Propeller Cavitation
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Alexandria University
2/28/2010 2
Recall EGL and HGL for a propeller
HGL
1 2 4 3
HGL
EGL
EGL
g
V
2
2
1
4
p
1
p
0
1
= z
0
4
= z
1
V
2
V
4
V
Ship Hydrodynamics1
Alexandria University
2/28/2010 3
Let us look at the pressure
just beind the propeller
When propeller is in action,
water is accelerated
V
2
increases and P
2
decreases
2
V
4
V
0
2
= z
1 2 4 3
HGL
EGL
g
V
2
2
1
1
p
0
1
= z
1
V
g
V
2
2
2
2
p
Ship Hydrodynamics1
Alexandria University
2/28/2010 4
Pending on V
2
we have three possibilities for P
2
P
2
/ above the system centerline (above atmosphere +ve gage pressure)
P
2
/ drops to system centerline (atmosphere zero gage pressure)
P
2
/ falls below the system centerline (sub atmosphere ve gage pressure)
Ship Hydrodynamics1
Alexandria University
2/28/2010 5
2
V
4
V
0
2
= z
1 2 4 3
HGL
EGL
g
V
2
2
1
1
p
0
1
= z
1
V
g
V
2
2
2
2
p
Ship Hydrodynamics1
Alexandria University
2/28/2010 6
What is the limit for water to stay in a liquid state?
The limit is that when the pressure is equal to the pressure at which vapor starts to form
Or when the pressure is equal to the water vapor pressure
P
V
=1.7kN/m
2
= 0.174 m H
2
0
P
A
=98kN/m
2
= 10 m H
2
0
+ve(gage)
Zero Gage
ve(gage)
+ve
Zero Absolute
P/ (m)
0.17
0.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
In absoulte scale:
P > P
vapour
water is liquid
When P= P
vapour
vapor forms
i.e. bubble forms
i.e. water boils
i.e. flow cavities form
Ship Hydrodynamics1
Alexandria University
2/28/2010 7
Types of cavitation
Sheet
Bubble
Cloud
Tip vortex
Hub vortex
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Alexandria University
2/28/2010 8
consequences of cavitation occurrence
Bubble forms, then collapse close to the blade boundaries causing
Vibration
Noise
Pitting
Material damage
Loss of thrust,
Lower propulsion efficiency
Conclusion:
Cavitation should be avoided by proper design of propeller and proper operation
Ship Hydrodynamics1
Alexandria University
2/28/2010 9
Effect on thrust
coefficient
K
T
Non Cavitating Propeller
J
Cavitating Propeller
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Alexandria University
2/28/2010 10
Effect on propeller
efficiency
q
0
Non Cavitating Propeller
J
Cavitating Propeller
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Alexandria University
2/28/2010 11
Propeller Cavitation Charts
At any blade section position r,
margin against cavitation is:
define s as cavitation number
) ( ) ( r h P r P
A
+ =
v A
P r h P + ) (
( )
pressure Dynamic
cavitation against in M
r
arg
= o
( )
( )
2
5 . 0
R
v A
V
P r h P
r
o
+
=
At 0.7R blade section
( )
( )
R
R
v A
V
P r h P
R
7 . 0
2
5 . 0
7 . 0
o
+
=
V
A
RPM
R
P
A
Thrust
h
r
r
Ship Hydrodynamics1
Alexandria University
2/28/2010 12
Burrill cavitation diagram
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Alexandria University
2/28/2010 13
Required Blade Area
A useful formula for obtaining a first indication as to the required expanded blade area
ratio was derived by Keller (1966),
where
T thrust
Z number of propeller blades
P
A
atmosheric pressure
P
V
vapour pressure
h propeller centerline immersion
k constant varying from 0 (for transom stern naval vessels) to 0.2
(for high powered single screw vessels)
( )
( )
k
D p h p
T Z
EAR
v A
+
+
+
=
2
3 . 0 3 . 1
Ship Hydrodynamics1
Alexandria University
2/28/2010 14
Example: The propeller in the previous example was designed using B4.40 propeller
series chart. It is required to Check whether this propeller will or will not cavitate. Use :
1 Keller criterion.
2 Burril cavitation chart
V
s
=21 knots
R
T
=888.64 kN
7.5 m
Ship Hydrodynamics1
Alexandria University
2/28/2010 15
The results obtained are:
Estimated QPC 0.75
Wake fraction, w 0.20
Thrust deduction fraction, t 0.20
Relative rotative efficiency, q
R
1.00
RPM 102
Expanded Blade Area Ratio 0.4
Value of o 95
19.56 feet
(5.96 m)
P/D 1.26
Open water Efficiency q
o
0.77
feet
n
V
D
A
c
=
Ship Hydrodynamics1
Alexandria University
16
Solution
The required thrust is
The Keller area criterion for a single screw vessel gives:
Hence, the used blade area is not enough to avoid cavitation
2/28/2010
( ) ( ) s m w V V
A
/ 64 . 8 2 . 0 1 8 . 10 1 = = =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
kN
V t
P
V t
RV
t
R
T
E
9 . 1044
8 . 10 15 . 0 1
9592
1 1 1
=
=
( )
( )
2 . 0
3 . 0 3 . 1
2
+
+
+
=
D p h p
T Z
EAR
v A
( )
( )
633 . 0 2 . 0
96 . 5 1000 * 72 . 1 5 . 7 * 81 . 9 * 1025 1000 * 98
1000 * 9 . 1044 4 * 3 . 0 3 . 1
2
= +
+
+
= EAR
Ship Hydrodynamics1
Alexandria University
2/28/2010 17
If Burril cavtitation limit is given by:
( )
( )  
( )
( )
2 2
7 . 0
2
7 . 0
7 . 0
2
7 . 0 2
7 . 0
7 . 0
5 . 0
7 . 0
ln 03892 . 0 2533 . 0
5 . 0
2
R V V
V
P R h P
V
A T
A R
R
v atm
R
R
R
b
O + =
=
+ =
u
o
o
u
( )
2 2
2
2 2
7 . 0
2 2
7 . 0
/ 47 . 564 96 . 2 *
60
102 * * 2
* 7 . 0 64 . 8
7 . 0
2
s m V
R V V
R
A R
=

.

\

+ =
O + =
t
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Alexandria University
2/28/2010 18
( )
( )
1446 . 0
47 . 564 * 1025 * 5 . 0
1000 * 72 . 1 98 . 2 * 7 . 0 5 . 7 81 . 9 * 1025 1000 * 98
5 . 0
7 . 0
7 . 0
7 . 0
2
7 . 0
7 . 0
=
=
=
R
R
R
v atm
R
V
P R h P
o
o
u
o
( )
( )  
( )
( )  
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
place take will Cavitation Hence
V
A T
V
A T
V
A T
V
A T
V
A T
it
R
b
actual
R
b
actual
R
b
it
R
b
R
R
b
lim
2
7 . 0
2
7 . 0
2
2
7 . 0
2
lim
2
7 . 0
2
7 . 0 2
7 . 0
5 . 0 5 . 0
32 . 0
47 . 564 * 1025 * 5 . 0
98 . 2 * 4 . 0 / 1000 * 1045
5 . 0
0317 . 0 1446 . 0 ln 03892 . 0 2533 . 0
5 . 0
ln 03892 . 0 2533 . 0
5 . 0
u u
t
u
u
o
u
>
= =
= + =
+ =
0.144
0.32
0.032
( )
R
R
v A
R
V
P R h P
7 . 0
2
7 . 0
2
1
7 . 0
o
+
=
2
2
1
R
P
V
A T
Cavitati
on
Limit
No Cavitation
Ship Hydrodynamics1
Alexandria University
2/28/2010 19