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Robotics design for detection of explosives using 3G technology

INTRODUCTION
Explosives are now a days problem for entire globe to detect them and to neutralize them before the target accident goes to occur. Also, it is a dangerous and challenging job for the explosive detection and Disposal squad to neutralize it before explosion. It is very essential for a country also, to have efficient technology and weapons for security. In this field, one of the necessary things is to detect the explosives, and mines. Especially, when it is the time of war or small attacks, a accurate detection of explosives may make it failure.currently, the detection of explosives are done by the various methods as e.g. trace explosive method, ground penetrating radars, magnetometers, advance metal detectors, passive millimeter wave detection etc. But all of these detections are done by the human or by the security personals only, that is extremely risky if the explosive goes to explode while detection itself. The same problem comes when it is a case of human bombs , when the person goes with explosive in the crowded area and explodes it there. This paper presents the design of the robot which can detect explosives with the microwave and nuclear based sensors up to the depth of 20cm , this design is also able to transmit the live movement of the robot through the 3G technology. This type of robot may run on the way where the explosives or landmines have to be detected. Also, it has the GPS system, which catches the coordinate of the location where the robot is running currently and at the same time the robot goes to catch the live location from the high resolution cameras installed on it and this information goes to transmit to the control room. Whenever a suspected object is detected, the robot gets the coordinates from the GPS system and tags this GPS data on the broadcasting video at the same location. Thus, a person in the control room gets very easily the coordinates of the location, where the suspected objects got detected.

Dept of TE SIRMVIT

2013

Robotics design for detection of explosives using 3G technology

The robot have also a information queue, which is very useful when connection of network is goes to lost from 3G network to robot.This design of robot has also one authentication option with the control room. The design is able to read the face of the operator of the control room as well as authentication can be done by password string also, and thus the password is encrypted and tagged through transmission and goes to sent to the robot, where password is decrypted from the transmission ag and compared by the hardware and software method with the already saved string. Now, the robot design is able to authenticate and authorizes to the control room as well as it is able to move through the given coordinate and able to send the coordinate of the suspected area with live location. So, this design can be used in the two ways, first when the object is moving through the robot and second when the robot have to move according to the given coordinates. In the both mentioned case the design described above can be applicable .

Dept of TE SIRMVIT

2013

Robotics design for detection of explosives using 3G technology

CHAPTER 1 LITERATURE SURVEY


Robotic technology has evolved enoromously over the past century. The robot, that can detect the explosives and can communicate with its base station by using the 3G Technology to broadcast the live movement of robot, this 3G technology provides here the fast communication and helps in the portable design. In the other hand, the explosives which have to be detected through the a) Microwave Sensor, b) Nuclear based sensor, which will be done by the propagation of UHF waves and by the gamma rays propagation on the objects respectively, and can be detected up to depth of 20 cm, with the less power consumption and in the efficient manner . The main purpose is to bring awareness to the persisting problem landmines and and cluster bombs in Lebanon and in the region by inviting students to design a robot for the detection of landmines and cluster bombs.Leanon and the region are not only countries affected by landmines. Seventy-sixcountries and territories in all regions of the world are affected by landmines and/orexplosive remnants of war.

Dept of TE SIRMVIT

2013

Robotics design for detection of explosives using 3G technology

CHAPTER 2 ROBOTICS
2.1 ROBOT
A robot is a virtual or mechanical artificial agent. In practice, it is usually an electromechanical machine which is guided by computer or electronic programming, and is thus able to do tasks on its own. Another common characteristic is that by its appearance or movements, a robot often conveys a sense that it has intent or agency of its own.

Fig 2.1: Robot used for bomb disposal


The word 'robot' was coined by the Czech playwright Karel Capek (pronounced "chop'ek") from the Czech word for forced labor or serf. Capek was reportedly several times a candidate for the Nobel prize for his works and very influential and prolific as a writer and playwright. Mercifully, he died before the Gestapo got to him for his anti-Nazi sympathies in 1938.

Dept of TE SIRMVIT

2013

Robotics design for detection of explosives using 3G technology

Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, structural disposition, manufacture and application of robots. Robotics is related to the sciences of electronics, engineering, mechanics, andsoftware. The word "robot" was introduced to the public by Czech writer Karel apek in his play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), published in 1920. The term "robotics" was coined by Isaac Asimov in his 1941 science fiction short-story "Liar!". The design of robotic leg should have a technique of camels leg . Whenever it keeps its leg down the sponge goes to sink down and at the same time it wouldn t allow the ground surface to feel the pressure, also the legs ground side surface goes to divide into the sticks as per the weight of robot, by this technique the weight of robot goes to divide into many parts, and it wouldnt allow to go more pressure at the particular place. Thus, the robot design is able to move through the ways specified to it, through the received input video (with location tag) from the control room. This design of robot has also one authentication option with the control room. The design is able to read the face of the operator of the control room as well as authentication can be done by password string also, and thus the password is encrypted and tagged through transmission and goes to sent to the robot, where password is decrypted from the transmission ag and compared by the hardware and software method with the already saved string. Now, the robot design is able to authenticate and authorizes to the control room as well as it is able to move through the given coordinate and able to send the coordinate of the suspected area with live location. So, this design can be used in the two ways, first when the object is moving through the robot and second when the robot have to move according to the given coordinates.

Dept of TE SIRMVIT

2013

Robotics design for detection of explosives using 3G technology

2.2 Introduction to robot architecture


There are two types of sensors have been used in this design a) Microwave Based sensor, b) Nuclear Based sensor . Both of the sensors consume very less power, as shown in the , works at 2-10 GHz of Microwave frequency with the 10mW of the power up to 8 hours with a standard battery of ~12V.This sensor having the following characteristics: Micro wave frequency range from 2 to 8 GHz . Time taken for analysis of 1 scanning loop=0.1 second . Sensitivity : 100-120 Decibel per Watt . Spatial Resolution : 3*4 cm square . The Second sensor which is based on the nuclear which is designed with a analog to digital converter with the programmed microprocessor installed with a neutron generator, gamma detector, detector shielding and it is controlled by the robot.

Fig 2.2.1: Robotic wheel and leg Design


It can be operated in -22c to 55c of temperature up to 8 hours without recharging a standard battery.This sensor having the following characteristics:
Dept of TE SIRMVIT 2013

Robotics design for detection of explosives using 3G technology Minimum weight of scanning object: 0.08-0.1 kilogram . Scanned area: 30*30 cm with 20 cm of depth . No radiation in case of switched off.

Fig 2.2.2: Block Diagram of entire communication system


In this part, whenever a suspected object is detected, the sensor s microcontroller reads the GPS, and transfers it to 3G portable device. Where a programmed microprocessor copies this location data to the transmitting video, where it goes to be tagged with video stream and transmits it to the control room. The 3G portable devices is nothing but a transreceiver device, use 3G technologies for fast transmission of video streams and other huge data transfers. It consumes a small amount of power and able to work some days without recharge of a standard battery. This device is installed in the robot . After the sensors, a set of analog to digital converter is installed; it gets the data from sensors and gives to the microcontroller for future for the further process. Whenever a suspected item is detected, microcontroller reads the GPS and tags the current coordinate with multimedia stream, which goes to transfer to the control room.

Dept of TE SIRMVIT

2013

Robotics design for detection of explosives using 3G technology

The proposed design of robot should have four legs without any hands, and sensors should be installed at the beginning of the robot, i.e. similar to the design of the dog. This will distribute the entire weight of the robot on its four legs and then weight of leg will be distributed on the four sticks installed under the legs palm. For the design of the robotic leg see . These sticks installed in the leg, work as the sponge and sinks down whenever the robot keeps its leg down.

2.3 ROBOT ARCHITECTURE


The architecture of the robot is now divided into two parts as hardware and software design. The hardware design contents the sensors with microprocessors, ADCs in the robot head, and GPS, 3G portable device in between the front and back legs. The software part contents of the software for sensor data computation and for the authentication of robot, software for command execution given from control room, calculation of Co-ordinates and software for control room to communicate with network by acting as node.The hardware side works with the following parts .

Fig 2.3: Sensor Interfacing 2.4 Robot Head

Dept of TE SIRMVIT

2013

Robotics design for detection of explosives using 3G technology

The robot head contents of the microwave based sensor, nuclear based sensor, microprocessors & microcontroller with the analog to digital convertor circuits.

Fig 2.4.1: sensors 1) Microwave based sensor


It is built of a microwave generator circuit, which generates the microwave of frequency 4-24 GHz. The equipment allows the microwave to propagate on the object continuously, which creates the dielectric on the object. In another part of the equipment the determination of dielectric is done and it is checked that weather the dielectric value of object is in range of explosives or not. And at last, the result is shown according to this observation. It is the principle of this sensor.

2) Nuclear based sensor


Nuclear based sensor is designed by a neutron generator, which projects the neutrons continuously on the object and simultaneously when the object refracts rays, it goes to determine the magnitude of rays and its properties are compared with the given

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Robotics design for detection of explosives using 3G technology

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refraction range of the explosives. If it is found similar to the explosives emitted rays range, the result is sent as positive. This is the principle of the Nuclear based sensor.

3) Microcontroller and ADC


There is a microcontroller include in this robot head design, whose work is to get the signal from the sensor through the ADC and perform operation as per programmed condition [II.B].Usually, the condition is given to read GPS data if any suspected thing found.

Fig 2.4.2 : Control Room to Robot connectivity through 3G

4) Robotics Leg Design


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Robotics design for detection of explosives using 3G technology

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The robotic leg can be design by the stepper motor. A pair of stepper motors can be used for a leg but both motor should be connected with the opposite phase of each other in paralleled manner by that in the same time both stepper motors will move in the opposite direction of each other .

Fig 2.4.3: Robotic Leg Design

And this movement will give next step for walking to robot.The design of feet is shown in the that should be used as legs palm. This technique gives protection from the land mines to the robot. Since, all the weight goes to distribute on the four legs and then the four sponge sticks installed in the all four legs consumes the weight and wouldn t allow any more pressure on ground.

Dept of TE SIRMVIT

2013

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Fig 2.4.4: Armed robot

CHAPTER 3 3G Connectivity Architecture


The information of detection and the location of robot are now transferred to the 3G transmission block with the live video of the place . The following sub-blocks come under this situation:

3.1 Information Queue


It is a memory, which stores all the observed data in the queue format. Whenever the data goes to transfer, it erases that sent data from queue, if any case of emergency the connection is lost from the network, it keep storing the data and whenever the connection restores, it starts sending the current data as well as the not transmitted data in the another colored frame. Although, 3G technology is not such technology where connection lost problem comes, it may occur only if there is no network coverage in that area.

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3.2 3G core Network


The 3G core network is defined as the network, which is providing the connectivity publically, also called as network operators. Basically, it is the third generation of the telecommunication technology, which provides a high speed huge data transfer to a moving client .

3.3 Session Border Controller


This is one, which is essential for a network provider to keep control over the clients. It is the one block which allows the client to have access of network resources.This session controller is used for the counting the bill of the network usage. It is the controller through that all the session data passes to the client.

3.4 H.324M
This is the terminal, which is known for the low speed data transfer such as video, voice, or combination of both. It is one of the recommended techniques from ITU in the 3G communication system [10], and it is able to transmit data with the ~33 kbps of the speed. When our 3G portable device need connection from the control room, it connects with the switch, switch gives the connection of core network through the H.324M terminal. And in the control room side, controlling pc gets connectivity through the inter network and via the SBC into the core network. Now, the both of the nodes are connected with each other through the 3G core network .

Dept of TE SIRMVIT

2013

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CHAPTER 4 Algorithm and Architecture of Software


Some software is used here for the purpose of communication, utilizing the hardware, and for the better performance and accuracy .

4.1 Algorithm for sensors


This algorithm is having the following steps to execute when the sensor (nuclear and microwave based both) starts working in the robot environment: Step [1]: Compute the dielectric and rays ratio of the object. Step [1.a]: If the computed value is within the range of explosives, Read the data from the GPS. Tag the GPS data on the camera data with the message suspected object found. Step [1.b]: If the computed value is not within the range, follow the robot running loop until stop or destination coordinates.

4.2 Algorithm for robot movement and command execution

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There is need of algorithm to execute the commands, which was tagged in the streaming data for the robot to take further actions given by control room. The following algorithm can be used for this purpose: Step [1]: While (Receiving the stream); Step [1.a] if (Command is found tagged) then extract the command from the stream of data. Step [1.b] Else Continue receiving and ignoring the data. Step [2]: Search the extracted command in the database of the commands.

Step [2.a]: If (command is found as valid) then perform the corresponding action. Step [3]: If (Command is given with coordinate for movement) then subtract the current coordinate from the given coordinate and compute the distance, go in the robot running loop until the coordinate is achieved.

4.3 Algorithm to convert controlling pc into terminal


This algorithm is used in the pc of control room to act it as the network terminal. This algorithm is very necessary to pass the operators command for tagging in the streaming data. Whenever operator enters a command, the following algorithm goes to execute first at system level: Step [1]: Prompt to get the command for controlling the robot. Step [2]: Get the command and search it in the command database. Step [3]: If (Command is found) then send it for tagging (Transfer to the buffer of transmitter) with the data which is streaming. Step [3.a]: Else, show the error message that given command was invalid. Whenever the operator enters a correct command, then only command is goes to be tagged on the streaming data. This concept can be easily understood by the example of luggage belt of the airport, where people keeps their luggage on the moving belt to send it to the destination
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This next algorithm can be used for the need of data transmission, and to make the devices and system as network node: Step [1]: If (connection is open) then get the authentication and authorization to system from the robot. Step [2]: Get the data source (Make ready buffer of transmitter) have to be transmit through the network. Step [3]: Give the authorization to the data source to transmit data and to act as transreceiver node until the connection is terminated.

CHAPTER 5 APPLICATIONS
The application of this type of robot is to detect the explosives, land mines etc. This can be very useful in case of wars in the country or in the case of emergency due to the explosives. This type of explosives can also be used in the railway stations, airport for scanning the object and also recording of the people, who are carrying that particular scanned object for the further reference. Apart from this, this type of robot can run on the way before the VIP people s vehicle goes through that way. It can be also used to scan the national border area for land mines, and to protect our home military heavy vehicles from enemies.

Dept of TE SIRMVIT

2013

Robotics design for detection of explosives using 3G technology

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LIMITATIONS
Difficulty of getting information into robot without human intervention. The cost of some robot is prohibitive.

Dept of TE SIRMVIT

2013

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CONCLUSION

Detection of explosives using 3G communication technology is the most challenging and fascinating area in Robotics.Its impact is felt both in fundamental scientific research and industrial applications . The application of this type of robot is to detect the explosives, land mines etc. This is very useful in case of wars in the country or in the case of emergency due to the explosives. This type of explosives can also be used in the railway stations, airport for scanning the object and also recording of the people, who are carrying that particular scanned object for the further reference. Apart from this, this type of robot can run on the way before the VIP peoples vehicle goes through that way. It can be also used to scan the national border area for land mines, and to protect our home military heavy vehicles from enemies.

Dept of TE SIRMVIT

2013

Robotics design for detection of explosives using 3G technology

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FUTURE ENHANCEMENT
Robotics is very useful in case of wars in the country or in the case of emergency due to the explosives. This type of explosives can also be used in the railway stations, airport for scanning the object and also recording of the people, who are carrying that particular scanned object for the further reference. Apart from this, this type of robot can run on the way before the VIP peoples vehicle goes through that way. It can be also used to scan the national border area for land mines, and to protect our home military heavy vehicles from enemies. The future work proposed in this field is the Network for Explosive Sensing Robots and to introduce a unique type of protocol and network for this purpose. The design of the robot for detection of explosives is explained above which is using the 3G technology for the communication purpose to its control room, and microwave and nuclear based sensors for the detection of the explosive and landmines. In this explained Technique, We are making 3G technology to be used for the sensing robot connectivity need. But there is still a need of Network for Robots, that can work in all the condition from the earth to space.

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2013

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BIBILOGRAPHY
K. S. Fu & R.C. Gonzalez & C.S.G. Lee, Robotics: Control, Sensing, Vision, and Intelligence (CAD/CAM, robotics, and computer vision)

Configuration management and performance verification of explosive detection system, National research council (U.S), Panel on Technical Regulation of explosives-Detection systems, National academies press, 1988 . Existing and potential standoff explosives detection techniques, by national research council (U.S), National academies press, 1988 . Explosive Detection System, By Colin Corrigan, Patent No: 5109691 . www.ieee.spectrum.org www.future-mag.com www.engadget.com/robots
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Dept of TE SIRMVIT

2013