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ABSTRACT Rolling is the process of reducing the thickness or changing the cross section of a workpiece by compressive forces exerted

by a pair of rotating rolls. The process can be carried out hot, warm, or cold, depending on the application and the material involved. There are several types of rolling, which separates from each other by the end product they manufacture. In this report the types of rolling processes are discussed and the materials for the rolling and force and power requirements are presented. The aim of this report is to give information about rolling process of an aluminum.

intro

Rolling is a manufacturing process of thinning sheets and plates putting them between two rotating rollers. Hence, due to the plastic deformation, which the metal is subjected to, the shape, the structure and the mechanical properties of the material change. In rolling operations the cross sectional area of the metal is reduced while between the metal is being passed through a pair of rolls. Rolling process can be classified according to the temperature of the metal rolled. If the temperature of the metal is above its recrystallization temperature then the process is called as hot rolling, if the temperature is below its recrystallization temperature, it is called cold rolling. In cold rolling process the metal which is passed between the rotating rolls has the temperature below its recrystallization temperature. As the strain increases, the hardness and the other mechanical properties of the metal changes as well. Hot rolling is when the metal which is to be rolled is heated above the recrystallization temperature. The main distinctive difference of hot rolling is the simultaneous occurrence of dislocation propagation and softening processes. Hot rolling is an effective way to increase the strength and ductility as decreasing the grain size. In addition, continuous castings are shaped by hot working.

Theory

Straight structural shapes of various cross sections, channel sections, I-beams, and railroad rails are rolled by passing the stock through a number pairs of specially designed rollers. Airfoil shapes also can be produced by shape-roling techniques. The original material shape is usually a bloom. The design of a series of rolls requires special care in order to avoid defect formation and hold dimensional tolerances. [4] In ring rolling process, a small-diameter, thick ring is expanded into a larger diameter, thinner ring by placing the ring between two rolls, one of which is driven. The ring

thickness is reduced by moving the rolls closer as they continue rotating. Because of volume constancy, the reduction in thickness is compensated for by an increase in the diameter of the ring. [4] Thread rolling is a cold-forming process in which threads are formed on round rods or workpieces by passing them between reciprocating or rotating dies. Typical products made include screws, bolts, and similar threaded parts. With flat dies, the threads are formed on the rod or wire with each stroke of the reciprocating die. In all threadrolling processes, it is essential that the material have sufficient ductility and that the rod or wire be of proper size. Spur and helical gears also can be produced by processes similar to thread rolling. The process may be carried out on solid cylindrical blanks or on precut gears. Helical gears can also be made by a direct extrusion process, using specially shaped dies. Cold rolling of gears has many applications in automatic transmissions and power tools. [4] Successful rolling practice requires balancing many factors, including material properties, process variables, and lubrication. Surface defects may result from inclusions and impurities in the material, scale rust dirt, roll marks, and other causes related to the prior treatment and working of the material. Structural defects are defects that distort or affect the integrity of the rolled product. Wavy defects are caused by bending of the rolls; the edges of the strip are thinner than the center. Because the edges elongate more than the center and are restrained from expanding freely, then buckle. [4] Alligatoring is a complex phenomenon that results from inhomogeneous deformation of the material during rolling or from defects in the original cast ingot, such as piping. Residual stresses can be generated due to inhomogeneous plastic deformation in the roll gap. Small diameter rolls or small reduction tends to deform metal plastically at its surfaces. This generates compressive residual on the surfaces and tensile stresses in the bulk. Large diameter rolls and high reductions tend to deform the bulk to a greater extend than the surfaces. This generates stresses that are opposite to those of the previous case.[4]

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE Objective: Rolling of aluminum strip and observation of deformation, height reduction and defects. Apparatus: Rolling Machine Materials: Aluminum strip with initial dimensions 490 mm x 20.4 mm x 2.5 mm A piece is taken from the lead specimen that has been extruded. The width and thickness dimensions of the workpiece are measured. The workpiece is placed into the rolling machine. The workpiece is rolled and the new dimensions are recorded after operation.

Data and Results Our test specimen was formerly a 40x21x3.3 mm lead block. After rolling, its dimensions change into; length : 40 mm to 74 mm width : 21 mm (does not change) thickness : 3.3 mm to 1.79 mm So the comparison for initial volume and final volume can be made: Vi= 40 x 21 x 3.3 = 2772 mm3 Vf= 74 x 21 x 1.79 = 2781,66 mm3 As can be seen from the results, though the cross sectional area decreases, due to increase in length, there is no significant change in volume. The little change in the volume can stem from no-efficient rolling or the low accuracy of measurements.

CONCLUSIONS Rolling is the process of changing the cross section of a workpiece by compressive forces exerted by a pair of rotating rolls. The basic operation is the flat rolling where the rolled products are flat plates and sheets. The advantages of hot rolling are the lower forces needed and the higher ductility of the metal. Cold rolling on the other hand requires higher forces but produces a much better surface finish, allows a better control of tolerances and produces plates and sheets of higher strength. In the study reported here, cold rolling process is applied to a lead strip. The metal is taken into rolls by friction and subsequently compressed to obtain final and desired shape. For rolling the final products, plain cylindrical rolls are used. Observatons show that rolling defects may arise due to relatively limited relative motion between the rolling die and the workpiece. Furthermore, according to the calculations, width of the specimen changes from 20.4 mm to 22.2 mm while the thickness of the specimen decreases 48%.

[1] http://www.mme.wsu.edu/~me310/Ch19-I.pdf

[2] http://web.umr.edu/~rsmishra/SMEModule/Rolling.html [3] http://www.courses.ebe.uct.ac.za/mec104w/projects/metalsvid/metalsvid.html [4] http://www-woolf.uta.edu/mills/mantech/lectures/Lecture_6.ppt [5] ASM metals handbook, 2004 [6] Kalpakjian S., Manufacturing Materials for Engineering Materials Addison Wesley, 1984, page 240 [7] http://www.ucs.louisiana.edu/~snd7483/MCHE365/13.ppt [8] http://212.154.18.25/en/index.asp [9] : http://www.intermet.com.tr/03-erdemir-export.htm
[1] Geng, Hwaiyu: Manufacturing Engineering Handbook., p. 479, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2004 [3] Swift KG, Booker JD, Process Selection: From Design to Manufacture, 2ND Edition, p. 94, Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, MA, 2003