You are on page 1of 27

2005(SET-1)

Q. 1. An electrostatic field line cannot be discontinuous. Why? Q. 2. Two wires of equal lengths are bent in the form of two loops. One of the loops is square shaped whereas the other loop is circular. These are suspended in a uniform magnetic field and the same current is passed through them. Which loop will experience greater torque? Give reasons. 1 Q. 3. A bulb and a capacitor are connected in series to an a.c. source of variable frequency. How will the brightness of the bulb change on increasing the frequency of the a.c. source? Give reason. 1 Q. 4. Ultraviolet light is incident on two photosensitive materials having work functions W 1 and W2 ( W1 > W 2), In which case will the kinetic energy of the emitted electrons be greater? Why? 1 Q. 5. What is the function of cladding' in a typical optical fibre? 1 Q. 6. Define electric field intensity. Write its S. l . unit. Write the magnitude and direction of electric field intensity due to an electric dipole of length 2a at the mid- point of the tine joining the two charges. 2 Q. 7. A paralle capacitor is to be designed with a voltage rating 1 kV using a material of dielectric constant 3 and 4ickeclric strength about 10 7 Vm -1 . For safety we would like the field never to exceed say, 10% of the dipole strength. What minimum area of the plats is required to have a capacitance of 50 pF? 2 Or

capacitor is charged by a 200 V supply. The supply is then disconnec- ted and the charged capacitor is connected to c apacitor. How much electrostatic energy of the first capacitor is lost in the process of attaining the

another uncharged 2 steady situation?

Q. 8. How does the resistivity of (i) a conductor and (ii) a semiconductor vary with temperature? Give reason for each case. 2 Q. 9. Write two characteristic properties to distinguish between diamagnetic and paramagnetic materials. 2 Q. 10. A circular coil of radius 8 cm and 20 turns rotates about its vertical diameter with an angular speed of 50 s-1 in a uniform horizontal magnetic field of magnitude 3 x 10-2 T. Find the maximum and average value of the emf induced in the coil. 2 Q. 11. State the condition under which the phenomenon of resonance occurs in a series LCR circuit. Plot a graph showing variation of current with frequency of a.c. source in a series LCR circuit. 2 Q. 12. A right-angled crown glass prism with critical angle 41 0 is placed before an object PQ, in two positions as shown in the figures (i) and (ii). Trace the paths of the rays from P and Q the prisms in the two cases. 2

Q. 13. State Gauss' theorem. Apply this theorem to obtain the expression for the electric field intensity at a point due to an infinitely long, thin, uniformly charged straight wire. 3 Q. 14. Two cells of emf 1.5 V and 2 V and internal resistance 1 ohm and 2 ohm respectively are connected in parallel to pass a current in the same direction through an external resistance of 5 ohm. (i) Draw the circuit diagram. (ii) Using Kirchhoff's laws, calculate the current through each branch of the circuit and potential difference across the 5 ohm resistor. 3 Q. 15. What is Seebeck effect? Plot a graph showing the variation of thermo emf with temperature of the hot junction (keeping the cold junction at 0 o C) of a thermocouple. How will the (a) neutral temperature and (b) inversion temperature of the thermocouple change when the temperature of the cold junction is increased ? 3 Or State Faraday's laws of electrolysis. How does one infer from these laws that the charge per ion of any chemical element (species) is an integral multiple of e, where e is the charge on an electron? Q. 16. Define self-inductance and give its S. I . unit. Derive an expression for self- inductance of a long, air-cored solenoid of length l, radius r, and having N number of turns. 3 Q. 17. Name the constituent radiation of electromagnetic spectrum which (a) is used in satellite communication. (b) is used for studying crystal structure. (c) is similar to the radiations emitted during decay of radioactive nuclei. (d) has its wavelength range between 390 nm and 770 nm. (e) is absorbed from sunlight by ozone layer. (f) produces intense heating effect. 3 Q. 18. (a) Draw a labelled ray diagram to show the formation of an image by a compound microscope. Write the expression for its magnifying power. (b) How does the resolving power of a compound microscope change, when (i) refractive index of the medium between the object and the objective lens increases; and (ii) wavelength of the radiation used is increased? 3 Q. 19. Mention the significance of Davisson-Germer experiment. An particle and a proton are accelerated from rest through the

same potential difference V. Find the ratio of de-Broglie wavelengths associated with them. 3

Q. 20. (a) Draw the energy level diagram showing the emission of

-particles followed by

by a

Co nucleus.

(b) Plot the distribution of kinetic energy of J articles and state why the energy spectrum is continuous. 3

Q. 21. A radioactive sample contains 2.2 ing of pure (i) the number of atoms present initially. .(ii) the activity when 5 of the sample will be left. 3

C which has half-life period of 1224 seconds. Calculate

Q. 22. On the basis of the energy band diagrams distinguish between metals, insulators and semiconductors. 3 Q. 23. Distinguish between analog and digital communication. Write any two modulation techniques empolyed for the digital data. Describe briefly any one of the techniques used. 3 Q. 24. A ground receiver station is receiving a signal at (a) 5 MHz and (b) 100 MHz, transmitted from a ground transmitter at a height of 300 m located at a distance of 100 km. Identify whether it is coming via space wave or sky wave prop- agation or satellite transponder. (Given the value of radius of the earth is 6400 km and maximum electron density, Nmax = 1012 m-3) 3 Q. 25. Explain the principle and working of a cyclotron with the help of a Iabelied diagram. A cyclotron's oscillator frequency is 10 Mhz. What should be the operating magnetic field for accelerating protons? If the radius of its 'dees' is 60 cm, what is the kinetic energy of the proton beam produced by the accelerator? Express your answer in units of Me V. .5 Or Depict the magnetic field lines due to two straight, long, parallel conductors carrying currents 11 and 12 in the same direction. Hence deduce an expression for the force acting per unit length on one conductor due to the other is this force attractive or repulsive? Figure shows a rectangular current-carrying loop placed 2 cm away from a long, straight, current-carrying conductor. What is the direction and magnitude of the net force acting on the loop?

Q. 26. Using Huygen's principle, draw a diagram to show propagation of a wave-front originating from a monochromatic point source. Describe diffraction of light due to a single slit. Explain formation of a pattern of fringes obtained on the screen and plot showing variation of intensity with angle in single slit diffraction.

Or What is meant by a linearly polarised light? Which type of waves can be polarised? Briefly explain a method for producing polarised light. Two polaroids are placed at 900 to each other and the intensity of transmitted light is zero. What will be the intensity of transmitted light when one more polaroid is placed between these two bisecting the angle between them? Take intensity of unpolarised light as I. Q. 27. (a) With the help of a circuit diagram explain the working of transistor as oscillator. (b) Draw a circuit diagram for a two input OR gate and explain its working with the help of input, output waveforms. Or (a) Explain briefly with the hell) of a circuit diagram how V - I characteristics of a p-n junction diode are obtained in (i) forward bias, and (ii) reverse bias. (b) A photodiode is fabricated from a semiconductor with a band gap of 2.8 eV. Can it detect wavelength of 6000. nm? Justify.

SET II
Q. 1. What should be the length of a dipole antenna for a carrier wave of frequency 6 x 108 Hz? 1 Q. 2. Show graphically how the stopping potential for a given photosensitive surfa- ce varies with the frequency of the incident radiation. 1 Q. 3. In a series LCR circuit, the voltage across an inductor, capacitor and resistor are 20 V, 20 V and 40 V respectively. What is the phase difference between the applied voltage and the current in the circuit? 1 Q. 4. Under what condition does an electron moving through a magnetic field experience maximum force? 1 Q. 5. How does the coulomb force between two point charges depend upon the dielectric constant of the intervening medium? 1 Q. 10. Establish a relation between current and drift velocity. 1 Q. 11. A charge q is Placed at the centre of the line joining two equal charges Q. Show that the system of three charges will be in equilibrium if q = - Q/4. 2 Or

A5

capacitor is charged by a 100 V supply. The supply is then disconnected and the charged capacitor is connected to capacitor. How much electrostatic energy of the first capacitor is lost in the process of attaining the

another uncharged 3 steady situation?

Q. 13. The potential difference across the terminals of a battery of emf 12 V and internal resistance 2 ohm drops to 10 V when it is connected to a silver voltameter. Calculate the silver deposited at the cathode in half an hour. Relative atomic mass of silver is 108. 3

Q. 15. Define mutual inductance and give its S. I . unit. Derive an express on for the mutual inductance of two long coaxial solenoids of same length wound one over the other. 3 Q. 17. A double convex lens made of glass of refractive index 1.6 has its both surfaces of equal radii of curvature of 30 cm each. An object of 5 cm height is placed at a distance of 12.5 cm from the lens. Find the position, nature and size of the image. Except questions IN Set I & Set II. Q. 1. Two electric field lines never cross each other. Why? 1 Q. 2. Under what conditions is the force acting on a charge moving through a uniform magnetic field minimum? 1 Q. 3. What is the power dissipated in an a.c circuit an which voltage and current are given by 1 Q. 4. In an experiment on photoelectric effect, the following graphs were obtained between the photoelectric current ( I ) and the anode potential (V). Name the characteristic of the incident radiation that was kept constant in this experiment. 1

Q. 5. How does the effective power radiated by an antenna vary with wave length? 1 Q. 7. Mention the factors on which the resonant frequency of a series LCR circuit depends. Plot a graph showing variation of impedance of a series LCR circuit with the frequency of the applied a.c. source. 2 Q. 10. How do you convert a galvanometer into an ammeter? Why is an ammeter always connected in series? 2 Q. 11. Two fixed point charges -Me and +e units are separated by a distance 'a'. Where should the third point charge be placed for it to be in equilibrium? 2 Or

capacitor is charged by a 200 V supply. The supply is then disconnected and the charged capacitor is connected to another capacitor. How much electrostatic energy of the first capacitor is lost in the process of attaining the steady

uncharged situation?

Q. 17. A double convex lens made of glass of refractrive index 1.5 has its both surfaces of equal radii of curvature of 20 cm each. An object of 5 cm height is placed at a distance of 10 cm from the lens. Find the position, nature and size of the image. 3

Q. 22. The half-life of

U against

-decay is 4.5 X 109 years. Calculate the activity of 1 g sample of

U.

2006(SET1/2/3)
Q. 1. Define the term electric dipole moment. Is it a scalar or a vector quantity? 1 Q. 2. The variation of potential difference V with length I in case of two potentiometers P and Q is as shown. Which one of these two will you prefer for comparing emfs of two primary cells. 1

Q. 3. de Brogue wavelength associated with an electron accelerated through a potential difference wavelength when the accelerating potential is increased to 4 V? Q. 4. Give any one difference between FAX and e-mail systems of communication. 1

. What will be its

Q. 5. Steel is preferred for making permanent magnets whereas soft iron is preferred for making electromagnets. Give one reason. 1 Q. 6. You are given a resistors, each of resistance r. These are first connected to get minimum possible resistance. In the sec ond case, these are again connected differently to get maximum possible resistance. Compute the ratio between the minimum and maximum values of resistance so obtained. 2

Q. 7. Two capacitors of capacitance of capacitor is 2 V. Compute the total battery voltage. 2

are connected in series with a battery. The voltage across the

Or A parallel plate capacitor with air between the plates has a capacitance of 8 pF. The separation between the pates is now reduced by half and the space between them is filled with a medium of dielectric constant 5. Calculate the value of capacitance of the capacitor in the second case. 2 Q. 8. Draw a labelled ray diagram to show the image formation in a refracting type astronomical telescope. Why should the diameter of the objective of a telescope belarge? Q. 9. Draw a circuit diagram using a metre bridge and write the necessary mathematical relation used to determine the value of an unknown resistance. Why cannot such an arrangement be used for measuring very low resistances? 2 Q. 10. Which one of the two, an ammeter or a milliammeter, has a higher resistance and why? 2 Q. 11. An alternating voltage of frequency f is applied across a series LCR circuit. Let f r be the resonance frequency for the circuit. Will the current in the circuit lag, lead or remain in phase with the applied voltage when (i) answer in each case. 2 Q. 12. A point charge q is placed at O as shown in the figure. (ii) Explain your

Q. 13. Using Gausss theorem, show mathematically that for any point outside the shell, the field due to a unifo rmly charged thin spherical shell is the same as if the entire charge of the shell is concentrated at the centre. Why do you expect the electric field inside the shell to be zero according to this theorem? 3

Q. 14. Distinguish between frequency modulation and amplitude modulation. Why is an FM signal less susceptible to noise than an AM signal? 3 Q. 15. Write the order of frequency range and one use of each of the following electromagnetic radiations. 3 (i) Microwaves (ii) Ultra-violet rays (iii) Gamma rays Q. 16. Sketch a graph between frequency of incident radiations and stopping potential for a given photosensitive material. What information can be obtained from the value of the intercept on the potential axis? A source of light of frequency greater than the threshold frequency is placed at a distance of 1 m from the cathode of a photo-cell. The stopping potential is found to be V. If the distance of the light source from the cathode is reduced, explain giving reasons, what change will you observe in the (i) photoelectric current, (ii) stopping potential. 3 Q. 17. Define the terms half-life period and decay constant of a radioactive substance. Write their S.I. units. Establish the relationship between the two. 3

Q. 18. A neutron is absorbed by a

nucleus with the subsequent emission of an alpha particle.

(i) Write the corresponding nuclear reaction. (ii) Calculate the energy released, in MeV, in this reaction. 3

Q. 19. When an inductor L and a resistor R in series are connected across a 12 V, 50Hz supply, a current of 0.5 A flows in the circuit. The current differs in phase from applied voltage by radian. Calculate the value of R. 3 Or A 0.5 long metal rod PQ completes the circuit as shown in the figure. The area of the circuit is perpendicular to the magnetic field of flux density 0.15 T. If the resistance of the total circuit is indicated with a constant speed of 2 ms-1. , calculate the force needed to move the rod in the direction as

Q. 20. State Faradays laws of electrolysis. Express these in mathematical notation. Name any two applications of electrolysis. 3 Q. 21. What are eddy currents. How are these produced? in what sense are eddy currents considered undesirable in a transformer and how are these reduced in such a device? 3 Q. 22. A beam of light converges to a point P. A lens is placed in the path of the convergent beam 12 cm from P. At what point does the beam converge if the lens is (i) a convex lens of focal length 20 cm, (ii) a concave lens of focal length 16 cm ? 3 Do the required calculations.

Q. 23. Consider an optical communication system operating at

nm. Suppose, only 1% of the optical source frequency is

the available channel band-width for optical communication. How many channels can be accommodated for transmit ting (a) audio-signals requiring a band-width of 8 kHz, (b) video TV signals requiring an approximate band-width of 4.5 MHz? Support your answer with suitable calculations. 3 Q. 24. Explain (I) forward biasing, (ii) reverse biasing of a P-N junction diode. With the help of a circuit diagram, explain the use of this device as a half - wave rectifier. 3 Q. 25. Draw a neat and labelled diagram of a cyclotron. State the underlying principle and explain how a positively charged particle gets accelerated in this ma chine. Show mathematically that the cyclotron frequency does not depend upon the speed of the particle. 5 Or State the Biot - Savart law for the magnetic field due to a current carrying element. Use this law to obtain a formula for magnetic field at the centre of a circular loop of radius R carrying a steady current I. Sketch the magnetic field lines for a current loop clearly indicating the direction of the field. 5 Q. 26. What are coherent sources of light? State two conditions for two light sources to be coherent. Derive a mathematical expression for the width of interference fringes obtained in Youngs double slit experiment with th e help of a suitable diagram. 5 Or State Huygens principle. Using the geometrical construction of secondary wave- lets, explain the refraction of a plane wave front incident at a plane surface. Hence verify Snells law of refraction. Illustrate with the help of diagrams the action of (i) convex lens and (ii) concave mirror on a plane wave front incident on it. 5

Q. 27. What are energy bands? How are these formed? Distinguish between a conductor, an insulator and a semiconductor on the basis of energy band diagram. 5 Or Explain the function of base region of a transistor. Why is this region made thin and lightly doped? Draw a circuit diagram to study the input and output characteristics of n-p-n transistor in a common emitter (CE) configuration. Show these characteristics graphically. Explain how current amplification factor of the transistor is calculated using output characteristics. OUTSIDE DELHI (SETII) Q. 1. Define the term dielectric constant of a medium in terms of capacitance of a capacitor. 1 Q. 2. Sketch a graph showing variation of resistivity of carbon with temperature. 1

Q. 3. The vertical component of Earths magnetic field at a place is of dip at this place? 1

times the horizontal component. What is the value of angle

Q. 4. With that purpose was famous Davisson-Germer experiment with electrons performed? 1 Q. 5. Name the type of communication in which the signal is a discrete and binary coded version of the message or information. 1 Q. 6. The electric field and electric potential at any point due to a point charge kept in air is 20 NC-1 and 10 JC-1 respectively. Compute the magnitude of this charge. 2 Q. 7. Write the mathematical relation between mobility and drift velocity of charge carriers in a conductor. Name the mobile charge carriers responsible for conduction of electric current in (i) an electrolyte (ii) an ionised gas. 2 Q. 8. State the principle of working of a cyclotron. Write two uses of this machine. 2 Q. 9. Draw a labelled ray diagram of a reflecting type telescope. Write its any one advantage over refracting type telescope. Q. 10. Draw and explain the output waveform across the load resistor R, if the input waveform is as shown in the given figure. 2

Or Explain how the width of depletion layer in a p-n junction diode changes when the junction is (i) forward biased (ii) reverse biased. Q. 11. The given graph shows the variation of charge q versus potential difference V for two capacitors . The two capacitors C 1 and C2 have same plate separation but the plate area of C2 is double than that of C1 . Which of the lines in the graph correspond to C1 and C2 ssssand why? 2

Q. 12. Two cells E1 and E2 in the given circuit diagram have an emf of 5 V and 9 V and internal resistance of respectively. 2

Calculate the value of current flowing through the resistance of

Q. 13. How is the mutual inductance of a pair of coils affected when: 3 (i) separation between the coils is increased? (ii) the number of turns of each coil is increased ? (iii) a thin iron sheet is placed between the two coils, other factors remaining the same? Explain your answer in each case. Q. 14. A convex lens made up of glass of refractive index 1.5 is dipped, in turn, in: 3 (i) medium A of refractive index 1.65 (ii) medium B of refractive index 1.33 Explain, giving reasons, whether it will behave as a converging lens or a diverging lens in each of these two media. Q. 15. Define the terms threshold frequency and stopping potential in relation to the phenomenon of photoelectric effect. How is the photoelectric current affected on increasing the (i) frequency (ii) intensity of the incident radiations and why? 3 Q. 16. Explain, with the help of a nuclear reaction in each of the following cases, how the neutron to proton ratio changes during (i) alpha-decay (ii) beta-decay? 3 Q. 17. What is an intrinsic semiconductor? How can this material be converted into (i) P-type (ii) N-type extrinsic semiconductor? Explain with the help of energy band diagrams. 3 Q. 18. Why is the mass of a nucleus always less than the sum of the masses of its constituents, neutrons and protons. 3 If the total number of neutrons and protons in a nuclear reaction is conserved, how then is the energy absorbed or evolved in the reaction? Explain.

Or Draw a graph showing the variation of binding energy per nucleon with mass number for different nuclei. Explain, with the help of this graph, the release of energy by the process of nuclear fusion. Q. 19. Define the term modulation. Name three different types of modulation used for a message signal using a sinusoidal continuous carrier wave. Explain the meaning of any one of these. 3 Q. 20. What is electric flux? Write its S.I. units. Using Gausss theorem, deduce an expression for the electric field at a point due to a uniformly charged infinite plane sheet. 3

Q. 21. A 10 m long wire of uniform cross-section and with a battery of 5 V along with an external resistance of calculate: 3

resistance is used in a potentiometer. The wire is connected in series . If an unknown emf E is balanced at 6.0 m length of the wire,

Q. 22. Draw a circuit diagram for use of NPN transistor as an amplifier in common emitter configuration. The input resistance of a transistor is of . On changing its base current by , the collector current increases by 2 m A. If a load resistance

is used in the circuit, calculate: 1 + 2

(i) the current gain (ii) voltage gain of the amplifier Q. 23. Define the term critical frequency in relation to sky wave propagation of electromagnetic waves. On a particular day, the maximum frequency reflected from the ionosphere is 10 MHz. On another day, it was found to decrease to 8 MHz. Calculate the ratio of the maximum electron densities of the ionosphere on the two days. 3 Q. 24. Draw a labelled diagram of Hertzs experimental set-up to produce electromagnetic waves. Explain the generation ofelectromagnetic waves using this set-up. 3 Q. 25. The given circuit diagram shows a series LCR circuit connected to a variable frequency 230 V source: 5

(a) Determine the source frequency which drives the circuit in resonance. (b) Obtain the impedance of the circuit and the amplitude of current at the resonating frequency. (c) Determine the rms potential drops across the three elements of the circuit. (d) How do you explain the observation that the algebraic sum of the voltages across the three elements obtained in (c) is greater than the supplied voltage? Or The primary coil of an ideal step-up transformer has 100 turns and the transformation ratio is also 100. The input voltage the power are 220 V and 1100 W respectively. Calculate:

(i) number of turns in the secondary (ii) the current in the primary (iii) voltage across the secondary (iv) the current in the secondary (v) power in the secondary Q. 26. What is interference of light? Write two essential conditions for sustained interference pattern to be produced on the screen. 5 Draw a graph showing the variation of intensity versus the position on the screen in Youngs experiment when (a) both the sli ts are opened and (b) one of the slits is closed. What is the effect on the interference pattern in Youngs double slit experiment when: (i) screen is moved closer to the plane of slits? (ii) separation between two slits is increased. Explain your answer in each case. Or What is diffraction of light? Draw a graph showing the variation of intensity with angle in a single slit diffraction experiment. Write one feature which distinguishes the observed pattern from the double slit interference pattern. How would the diffraction pattern of a single slit be affected when: (i) the width of the slit is decreased? (ii) the monochromatic source of light is replaced by a source of white light? Q. 27. With the help of a neat and labelled diagram, explain the underlying principle and working of a moving coil galvanometer. What is the function of: (i) uniform radial field 5 (ii) soft iron core in such a device? Or Derive a mathematical expression for the force per unit length experienced by each of the two long current carrying conductors placed parallel to each other in air. Hence define one ampere of current. Explain why two parallel straight conductors carrying current in the opposite direction kept near each other in air repel?

COMPARTMENT Q. 1. Name the electromagnetic radiation to which the following wavelengths belong: 1 (a) 10-3m (b) 1 A Q. 2. Draw the graph showing the distribution of kinetic energy of electrons emitted during beta decay. 1

Q. 3. How will the photoelectric current change on decreasing the wavelength of incident radiation for a given photosensitive material? 1 Q. 4. How does the d.c. current gain of a transistor change, if the width of the base region is increased? Q. 5. What is the length of a dipole antenna to transmit signals of frequency 200MHz? 1

Q. 6. An electric dipole of length 10cm having charges experiences a torque of magnitude (i) the magnitude of the electric field. (ii) the potential energy of the dipole. 2 Nm. Calculate

placed at 300 with respect to a uniform electric field,

Q. 7. A plane electromagnetic wave of frequency 25 MHz travels in free space along the x-direction. At a particular point in space and time the electric vector is Calculate at this point. 2

Q. 8. A conducting rod of length l is moved in a magnetic field of magnitude B with velocity v such that the arrangement is mutually perpendicular. Prove that the emf induced in the rod is | E I = B / v. 2 Or A rectangular coil of area A, having number of turns N is at f revolutions per second in a uniform magnetic field B, the field being perpendicular to the coil Prove that the maximum emf induced in the coil is .2

Q. 9. A concave lens has the same radii of curvature for both sides and has a refractive index 1.6 in air. In the second case, it is immersed in a liquid of refractive index 1.4. Calculate the ratio of the focal lengths of the lens in the two cases. 2 Q. 10. The output of an unregulated d.c. power supply is to be regulated. Name the device that can be used for this purpose and draw the relevant circuit diagram. 2 Q. 11. Derive an expression for the maximum force experienced by a straight conductor of length l, carrying current I and kept in a uniform magnetic field, B. 2 Q. 12. State two characteristics of nuclear force. Why does the binding energy per nucleon decrease with increase in mass number for heavy nuclei like 235U? 2 Q. 13. Define electric flux. Write its S.I. units. Using Gauss theorem, derive an expression for the electric field intensity at an y point outside a charged spherical shell. 3 Q. 14. Derive the expression for the energy stored in a parallel plate capacitor with air between the plates. How does the stored energy change if air is replaced by a medium of dielectric constant K? 3 Q. 15. Define the term current density of a metallic conductor. Deduce the relation connecting current density (J) and the coductivity of the conductor, when an electric field E, is applied to it. 3

Q. 16. Using Biot Savart law derive the expression for the magnetic field at a distance x along the axis from the centre of a current carrying circular loop. 3

Q. 17. The height of a T.V. tower at a place is 400 m. Calculate (i) the maximum range upto which signals can be received from time tower and (ii) area covered by the transmission. (Radius of the Earth 6400 km) 3 Q. 18. Explain the three modulation techniques employed for tansferring digital data into analog form, using diagrams. 3 Q. 19. In the following circuit, calculate, (I) the capacitance C of the capacitor, if the power factor of the circuit is unity, and (ii) also calculate the Q-factor of the circuit 3

Q. 20. Deduce an expression for the self-inductance of a long solenoid of N turns, having a core of relative permeability

Q. 21. Two wavelengths of sodium light 590 nm, 596 nm are used, in turn, to study the diffraction taking place at a single slit of aperture 2 x 10-6 m. The distance between the slit and the screen is 1.5 m. Calculate the separation between the positions of first maximum of the diffraction pattern obtained in the two cases. 3 Or In Youngs slit experiment, interference fringes are observed on a screen, kept at D from the slits. If the screen is moved t owards the slits by 5 x 10-2 m, the change in fringe width is found to be 3 x 10-5 m. If the separation between the slits is 10-3 m, calculate the wavelength of the light used. 3 Q. 22. Sketch the graphs, showing the variation of stopping poential with frequency of incident for two photosensitive materials A and B having thresh old frequencies V0 > V0' respectively. (i) Which of the two metals, A or B has higher work function? (ii) What information do you get from the slope of the graphs? (iii) What does the value of the intercept of graph A on the potential axis represent? 3 Q. 23. Three identical specimens of magnetic materials Nickel, Antimony, Aluminium are kept in a non-uniform magnetic field. Draw the modification in the field lines in each case. Justify your answer. 3 Q. 24. Define the term decay constant of a radioactive nucleus. Two nuclei P, Q have equal number of atoms at t = 0. Their half lives are 3 hours and 9 hours respectively. Compare their rates of disintegration, after 18 hours from the start. 3 Q. 25. State Kirchoffs laws of an electrical network. Using Kirchoffs laws, calculat e the potential difference across the 8 ohm resistor.

State the working principle of a potentiometer. Explain, with the help of a circuit diagram, how the emf of two primary cells are compared by using a potentiometer. In a potentiometer arrangement, a cell of emf 1.20 volt gives a balance point at 30 cm length of the wire. This cell is now replaced by another cell of unknown emf. If the ratio of the emfs of the two cells is 1.5, calculate the difference in the balancing length of the potentiometer wire in the two cases. 5 Q. 26. Draw a circuit diagram of a common-emitter amplifier. Deduce an expression for its voltage gain. Explain briefly how the output voltage is out of phase by 180 with the input voltage. 5 Or Draw a circuit diagram to study the input and output characteristics of a n-p-n transistor in its common-emitter configuration. Draw the typical input and output characteristics and explain how these graphs are used to calculate (I) input resistance. (ii) output resistance and (iii) current amplification factor of the transistor. 5 Q. 27. Derive the expression for the refractive index of the material of the prism in terms of the angle of the prism and angle of minimum deviation.

Use this formula to calculate the angle of minimum deviation for an equilateral triangular prism of refractive index Or Draw a labelled ray diagram of an astronomical telescope for the near point adjustment. You are given three lenses of powers 0.5 D, 4 D, 10 D. State, with reason, which two lenses will you select for constructing a good astronomical telescope. Calculate the resolving power of this telescope, assuming the diameter of the objective lens to be 6cm and the wavelength of light used to be 540 nm. OUTSIDE DELHI Q. 1. Write two properties of a material used as a suspension wire in a moving coil glvanometer. 1 Q. 2. Name the experiment which establishes the wave nature of a particle. 1 Q. 3. Write the S.I. unit for the activity of a radoactive nuclide. 1 Q. 4. The a.c. current gain of a transistor is 120. What is the change in the collector current in the transistor whose base current changes by 1

Q. 5. Name the underlying principle of the working of an optical fibre. 1

Q. 6. Define dielectric constant of a medium. Briefly explain why the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor increases, oii introducing a dielectric medium between the plates. 2 Q. 7. Why does a paramagnetic substance display greater magnetisation for the same magnetising field when cooled? How does a diamagnetic substance respond to similar temperature changes? 2 Q. 8. Explain how electron mobility changes for a good conductor when (i) the temperature of the conductor is decreased at constant potential difference and (ii) applied potential difference is doubled at constant temperature. 2 Q. 9. A capacitor and a resistor are connected in series with an a.c. source. If the potential difference across C, R are 120 V, 90 V rspectively and if the r.m.s. current of the circuit is 3 A, calculate the (i) impedance, (ii) power factor of the circuit. 2 Or An inductor 200 mH, a capacitor C and a resistor 10 ohm are connected in series with a 100 V, 50 s -1 a.c. source. If the current and voltage arc in phase with each other, calculate the capacitance of the capacitor. Q. 10. Draw the curve showing variation of binding energy/nucleon with mass number of different nuclei. Briefly state, how nuclear fusion and nuclear fission can be explained on the basis of this graph. 2 Q. 11. Give r for the following: (a) Rainbow is never observed on the surface of the Moon. (b) The Sun looks reddish at sunrise and sunset as viewed from Earth. Q. 12. The following figure shows the input waveforms (A, B) and the output waveform (Y) of a gate. Identify the gate and write its truth table. 2

Q. 13. What are eddy currents? How are these minimised? Mention two applications of eddy currents. 3 Q. 14. Draw the graphs showing the variation of photoelectric current with an ode potential of a photocell for (i) the same frequencies but different intensities I1 > I2 > I3, of incident radiation, (ii) the same intensity but different frequencies V 1 > V2 > V3 of incident radiation. Explain why the saturation current is independent of the anode potential. 3 Q. 15. State Faradays laws of electrolysis. Deduce the relation connecting Faraday constant, chemical equivalent and electrochemical equivalent. 3

Q. 16. 4 cells of identical emf E, internal resistance r, are connected in series to a variable resistor. The following graph shows the variation of terminal voltage of the combination with the current output:

(i) What is the emf of each cell used? (ii) For what current from the cells, does maximum power dissipation occur in the circuit? (iii) Calculate the internal resistance of each cell. 3 Q. 17. What is pulse modulation? Distinguish between pulse amplitude modulation and pulse duration modulation by drawing suitable modulated signals. 3 Q. 18. Write any two criteria required for a detector of an optical communication system. A photo-detector is made from a semiconductor having Eg = 0.73 eV. What is the maximum wavelength which it can detect? 3 Q. 19. Using Gauss theorem, deduce an expression for the electric field intensity at any point due to a thin, infinitely long wire of charge/length 3 Or Using Gauss theorem, derive an expression for the electric field intensity at any point outside a charged spherical shell of radius R and of charge density

Q. 20. A metallic square loop ABCD of size 15 cm and resistance

is moved at a uniform velocity of v m/s, in a uniform

magnetic field of 2 Tesla, the field lines being normal to the plane of the paper. The loop is connected to an electrical network of resistors, each of resistance Calculate the speed of the loop, for which 2 m A current flows in the loop.

Q. 21. Sketch a graph showing the variation of potential energy of a pair of nucleons as a function of their separation. Write three characteristic properties of nuclear force which distinguish it from the electrostatic force. 3

Q. 22. Explain, using Huygen principle, how diffraction is produced by a narrow slit which is illuminated by a monochromatic light. Show that central maximum is twice as wide as the other maxima and the pattern becomes narrower as the width of the slit is increased. 3 Q. 23. Draw a labelled diagram o the experimental set-up used by Hertz to produce electromagnetic waves. Explain how the electromagnetic waves are detected. 3 Q. 24. Define the term electric potential due to a point charge. Calculate the electric potential at the centre of a square of side charges having

at the four corners of the square. 3

Q. 25. Derive an expression for the magnetic field along the axis of an air-cored solenoid, using Amperes circuital law. Sketch the magnetic field lines for a finite solenoid. Explain why the field at the exterior mid-point is weak while at the interior it is uniform and strong. 5 Or Explain with the help of a labelled diagram the working principle of a cyclotron. Show that the cyclotron frequency does not depend on the speed of the particle. Write one of the uses and point out one of the drawbacks of a cyclotron. Q. 26. Draw a labelled circuit diagram of a transistor oscillator. Briefly explain its principle and state how the oscillations are sustained. 5 Or Draw the energy band diagrams of p-type, n-type semiconductors. Explain with a circuit diagram the working of a full wave rectifier. Q. 27. (i) Draw a labelled ray diagram of a compound microscope, showing the formation of image at the near point of the eye. (ii) A compound microscope uses an objective lens of focal length 4 cm and eye lens of focal length 10cm. An object is placed at 6 cm from the objective lens. (a) Calculate magnifying power of the compound microscope, if the final image is formed at the near point. (b) Calculate the length of the compound microscope also. 5 Or Draw a labelled ray diagram of an astronomical telescope, forming the image at infinity. As astronomical telescope uses two lenses of powers 10 diopter, 1 diopter. (i) State with reason, which lens is preferred as objective and eye-piece. (ii) Calculate the magnifying power of the telescope, if the final image is formed at the near point. (iii) How do the light gathering power and resolving power of a telescope change, if the aperture of the objective lens is doubled ?

2007
Q. 1. An electron, an alpha-particle and a proton have the same kinetic energy. Which one of these particles has the largest deBroglie wavelength ? 1 Q. 2. Why should the material used for making permanent magnets have high coercivity? 1

Q. 3. The radioactive isotope D decays according to the sequence If the mass number and atomic number of D2 are 176 and 71 respectively, what is (i) the mass number (ii) atomic number of D ? 1 Q. 4. What will be the values of input A and B for the Boolean expression? 1 Q. 5. Why is frequency modulation perferred over amplitude modulation for transmission of music? 1 Q. 6. The output of an OR gate is connected to both the inputs of a NAND gate. Draw the logic circuit of this combination of getes and write its truth table. 2 Q. 7. Draw a plot of potential energy of a pair of nucleons as a function of their separation. What is the significance of negative potential energy in the graph drawn ? 2 Q. 8. A convex lens of refractive index 1.5 has a focal length of 18 cm in air. Calculate the change in its focal length when it is immersed in water of refractive index . 2 Q. 9. Distinguish between the terms 'average value' and 'rms value' of an alternating current. The instantaneous current from an a.c. source is I = 5 sin (314 t) ampere. What are the average and rms values of the current ? 2 Q. 10. Write the relation for the forece acting on a charge carrier q moving with a velocity through a magnetic field in vector notation. Using this relation, deduce the conditions under which this force will be (i) maximum (ii) minimum. 2 Q. 11. A cylindrical metallic wire is stretched to increase its length by 5%. Calculate the percentage change in its resistance. 2 Q. 12. The electric field E due to a point charge at any point near it is defined as where q is the test charge and F is the force acting on it. What is the physical significance of in this expression ? Draw the electric field lines of a point charge Q when (i) Q > 0 and (ii) Q < 0. 2 Or Define electric flux. Write its S.I. units. A spherical rubber balloon carries a charge that is uniformly distributed over its surface. As the balloon is blown up and increases in size, how does the total electric flux coming out of the surface change ? Give reason. Q. 13. Deduce an expression for the electric potential due to an electric dipole at any point on its axis. Mention one contrasting feature of electric potential of a dipole at a point as compared to that due to a single charge. 3 Q. 14. A parallel plate capacitor, each with plate area A and separation d, is charged to a potential difference V. The battery used to charge it is then disconnected. A dielectric slab of thickness d and dielectric constant K is now placed between the plates. What change, if any, will take place in 1. 2. 3. charge on the plates electric field intensity between the plates capacitance of the capacitor. Justify your answer in each case. 3 Q. 15. State Kirchhoff's rules of current distribution in an electrical network. Using these rules determine the value of the current in the electric circuit given below. 3

Q. 16. Write the mathematical relation for the resistivity of a material in terms of relaxation time, number density and mass and charge of charge carriers in it. Explain, using this relation, why the resistivity of a metal increases and that of a semi-conductor decreases with rise in temperature. 3 Q. 17. Explain with the help of a labelled diagram the underlying principle and working of a step-up transformer. Why cannot such a device be used to step-up d.c. voltage ? 3 Or Draw a labelled diagram of an a.c. generator. Explain briefly its principle and working. 3 Q. 18. Given below are two electric circuits A and B Calculate the ratio of power factor of the circuit B to the power factor of circuit A. 3 Q. 19. Define the term 'resolving power' of an astronomical telescope. How does it get affected on 1. 2. increasing the aperture of the objective lens ? increasing the wavelength of the light used ? Justify your answer in each case. 3 Q. 20. Write any four characteristics of electromagnetic waves. Give two uses each of 1. 2. Radio-waves Micro-waves. 3

Q. 21. In a plot of photoelectric current versus anode potential, how does 1. 2. 3. the saturation current vary with anode potential for incident radiations of different frequencies but same intensity ? the stopping potential vary for incident radiations of different intensities but same frequency ? photoelectric current vary for different intensities but same frequency of incident radiations ? Justify your answer in each case. 3 Q. 22. Calculate the amount of energy released during the a-decay of Given : 1. atomic mass of 2. atomic mass of 3. atomic mass of Is this decay spontaneous ? Give reason. 3 Q. 23. What is a digital signal ? Explain the function of modem in data communication. Write two advantages of digital communication. 3 Q. 24. Explain, with the help of a schematic diagram, the principle and working of a Light Emitting Diode. What criterion is kept in mind while choosing the semiconductor material for such a device ? Write any two advantages of Light Emitting Diode over conventional incandescent lamps. 3 Q. 25. Draw a labelled diagram of a moving coil galvanometer. State the principle on which it works. Deduce an expression for the torque acting on a rectangular current carrying loop kept in a uniform magnetic field. Write two factors on which the current sensitivity> of a moving coil galvanometer depend. 5 Or

State Biot-Savart law. Use it to derive an expression for the magnetic field at the centre of a circular loop of radius R carrying a steady current I. Sketch the magnetic field lines for such a current carrying loop. 5 Q. 26. What are coherent sources ? Why are coherent sources required to produce interference of light ? Give an example of interference of light in everyday life. In Young's double slit experiment, the two slits are 0.03 cm apart and the screen is placed at a distance of 1.5 m away from the slits. The distance between the central bright fringe and fourth bright fringe is 1 cm. Calculate the wavelength of light used. 5 Or State the condition under which the phenomenon of diffraction of light takes place. Derive an expression for the width of the central maximum due to diffraction of light at a single slit. A slit of width 'a' is illuminated by a monochromatic light of wavelength 700 nm at normal incidence. Calculate the value of 'a' for position of 1. 2. first minimum at an angle of diffraction of 30. first maximum at an angle of diffraction of 30. 5

Q. 27. State the principle of working of p-n diode as a rectifier. Explain, with the help of a circuit diagram, the use of p-n diode as a full wave rectifier. Draw a sketch of the input and output waveforms. 5 Or Draw the symbolic representation of a (i) p-n-p, (ii) n-p-n transistor. Why is the base region of transistor thin and lightly doped ? With proper circuit diagram, show the biasing of a p-n-p transistor in co mmon base configuration. Explain the movement of charge carriers through different parts of the transistor in such a configuration and show that . 5

SET 2
Q. 1. In a series LCR circuit, the voltages across an inductor, a capacitor and a resistor are 30 V, 30 V and 60 V respectively. What is the phase difference between the applied voltage and the current in the circuit ? 1 Q. 2. Ultraviolet radiations of different frequencies and are incident on two photosensitive materials having work functions and respectively. The kinetic energy of the emitted electrons is same in both the cases. Which one of the two radiations will be of higher frequency ? 1 Q. 3. Define the term 'activity' of radionuclide. Write its SI unit. 1 Q. 4. An electron is moving a along +ve x-axis in the presence of uniform magnetic field along +ve y-axis. What is the direction of the force acting on it ? 1 Q. 5. What should be the length of dipole antenna for a carrier wave of frequency ? 1 Q. 6. Two point charges and are separated by a distance of 1 m in air. Calculate at what point on the line joining the two charges is the electric potential zero. 2 Q. 7. A voltage of 30 V is applied across a carbon resistor with first, second and third rings of blue, black and yellow colours respectively. Calculate the value of current, in mA, through the resistor. 2

Q. 8. A galvanometer has a resistance of It gives full scale deflection with a current of 2 mA. Calculate the value of the resistance needed to convert it into an ammeter of range 0-0.3 A. 2 Q. 9. Calculate the current drawn by the primary of a transformer which steps down 200 V to 20 V to operate a device of resistance . Assume the efficiency of the transformer to be 80%. 2 Or An a.c. voltage of 100 V, 50 Hz is connected across a 20 ohm resistor and mH inductor in series. Calculate (i) impedance of the circuit, (ii) rms current in the circuit. Q. 10. Define resolving power of a compound microscope. How does the resolving power of a compound microscope change when (i) refractive index of the medium between the object and objective lens increases ? (ii) wavelength of the radiation used is increased ? 2 Q. 11. Draw a graph showing the variation of potential energy between a pair of nucleons as a function of their separation. Indicate the regions in which the nuclear force is 1. 2. attractive, repulsive. 2

Q. 12. Two semiconductor materials X and Y shown in the given figure, are made by doping germanium crystal with indum and arsenic respectively. The two are joined end to end and connected to a battery as shown. 1. 2. Will the junction be forward biased or reverse biased ? Sketch a V-I graph for this arrangement. 2

Q. 13. State Gauss's theorem in electrostatics. Apply this theorem to derive an expression for electric field intensity at a point near an infinitely long straight charged wire. 3 Q. 14. Explain the underlying principle of working of a parallel plate capacitor. If two similar plates, each of area A having surface charge densities and are separated by a distance d in air, write expressions for 1. 2. 3. the electric field at points between the two plates. the potnetial difference between the plates. the capacitance of the capacitor so formed. 3

Q. 15. For the potentiometer circuit shown in the given figure, points X and Y reprensent the two terminals of an unknown emf E'. A student observed that when the jockey in moved from the end A to the end B of the potentiometer wire, the deflection in the galvanometer remains in the same direction. What may be the two possible faults in the circuit that could result in this obsevation ? If the galvanometer deflection at the end B is (i) more, (ii) less, than that at the end A, which of the two faults, listed above, would be there in the circuit ? Give reasons in support of your answer in each case. 3

Or The given figure shows a network of resistances R1, R2, R3 and R4. Using Kirchhoff's laws, establish the balance condition for the network. Q. 16. What is Seebeck effect ? Plot a graph showing the variation of thermo emf with temperature of hot junction (keeping cold junction at 0C) of a thermocouple. How will the (i) neutral temperature, (ii) inversion temperature of a thermocouple change when the temperature of cold junction is increased ? 3 Q. 17. Name the following constituent radiations of electromagnetic spectrum which 1. 2. 3. produce intense heating effect. is absorbed by the ozone layer in the atmosphere. is used for studying crystal structure.

Write one more application forr each of these radiations. 3 Q. 18. A double convex lens of glass of refractive index 1.6 has its both surfaces of equal radii of curvature of 30 cm each. An object of height 5 cm is placed at a distance of 12.5 cm from the lens. Calculate the size of the image formed. 3 Q. 19. Draw a schematic diagram of the experimental arrangement used by Davisson and Germer to establish the wave nature of electrons. Explain briefly how the de-Broglie relation was experimentally verified in case of electrons. 3 Q. 20. Draw the graph to show variation of binding energy per nucleon with mass number of different atomic nuclei. Calculate binding energy/nucleon of nucleus. 3 Given : mass of mass of proton = 1.007825 u mass of neutron = 1.008665 u and 1 u = 931 MeV/C2 Q. 21. Draw the circuit diagram of a common emitter amplifier using n-p-n transistor. What is the phase differnece between the input signal and output voltage ? State two reasons why a common emitter amplifier is preferred to a common base amplifier. 3 Q. 22. Explain the formation of energy band in solids. Draw energy band diagram for (i) a conductor, (ii) an intrinsic semiconductor. 3 Q. 23. What is modulation ? Explain the need of modulating a low frequency information signal. With the help of diagrams, differentiate between PAM and PDM. 3 Q. 24. Write the acronym LASER in expanded form. State any four reasons for preferring diode lasers as light sources for optical communication links. 3 Q. 25. Explain, with the help of a labelled diagram, the principle and construction of a cyclotron. Deduce an expression for the cyclotron frequency and show that it does not depend on the speed of the charged particle. 5 Or

Distinguish the magnetic properties of dia, para- and ferro-magnetic substances in terms of (i) susceptibility, (ii) magnetic permeability and (iii) coercivity. Give one example of each of these materials. Draw the field lines due to an external magnetic field near a (i) diamagnetic, (ii) paramagnetic substance. Q. 26. Explain the term 'inductive reactance'. Show graphically the variation of inductive reactance with frequency of the applied alternating voltage. An a.c. voltage is applied across a pure inductor of inductance L. Show mathematically that the current flowing through it lags behind the applied voltage by aphase angle of . 5 Or Explain the term 'capacitive reactance'. Show graphically the variation of capacitive reactance with frequency of the applied alternating voltage. An a.c. voltage is applied across a pure capacitor of capacitance C. Show mathematically that the current flowing through it leads the applied voltage by a phase angle of . Q. 27. State the essential condition for diffraction of light to take place. Use Huygen's principle to explain diffraction of light due to a narrow single slit and the formation of a patern of fringes obtained on the screen. Sketch the pattern of fringes formed due to diffraction at a single slit showing variation of intensity with angle . 5 Or What are coherent sources of light ? Why are coherent sources required to obtain sustained interference pattern ? State three characteristic features which distinguish the interference pattern due to two coherently illuminated sources as compared to that observed in a diffraction pattern due to a single slit.

SET 3
. 1. Is the force acting between two point electric charges q1 and q2 kept at some distance apart in air, attractive or repulsive when (i) q1q2 > 0 (ii) q1q2 > 0 ? 1 Q. 2. Show graphically how the stopping potential for a given photosensitive surface varies with the frequency of incident radiations. 1 Q. 3. A TV tower has a height of 71 m. What is the maximum distance upto which TV transmission can be received ? Given that the radius of the earth = 6.4 106 m. 1 Q. 4. Which one of the two diodes D1 and D2 in the given figures is (i) forward biased, (ii) reverse biased ? 1 Q. 5. Suggest a possible communication channel for the transmission of a message signal which has a bandwidth of 5 MHz. 1

Q. 6. A spherical Gaussian surface encloses a charge of . 1. 2. Calculate the electric flux passing through the surface. How would the flux change if the radius of the Gaussian surface is doubled and why ? 2

Q. 7. In a copper voltameter, the mass of the ions deposited in 30 seconds is m grams. The current (i) vs. time (t) graph for the experiment is as shown in the given figure. Calculate the value of E.C.E. of copper in terms of the mass, m, deposited. 2 Or V/C2, calculate the value of inversion temperature in C.V /C and b = -0.02 For a given thermocouple, the emf generated across its ends is given by E = at + bt2 where t in C is the temperature of the hot junction, the cold junction being at 0 C. If a = 10 Q. 8. In an ammeter (consisting of a galvanometer and a shunt), 0.5% of the main current passes through the galvanometer. Resistance of the galvanometer coil is G. Calculate the resistance of the shunt in terms of galvanometer resistance, G. 2 Q. 9. An electric bulb B and a parallel plate capacitor C are connected in series to the a.c. mains as shown in the given figure. The bulb glows with some brightness. How will the glow of the bulb be affected on introducing a dielectric slab between the plates of the capacitor ? Give reasons in support of your answer. 2 Q. 10. What does the statement, natural light emitted from the sun is unpolarized mean in terms of the direction of electric vecto r ? Explain briefly how plane polarized light can be produced by reflection at the interface separating the two media. 2 Q. 11. The output of a 2-input NOR gate is fed to a NOT gate. Draw the logic circuit of this combination of gates and write the truth table for the output of the combination for all inputs. (i) attractive, (ii) repulsive. 2 Q. 12. What is remote sensing ? Write its two applications. 2 Q. 13. On what principle does a metre bridge work ? Draw a circuit diagram and explain how this device can be used for determination of an unknown resistance. 3 Q. 14. Derive a mathematical expression for resistivity of a conductor in terms of number density of charge carries in the conductor and relaxation time. 3 Q. 15. State Amperes circuital law. Write the expression for the magnetic field at the centre of a circular coil of radius R carrying a current I. Draw the magnetic field lines due to this coil. 3 Q. 16. Write the expression for the force acting on a charged particle of charge q moving with velocity in the presence of magnetic field . Show that in the presence of this force 1. 2. the kinetic energy of the particle does not change. its instantaneous power is zero. 3

Q. 17. In a series LCR circuit, define the quality factor (Q) at resonance. Illustrate its significance by giving one example. Show that power dissipated at resonance in LCR circuit is maximum. 3

Q. 18. rad/s about an axis through its centre and perpendicular to the disc. A uniform magnetic field of 0.2 T acts perpendicular to the disc.A circular copper disc 10 cm in radius rotates at a speed of 20 1. 2. Calculate the potential difference developed between the axis of the disc and the rim. What is the induced current if the resistance of the disc is ? 3 Or F are connected in series to 220 V a.c. source with angular frequency . Calculate the voltages (rms) across the resistor and the capacitor. Why is the algebraic sum of these voltages more than the source voltage ? How do you resolve this paradox ? A resistor of and a capacitor of 40 Q. 19. Draw a labelled diagram of Hertzs experiment. Explain how electromagnetic radiations are produced using this set -up. 3 Q. 20. How does the frequency of a beam of ultraviolet light get affected when it goes from air into glass ? A ray of light incident on an equilateral glass prism shows minimum deviation of 30. Calculate the speed of light through the glass prism. 3 Q. 21. An electron, a-particle and a proton have the same de-Broglie wavelength. Which of these particles has (i) minimum kinetic energy, (ii) maximum kinetic energy, and why ? In what way has the wave nature of electron been exploited in electron microscope ?3 Q. 22. State the law of radioactive decay. Establish a mathematical relation between half-life period and disintegration constant of a radioactive nucleus. 3 Q. 23. Distinguish between nuclear fission and fusion. In a fusion reaction calculate the amount of energy (in MeV) released. Given. 3 Q. 24. Draw a schematic diagram of a single optical fibre structure. On what principle does such a device work ? Explain the mechanism of propagation of light signal through an optical fibre. 3 Q. 25. Derive the expression for the energy stored in a parallel plate capacitor of capacitance C with air as medium between its plates having charges Q and Q. Show that this energy can be expressed in terms of electric field as where A is the area of each plate and d is the separation between the plates. How will the energy stored in a fully charged capacitor change when the separation between the plates is doubled and a dielectric medium of dielectric constant 4 is introduced between the plates ? 5 Or Define the term dipole moment of an electric dipole indicating its direction. Write its SI unit. An electric dipole is placed in a uniform electric field . Deduce the expression for the torque acting on it. In a particular situation, it has its dipole moment aligned with the electric field. Is the equilibrium stable or unstable ? Q. 26. Define the term wavefront. Draw the wavefront and corresponding rays in the case of a (i) diverging spherical wave, (ii) plane wave. Using Huygens construction of a wavefront, explain the refraction of a plane wavefront at a plane surface and hence verify Snells law. 5

Or Derive the relation between the focal length of a convex lens in terms of the radii of curvature of the two surfaces and refractive index of its material. Write the sign conventions and two assumptions used in the derivation of this relation, A convex lens of focal length 40 cm and a concave lens of focal length 25 cm are kept in contact with each other. What is the value of power of this combination ? Q. 27. Explain, with the help of a circuit diagram, the use of an n-p-n transistor as an amplifier in common-emitter configuration. Write the expression for voltage gain of the transistor. Draw frequency response curve of this amplifier. How will the current gain of a transistor be affected if its base region is made thicker as compared to a usual transistor and why ? 5 Or Draw energy band diagrams for (i) an intrinsic semiconductor, (ii) p-type semiconductor. Draw symbolic representation of a zener diode. Draw its V-I characteristics and explain, with the help of a circuit diagram, its use as a voltage regulator.