptablyaccurateinshapeandpositionwithgoodalignmenttootheradjacentcolumns,wallsandbuildingfacades. Columnsareoftenconstructedwiththecolumnreinforcementextendingwellabovetheform.Thisisdonesoitcanlapwith thereinforcementofthenextcolumnorfloortobeconstructedabove. Theaccuracyrequirementsforcolumnsvaryaccordingtotheirpositioninthebuilding.Thetolerances,whicharethe maximumpermitteddeviations,arenormallyspecifiedintheprojectdocumentation.

ColumnFormworkConstruction
Toavoidplywoodjoints,itisnormalpracticetocutthesheetslengthwiseinwidthstomatchthecolumnfaces. Mostcolumnformingmethodsuseplywoodtoformfaces.Thecornerjunctionsoftheplywoodmustbedetailedtoachieve themaximumtighteningactionfromthecolumnclamps. Thecornersoftheformareusuallyformedtohavea45degreearris.Timberanglefilletsareusedtoformthearris.Care mustbetakentoalignthefilletinsidethecolumnform.

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Columnformsandjoints

SteelStrapping

Adjustablesteelclamps

Boltsthroughtimberyokes

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Columnformsandjoints

Adjustable steel column clamp

Acknowledgement to the Australian

Government Publishing Service for the use of their Column illustrations.

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CIRCULARANDOCTAGONALCOLUMNS
Circularcolumnformwork Fabricatedsteel,usuallytwopiece,andoftenwithahinge. Fibrecementpipeswhichareleftinplaceaspermanentformwork. Cardboardtube.Oneoffformwork,availableinarangeofdiameters,usedwithtimberstrongbacks.Cuttowasteafter concreteispoured. Plastictube.Usedinasimilarwaytocardboard. Octagonalcolumnformwork Timbersheathingtiedwithstandardcolumnclamps.Cornersneedtohaveinfillpieces.Alternatively,metalstrapcanbe usedwithouttheneedforcornerinfills. Timbersheathingwithalternatingcolumnclamps,forlargercolumns.

Fabricatedsteelwithboltedjoints. Vertical steel two piece form column

Vertical Timber sheathing column

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Vertical Cardboard column braced

Erectionofformworkforcolumns
Beforeerectingcolumnformwork,applyareleaseagenttoallinternalsurfaces.Ifspecified,fixanyrequirededging,metal corners,arrispiecesorcastedinserts. Priortotheerectionofformworkforstructuralmembers,itisimportanttochecktheexactlocationofgridsrelatingtothe structuralmemberbeingformed.Thelocation,sizeofcolumn,height,andspecifiedfinishshouldbeclarifiedfromsite documentation.Oftenhurdlesrestrictthepositioningofgridlocations,thereforeoffsetsmayberequired.Itisthe contractorsresponsibilitypriortotheerectiontochecksitedocumentationfortheexactpositionofthestructuralmember youareworkingon. Erectionsequenceforacolumn Priortopositioningcolumnformworkcheckthatsteelforthecolumnhasbeeninspectedandclearedforcasting. Positionformworkforthecolumnfrompredeterminedgrids. Plumbformworkbothwaysandsecurelysupportusingadjustablesteelprops. Theproppingangleshouldbe45tothefloor. Ensurethesteelpropsaresafelysecuredtothecolumnformworkandthefloor,and thatadjustmentforpushingandpullingisoperational. Setoutthepositionsofcolumnclampsfromastoreyrod. Transferthecolumnclamppositionsfromthestoreyrodontocolumnformwork. Usenailstosupportthearmsofcolumnclampswhilewedging. Positionandwedgethebottom,middleandtopclampssets. Checktheformworkatthetopforsquare. Positionandwedgetheremainderofthecolumnclamps. Usingaplumbbobsuspendedfromagaugeblockplumbthecolumn. Whenallthecolumnformworkissecurelyproppedafinalcheckmustbemadefor plumbandcolumnalignmentbeforeandimmediatelyaftertheconcretehasbeen pouredandvibrated.

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Columnformworkconstructionstages
Columnformworkbracing Columnformworkbracingperformstwofunctions: Itmustmaintaintheaccuracyofthecolumnformpositionandplumbsothatitiswithintolerance. Withstandresultsofforcesactingoneitherthecolumnformworkorthebracing.The forcesmaybewindor impact.Theseimpactforcescanoccurfromthecollisionof concretebucketsorcraneshoistingmaterials.

Braced column

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BEAMANDSUSPENDEDSLABFORMWORK
Inatypicalreinforcedconcretebuildingframe,theslabsaretheprimaryloadcarryingelement.Theytransfertheirloadto secondaryelementssuchaswallsorbeams. Beamscanbegroupedintwocategories.WhenlocatedintheinteriorofthestructuretheyareusuallyTEEBeamsandwhen ontheperimeterareLBeams.

TEEBEAMS

LBEAMS

Designandconstructionofbeamformwork
Propsorfalseworkmustbeplaced undertheheadtree,orunderthebearers, andmustbespacedtosuittheweight ofconcrete. Useanglefilletsinthebeamsideto soffitjointwherepossible. Allowancemustbemadeforheight adjustmentofthepropsorfalsework. Erectionsequenceforconstructingbeamformworkincludes: Positionofsoleplates; Markingoutandsettingheightsforfalseworks; Assembleandpositionprops,adjustableheadjacks, falseworks,bearersandSpreaders; Constructanderectsidewallsandbeamsoffit. Positionofsoleplates Deepbeams(over600mm)shouldhave walersandties. Beamsides18mmplywoodor25mmboards,withstuds(cleats)at 500to600mmcentres. Beamsoffitmustbethickenedtimberorstrengthenedplywood.

Thepurposeofasoleplateistotransferverticalloadfromoneverticalsupportmembertothefoundation.Thevertical supportrequiresabaseplatefittedtohelpdistributetheloadtothesoleplate,whichisusuallyasleeper.Ifthesoleplateis positionedonnaturalground,itisimportantthegroundisgradedandconsolidatedtoalevelsurface. Theobjectiveistoachievemaximumbearingbeneaththesoleplate. Oncesoleplatesarepositionedandfirmlybeddedtheyshouldbecheckedforlevel.

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Markingoutandsettingheightsforfalseworks
Markoutthepositionofpropsandotherfalseworksupportsonthetopofthesoleplates. Measuretheheightfromthesoleplatetothetopofthecolumnandmarktheheightontoastoreyrod. Deductthethicknessofbeamsoffitdepthofjoistandthedepthofbearerfromtheoverallheight.Thisprovidesthe heighttosetsteelpropsandotherfalseworksupportsystems. Adjustthefalseworksystemstolengthsdeterminedfromthestoryrod. Assembleandpositionprops,adjustableheadjacks,falseworks,bearersandspreaders Thistasknormallyinvolvesworkinginpairs.Itisimportanttobearinmindthesafetyrequiredtoassembleprops andtemporarysupportsystems.Oftencontinuousormobilescaffoldingareusedtohelperectthefalsework system. Layoutlengthsofbearersoneachsideofthecolumns.Jointsshouldbestaggered. Positionthescaffoldateachendofthebearer. CarefullypositionbearersintothecentreofproporfalseworkUhead.UsecentralisingpackersnailedtoUhead. Repeatthisprocedureontheotherside. Plumbsupportsbothwaysandnailspreadersateachendhardagainstthecolumnface.Thisistoprevent movement. SecurepropsandfalseworkatUheadandsoleplate. Placespreadersinpositionatrequiredspacing. Position,plumbandfixintermediateprops.

Constructanderectsidewallsandbeamsoffit
Fromworkingdrawingsthejoistlengthcanbedeterminedbydevelopingafullsizeorscaledsetoutdrawingofa crosssectionofthebeambeingconstructed.Allowforformworkandbracingrequiredinthedevelopment. Markoutapatternjoistfromyoursetoutdrawing. Markouttherequirednumberofjoistsfromthepattern.Beamjoistsshouldthenbefixedinpositionacrossthe bearers. Fixthesoffit.Thewidthofthesoffitcanbedeterminedfromyourfullsizesetout. Useastringlinetoaccuratelypositionthepanelsusedtoformthesoffitbetweencolumns.Supporttheedgeofthe soffitpanelsbyplacinganextrajoistundertheendedgeofpanels. Obtainstudheightsforwallsfromfullsizesetout. Constructthetimberframewallpanelsinsections. Erectthewallframestoeachedgeofthesoffitliningadjusteachpanelforplumbandlineusingbraces. Fixwalers,kickerscleatsandbracingplate. Fixtieboltsasspecified. Revised2009

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SUSPENDEDSLABS
Suspendedfloorslabscanbeconstructedusingcastinsitu,precastunitsoracombinationofboth.Whichevermethodis used,itisimportanttosupporttheproposedmethodofconstructionusingacombinationoftimberorsteelbearersand adjustableshoring.Thespacingandtypeofsupportsystemrequiredisdeterminedbytheloadimposedduringthe constructionprocess.Manufacturersprovidetablestoassistintheselectionandspacingofadjustableshoringsystems. Theerectionsequenceforconstructingasuspendedfloorslabincludes: Determiningthebearerspacing; Erectingbearersandjoists; Fixingthesheeting; Preparationforconcrete.

Designandconstructionofslabformwork
Asanumberofcollapseshaveoccurredwhenpouringsuspendedslabs, carefulattentionmustbegiventotheoverallsupport system.Unlessusingaproprietaryorwellprovensystem, engineerdesignisrequired.Deckingwillprobablybeplywood sheetsorshutters,butboardsandjoistscouldbeused. Thicksheetsoffibrecementarealsosuitable.Propsandother falseworkmustbeperfectlyplumbatthetimeofpouringthe concrete. Allpropsandfalseworkmustbetiedtogetherandbraced. Proprietarybearersintimberorsteelareoftenusedas theirbearingcapacityiseasilydetermined.Considerationmust begiventotheorderofstriking,andtheinstallationof permanentorbackpropping.

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DeterminingTheBearerSpacing
Tocalculatethebearerspacingmeasurethespanbetweenthesupportingwalls.Dividethespanbytherecommended bearerspacing.Thiswilldeterminethenumberofspacesbetweenbearers.Dividethespanbythenumberofcalculated spaces.Thiswillestablishthecentretocentrespacingofbearers.

ErectingBearersAndJoists Bearers
Positioningbearersforasuspendedslabarethesameasforabeamhowever:itisimportantthatsoleplatesarefirmly beddedoneithercompactedgroundorlevelconcrete.Bearersupportsmustbeadequatelybraced.Extrabearersmaybe requiredtosupportjoistsandsheetingeithersideofmajorpenetrations. Checkthefollowing: bearersarepositionedandsetinlineandadjustedtothecorrectlevel. soleplatesarebeddedfirmlyandpositionedcentraltothebearer. allbearersupportsareplumb. bearerjoinsaresupported. bearersareseatedcentrallyinUheads. supportsspacedasspecifiedandarefirmlyfixedattheheadandbearingplate. allsupportsarehorizontallyanddiagonallybraced.

Joists
Thepositionofjoistsisdeterminedbythesheetlengthandthecentretocentrespacingoftheintermediatejoists.Check withthespecificationsofthesheetingmaterialbeingused.Determinetheperimetersupportrequired,layingpatternand whetherthefacegrainistorunparallelorat90degreestothejoists.Thiswilleffectthejoistarrangement. Markoutthejoistspacingonthesidewallsclearlyidentifyingthejoistsattheendofeachsheet. Sheetingedgesmustfallonthecentreofajoist. Cutrequirednumberofjoiststolength. Positionthejoistscentrallyoverthesetoutlines.

FixingTheSheeting
Ifusingformplyforsheeting,itisimportanttoavoiddamagingtheedgesofsheets. Bysealingtheedgesofsheetsyouwillpreventswelling. Positionthefirstrowofsheetingstraightandsquare,thiswillmakefittingtheremaindersimpler. Fixintermediatesheeting. Nailoffsheets,sealandinstallanybevelledtrimrequiredtoexternalandinternalcorners. Somespecificationsrequiresurfacetapetobeappliedoverbuttjoints. Checkthatjointsaresealed,levelandtight. Intersectionsatedgebeamformworkareplanedflat. Sheetingisfixedasspecified. Revised2009

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Anypanelscuttoaccommodatepenetrationsoropeningsarethecorrectshapeanddimensionandintherequired position. Alljointsofsheetsarefullysupported.

PreparationForConcrete
Taskstobecompletedbeforetheconcreteiscastinclude: Clearingthedeckingofalldebris; Markingoutforreinforcing; Applyareleaseagenttosheeting; Checksitedocumentationandwithsubcontractorstoaccommodatesleeves,penetrationsandconduitforservices; Fixreinforcingsteelinaccordancewithstructuraldetails; Finalcleanandinspectionrequired.

PROPRIETARYFORMWORK
ProprietaryformworkSystemsaresuppliedbycompaniessuchasBoralAcrow,andRapidMetalDevelopmentsinNZ,andfor specificprojectsareoftensuppliedbyoverseascompanies. BoralAcrowsupplies: UForm(Universal):forwalls,columns,beams,andslabswithvariousaccessoriesforscaffoldingsupport.Shuttersare joinedwithsnapties. "Flexibleform":forcurvedstructures,andcanbecombinedwith"Uform". Forsomeprojects,specialformworkisdesignedandconstructed,oftenworkinginconjunctionwithanoverseascompany. TEMPORARYPROPPING(SHORING) Asearlystrikingofbeamandslabsoffitformworkisdesirableforearlyreuse,someformoftemporarysupportisgenerally needed. Althoughofatemporarynature,itisoftencalledpermanentpropping,withtemporaryproppingbeingusedwhileconcreteis poured. Typicalpermanentshoringorpropping Undisturbed:Formsarestruckwithoutdisturbingthepropsthataretobeleftinplace.Proprietarysystemsallowthis. Secondary:Propsareplacedindesignedlocationsbeforedisturbinganyoftheexistingprops. Partial:Thesoffitformworkisstruckshutterbyshutterandnewpropsareplacedprogressively. Total:Thecompletesoffitisstruckandreproppedbeforeanyconstructionworkcommencesabove.

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FALSEWORK
Falseworkistemporarystructureorframeworkusedinconstructiontosupportmaterials,equipment,orformwork.(SeeOSH SafetyinConstructionGuideNo7) Mostfalseworkisvertical,supportingbeamsandslabs.Falseworkmustbeengineerdesigned. Aswellassupportingtheweight,allowancemustbemadeforsidewaypressuressuchaswind,stacksofmaterialscausing eccentricloading,propsoutofplumb,formworkbeing struckbymachineryorcraneloads. Falseworkcanbe: timber; scaffoldtubewithadjustablescrewjacks,toporbottom,orboth; proprietarypropsuchasAcrowprop; proprietarybracedframesuchasAcrowshore; proprietaryfloorcentre(atelescopicbeam); proprietarybeamclampssuchasAcrowbeamclampwhichcombinesformworkandfalsework.

Settingupfalsework:
Basemustbelevelandfirm.Asoleplateispreferable; Propsandframesmustbeplacedasperdesign; Placepropscentrallyundermembers; Bracefalseworkintwodirections; Floorcentresmusthavefullbearingfortheendtongues; Beamsmustbecentredoverpropstopreventeccentric(outofline)loading.

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STAIRFORMWORK
Thedesignofthestairmustconformtothestairdesignregulationse.g.residentialorcommercial.RefertotheBuildingCode D1forstairdesignandregulations. Pointstoconsiderwhendesigningstairformwork Stairformworkmustsupporttheweightofconcrete.Theweightofthethroatofthestairandthestepswillhaveto besupported. Becauseoftheslopeofthestair,someoftheforceistransmittedsideways.Allformworkmustbewelltiedtogether topreventsidewaymovement. Considerthefinishofthestairtreadsandtypeofnosing.Spacemayhavetobeleftforpurposemadenosing.

Step nosing Riser, vertical or raked Rebate for purpose made nosing

Throat

StairFormworkconstruction
Sheathingcanbedressedboardslaidacrossorlongitudinallyorusesheetmaterialsuchasplywoodorparticle board. Dressedboardsmayhavesheetmaterialfixedontoptopreventlossofgrout. Joistsandbearersmustbespacedtoavoidunduesaggingofanypartofthestructure.Selecttimbercarefullyto avoidweaknessescausedbyknotsorcrossgrain. Verticalstrutsmusthaveameansofheightadjustmentandbeverysecurelyfixedtothebearerstoprevent sidewaysmovement. Placeandfixriserboardsaccurately.Forsafetyallstepsmustbethesamesize. Ensurethatallreinforcingsteelisplacedexactlyasshownonthedrawings.Misplacingthesteel,particularlyin depth,canalterthestrengthofthefinishedstair.Ensureadequatecoveronexteriorstairs. Placeinsertsforbalustersandnosingpiecesasrequired.

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CROSSSECTIONOFSTAIRFORMWORK

TREADS,NOSINGS,BALUSTRADING.

Treads Itisverydifficulttoputahighqualityfinishonthesurfaceofinsitupouredstepsbecauseofthedifficultyingettingunder andaroundtheriserboardsandstrongbacks.Itisgenerallybettertoallowforlaterplasteringorcoveringofthestepswith tilesetc.


Raiser form Beveled at 450 for trowel access

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Nosings
Concretenosingsareverypronetochipping.Itiscommonpracticetoreinforcethecornerwithapurposemadenosingsuch as: Vinyl,aluminium,ceramic,etc.Nosingsalsohelptomakethestepsnonslip.

Balustrading
Provisionmustbemadeforfixingbalustradingunlessitistobefixedatthesurfaceusingmasonrybolts.Balustradingcanbe madefromgalvanisedwroughtiron,galvanisedpipe,aluminium,stainlesssteel,etc.,mostofwhichissitemeasuredafter stepshavebeenpoured. Balustradingactsasaguardrailing.Itmustbestrongenoughtoresistapersonfallingagainstitandbeleast900mmto1m high.

Precaststairways
Inmanybuildingsandinparticularinmultistoreybuildings,thereareoftenagreaternumberofidenticalstairflights.In thesecasestheadvantagesofprecastingthestairsmeritconsideration.

STRIKING,MAINTENANCE,STORAGEOFFORMWORK Striking
Ascolumnandbeamsideformworkwillberemovedbeforebeamandslabsoffitformwork,provisionmustbemadeforeasy removalandinthecorrectorder. Ifbeamandslabsoffitformworkistoberemovedbeforetheconcretehasachievedworkingstrength,permanentpropping orshoringisrequired. Takecaretoavoiddamagetoformworkwhichistobereused.Eightormoreusesmaybeobtainedfromtimberformwork.

Maintenance
Cleanformswithstiffbrushandcleancoldwater. Usescrapersonlyasalastresort. Keepformswelloiledtopreventdelaminationofplywoodorrustingofsteelandalwaysoiltheedges.

Storageofforms
Anyformworkwithsteelcomponentsshouldbestoredinthedry. Avoiddirectsunlightontimberforms. Storeclearofthegroundwithouttwistorbend,andkeepfreeofdirt.

UNITECNewZealandAppliedTechnologyInstitute

Revised2009