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Terracotta Flooring and Paving

Terracotta Flooring And Paving


Flooring And Paving
Technical/commercial classification Classification according to UNI EN standards UNI EN 87 UNI EN 187 product requirements Test methods

Laying The Tiles


Functional layers Compatibility between tiles and subgrade Expansion joints Drainage and removal of water Bedding layer Laying techniques using mortar or adhesives Terracotta outdoors Sealing the joints

Treatment
Cleaning Protection Finishing and maintenance Treatment diagrams Troubleshooting Specific notes about our flooring and paving Conclusions and discussion

Flooring And Paving

Introduction:

Flooring and Paving

Ceramic tiles Technical/commercial classification


In Italy there are technical/commercial classification standards - currently employed by manufacturers and users of ceramic tiles alike - based on various technical and technological characteristics. These classification standards list the different types of tile according to:

Surface layer
(glazed or not glazed)

Water absorption
(linked to porosity)

Moulding method
(pressing or extrusion)

Main destination
(floor or wall coverage, interior or exterior)

Introduction:

Flooring And Paving

Ceramic tiles Technical/commercial classification


Type
Glazed surface Majolica Earthenware White body single-fired tiles Red single-fired tiles Klinker

Water absorption (%)


15-25 7-15 0-6 0-15 0-6

Moulding method
Pressing Pressing Pressing Pressing Extrusion

Main use

Indoor coverage Indoor flooring Outdoor paving/Indoor flooring Outdoor paving/ Indoor flooring Outdoor paving/Outdoor coverage/Indoor flooring Indoor flooring/Outdoor paving Outdoor paving/Indoor flooring Out. paving/Ind.floor./ Out.cover. Out. pav./Ind. floor./Out.cover.

Unglazed surface Terracotta Red stoneware Fully vitrified stoneware Klinker

3-15 0-4 0-0.5 0-6

Extrusion Pressing Pressing Extrusion

It should be pointed out, however, that following technological and system developments occurring in the ceramic tile industry over the last few years, the classification shown here has begun to reveal a few limitations in terms of its representativeness, above all with regard to single-fired tiles, which now include several specific products that are the results of new technology.

Introduction:

Flooring And Paving

Classification according to EN standards


As well as technical-commercial classifications, there is a further and no less important means of classification. It is the classification for ceramic tiles as laid down in the European Norms, published in Italy with the UNI EN mark.

The UNI EN 87 standard is the basic norm containing the classification, definitions and characteristics for ceramic tiles.
It is an extremely simple, schematic classification, since it is based on just two parameters, which are:

Water absorption Moulding method


The European norms being completed with the publication and implementation of the EN standards in the single states, it then became necessary to establish standards to be applied at world level (ISO standards), to overcome, for example, the differences existing between the EN European standards and American ANSI standards. The fundamental framework of ISO standards was developed starting with the current European standards and it includes several variations in test methods as well as stricter parameters in some cases.

Introduction:

Flooring And Paving

Classification according to EN standards


Forming method
I WA 3 Extruded tiles

Water absorption, WA (%)


IIa 3 < WA 6 AIIa UNI EN 186 BIIa UNI EN 177 IIb 6 < WA 10 AIIb UNI EN 187 BIIb UNI EN 178 III WA > 10 AIII UNI EN 188 BIII UNI EN 159

A
Pressed tiles

AI UNI EN 121 BI UNI EN 176

The tiles in the A groups are extruded, while those in the B groups are pressed.

I groups are those with the lowest level of porosity, while III groups have a
higher level of porosity.

The standard also establishes 8 product standards, indicating different requirements that must be met by the tiles in that group.

Introduction:

Flooring And Paving

Classification according to EN standards


Standard EN 87 EN 163 Subject Definitions, classification, characteristics and markings Sampling and acceptance criteria General Product Requirements Test Method

EN 121 EN 159 EN 176 EN 177 EN 178 EN 186 EN 187 EN 188


EN 98 EN 99 EN 100 EN 101 EN 102 EN 103 EN 104 EN 105 EN 106 EN 122 EN 154 EN 155 EN 202

Extruded ceramic tiles with low water absorption Dry pressed ceramic tiles with high water absorption Dry pressed ceramic tiles with low water absorption Dry pressed ceramic tiles with water absorption Dry pressed ceramic tiles with water absorption Extruded tiles with water absorption Extruded tiles with water absorption (6%<WA10%) Extruded tiles with high water absorption
Dimensional and appearance characteristics Water absorption Bending strength Surface hardness according to MOHS scale Deep abrasion resistance for unglazed tiles Linear thermal expansion Thermal shock resistance Crazing resistance Chemical resistance unglazed tiles Chemical resistance glazed tiles Surface abrasion resistance for glazed tiles (PEI) Moisture expansion using boiling water Frost resistance

13 test methods have also been defined.

Laying The Tiles

Laying The Tiles:

Functional Layers

Tiles form the surface finish of a more complex building system: the floor. This system is formed by different layers, each of which is usually comprised of a different material. For this reason, before laying the tiles, it is advisable to look at greater depth at the surfaces on which they are to be installed.

Laying The Tiles:


Covering layer Bedding layer Levelling layer Reinforcement or load-bearing layer Separation or floating layer

Functional Layers

Thermal insulation layer Damp-proofing layer


Load-bearing layer

List and graphic symbols of the functional layers that form a floor.

Laying The Tiles:

Functional Layers

Covering layer
This is formed by tiles and, as already mentioned, its function is to provide a surface finish. This layer must be designed and installed so as to guarantee conformity with the following requirements: Regularity Completeness and durability Safety

Bedding layer
The function of this layer is to connect the tiles to one another and to make them adhere to their supporting surface. It may be formed using cement mortar, adhesive or aggregate.

Laying The Tiles:

Functional Layers

Levelling layer
This layer serves to absorb errors in support surface flatness and to eliminate any surface unevenness or irregularities. It is also used to house piping, if any. It is generally made using cement-based binders.

Reinforcement or load-bearing layer


If there are other compressible layers, this one serves to prevent any break-up in the covering layer caused by the compressible nature or in other words, pliability, of these layers. Most of the time, it is formed by a foundation in concrete, reinforced by electrically welded mesh.

Laying The Tiles:

Functional Layers

Separation or floating layer


The purpose of this layer is to chemically, physically or mechanically separate one layer from another. Generally, polyethylene film is used.

Thermal insulation layer


This layer serves to check the flow of heat through the flooring in order to limit energy consumption. It is possible to use thermal insulation materials, which are available in sheets (cork, polyurethane foam or polystyrene), or blocks in lightweight concrete (made with expanded clay, vermiculite or pearlite).

Laying The Tiles:

Functional Layers

Damp-proofing layer
This serves to prevent the passage of water to the underlying layers and areas. Polyethylene film is generally used for damp proofing.

Load-bearing layer
This is the structure to be clad and its function is to transfer its loads and the load to which the floor is subjected to the vertical static load structures. These structures are generally floors in concrete and masonry or in reinforced concrete cast in situ, etc. For exteriors, it is natural earth.

Laying The Tiles:

Compatibility Between Tiles And Subgrade

Expansion joints
>From a size point of view, tiles have a rather fine thickness (approximately 15 16 mm for terracotta tiles). From a mechanical viewpoint, they are rigid, or in other words, they cannot deform to any great degree and, if subjected to mechanical stress, they will break once their elastic deformation range has been exceeded.

This fact gives rise to several requirements:


In the first place, it means that the covering layer formed by the tiles needs the solidarity and mechanical collaboration of another layer of sufficient size (thickness) to which it must be stably connected in such a way as not to place the covering in a condition to suffer breakage on account of pressing or deflection. Secondly, the conditions bonding the covering layer to the underlying layers must be such that they prevent negative interference from any differential movements among the layers themselves, caused by thermal or hygrometric expansion or by the dimensional contraction of the cement layers due to the shrinkage that accompanies setting.

Laying The Tiles:

Compatibility Between Tiles And Subgrade

Expansion joints
Every material has its own thermal expansion coefficient and therefore, it responds to a given change in temperature with a different variation in its dimensions. It must be taken into account that the layers of which the system is comprised are not free to move, since they are joined to one another in different ways; they are bound and therefore, any change in temperature invariably leads to tension. All types of structures have joints between adjacent sections to allow relative movements, although these may be limited, between one part and another. It is important to know the location, extension and size of these joints, since they must also be inserted in the bedding and covering layers.

Example of an expansion joint.

www.folotec.com

Laying The Tiles:

Compatibility Between Tiles And Subgrade

Expansion joints
The form of the surfaces to be covered and the variable given by indoor flooring or outdoor paving, have a determining influence on the choice of where and how to install the expansion joints. These joints can in turn influence the choice of tile format, layout and choice of laying technique.

Indoor flooring:
For small-sized rooms, it is sufficient to insert a joint on the outer perimeter of the room; for larger areas, it is advisable to insert a joint approximately every 7 metres, both lengthways and crossways. Moreover, to reduce tension, it is advisable to insert a floating layer between two layers (bedding layer and load-bearing layer).

Low-density polyethylene film is usually used for interiors.


Perimeter joint floating layer

Laying The Tiles:

Compatibility Between Tiles And Subgrade

Expansion joints
Outdoor paving:
Insert expansion joints, with good-quality rubber profiles, approximately every 4 5 metres, both lengthways and crossways, above all for paving over large areas or laid in areas with a high degree of thermal movement. Firstly, it is necessary to check for the presence of structural joints (foundation); if not present, it will be necessary to isolate the reinforcement layer and load-bearing layer from the bedding layer by inserting a floating layer. Geotextiles are normally used out of doors. As well as reducing the tension between the two layers, these geotextiles will not limit the drainage action of the subgrade.
Geotextile layer

If the foundation already has expansion joints, they must also be installed in the bedding and covering layers.

If there are no structural joints in the foundation, it is necessary to insert a floating layer (geotextile) beneath the bedding layer.

Laying The Tiles:

Compatibility Between Tiles And Subgrade

Drainage and removal of water


Each layer is required to fill an exact function and it is most important to be aware of the way in which they interact with the surface. In fact, terracotta belongs to the category of so-called pure materials that will sooner or later show any problems that might originate from long before the tiles were laid. Out of doors, most of these problems are linked to standing water or damp in the subgrade. For this reason, it is necessary to install drainage systems to allow water dispersion and sloped floating surfaces to keep water away.

First of all, it is necessary for the screed to be even; highly uneven screeds are extremely damaging because they make it impossible to create a laying bed with a constant thickness. This leads to the build up of damp, which then causes the formation of efflorescence and marked differences in expansion coefficients. Example of a non-flat laying bed. These conditions can lead to tile breakage and crumbling.

Laying The Tiles:

Compatibility Between Tiles And Subgrade

Drainage and removal of water


Outdoor paving subject to pedestrian traffic Laying terracotta blocks using the dry or semidry method

Terracotta blocks 0.3 sand Bedding layer- 3-6 mm grit

Geotextile (20 25 mm stabilised Levelling foundation with a slope of 1.5 - 5% concrete dosed for 1 quintal of cement Load-bearing layer Natural earth

Laying The Tiles:

Compatibility Between Tiles And Subgrade

Drainage and removal of water


Outdoor paving subject to vehicle traffic Laying terracotta blocks using the dry or semidry method

Terracotta blocks 0.3 sand Bedding layer - 3-6 mm grit

Filter drainage protection system Geotextile + Drainage cuspidate membrane Reinforcement and load-bearing layer with a slope of 1.5 5% _ Foundation in concrete dosed for 3 quintals of cement + electrically welded mesh 6 / 8mm. Loose stone foundation Load-bearing layer Natural earth

Laying The Tiles:

Compatibility Between Tiles And Subgrade

Drainage and removal of water


Filter drainage protection system _ Composite TENAX DP 1
The composite is formed by two distinct, integral structures, heat-welded together.

a)

An extruded protective, drainage membrane in highdensity polyethylene (HDPE), with a high degree of compressive strength and impenetrable at the roots, characterised by a flat face which must be placed in contact with the screed or damp proofing, and by a cuspate face.
An unwoven filtering geotextile in polypropylene (PP), joined to the mesh level with the tips of the cusps.

b)

Laying The Tiles:

Compatibility Between Tiles And Subgrade

Drainage and removal of water


Outdoor paving subject to pedestrian and/or vehicle traffic Laying terracotta tiles with the mortar or adhesive technique

Terracotta paving, slope 1.5 2% Sand and cement grout or ready-mixed seal Bedding layer _ 6-8 cm foundation using 1.5 quintals of cement and 0.3 sand (alternatively, adhesive) Separation or floating layer - geotextile

Reinforcement and load-bearing layer with 1.5 5% slope _ Foundation in concrete dosed for 3 quintals of cement + electrically welded mesh 6-8mm

Foundation in loose stone/Lean concrete dosed for 1 quintal of cement


Load-bearing layer _ Natural earth

Laying The Tiles:

Compatibility Between Tiles And Subgrade

Drainage and removal of water


Correct damp proofing for a balcony _ 1

Terracotta paving, slope 1.5 2% Grout in sand and cement or ready-mixed seal Bedding layer_Adhesive Levelling layer_foundation, slope 1.5 2% Waterproof sheath Foundation, slope 1.5 5%

Load-bearing layer Floor in reinforced concrete

Laying The Tiles:

Compatibility Between Tiles And Subgrade

Drainage and removal of water


Correct damp proofing for a balcony _ 2

Terracotta paving, slope 1.5 2% Grout in sand and cement or ready-mixed seal Bedding layer_Adhesive Double layer of waterproof mortar, reinforced with fibreglass mesh Foundation, slope 1.5 2% Waterproof sheath Load-bearing layer Floor in reinforced concrete

Laying The Tiles:

Compatibility Between Tiles And Subgrade

Drainage and removal of water


Elastic cement-based bicomponent mortar to damp proof concrete foundations _ MAPELASTIC
This is a cement-based bicomponent mortar containing selected, fine-grain aggregates and synthetic polymers. (powder + liquid). The mortar is laid with a flat trowel to a maximum thickness of 2 mm per layer. Before laying the second layer approximately 4-5 hours from the first application it is advisable to insert low-weight fibreglass mesh between the two to prevent any microscopic cracks and to distribute loads evenly.

Laying The Tiles:

Compatibility Between Tiles And Subgrade

Drainage and removal of water


Flooring in underground rooms

Terracotta flooring Grout in sand and cement or ready-mixed seal Bedding layer_Adhesive

Levelling layer_foundation
Floating layer_polyethylene film

Thermal insulating subgrade _Foundation in lightweight concrete using expanded clay Waterproof sheath
Foundation in loose stone/Lean concrete dosed for 1 quintal of cement

Load-bearing layer _ Natural earth

Laying The Tiles:

Bedding Layer

Mortar laying technique


1. 2. 3. 4. Clean the laying bed, removing any dust, debris and oily residues. Spread an even layer of mortar, also known as the foundation, no less than 5 cm thick. Sprinkle the surface with a fine covering of cement powder. Begin to lay the tiles on this surface, taking care to maintain the direction of the dod (the cut side of each tile should always correspond to the same side of the adjacent tile). Leave a space between tiles. The width of this space, known as the grouth width or joint, is to be agreed with the Director of Works and in any case, it should be no less than 3 mm or more than 10 mm. The flooring should have expansion joints that can compensate for dimensional variations caused by thermal movements. In the case of small areas, it is sufficient to insert a joint along the outer perimeter of the room. For larger areas, it is advisable to insert a joint approximately every 7 metres, both the lengthways and crossways. Tamp the floor evenly to ensure better tile adherence to the mortar bed.

5.

6.

7.

Laying The Tiles:

Bedding Layer

Adhesive laying technique


Laying with adhesives is not substantially different from laying with mortar, although it does have the advantage of significantly reducing the waiting times required for the floor to dry perfectly, which is an indispensable condition for passing on to the following stages.
1. Make sure that the structural floor is perfectly level.

2.
3.

Using a suitable trowel, spread an even layer of adhesive over the surface.
Lay the tiles before a film begins to form on the surface of the adhesive due to contact with the air (which means that the drying process has begun). Leave a space of at least 3 mm and no more than 10 mm between the tiles. Ensure that the flooring has the necessary expansion joints to compensate for dimensional variations caused by thermal movements. Follow the same precautions used for laying with mortar. It is now possible to buy specific adhesives for high-thickness cotto tiles, while normal adhesives can be used for cotto tiles of lower thickness. However, it is preferable to use adhesives containing hydraulic binders over those containing synthetic resins only. Fast-setting adhesives should be avoided (especially on floorings that have been pre-waterproofed).

4. 5.

Laying The Tiles:

Bedding Layer

Adhesives with hydraulic binders


Cement-based, adhesive powder for ceramic tiles (adhesive thickness up to 5 mm).
Technical Data (at +23C and 50% R.H.): POT LIFE: more than 8 hours. OPEN TIME: approx. 20 minutes. ADJUSTMENT TIME: approx. 45 minutes. PRACTICABLE: after 24 hours. READY FOR USE: 14 days. GROUTING: walls 4-8 hours, floors 24 hours. FLEXIBLE: no. AVAILABLE COLOURS: grey and white. COVERAGE: 2-5 kg per sq. m. APPLICATION: notched trowel (no. 4, 5, or 6 according to use). PACKAGING: 25 kg bags, 4x5 kg boxes.

Applications: Adhesive for indoor and outdoor fixing of ceramic tiles and mosaics of all types on walls, floors and ceilings on traditional supports (cement renders and screeds, brick and block walls, etc.) as long as they are solid, stable and clean. It can be mixed with ISOLASTIC to obtain an elastic adhesive.

Recommended for use with: Cotto Rustico Cotto Linea Casato Indoors Indoors Outdoors (with added ISOLASTIC)

Laying The Tiles:

Bedding Layer

Adhesives with hydraulic binders


Cement-based, adhesive powder for ceramic tiles (adhesive thickness up to 15 mm).
Applications: Adhesive for indoor and outdoor bonding of ceramic tiles and strip tiles with deep recessed, profiled undersides, large formats, cotto toscano, and natural stone, to walls, floors and ceilings on traditional supports (cement screeds), as long as they are solid, stable and clean. It can be mixed with ISOLASTIC to obtain an elastic adhesive. It can be used to fix tiles to irregular substrates with beds up to a thickness of 15 mm, without prior levelling. For large formats with deep profiles and recesses, back-buttering is required. Technical Data (at +23C and 50% R.H.): POT LIFE: more than 8 hours. OPEN TIME: approx. 20-30 minutes. ADJUSTMENT TIME: approx. 45 minutes. PRACTICABLE: after 24-36 hours. READY FOR USE: 14 days. GROUTING: walls 6-8 hours, floors 24-36 hours. FLEXIBLE: no. AVAILABLE COLOURS: grey and white. COVERAGE: 4-10 kg per sq. m. APPLICATION: notched trowel (no. 6 or 10, or trowel for KERAFLOOR according to use). PACKAGING: 25 kg bags.

Recommended for use with: Cotto Pratico/Protetto Cotto ProntoZoni Cotto Fatto a Mano (Handmade Cotto) Indoors Indoors Indoors Outdoors (with added ISOLASTIC) Outdoors (with added ISOLASTIC) Outdoors (with added ISOLASTIC)

Laying The Tiles:

Bedding Layer

Adhesives with hydraulic binders


Medium-elasticity, adhesive powder for ceramic tiles (adhesive thickness up to 5 mm). Technical Data (at +23C and 50% R.H.): POT LIFE: approx. 8 hours. OPEN TIME: approx. 30 minutes. ADJUSTMENT TIME:: approx. 60 minutes. PRACTICABLE: after 24 hours. READY FOR USE: 14 days. GROUTING: walls 24 hours, floors 48 hours. FLEXIBLE: good level. AVAILABLE COLOURS: grey and white. COVERAGE: 2.5 -4 kg per sq. m. APPLICATION: notched trowel (no. 4. 5 or 6). PACKAGING: 25 kg bags.

Applications: Adhesive for indoor and outdoor bonding of ceramic tiles of all types (earthenware, single-fired, vitrified stoneware, etc.) to walls and floors on: -Traditional supports (cement renders and screeds, brick and block walls, etc.). -Old floors and coverings (ceramic, stone, paving tiles, cement) as long as they are solid and clean. - Cast concrete, prefabricated concrete panels, as long as sufficiently cured (6 months), heating panels, cement-fibre panels, plasterboard, wood or sufficiently bonded derivatives, and tiles no larger than 300 sq. cm.

Recommended for use with: Cotto Rustico Cotto Pratico/Protetto Cotto ProntoZoni Outdoor Pavings and Dcor Outdoors Outdoors Outdoors Outdoors

Laying The Tiles:

Bedding Layer

Terracotta outdoors
Cotto paving is able to withstand freezing and thermal movements. However, it is advisable to adopt a few additional precautions to prevent any problems that could occur in extreme conditions to alter the perfect finished look of the paving. Laying the tiles Tiles should be laid in mild weather, with temperatures ranging between 10 and 25 degrees. Wet the tiles before laying, whether using the mortar or adhesive technique. Make sure that the tiles adhere perfectly to the substrate and that there are no cavities in the mortar bed or layer of adhesive. Any air pockets could lead to an accumulation of moisture and, at extremely low temperatures, cause the tiles to come unstuck from their foundation. Avoid laying the paving on structures (screeds) that have not settled definitively. Mechanical stress caused by settling can cause serious cracking in the paving. Insert expansion joints, with good-quality rubber profiles, every 4-5 metres, both lengthways and crossways, especially in the case of large areas of paving or areas with a great deal of thermal movement.

1. 2. 3.

4.

5.

Laying The Tiles:

Bedding Layer

Terracotta outdoors
6. Prevent damp and salts from rising from the adjacent or underlying ground by: avoiding direct contact between the terracotta and soil or grassy surfaces, laying the tiles a few centimetres higher than any adjacent lawn ensuring that the screed floor has the proper drainage insulating the paving from areas of standing water, such as swimming pools, gutters, etc. with waterproof sheaths taking care to fill the joints evenly and without cracks. Prevent moisture from collecting on the paved surface by: giving the paving a suitable slope (at least 1.5%) for the perfect run-off of rainwater ensuring that the paving is perfectly flat (no dips) making sure that the paving is perfectly aired all year round (be careful with the nylon sheeting used to cover swimming pools during the winter; place some strips of wood, or a thick-fibre material such as sacking between the tiles and the sheet to guarantee air circulation).

7.

8.

Prevent moisture from collecting beneath the paved surface. If using sheathing (terraces, porches, etc.) this should allow water to run off, creating a sufficient slope on the screed (at least 2%) and using materials that allow drainage.

Laying The Tiles:

Sealing The Joints

Introduction
The shape and width of joints, the composition of the grout and the colour used for the joints themselves are areas which, if neglected, can adversely affect installation and final treatment. As the width of the joints increases, this means that the composition of the sand and cement mortar needs to be changed to include more sand. Therefore, a grout width of more than 5 mm will always be rougher and grainier, but above all, it will also be: More absorbent and absorb in a less even manner

The main vehicle for infiltration and rising damp


An area where dirt is trapped therefore, making cleaning more difficult Less receptive to treatment and finishing products
( since they are developed for the cotto itself and are therefore less suited to grouting).

As a result, finished appearance and personal tastes aside, technically, the most functional joint is below 7 mm in width.

Laying The Tiles:

Sealing The Joints

Traditional grout
Joints less than 3 4 mm wide: This grout is made by mixing normal 325 grey cement in water Joints between 5 and 10 mm wide: This grout is made by mixing 100 litres of fine, well-washed silica sand and 60 80 kg of 325 cement in water It is good practice to wet the surface before spreading the grout; the setting time will be slightly longer but the end result will be firmer and deeper.

Ready-mixed seals
It is preferable to use products that contain no synthetic resins or polymers. In fact, these substances tend to penetrate the natural pores in the terracotta, especially around the edges, causing stains that cannot be removed.

It is advisable to avoid using markedly coloured products (black, anthracite, etc.). In fact, these products are quite difficult to remove once they have anchored to the tile surface and penetrated it slightly so much so, that in some cases, the intervention of flooring specialists is required.

Laying The Tiles:

Sealing The Joints

Ready-mixed seals
Fast-setting and drying cement-based grout for joint widths from 2 to 20 mm

Do not use!
Modified with polymers and synthetic resins
USE Interior and exterior grouting on walls and floors in all types of ceramic tiles (earthenware, singlefired, clinker, vitrified stoneware, terracotta, etc.), glass mosaics, natural stone, marble mosaics, reinforced concrete and glass tiles, etc.). Specially recommended when fast flooring use is required. Does not produce calcium hydroxide efflorescence.

Technical Data (at + 23C and 50% R.H.): POT LIFE: 30-45 minutes. MIXING RATIO: from 20 to 26 parts water to every 100 parts ULTRACOLOR, according to the colour. GROUTING AFTER INSTALLATION walls: normal adhesive 3-4 hours; fast-setting adhesive 1-2 hours; traditional application 2-3 days; floors: normal adhesive 24 hours; fast-setting adhesive 3-4 hours; traditional installation 7-10 days. PRACTICABLE: approx. 3 hours. READY FOR USE: 24 hours. COLOURS: 24. APPLICATION: rubber trowel. RESISTANCE TO MOISTURE: excellent. RESISTANCE TO SOLVENTS, OILS, AND ALKALIS: excellent. RESISTANCE TO ACID: poor. PACKAGING: 25, 5 and 1 kg bags.

Cement-based grout for joint widths from 0 to 4 mm (KERACOLOR FINE) and from 5 to 15 mm (KERACOLOR GROSSO).

OK!
USE Interior and exterior grouting on walls and floors in all types of ceramic tiles (earthenware, single fired, clinker, vitrified stoneware, terracotta, etc.), glass mosaics, natural stones, marble mosaics, reinforced concrete and glass tiles, etc.).

Technical Data (at + 23C and 50% R.H.): POT LIFE: approx. 2 hours GROUTING AFTER INSTALLATION walls bonded with normal adhesive 4-8 hours; walls bonded with mortar 2-3 days; floors bonded with adhesive 24 hours; walls bonded with mortar 7-10 days. PRACTICABLE: 24 hours. READY FOR USE: 5 days. FLEXIBLE: no. COLOURS: 8. COVERAGE: according to tile and joint size. APPLICATION: rubber trowel. RESISTANCE TO MOISTURE: excellent. RESISTANCE TO SOLVENTS, OILS, AND ALKALI: excellent. RESISTANCE TO ACID: poor. PACKAGING: 25- 22 and 5 kg bags according to colour.

Laying The Tiles:

Sealing The Joints

Ready-mixed seals _ KERACOLOR colour range


No! No!

MANHATTAN

TITANIUM

CEMENT

ANTHRACITE

BLACK

CHAMPAGNE

ANEMONE BAHAMABEIGE

BAHAMABEIGE BROWN

Laying The Tiles:

Sealing The Joints

Prewaterproofing
For materials with a high degree of absorption or, if the stylistic choice means opting for a markedly coloured seal, it is necessary to clean the floor surface briefly and to apply the correct doses of absorption reducer and water-repellent product to prevent rising moisture at least two or three days before grouting. In all cases, above all for outdoor paving, water-based water-repellents are preferable to solvent-based ones. In fact, the former can be applied even if the flooring or paving is not perfectly dry. It is advisable to apply the product with a low-pressure (airless) spray for more even coverage.

The various excellent products on sale include: IPA 16 by Geal KEMIOSIL 116 by New Chemical HP/98 by Fila

Laying The Tiles:

Sealing The Joints

Prewaterproofing / The advantages

NO FORMATION OF EFFLORESCENCE OR DARK MARKS

QUICK AND EASY WASHING

REDUCTION IN WAITING TIMES FOR FINISHING

REDUCTION IN OVERALL TREATMENT COSTS

EASIER FINISHING

Laying The Tiles:


COTTO RUSTICO

SYNOPTIC CHART
LINEA CASATO COTTO PRONTO OUTDOOR PAVINGS AND DECOR
Outdoors

COTTO PRATICO/ PROTETTO

COTTO FATTO A MANO (HANDMADE COTTO)


Indoors Outdoors (Rusticated)

INTENDED USE

Indoors

Outdoors

Indoors

Outdoors

Indoors

Indoors

Outdoors

RECOMMENDED INSTALLATION METHOD TYPE OF ADHESIVE

Mortar / Adhesive

Mortar / Adhesive

Adhesive

Mortar / Adhesive

Semi-dry Mortar Adhesive Keraflex

Mortar / Adhesive

Kerabond

Kerabond + Isolastic /Keraflex

Kerafloor

Kerafloor +Isolastic / Keraflex

Kerabond

Kerafloor

Kerafloor +Isolastic / Keraflex

Kerafloor

Kerafloor + Isolastic

OPTIMUM GROUT WIDTH DIMENSIONS TYPE OF SEAL

5mm

5mm

5mm

5mm

Touching

6mm Rusticated

4mm (Bis)
Grout Keracolor Grosso 23 50 10 - 3 7 Grout Keracolor Grosso/Fine 23 50 10 3 7 Grout Keracolor Grosso 23 50 - 3 Grout Keracolor Grosso/Fine 23 50 10 3 7 Grout Keracolor Grosso/Fine 23 50 10

3mm Smoothed
Grout Keracolor Grosso 23 50 3

PRE-WATERPROOFING

Recommended for colour 10

NO

NO

NO

Necessary for colour 10 Recommended for grout and 50

Always necessary

23_ MANHATTAN / 50_ TITANIUM / 10_ CEMENT / 3_ BAHAMABEIGE / 7_ BROWN

Treatment

Treatment:

Cleaning

Technical times
The time required to wait between installation and treatment is given by: Curing or the release of salts from the terracotta tile The stabilising time of the laying bed and grout width Tile surface drying Before washing, it is recommended to respect the times provided in this table:
COTTO RUSTICO COTTO PRATICO/ PROTETTO
CLIMATE

LINEA CASATO

COTTO PRONTO

OUTDOOR PAVINGS AND DECOR

COTTO FATTO A MANO (HANDMADE COTTO)


CLIMATE

LAYING METHOD

CLIMATE

CLIMATE

CLIMATE

CLIMATE

Warm Dry
20 - 25

Cold Damp
30 - 40

Warm Dry
5-7

Cold Damp
8 - 10

Warm Dry

Cold Damp

Warm Dry
5-7

Cold Damp
8 - 10

Warm Dry
20 - 25

Cold Damp
30 - 40

Warm Dry
30 - 40

Cold Damp
45 - 60

MORTAR (Days) ADHESIVE (Days)

Not foreseen

3-5

5-7

2-3

3-5

2-3

3-5

2-3

3-5

3-5

5-7

5-7

10 - 15

NOTE: The times given in the table are purely indicative. For subgrades in expanded clay with damp proofing, the waiting times for mortar should be doubled and the area heated where possible.

Treatment:

Cleaning

Technical findings _ Surface moisture


The surface of the cotto to be washed must have a relatively low degree of surface moisture, less than 25%; in any case, grout widths will always have a higher degree of moisture (up to 30-35%). In fact, it is more difficult to clean the surface impurities and oxidation normally present from an excessively damp tile than from a relatively dry one. However, it is more important to keep this factor under control between washing and finishing. It is extremely risky to finish tiles and grout widths where there is a high degree of surface moisture.

This pock-marked effect problem may even occur a few months after handover, especially when the finishing treatment has been carried out using varnishing or filmforming products, which should be avoided in any case. This reduces or prevents the residual moisture present in the substrate from being released through the tile.

Treatment:

Cleaning

Technical findings _ Joint configuration and colour


Often, one of the determining factors in achieving an excellent overall finished appearance of treated surfaces in cotto is the way in which the joints are treated. At times, excellent treatment of the terracotta tiles shows up an awful appearance in treated joints. To obtain an even-coloured joint, it is advisable to proceed as follows: If the joint is very grainy and absorbent, after washing with buffered acid, finish with unpigmented and/or low-penetration treatment products (wax-resin water emulsions) If the joint already varies in colour, due to unevenly mixed grout, different cement batches, or to the replacement of tiles considered to be faulty, a medium- or dark-coloured finishing treatment followed by colouring the joints with pigments is recommended.

Example of mismatched joint colours following resumed work or tile replacements.

Treatment:

Cleaning

Washing
Preliminary cleaning is aimed at: Removing unwanted substances and restoring the original colour and appearance Freeing the characteristic porosity so that the final protective treatment can be absorbed deep down.

Knowledge of the origins of terracotta (formats, surface finish, installation) also offers useful information with regard to arranging the work to be performed with the following operational means:
CHEMICAL PRODUCTS and MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT

Treatment:

Cleaning

Washing _ Chemical products


When talking about cleaning cotto, the first and only thing that comes to mind is an acid wash and in most cases, muriatic acid. However, it is not always necessary just to remove the surface lime scale deposits, it is also necessary to remove many other substances used on site or which have deposited on the material over time (cotto used out of doors), or even products purposefully applied to the surface itself (incorrect treatments). This requires:

Dedicated action
which is performed according to the choice of chemical products with specific dissolving action for the prevalent type of dirt present.

Fast action
It is necessary for the dirt residues to be easily and completely removed from the cotto surface in the least amount of time possible and using the least amount of water. This factor, which is known as emulsifying the dirt is of fundamental importance to successful washing.

Treatment:

Cleaning

Washing _ Chemical products


REACTIVE DETERGENTS
SCALE REMOVER LIME REMOVER PICKLING AGENT (water solution)

TRADITIONAL REACTIVE AGENTS

NEW COTTO

INCORRECTLY TREATED COTTO Neutralises after alkaline wash; Emulsifies after solvent wash; Cleans away lime scale soiling Dissolves natural and fatty wax treatments Wax remover that dissolves synthetic and polymer treatments; Dissolves metalized acrylics in resins, varnishes and silicones

MURIATIC ACID HYDROCHLORIC ACID (water solution)

Cement grout and lime scale residues; Colour wash paint; Saline efflorescence Dark oxidation; Pollution stains; Mould and algae Removes synthetic stains; Quarzites and synthetic paints

STRONG DEGREASER ALKALINE WAX REMOVER (water solution)

CAUSTIC SODA SODIUM HYDROXIDE (water solution)

FILM REMOVER PAINT REMOVER STRONG WAX REMOVER (solvent solution)

SPIRIT NITRE THINNER (solvent solution)

Traditional reactive agents, although they have a strong breakdown action on the substances present, lead to notable re-absorption of the broken down dirt, especially during the rinsing process, which requires copious amounts of water.

Treatment:

Cleaning

Washing _ Chemical products


During cleaning and due to the surface acting agents it contains, a good reactive detergent maintains the broken down particles in suspension and this allows them to be quickly and completely removed with a minimum amount of water during the rinsing stage.

DETERDEK and FILADRASTIC , respectively de-scaler and lime remover; strong degreaser and alkaline wax remover.

COTTO MUST BE CLEANED QUICKLY, WELL, AND USING THE SMALLEST POSSIBLE AMOUNTS OF WATER AND REACTIVE SUBSTANCES, ESPECIALLY WHEN USING TRADITIONAL REACTIVE PRODUCTS.

Treatment:

Cleaning

Washing _ Chemical products


REACTIVE DETERGENTS
DE-SCALER LIME REMOVER PICKLING AGENT (water solution)

LIST PRODUCTS

FILA PRODUCTS

GEAL PRODUCTS

ACIDO TAMPONATO

DETERDEK FILA PH ZERO

SERVICE ACIDO ACIDO 13H3 FORTE ESTRATTORE ACIDO FORTE

STRONG DEGREASER ALKALINE WAX REMOVER (water solution)

ALCALE

FILADRASTIC

SERVICE ALCALE CB 90 ESTRATTORE ALCALE FORTE

FILM REMOVER PAINT REMOVER STRONG WAX REMOVER (solvent solution)

FILASOLV

SERVICE SOLVENTE ESTRATTORE SOLVENTE FORTE

Correspondence between list products and the brand names of some companies.

Treatment:

Cleaning

Washing _ Mechanical equipment

Liquid vacuum cleaner

Single-brush polisher

Synthetic pads and discs with different abrasive levels.

Treatment:

Cleaning

Washing _ New cotto


CHEMICAL PRODUCTS: see previous tables. EQUIPMENT: single-brush floor polisher (*) with hard abrasive disc for washing (darker colours), liquid vacuum cleaner and wiper.

HOW TO PROCEED: work on dry flooring. Pour the detergent directly onto the
surface and spread it with the wiper. Unless otherwise indicated, it is always best to start out using an undiluted product. Brush it thoroughly with the floor polisher at medium-low speed and a weight pressure of no less than 30 kg. Quickly vacuum up the liquid because cotto tends to absorb washing residues and the reactive products used deep down. For this reason, it is best to work in pairs: one to operate the floor polisher and the other the liquid vacuum cleaner. A final rinse with clean water is most important to eliminate any last residues of dirt or washing products; this must be performed quickly and using the floor polisher or a broomcorn brush. After rinsing, vacuum up the remaining liquid and thoroughly dry the surface with cloths and sponges.
(*) Caution! For terracotta tiles from the Casato line, use broomcorn brushes or soft pads only, and dilute the detergent so that the concentration is less aggressive.

Treatment:

Cleaning

Washing _ Natural actions and treatments requiring correction


CHEMICAL PRODUCTS: correction assumes knowledge of the products used for the prior intervention. The choice of detergent product is extremely easy. EQUIPMENT: single-brush polisher with hard abrasive disc for washing (darker colours), liquid vacuum cleaner and wiper.

HOW TO PROCEED: similarly to that described in the previous section. It is


advisable to make a preliminary test on a more deteriorated area of the surface.

1 cleaning oxidation marks; 2 cleaning mould and algae; 3 cleaning an incorrect treatment

Treatment:

Protection

Primers
The protection stage requires the application of primers. According to their action, primers are divided as follows: WATER REPELLENTS OIL REPELLENTS
(deep down protection) (surface protection)

OIL AND WATER REPELLENTS


TRADITIONAL OIL PRIMERS

(combined protection, deep down/surface)


(combined protection, deep down/surface)

With reference to the solution in which they are dispersed: SOLVENT BASED WATER BASED

Treatment:

Protection

Primers
Solvent-based primers are characterised by rather small molecules and a high degree of chemical inertia; for this reason they operate deep down. They are excellent from a performance viewpoint, although they should only be used in expert hands. They also dry quickly and must only be applied to perfectly dry flooring or paving.

Water-based primers on the other hand, are characterised by a slower drying process and by rather large molecules (water). For this reason, they are recommended for waterproofing highly absorbent flooring. They are also easier to apply, since they can also be used on material that is still damp. These primers have less of an adverse effect on the environment although they do lose their effectiveness as time passes.

Treatment:

Protection

Technical times
This table contains the minimum times required to wait between the completion of washing operations and the protection stage:
COTTO RUSTICO COTTO PRATICO/ PROTETTO LINEA CASATO COTTO PRONTO OUTDOOR PAVINGS AND DECOR COTTO FATTO A MANO (HANDMADE COTTO)
PROTECTION

PROTECTION

PROTECTION

PROTECTION

PROTECTION

PROTECTION

Solvent based

Water based

Solvent based

Water based

Solvent based

Water based

Solvent based

Water based

Solvent based

Water based

Solvent based

Water based

7-15 days

4 hours

3- 4 days

Not foreseen

Not foreseen (*)

7-15 days

4 hours

15-20 days

4 hours

(*) Unless a certain stain-proof action is required. In this case, it is possible to apply a solvent-based oil- and water-repellent product.

Treatment:

Protection

Water repellents
EVAPORATED WATER (drying)
CHEMICAL BARRIER
terracotta surface

Vapour passage area

INVISIBLE HYDROPHOBIC (dry) AREA EVAPORATION INTERFACE

RISING MOISTURE
Siloxane primers with a high degree of penetration, chemical inertia, and lasting action. They prevent rising moisture and water absorption. They also combat the formation of efflorescence, dark marks, and mould. They leave the transpiration capacity (vapour permeability) of the material unchanged. Especially indicated as initial primers for treating tiles laid indoors and out. They also favour the even absorption of subsequent treatment products: wax for interiors and oil repellents for exteriors.

Treatment:

Protection

Oil repellents
STAINING SUBSTANCES
WATER SOLUBLE GREASE

CHEMICAL BARRIER

terracotta surface

INVISIBLE STAINPROOF PROTECTION

These give the material a fluoride-based, stainproof, protective surface that is completely invisible. They do not alter the original colour of the material. They do not film and they also do not change the vapour permeability (transpiration) of the original material. They are not able to receive subsequent treatment products but can be applied on top of water repellents. Their use is practically limited to outdoor paving only.

Treatment:

Protection

Oil and water repellents


STAINING SUBSTANCES
WATER SOLUBLE

CHEMICAL BARRIER
GREASE

terracotta surface

STAINPROOF PROTECTION WATER-REPELLENT PROTECTION

RISING MOISTURE
These are normal mixes, in solvents, of fluoridated copolymers with a stainproofing action and siloxane primers with a deep-down water-repellent action to provide dual oil- and water-repellent protection. They do not create films, or substantially alter the transpiration capacities of the material. They add a slight colour tone to the original shade. They are moderately receptive to subsequent treatment products such as, for example, neutral liquid wax in the case of indoor flooring.

Treatment:

Protection

Traditional oil primers


STAINING SUBSTANCES
WATER SOLUBLE GREASE

PHYSICAL BARRIER

terracotta surface

POROSITY SATURATION AREA

Primers with vegetable oil or natural wax bases and resins in plant-based solvents for water-repellent and stainproof protection. Compared to the traditional oil-based mixes, (linseed oil), they penetrate and dry with greater ease. They add a more or less intense colour tone. Suitable for use on flooring or paving where there is no risk of rising moisture, indoors or in covered outdoor areas.

Treatment:

Protection

Protection _ Chemical products

ES / 82 and OP / K , Respectively, deep-down water repellent and oil and water repellent. Both are solvent based.

Treatment:

Protection

Protection _ Chemical products


ACTION SOLUTION
In water WATER REPELLENT In solvent IDROREPELLENTE / ES / 82 ICR - 17

LIST PRODUCTS
/

FILA PRODUCTS
HP / 98

GEAL PRODUCTS
IPA - 16

In water WATER AND OIL REPELLENT In solvent

FILASPRINT 2000

/ BARRIER 2 LI-COT / LI-COT NEREO /

ANTIMACCHIA /

OP / K

In water OIL REPELLENT In solvent

W / 68

BASOIL

Correspondence between list products and the brand names of some companies.

Treatment:

Finishing And Maintenance

Since terracotta tiles are made from a rough material that is highly absorbent compared to other traditional tile types, it is necessary to clean and protect them and also to give them a tone and performance that leave them easy to care for using modern means in the areas in which they are installed. Finishing operations for flooring laid indoors normally take the form of applying: SOLVENT-BASED OIL-WAX DISPERSIONS WATER-BASED RESIN-WAX EMULSIONS ( Wax paste) ( Liquid wax )

Wax pastes (traditional treatment) nourish the tiles deep down, giving them a warm appearance. They are available in different colours: natural (neutral), blond (yellow), leather (brown), and aged (antique brown). In this way, it is possible to give tone to the tiles to obtain specific colour effects. Just applying neutral wax paste creates a slight colour effect without altering the original shade of the flooring.

Treatment:

Finishing And Maintenance

Wax paste is not diluted and it is applied after the base coat of water repellent. It must be applied in two layers at a distance of 8 hours from one another to obtain a more even result and to be able to correct the tone of the first application, if necessary. It is advisable to apply the wax with a normal synthetic bath sponge and to buff it later with a woollen cloth or floor polisher. Darker colours should always be applied as a second coat.

Variations in the finished appearance of original cotto, created by different finishing treatments.

Treatment:

Finishing And Maintenance

Liquid waxes are used to provide a final finishing coat. They give the flooring: Wearproof surface protection Light stainproof protection A base for subsequent maintenance These are normally emulsions of high-quality natural wax with added polymers. It is also possible to buy formulas that create a more wear-resistant protective layer (synthesis waxes), which are therefore more suitable to areas subject to a great deal of traffic (offices, restaurants, etc.). As a final finishing coat, this product is applied over the wax paste with a cloth, mop or other wax application means. If the flooring is finished with liquid wax only, it is advisable to apply it with a wide brush.

Cotto Wax Neutral liquid wax for terracotta

Treatment:

Finishing And Maintenance

Maintenance
Maintenance is performed more or less frequently according to the condition of the flooring and to different personal requirements. For routine maintenance, it is sufficient to wash the flooring with a diluted solution of liquid wax (23 glasses in a bucket of water); for extraordinary maintenance, re-apply a coat of pure wax, using a brush. Every so often, use a mild de-greasing detergent to remove any black marks from the flooring and to prevent layers of wax from building up.

FilaCleaner and liquid wax for cotto floor maintenance.

Treatment:

Finishing And Maintenance

Finishing and maintenance - Products


TYPE LIST PRODUCTS FILA PRODUCTS GEAL PRODUCTS

WAX PASTE

CERA IN PASTA (Neutral, Yellow, Brown, Antique Brown)

DRESS (Neutral, Dark Brown, Rustic)

LIQUID WAX

CERA LIQUIDA NEUTRA

COTTOWAX Klinwax

WOP (Matt / Polished)

DESCALING DETERGENT

DETERGENTE

FILACLEANER

CB - 90

Correspondence between list products and the brand names of some companies.

Treatment:

Treatment Diagrams

COTTO RUSTICO

COTTO PRATICO/ PROTETTO


AREA

LINEA CASATO

COTTO PRONTO

OUTDOOR PAVINGS AND DECOR


AREA

COTTO FATTO A MANO (HANDMADE COTTO)


AREA

AREA

AREA

AREA

Indoor

Outdoor

Indoor

Outdoor

Indoor

Indoor

Outdoor

Outdoor

Indoor

Outdoor

FINISHING DIAGRAM (Type)

A-B

Treatment:

Indoor treatment diagram _ Traditional Cotto Rustico


Acido Tamponato (buffered acid)

7-15 days min.


Idrorepellente (water repellent) or

7-15 days min.


Cera Liquida Neutra (neutral liquid wax)

24 hours
Wax Paste

4 hours

8 hours
Wax Paste

8 hours
Cera Liquida Neutra or

8 hours
Polymer Wax Emulsion

Treatment:

Indoor treatment diagram _ Traditional Cotto Rustico


Acido Tamponato (buffered acid)

7-15 days min.


Idrorepellente (water repellent)

24 hours
Cera Liquida Neutra (neutral liquid wax)

8 hours
Cera Liquida Neutra

8 hours
Cera Liquida Neutra or

8 hours
Polymer Wax Emulsion

Treatment:

Outdoor treatment diagram _ Traditional Cotto Rustico


Acido Tamponato (buffered acid)

7-15 days min.


STOP

WITH CAUTION Idrorepellente (water repellent) For water-repellent treatments or Antimacchia (stainproof product) For water and oil-repellent treatments

Treatment:

Indoor treatment diagram _ Cotto Pratico / Protetto


Acido Tamponato (buffered acid)

2 days
Cera Liquida Neutra (neutral liquid wax) or

2 days
Wax Paste or

3 4 days
Idrorepellente (water repellent)

2 hours
Cera Liquida Neutra

8 hours

24 hours
Cera Liquida Neutra

2 hours
Cera Liquida Neutra

Treatment:

Outdoor treatment diagram _ Cotto Pratico / Protetto


Acido Tamponato (buffered acid)

2 4 days min.
Antimacchia (stainproof product)

from 3-4 months to 1-2 years


Antimacchia

Treatment:

Indoor treatment diagram _ Cotto Linea Casato


Caution! Acido Tamponato (buffered acid)

DILUTE

2 days
APPLY WITH A CLOTH

Wax supplied

APPLY WITH A CLOTH

Treatment:

Indoor treatment diagram _ Cotto ProntoZoni


Acido Tamponato (buffered acid)

APPLY WITH A CLOTH

2 days
or

3 - 4 days
Antimacchia (stainproof product) For a secure stainproofing action

Cera Liquida Neutra (neutral liquid wax)

Treatment:

Outdoor treatment diagram _ Cotto ProntoZoni


Acido Tamponato (buffered acid) STOP

3 - 4 days
Antimacchia (stainproof product) For a secure stainproofing action

Treatment:

Treatment diagram for the Outdoor Pavings and Decor Line


Water-based water repellent

Sealing the joints

Warning! Only if given prior waterproofing treatment. Alternatively, 7-15 days

Acido Tamponato (buffered acid)

STOP

4 hours
Water-based water repellent or

2 4 days min. WITH CAUTION


Antimacchia (stainproof product)

Treatment:

Indoor treatment diagram _ Smooth Cotto Fatto a Mano / Crete


Water-based water repellent

Sealing the joints

Warning! Only if given prior waterproofing treatment. Alternatively, 20 days.

Acido Tamponato (buffered acid)

4 hours
Water-based water repellent or

2 4 days min.
Idrorepellente (water repellent)

8 hours
Cera Liquida Neutra (neutral liquid wax) or

8 hours
Wax paste

24 hours
or

24 hours
Cera Liquida Neutra

8 hours
Cera Liquida Neutra

8 hours
Polymer wax emulsion

8 hours
Cera Liquida Neutra

Treatment:

Outdoor treatment diagram _ Rusticated Cotto Fatto a Mano


I Borghi and Vicoli
Water-based water repellent

Sealing the joints


Warning! Only if given prior waterproofing treatment. Alternatively, 20 days. Acido Tamponato (buffered acid)

4 hours
Water-based water repellent or

2 4 days min.
Idrorepellente (water repellent)

Troubleshooting:
Floors that have not yet been treated

Black marks on the floor


These occur in the form of dark marks in various shapes. They are most probably caused by oxidation. An alkaline product is required (Service alcale Geal / Filadrastic). Wash thoroughly and then repeat the operation, this time using buffered acid (Service acido Geal / Deterdek Fila) to neutralise the alkaline solution.

Grout residues
Clean with buffered acid (Service acido Geal / Deterdek Fila). More stubborn build up can be removed with specific products used in higher concentrations (Acido 13H3 forte Geal / Fila PH Zero).

Saline efflorescence
This appears if the washing operation was performed too early or inaccurately. Wash the tiles again, not forgetting to respect the technical times. From laying to acid wash: 40 days for traditional mortar laying; 15 days for adhesive laying; 2-3 months for handmade cotto laid using mortar.
(see table on slide 42)

Troubleshooting:
Floors with finishing treatment

Drips of cold oil


Use kitchen paper and wash with a mild degreasing detergent (CB-90 Geal / Fila Cleaner), such as used for normal maintenance. If cleaning is performed quickly enough, there will be no remaining marks. If this is not the case, use a strong film and wax remover (Service idrosolv Geal / Fila DX/83), neat and directly on the stained tile, which must then be carefully rinsed. When the tile is dry, apply a coat of neutral liquid wax (Wop Geal / Cottowax Fila) or the same product used in the final coat of floor treatment.

Black heel marks


Or marks from the caps on chairs or furniture. Use a mild degreasing detergent (CB-90 Geal / Fila Cleaner) neat, applying it with a damp abrasive sponge. Rub in, rinse and then apply neutral liquid wax (Wop Geal / Cottowax Fila).

White heel marks


This probably means that there is too much wax on the tiles and therefore, it is best not to use any more for a while. Wash the floor with a mild degreasing detergent (CB-90 Geal / Fila Cleaner) such as used for normal maintenance and use a floor polisher on a regular basis.

Troubleshooting:
Treated floors

Layers of built up wax or stubborn dirt


Wash the floor with a strong film and wax remover (Service idrosolv Geal / Fila DX/83) and rinse. Apply a coat of neutral liquid wax (Wop Geal / Cottowax Fila).

The flooring under a pot has become lighter


This is probably due to lime scale residues caused by water. It is sufficient to wash the affected area with a buffered acid (Service acido Geal / Deterdek Fila) and then, if necessary, to apply neutral liquid wax (Wop Geal / Cottowax Fila). If the problem is caused by dampness, which is particularly high underneath a plant, use a solvent-based wax remover (Service solvente Geal / Filasolv), scrubbing with an abrasive sponge and cleaning up any residues with kitchen paper or dry cloths. Then apply a coat of wax paste for cotto (Dress Geal / Cera in pasta Fila) and finish off with a coat of neutral liquid wax (Wop Geal / Cottowax Fila).

Troubleshooting:
Tiles laid outdoors

Blackened paving
Rain, dust and smog can blacken cotto tiles laid outdoors. It is sufficient to wash the paving with a strong degreasing detergent (Service idrosolv Geal / Fila DX/83) to remove the dirt that has accumulated over time.

Tyre marks
Wash thoroughly with a strong degreasing detergent DX/83), and a stiff brush. Rinse.
(Service idrosolv Geal / Fila

Moss and mould


Wash with an alkaline product (Service alcale Geal / Filadrastic) and a hard brush. Then apply buffered acid (Service acido Geal / Deterdek Fila) and rinse. To prevent this problem, apply two coats of water repellent (ICR 17 Geal / Fila ES/82) to clean, dry paving.

Specific Notes About Our Flooring And Paving:

Cotto Pratico / Protetto

Traditional cotto

Cotto Pratico / Protetto

Waterproofed by immersion Wide range of floor and special pieces Releases no efflorescence Does not form mould Easier to clean Ideal for indoor and outdoor use

Specific Notes About Our Flooring And Paving:

Cotto Pratico / Protetto


In the interests of correct information, it is best to specify:
Indoor flooring: the product requires a wax finish Outdoor paving: do not apply any type of finish, although a stainproofing product can be applied to areas at risk from staining.

Warning!
Do not consider this cotto to be a pre-treated or ready-to-use product, or even a non-absorbent or stainproof cotto Cotto Pratico has extremely fast installation and finishing times

Specific Notes About Our Flooring And Paving:

Cotto Linea Casato


This is given a hot wax treatment in a controlled environment: the result is a surface with improved strength, durability and more even colour tones.

Waxed in a controlled environment Available in 3 colours Does not release efflorescence Easy to clean Immediate finish

This can easily be defined as a pre-treated cotto

Specific Notes About Our Flooring And Paving:

Cotto Linea Casato


In the interests of correct information, it is best to specify:
This is a cotto for indoor use only It may only be laid using adhesives It must be finished using the relevant special wax

Warning!
Do not define this cotto as being a stainproof product; avoid soiling it excessively during grouting operations

Washing operations must be performed delicately !

Specific Notes About Our Flooring And Paving:

Cotto ProntoZoni

Our Research and Development laboratory has devised a mix of fluxes, that is applied to the product while still dry.

After firing, the product is waterproofed by being immersed in a water-based water-repellent.

Specific Notes About Our Flooring And Paving:

Cotto ProntoZoni
This maintains all of the beautiful qualities of real cotto flooring, but without any of the characteristics that have classified it as difficult. It needs no treatment not now or ever
The presence of corundum gives the product its high degree of surface strength. Resistant to wear, chemical agents and the elements. The characteristics of this mix mean that the product can absorb and release water, but not liquids of higher density.

The contents of this presentation have been optimised and revised by the Technical Division of Industriepica in collaboration with: Geal srl _ Agliana (PT) Fila Industria chimica spa _ S. Martino di Lupari (PD) Mapei spa _ Milan Tenax spa _ Italy Sources: Le piastrelle di ceramica by A.Tenaglia, G. Timellini, C. Palmonari In-house publication from Centro Ceramico Bologna Il cotto toscano unantica piastrella ancora da apprezzare pienamente by E. Giusti Geal srl _ Agliana (PT) All rights reserved. Reproduction, in any form, of written or illustrated parts of this booklet is strictly prohibited, unless expressly authorised.