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TDS1191, Tutorial 2

Subject: Session:

Discrete Structures 2 2006/2007

Tutorial 2
Part A
1. 2.

Proof Techniques II

Show that for any integer n, n2 2 is not divisible by 4. Show that for any real numbers x and y, max (x, y) min (x, y) = |x y|.

3. If n is an integer, show that n2 is divisible by 8 if and only if n is divisible by 4.

Part B

First / Second Order Logic

1. In the questions below suppose that Q(x) is x+1 = 2x, where x is a real number. Find the truth value of the statement. (i) Q(2) (ii) x Q(x) (iii) x Q(x) 2. In the questions below P(x,y) means x + 2y = xy, where x and y are integers. Determine the truth value of the statement. a) P(1,1). b) P(0,0). c) y P(3,y). d) xy P(x,y). e) xy P(x,y). f) yx P(x,y). g) yx P(x,y). h) xy P(x,y). 3. In the questions below suppose the variable x represents students and y represents courses, and: U(y): y is an upper-level course M(y): y is a math course F(x): x is a freshman B(x): x is a full-time student, T(x,y): student x is taking course y.
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TDS1191, Tutorial 2

Write the statement using these predicates and any needed quantifiers. a) Eric is taking MTH 281. b) All students are freshmen. c) Every freshman is a full-time student. d) No math course is upper-level. 4. In the questions below suppose the variable x represents students and y represents courses, and: M(y): y is a math course F(x): x is a freshman B(x): x is a full-time student T(x,y): x is taking y. Write the following statement in good English without using variables in your answers. a). xy T(x,y). b) xy T(x,y). c) xy [(B(x) F(x)) (M(y) T(x,y))]. 5. In the questions below assume that the universe for x is all people and the universe for y is the set of all movies. Using the predicates S(x,y): x saw y, L(x,y): x liked y. write the following statements in good English without using variables in your answer. a) y S(Margaret,y). b) yx L(x,y) c) xy L(x,y). 6. In the questions below let F(A) be the predicate A is a finite set and S(A,B) be the predicate A is contained in B (which is the same as A is a subset of B). Suppose the universe of discourse consists of all sets. Translate the statement into logical expressions. a) Not all sets are finite. b) Every subset of a finite set is finite. c) No infinite set is contained in a finite set. d) The empty set is a subset of every finite set. 7. Using the predicates. P(x) = x is a clear explanation Q(x) = x is satisfactory R(x) = x is an excuse formalize the following statements. a) All clear explanations are satisfactory. b) Some excuses are unsatisfactory. c) Some excuses are not clear explanations. Show that the premises a) and b) imply the conclusion c).
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TDS1191, Tutorial 2

8. Express the negation of the following statements so that no negation symbols appear outside a quantifier or an expression involving logical connectives. a) xy [F(x,y) (Q(x) S(y))] b) x y [(Q(x) F(x,y)) S(y)] c) xy [Q(x) S(y) F(x,y) P(x)] 9. Assuming p(x) means that x is a person, c(x) means that x is a chocolate bar and e(x,y) means that x eats y. Give English translations of the following formulas.

a) x (p(x) ( y (c(y) e(x,y)))) b) y (c(y) (x (p(x) e(x,y))))

10. Prove directly.

a) [(x (p(x) q(x))) ( x p(x))] x q(x) b) [(x (P(x) Q(x))) (x (Q(x) S(x))) (x (R(x) S(x))) (x P(x))] x R(x)

11. Prove by formal reasoning that the premises a) If a student works hard, he/she will pass all his/her subjects b) Terry did not pass Discrete Structures imply the conclusion c) Terry did not work hard. 12. Prove by formal reasoning that the premises a) All movies produced by James Stewart are wonderful. b) James Stewart produces a movie sharks. imply the conclusion c) there is a wonderful movie about sharks.

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