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CHAPTER-1
1.1.0 INTRODUCTION
Agra is a major city on River Yamuna contributes about 90 MLD of sewage
with 18,000 kg. of BOD Load per day to river while the main part of the city is on the
western side of yamuna it has grown beyond the river on the eastern side which is
called trans-yamuna area while the original part of the city is called. The cis-yamuna,
a part of the city was severed and the collected waste water was pumped to a sewage
from beyond the city towards the south eastern part. However the system was not
functioning property and the waste water was following to the river through several
open drowns both in CIS and trans-yamuna areas. The respective quantities being
about 80 & 10 MLD. there are many city also that increase the Pollution like Mathura,
Vrindavan, Noida, Ghaziabad, Muzzaffar Nagar etc.
1.1.1 YAMUNA RIVER
River yamuna with a total length of around 1,370 Kilometers (851 ml) is the
largest tributary of the River ganga in northern India, Yamuna is consider to the most
sacred among all the rivers as per Hindu mythology its source is at yamunatri, in the
Uttarakhand Himalaya, in the Himalayan mountains, it flows through the states of
Delhi, Haryana and Uttar Padesh, before merging with the Ganges at Allahabad. The
cities of Delhi, Mathura and Agra lie on its banks.
Yamuna is one of the most polluted rivers in the world especially around
Delhi, which dumps about 57% of its waste in to the River. Delhi alone contributes
around 3,296 million litres per day of sewage in the River.
The main stream of the River Yamuna originated from the Yamunotri glaciar
near Bandar punch in the mussorie range of lover Himalaya in the district of uttar
Kashi in Uttar Pradesh, some say the source of the river is the saptarishi kund a
glacial lake.
1.1.2 POLLUTION IN YAMUNA RIVER
The yamuna river passing through 22 km in Delhi was once described as the lifeline
of the city, but today it has become one of the dirtiest rivers in the country. The
reason.
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Delhi generates about 3,267 million litres per day (mld) of sewage while the
city's installed waste water treatment capacity is only 2,330 mld. More than 937 mld
of waste is not treated. Out of Delhi's 2,330 mld treatment capacity, 37 percent is
under-utilised and 1,270 mld of sewage is untreated and allowed to enter the river
everyday.
- The Yamuna's 22-km stretch in Delhi is barely 2 percent of the length of the
river, but contributes over 70 percent of the pollution load.
- Pollution levels in the Yamuna have risen, Biochemical oxygen demand
(BOD) load has increased by 2.5 times between 1980 and 2005- from 117
tonnes per day (TPD) in 1980 to 276 TPD in 2005.
- Delhi discharges about 3,684 MLD (million litres per day) of sewage into the
Yamuna.
- The faecal coliform count, which indicates the presence of disease causing
micro-organisms, is nearly 25,000 times more than the limit prescribed for
bathing.
- Delhi and Agra together account for 90 percent of the pollution in the river.
- The Capital has 16 drains discharging treated and untreated waste
water/sewage into Yamuna.
- The Najafgarh drain contributes to 60 percent of the total wastewater and 45
percent of the total BOD load being discharged from Delhi into the Yamuna.
The municipal wastewater has increased from 960 MLD in 1977 to 1,900
MLD in 1997.
- The capacity for treatment-increased from 450 MLD in 1977 to 1,270 MLD in
1997.
- A Central Pollution Control Board study on river water quality at the upstream
of Wazirabad shows dissolved oxygen (DO) level at 7.5 mg/l and BOD level
at 2.3 mg/l.
- At downstream Okhla, the DO level declined to 1.3 mg/l with the BOD at 16
mg/l indicating considerable deterioration in water quality due to discharge of
sewage and industrial effluents.
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- The coliform count at Wazirabad is 8,506/100 ml whereas at Okhla, it
increases to 3,29,312/100 ml, as against the prescribed standard of 500/100
ml.
1.1.3 YAMUNA ACTION PLAN (YAP )
Government of India (GOI) in 12 towns of Haryana, 8 towns of Uttar Pradesh,
and Delhi under Yamuna Action Plan (YAP) which is
Sources : White Paper by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Centre for
Science and Environment.
being implemented since 1993 by the National River conservat Directorate (NRCD)
of the Ministry of Environment and Forests. The
Japan Bank of International Coperation (JBIC) is participating in the
Yamuna Action Plan in 15 of the above 21 towns on the direction of the Supreme
Court of India with soft loan assistance of about Rs. 700 crore, while GOI is
providing the funds for the remaining 6 towns added later. The Indian government's
plans to repair sewage lines is predicted to improve the water quality of the river 90%
by the year 2010. The government has spent nearly $500 million trying to clean up the
river, most of it going to waste- treatment stations, yet pollution levels more than
doubled from 1993 to 2005 and continue to rise.
A total expenditure of Rs. 682 crore has been incurred under the first phase of
the Yamuna Action Plan (YAP). The phase which commenced in April 1993 was
completed in 2003 covering 21 towns of UP, Delhi & Haryana. The second Phase of
YAP commenced in December, 2004. Till september, 2009, an expenditure of Rs.
226.89 crore has been incurred under this phase. The projects taken up under YAP
include interception and diversion of raw sewage, setting up of Sewage Treatment
Plants, creation of low cost sanitation facilities, setting up of electric/improved wood
crematoria etc. Sewage treatment capacity of 753.25 mid has been created so far
under this Plan. Besides YAP, the Government of NCT of Delhi has taken up
sewerage and sewage treatment works under other schemes to fully address the
pollution load being discharged into Yamuna.
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The water quality of Yamuna has not shown the desired improvement owing
to large gap between the demand and availability of sewage treatment capacity and
lack of fresh water in the river. This information was given by the Minister of State
for Environment and Forests (independent charge) Shri Jairam Ramesh in a written
reply to a question by Sh. Bhagat SinghKoshyari in Rajya Sabha November 23, 2009.

1.1.4 ECOLOGY
Yamuna supports a wide variety of plant and animal species. The river is
home to thousands of resident and migratory birds. The banks of the river are one of
the last refuges for the dwindling populations of blackbucks, Chitals and Nilgais etc.

1.1.5 MONITORING
The NRCD monitors the river at two places in Agra - upstream at Poiaghat,
(182 km from Okhla barrage towards Dayalbagh) and downstream behind the Taj
Mahal192 km from the Okhla barrage.
Sampling point of Yamuna River are :
1. Poiaghat - UP Stream of Agra (.182 km. from
okhala barrage towards, Dayalbagh)
2. Near Taj Mahal - down stream of Agra (192 km. from
okhla barrage)
River Yamuna is attached with the sewage line, like most Indian cities, Agra
metropolis is growing, the municipality, encompassing an area of 121.57 sq. km. had
a population as per 2001 census, of about 1.26 million by 2005, Thus had grown to
1.43 million with 2011 projected population estimated to touch 1.6 million. But Agra
designated as a world heritage site, faces a number of challenges in terms of water,
sewerage and financing municipal works, there is a bursting strain on the
infrastructure and services, both from the its own population.

1.1.6 EXPENDITURE ON RIVER CLEAN-UP
A comprehensive plan was prepared originally for Agra in 1917 at an
estimated cost of Rs 50 lakh. This included sewerage and storm water drainage, but
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following a funds crunch it was never implemented. In 1945, this scheme was revised
for laying intercepting drains and sewers at an estimated cost of Rs 23.32 lakh.
However, it was only to be again revised in 1962 for construction of branch
sewers in the catchment of the main sewers (Mantola, Civil Line, Dholikhar, Mathura
road, Bhairon nala, Strand Road, Jama Masjid and Old Chhata sewers) at an estimated
cost of Rs 16.77 lakh.
Besides the numerous schemes and projects to improve sewerage the
government of India supported Agra with funds under YAP. However, this accounts
for just 14.5 per cent of the funds required for Agra's huge hardware plan. Till 2005,
Agra received Rs 77.75 crore under YAP. Another Rs 87.26 crore has already been
approved for the city under YAP-II.
Table :1.1.1 Investment to collect and treat sewage in Agra
Capital investment to clean Yamuna Rs. Crore
1962 sewerage scheme 0.167
Agra branch sewer scheme 0.10
1. YAP-I (spent in Agra) 69.91
2. YAP Extended (in Agra) 7.84
Tajganj sewerage scheme 43.57
JNNURM sewerage 763.13
JNNURM drainage 168.44
YAP-II allocated 87.26
Total 1140.42
Note : Under YAP-II Rs. 85.64 crore is for sewerage : Rs. 13 crore for YAP-III
project preparation in eight towns.
Sources :
1. Anon 2005 'MIS report of programmes under National River Conservation
plan Vol. II, MoEF, New Delhi, mimeo.
2. Anon 2002, 'Agra sewerage master plan', NEERI, Nagpur mimeo.
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1.1.7 STATE OF THE RIVER
The two agencies monitoring water quality in Agra, the NRCD and the Agra
Jal Sansthan (AJS) do not seem to agree upon anything. NRCD's water quality
monitoring data shows high levels of DO in the Agra stretch during 1996-2005, when
the annual average DO level upstream of Agra increased from 10.65 mg/I to 11.60
mg/1.
At the same time data show that DO levels have also increased to 6.30 mg/I from
1.65 mg/I at the monitoring point downstream of Agra during 1996-2005. So after
receiving the city's treated, untreated and partially treated waste, the DO data, without
conviction deems the river water suitable for bathing. NRCD argues that the DO
levels have risen due to its efforts to clean up the river but the water supply board of
Agra- AJS - constantly complains that the water quality in the river at the water
supply intake is deteriorating.
The AJS says that DO levels touch zero several times in the year.43 In a
presentation on the Upper Ganga Water Supply scheme to supply drinking water to
Agra, the UPJN agrees with AJS and points out that minimum DO levels observed at
the AJS waterworks intake are always less than the 4-mg/level specified for a
drinking water source after conventional treatment.
1.2.0 SEWAGE OF AGRA
The liquid waste containing suspended colloidal and dissolved solid is called
sewage, so the sewage have the many type of water pollutants. it is required to reduce
the water pollution the process called sanitation.
The purpose of sanitation is to maintain such environment which do not effect
the public health. The correct sitting and proper orientation of buildings provide better
living for the inhabitants.
There is always the problem of generation of some undesirable matter,
especially that which is of excremental nature.
The development of Sanitary Engineering has contributed to the growth of
cities. Now the new of sanitation is very well realized in our country and every city is
now trying to have closed sewers and efficient disposal system of sewage, industrial
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wastes and solid refuse. The efficient scheme can be partly financed from the cost
obtained from its products.
The 'Public Health Engineer' plays a major role in the field of control. The
methods have been developed by him for the treatment of water and sewage. He
should see that the effluent from any community does not pollute the natural water
supplies.
1.2.1 SANITARY ENGINEERING :
The branch of engineering which deals with the removal and disposal of the
sewage (liquid waste) without causing any nuisance to the community is called
Sanitary Engineering.
1.2.2 IMPORTANCE OF SANITARY ENGINEERING :
Sanitary Engineering deals with the removal and disposal of waste of the
entire city. Its importance is because it helps in :
(i) General developments of the city.
(ii) Protecting water supplies from pollution.
(iii) Collecting and disposing off the waste of the city.
(iv) Removing rain water from a town.
(v) Maintaining good environments for public
(vi) Preventing the pollution of natural streams etc.
(vii) Preventing the occurrence of disease e.g. malaria, typhoid etc.

1.2.3 Waste :
Anything which is not completely utilized and finally wasted in one or the other form
is called waste. The waste may be in any of the following states (i) Dry (ii) Semi
liquid (iii) Liquid

1.2.3 Dry Waste :
The waste which does not contain moisture is called dry waste. It is comprised
of the following items :
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Fig. 1.2.1 : Flow Diagram of waste water system in Agra



















(i) Rubbish : It means all sun-dry solid wastes as paper, leaves, grass, broken
furniture, pottery breakage, waste building materials etc. comparatively inert in
chemical action.
(ii) Ashes : These are the residues which remain after the combustion of coal,
coke, timber in the hearths and furnaces of industries and houses.
Sanitary
Engg.


Garbage House Drainage Industrial Storm Ventilation
Sewage water


Garbage Sullage Sewage Partial
Treatment


Combus Natural
Water
Course

Non Septic Dry weather Partial / Whole
Combustible Tank Flow


Filling Sewerage Natural water Course

Incineration

Sewage Sub Soil
Farm percolation

Sewage Treatment
works


Sludge Digestion Treatment units


Gases Effluent to Manure Effluent
natural water
course


Sewage Farming Land Filtration River
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(iii) Garbage : It includes all types of semi-solid and solid waste food
products as vegetables, peelings of fruits, waste meat etc.
The dry-waste is never mixed with sewage. It is carried away from road-sides
by means of carts, trucks or tractor-trollys to safe places outside the city where it is
sorted into inflammable matter. The inflammable matter consists of sun-dried waste
such as paper, leaves, grass and broken furniture pieces. This is burnt in incinerators.
The non- inflammable matter consisting of ashes, buildings materials, vegetables,
peelings of fruits and waste meat are buried underground.
1.2.4 Semi-liquid waste : The semi-liquid waste is that waste which contains
organic matter. The semi-liquid waste i.e. human excreta or night soil is collected in a
separate pan in the same latrine from where it is removed through human agency. It is
then taken outside the town in closed cars, trucks or tanks mounted on the tractor-
trailors. The night- soil is buried in trenches and after 2-3 years it is converted into
good manure which can be used for growing crops.
1.2.5 Liquid Waste : It mainly consists of water and very less organic matter.
It is a discharge from the kitchens, bathrooms, washbasins and water-closets (flush
type latrines) and urinals.
1.2.5.1 Sullage : The liquid wastes from kitchens, bathrooms and wash-basins
is called sullage. It does not include discharge from hospitals, operation theatres and
slaughter-houses. It is only waste water and not very foul-smelling. It is carried in
open drains and is given no treatment before disposal. Amount of sullage is 100 kg. to
250 kg./ capita depending on the water supply allowance.
1.2.5.2 Sewage : it is liquid waste consisting of sullage, discharge from water closets,
urinal and hospitals including man and animal night- soil, it is easily decomposed and
creates foul-smelling gases and so it is conveyed in covered sewers.
1.2.6 TYPES OF SEWAGE :
(i) Sanitary Sewage
(ii) Storm Sewage

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(i) Sanitary sewage is further divided into two classes :
(a) Domestic Sewage. It is liquid waste from kitchens and bathrooms and is
commonly known as sullage and excremental matter such as urine and
night-soil. This is from residential areas, offices and institutions.
(b) Industrial Waste. It is waste from industries and manufacturing
processes. This is also called trade waste in general.
The sewage consisting of the the above two classes (a) and (b) is called Dry
weather flow (D.W.F.). It does not contain any storm water i.e. rain water. The
quantity of D.W.F. is assumed same as water supply allowance per capita. In India an
average value is 150 litre per capita per day.
(ii) Storm Sewage. It is any surface water including rain water of the city, which may
be admitted into underground conduits.

1.2.7 SEWAGE TREATMENT :
The artificial process for changing or removing the objectionable constituents
present in sewage to make it less dangerous and offensive is called Sewage
Treatment.
Fig. 1.2.1 : Different states of water at Agra

WASTE

Dry State Semi Liquid State Liquid State

Rubbish Ashes Garbage

Human Excreta Hospital & Slaghter
House Waste

Sullage Sewage Storm Water

Sanitary Sewage Storm Sewage

Domestic Sewage Industrial Waste
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1.2.8 OBJECTS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT :
- To reduce the strength of sewage, so that it may not pollute the receiving
water.
- To reduce its volume in general.
- To destroy the pathogens i.e. bacteria content.
- To recover its industrial value.
- To enable its safe and satisfactory disposal.
Like most Indian cities, Agra metropolis is growing. The municipality,
encompassing an area of 121.57 sq km had a population, as per 2001 census, of about
1.26 million. By 2005, this had grown to 1.43 million, with 2011 projected population
estimated to touch 1.6 million. But Agra, designated as a world heritage site, faces a
number of challenges in terms of water, sewerage and financing municipal works.
There is a bursting strain on the infrastructure and services, both from its own
population and from the regular onslaught of visiting tourists, estimated at 1.80
million every year.
1.2.9 AGRA CITY WASTE PROFILES:
Money Invested is Rs. 77.75 crore under YAP (Sept. 2005), Here is Capacity
Created : 90.25 MLD (STPs) And Untreated waste : 104.85-206.75 MLD (41-80 percent
of waste generated)
In the city, Agra Jal Sansthan (AJS) is in charge of operation and maintenance,
and revenue collection in supplying water, while all capital works related to water
supply and sanitation are undertaken by Agra Jal Nigam (AJN).

1.2.10 SEWAGE TREATMENT CAPACITY :
Three STPs with a combined capacity of 90,25 mld have been set-up under
YAP. While 78 mld (Dhandupura) and 2.25 mld (Burhi ka nagla) facilities were set-
up to deal with waste of Cis Yamuna, a solitary 10 mld STP was set-up at Peela Khar
to deal with the waste of trans-yamuna.

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Figure :1.2.3 Diagram of a typical sewage treatment plant


The sewage network has been expanded to feed them, but the





infrastructure remains inadequate and the river remains dirty. Agra's sewerage system
is in shambles. Spread over 1,400 ha it is devoid of proper connections with most
sewage flowing into open drains. While the system is largely silted several lines
remain choked and damaged at a number of places. This has made the disposal of
sewage into nalas (open drains) a common affair. For example, the sewage arriving at
Dhandupura STP is partly from the small population connected to the sewerage
system, with the rest arriving from the 17 intercepted open drains. On the other hand,
incoming sewage at Burhi ka Nagla and Peela Khar STP arrives from intercepted
open drains. Notably, a major part of Agra, 8,300 ha remains unsewered.
Preliminary
treatment
(ii) Grit Chamber or deterious tank
(To remove heavy particles)
eq. grit, sand, ashes etc.
Raw
Sewage
Influent
(i) Screens (to remove floating
e.g. cloth wood)
(iii) Skimming tanks (to remove
lighter & greasy) matter
(iv) Clarifiers or
(sedimentation
tanks)
Application to
land
Irrigation Land filtratiuon
To natural
waters
Activated
sludge
Trickling
filter
E
F
L
U
E
N
T
Biological treatment
(to remove bacteria)
Secondary
treatment
(to remove)
colloidal
fines)
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Table 1.2.1 : Monthly information of STP Established at Agra
Name
of City
Name of
STP
Capaciy
(MLD)
Average
received
effluent
of one
month
at STP
(MLD)
Influent Effluent Disposal
method
of
Effluent
River/
Earth
Daily
electric
problem
(hr/day)
Performance
Evaluation (%)
Flow
Loadin
g
Monthly
Average
TSS
(mg/l)
Average
BOD of
1 month
Average
TSS
(mg/l)
Average
BOD
(mg/l)
TS BOD
Agra
Dhandhu
-Pura
(U.A.S.B
. Type)
78 46.06 487.40 218.11 48.57 29.70 Earth 1.54 90.03 86.38 -
Burhi ka
Nagla
(W.S.P.
Type)
2.25 2.76 456.33 201.67 48.0 31.0 River 2.24 89.48 84.63
Over
Loadin
g

Peela
-Khar
(W.S.P.
Type)
10 9.75 475.0 206.0 48.0 30.0 River 2.15 89.85 85.43 -
Source : U.P.P.C.B. Agra
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1.2.11 WATER SUPPLY :
According to the AJS, the total water demand of the city is 320 million litres
per day (mid), which includes the demand for bulk supply, estimated at 75 mld. The
water demand as estimated for the 1.42 million-population in 2005 was 245 mld,
which was calculated on a 170 litres per capita daily (Ipcd) standard. For this, the city
has two water treatment plants with a capacity to treat 410 mld in entirety.
1.2.12 WASTE GENERATION :
According to CPCB's Status of sewage treatment in India report of February
2006, the city generated 211 mid sewage in 2001. This is based on a sewage
generation factor of 168 Ipcd (or a UPJN estimates show that the water demand has
shot up from 284 mld to 320 mld leading to an increased wastewater discharge. But
how much is actually used is unknown. UPJN while reviewing YAP has estimated the
wastewater discharge in 2003 to be 152.15 mld. This assumes the water supply to be
107 Ipcd. This is far lower that the water supply estimates provided by AJS. R P S
Sanghu, chief chemist AJS says, "Per capita water supply is set at 135 Ipcd." This
difference in data will definitely affect the waste planning for the city.
The most recent estimates, however, have been collated by CPCB in its 2005-
06 annual report stating the flow in all drains to be 254 mld. This points to a 100 mld
rise in waste water generated over since UPJN's last estimate 3 years back.
1.2.13 FUTURE PLANS :
Now, Rs 124.13 crore has been sanctioned under YAP-II for UP and Agra
seems to be benefiting the most. The focus is on laying 41-km of sewers in the
western districts along with a 40 mld STP at Bijpuri and 33-km sewer in the northern
district with a 14-mld STP at Dayalbagh. However, the southern and eastern districts
have been completely ignored. I .N. Tyagi, project manager Yamuna pollution control
unit, UPJN Agra says: "Besides repairing the existing sewage systems promoting
citizen's participation have been envisaged." According to YAP-II Agra should have
an additional capacity of 54 mld enabling the city to treat 144.25 mld of its waste by
2009. But as per 2006 waste generation estimates this will still be inadequate.
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Under JNNURM the COP of Agra has set aside more money for sewerage. Rs
763.13 crore out of Rs 7,854.64 crore has been allotted for laying new sewer lines,
STPs and SPS. Statistically speaking, this shall result in the creation of 1,028 km of
sewer lines, 264 mld treatment capacity, and 19 major and 36 minor pumping stations.
If this plan is implemented within the set time frame, Agra will have a sufficient
treatment capacity, and as a result lesser pollution loads will be discharged into the
river. However, until then the river will have to linger for respite while Agra plans to
go through with stopgap measures such as the Ganga jal project.
1.3.0 STRUCTURE OF THE INDUSTRY :
It is estimated that there are as many as 500 units in this industry, each one
employing on an average 6persons thus leading to a direct employment of almost
3000 persons. Besides, another 1000 persons are dependent on the related enterprises
and trading activities of the industry. A classification of these units according to a
geographical area in Agra district is given as under :
Table-1.3.1 Geographical Distribution of the Working Industry
Place Number of Units
Noorie Darwaja 380
Sheetla Gali 50
Bagh Muzzafar Khan 40
Chippitola 10
Moti Katra 20
Total 500
The working industry and businesses can be broadly classified as:
- Big Groups having their own production units or shops. They supply their
products to different cities and have even started exporting sweets.
- Medium groups having their own production units, shop etc but they supply
their product to commission agents and not directly to markets in different
cities.
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- Very small groups having their own production unit but they are dependent
upon the commission agents even for the raw material and marketing of the
product.
- Commission Agents who have no production units of their own but are
involved in trading activity. The structure of the industry has an upside down
pattern of different categories of units according to their turnover.
1.3.1 INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT OF AGRA :
The city of Agra enjoys a world-fame because of the Taj Mahal, which is why
one can find tourist inflow. Here throughout the year. In the industrial map of India,
Agra is famous for its leather shoe Manufacturing. Petha manufacturing and even
generator production. Due to pollution related problems, most of the industries are
being shifted to the outskirts of the City. Wastewaters obtained from industries are
generally much more polluted than the domestic or even commercial wastewaters.
Still, however, several industrialists try to discharge their effluents into our natural
river streams, through unauthorised direct discharges. Such a tendency on the part of
the industries may pollute the entire river water to a grave extent, thereby making its
purification almost an impossible task. Sometimes, the industries discharge their
polluted wastewaters into municipal sewers, there by making the task of treating that
municipal sewage, a very difficult and a costly exercise.
The industries are, therefore, generally prevented by legal laws, from
discharging their untreated effluents. It, therefore, becomes necessary for the
industries to treat their wastewaters in their individual treatment plants, before
discharging their effluents either on land or lakes or rivers, or in municipal sewers, as
the case may be.
Agra Economy is mainly based on industries which include Tannery, Petha,
dairy etc.
1.3.2 PETHA INDUSTRY :
The Petha cluster in Agra is more than a century old. Currently, 35 tonnes of
organic petha waste is produced per day and it uses coal for cooking purposes. The
oldest firm, in business since 1885, is Bhimsain's. The latest and perhaps the most
popular is Panchi. Petha here refers to a form of sweet that is made from Ash-
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Pumpkins. A decade ago there were just two varieties of petha. But changing times
have brought in additional flavors; chocolate, cherry, mango, orange, stuffed petha,
coconut petha and even sandwich pethas. Wholesome and nutritive, it is known to act
like a blood coagulant and is used in treatment of peptic ulcers and obesity. The
delicious sweet preparations made from it are used for the treatment of tuberculosis,
weakness of the heart and anemia Most of Petha manufacturing units are located at
Nurie Darwaza in Agra. At present there are about 500 units that are producing Petha
sweet in Agra. However, only three or four of them are working efficiently and have
adopted canning technology to export their products in the international markets
Environmental degradation caused by effluents let out by the manufacturing unties
has been worrying the State Government. The waste water from Petha manufacturing
units has higher content of BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) and COD (Chemical
Oxygen Demand) and also contains some suspended solids, dissolved solids etc. This
waste-water is usually let out in the river Yamuna that makes the water unusable and
unsafe. The State Government is planning to shift all the Petha manufacturing units at
Kalindi Vihar where a common waste waster treatment plant has been establishes, but
most of the manufactures are not keen on shifting their units because of lack of other
infrastructure facilities there. Besides, the small manufacturers lack the purchasing
power to buy their own piece of land.
Oriented work as not much mechanization has been done as yet. Easy &
cheaper processing and easy loan system through commission agents has lead to sub
contracting of production. Many workers after receiving experience of 2-3 years have
started running their own units with a small working capital investment, which too is
easily available from commission agents, Environmental degradation caused by
effluents let out by the manufacturing unties has been worrying the State Government.
The waste water from Petha manufacturing units has higher content of BOD.
(Biological Oxygen Demand) and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and also
contains some suspended solids, dissolved solids etc. This waste-water is usually let
out in the river Yamuna that makes the water unusable and unsafe. The State
Government is planning to shift all the Petha manufacturing units at Kalindi Vihar
where a common waste water treatment plant has been establishes, but most of the
manufacturers are not keen on shifting their units because of lack of other
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infrastructure facilities there. Besides, the small manufacturers lack the purchasing
power to buy their own piece of land.
1.3.3 DAIRY INDUSTRY :
Dairy industry soctor is big as its is surrounded by many village like Kiroli,
Fatehpursikri, Acchnera, Fatehabad, Kheragarh etc. Many tonnes of milk and milk
products (skimmed milk, cheese, Ghee, curd, buttermilk, ice creams) are supplied to
nearby cities like Dehli, Noida, Gurgoan. The main dairies of Agra are Shanti Dairy,
Neeraj Dairy, Milan food products, Universal food products (Creambell), Bhola Baba
Dairy and a large number of uncountable small dairy running at small shops and
houses. The effluent from these dairies contains a high quantity of oils,
Microorganisms, enzymes, solid waste which is discharged to Yamuna after being
flowing in the drains.
With increase in demand for milk and milk products, many dairies of different
sizes have come up in different places. These dairies collect the milk from the
producers, and then either simply bottle it for marketing, or produce different milk
foods according to their capacities. Large quantity of waste water originates due to
their different operations. The organic substances in the wastes comes either in the
form in which they were present in milk, or in a degraded form due to their
processing's. As such, the dairy wastes, though biodegradable, are very strong in
nature.
1.3.4 EFFECTS OF THE DAIRY WASTES ON THE RECEIVING STREAMS/
SEWERS :
As observed from the above table the waste is basically organic in nature. This
is also slightly alkaline when fresh. When these wastes are allowed to go into the
stream without any treatment, a rapid depletion of the dissolved oxygen content of the
stream occurs, along with growth of sewage fungi covering the entire bottom of the
stream and the submerged parts of the hydraulic structures within it. The waste is said
to carry, occasionally, the bacteria responsible for tuberculosis. Though alkaline in
fresh condition, the milk waste becomes acidic due to the decomposition of Lactose
into lactic acid under anaerobic condition, particularly after complete oxygen
depletion of the stream. The resulting condition precipitates casein from the waste,
.

[ 19 ]

which decompose further into a highly odourous black sludge. At certain dilutions the
dairy waste is found to be toxic to fishes also.
As the dairies are usually situated in rural areas or in small towns, the question
of discharging the dairy waste into the sewers does not arise. In large cities, combined
treatment of domestic sewage and dairy waste may be considered if the latter
constitutes only 10% in volume of the former. In that case the dairy waste should be
discharged in a fresh condition, as a putrefied waste may cause corrosion of the
sewers.
1.3.5 TANNERY INDUSTRY :
The tannery industry of Agra is significant source source of pollution. In
particular waste water from the sector contains strong alkalis, bio-waste and high
concentration of heavy metals such as chromium, if not treated properly, his possess a
significant risk to human health and environment. Skins typically arrived at the
tannery dried stiff and dirty with soil and gore. First the ancient tanners would soak
the skins in water to clean and soften them. Then they would pound and scour the skin
to remove any remaining flesh and fat. Next the tanner needed to remove the hair
fibers from the skin. This was done by either soaking the skin in urine, painting it with
an alkaline lime mixture, or simply letting the skin putrefy for several months then
dipping it in a salt solution. After the hair fibers were lossened the tanners scraped
them off with a knife and the effluent goes to rivers, oceans and other water bodies.
The tanning industry is one of the oldest industries in India. Usually the
tannery wastes are characterised by strong colour, high BOD, high pH and high
dissolved salts. Disposal of these wastes into water courses or onto land, with or
without prior sedimentation, was not a problem perhaps decades ago. But in the recent
years, the concentrated growth of this industry in certain localities has shown how the
waste from this industry can cause irreversible damage to the water environment in
the vicinity. In view of its peculiar pollution potential, and the increasing demand for
good quality of water, both for domestic and other industrial purposes, it has become
essential to treat the waste to a certain degree prior to its disposal.

.

[ 20 ]

1.3.6 EFFECTS OF THE TANNERY WASTE-ON RECEIVING WATERS
AND SEWERS :
As stated earlier the tannery wastes are characterized by high BOD, high
suspended solids, and strong colour. These wastes when discharged as such
deplete the dissolved oxygen of the stream very rapidly, due to both chemical
and biological oxidation of sulphur and organic compounds. A secondary
pollution of the stream may occur due to the deposition of solids near the
discharge point and its subsequent putrefaction. The gas evolved during this
process has got a typical foul odour. Usually chlorides are refractory to water
treatment processes; as such, chloride in excess of tolerance limits (usually 500
mg/l when used as raw water for domestic purposes) render the water unsuitable
for future use. The chromium is toxic to aquatic life and inhibits the growth of
fish in the stream. However most of chromium is precipitated in the combined
tannery waste when mixed with spent lime liquor.
1.3.7 METHODS OF TREATING INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS :
Industrial wastewaters, as pointed out above, usually contain several
chemical pollutants and toxic substances in too large proportions. The
characteristics of the produced wastewater will usually vary from industry to
industry, and also vary from process to process even in the same industry. Such
industrial waste waters cannot always be treated easily by the normal methods of
treating domestic wastewaters, and certain specially designed methods or
'sequence of methods' may be necessary.
Figure 1.3.1 : Digram for the Treatment of the Combined Waste from a
Industry




The increase of velocity becomes prohibitive due to the increased velocity
head and frictional losses. The velocity of flow plays another important role in the
Raw
Waste Primary Setting
Tank
Anaerobic
Lagoon
Aerated

Lagoon
Effluent
BOD=
190 mg/l
Sludge to Sand
Drying Bed
COD=2900 mg/l Screen
BOD 1500 mg/l
(Detention time = 10 days) (Detention time = 6 days)
Screenings
.

[ 21 ]

design of U-tube aeration tanks. The aeration unit should be supplied with sufficient
amount of air. But the maximum air water ratio in the aeration unit practicable is a
function of the velocity. Higher velocity is needed for a desired higher air water ratio.
The air requirement in U-tube aeration system is much smaller than that in the
conventional aerobic biological reactors, because of the greater solubility and hence
greater oxygen transfer rate at the very high hydrostatic pressure. It has been found
that a maximum of 20% air-water ratio can be achieved at a velocity of 1.2 m/sec.
Higher velocity in the range of 1.8 m/sec to 2.4 m/sec is required for attaining an air-
water ratio of around 25%. It may be noted that surging occurs in the aeration tube,
when maximum practicable air water ratio is exceeded.
The velocity of flow within the aeration tube usually ranges from 1 to 2 m/sec,
and an oxygen transfer rate up to 3 kg/hr/m
3
can be achieved.
The power requirement depends on the oxygen requirement, oxygen transfer
efficiency and the depth of the air-injector. Higher the depth, higher will be the power
consumption. But higher depths are required to generate higher density difference
between the downflow and upflow sections, for circulation. The air injector depth
ranges in between 20 m and 40 m. The resulting power economy ranges from 4.5 to
3.0 Kg of oxygen per KWH.
The inherent efficiency of the U-tube aeration system and the associated economy in
land and power consumption in its use, will soon establish its position in the field of
biological treatment of domestic and even strong industrial wastes. As the U-tube
aeration units are capable of handling a very large volume of waste occupying
comparatively very small area, the system may be employed where there is no room
for installation of a conventional treatment system, particularly for the treatment of
wastes at the sea out-fall. Releasing to Yamuna by industrial effluent and Sewerline.

1.4.0 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY :
(i) It is Recently Research work on the sewage, Industrial effluent and
water of River Yamuna so it will help to have knowledge about the
qualitative characteristics of waste water and water of River Yamuna at
Agra.
.

[ 22 ]

(ii) Cause of waste water many deseases can effect the humans and
animals so it will help to aware human being Protect Yourself and
animals.
(iii) Waste water of any city in the major Problems. Thease day everyone
wants to have knowledge about Polluted water so they can obtain by
This research work.
(iv) River Yamuna is the holy river of the Hindu's Puran and shastra. That's
why they take bath on holy festivals and many dons so they can take
about polluted before worship water and may avoid it.
(v) The human being can save them animals to avoid river water as
drinking water to animals.
(vi) Sewers are very polluted and thease are very dangerous for human
being if a person have knowledge about harmfulness then they could
make a distance of Agra's sewer line and they can protect their health.
(vii) Citizens of Agra may aware about polluted water with the help of this
research work and they may be started sanitary work.
.

[ 23 ]

CHAPTER 2

OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

1. To determine and comparison after ETP and before ETP colour, odour, pH,
TSS, TDS, TS, BOD, COD, oil and grease in the effluents of Petha, Tannery
and dairy industries at Agra.
2. To determine and comparison pH, TDS, TSS, TS, BOD and COD in the
sewage before STP and after polishing pond of sewage treatment plants (STP)
at Agra.
3. To determine and comparison colour, Odour, turbidity, temperature, EC, pH,
BOD, COD, l C , MPN of TC and FC in the water of upstream and down
stream of river Yamuna at Agra.
4. To compare the final outlet of sewage, final outlet of selected industrial
effluents with the standards prescribed by U.P.P.C.B.

.

[ 24 ]

CHAPTER 3

3.0.0 INTRODUCTION
Related literature acts as the back bone for a researcher. Infact the researcher
who undertakes a research project with systematic reviewing of other studies and
writings related to the problem, completes successfully the research. It is obviously
imprudent and wasteful to proceed in any study without knowing what was gone
before? The competent physician must keep constantly abreast of the latest
discoveries in the field of medicine. The successful lawyer must be readily able to
locate information pertinent to the case in hand obviously a careful student of
technology, the research worker should become familiar with the location and use of
the sources of Environmental information. Bearing this in mind a comprehensive
survey of the related literature was made.
Study of the related literature implies location, reading and evaluating reports
of researches as well as report of casual observations and opinion that are related to
the individual's planned research project.
3.1.0 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE REVIEW RELATED LITERATURE
Mc Garth and Watson (1954) have asserted that a review of the literature and
related research report is almost as important component in beginning a research
project.
When a new research project is launched the researcher has to construct its
background with the previous work done by others. We learn from experience of
others and our own experience. By reviewing the literature related to the problem the
researcher not only becomes aware about history of research problem but also
establishes a link between past and present. Review of research studies serves a
buckle, between the old and new, between the known and unknown and between the
already investigated and to be investigated. It develops researcher's insight and
establishes his intellectual superiority over others. It removes misgivings and
miscronceptions about the problem. Defining and delimiting the problem is not at all
possible without review of related literature.
The significance of review of related literature displayed in the following
diagram :
.

[ 25 ]


Fig. 3.1.1: Schematic representation of significance of Review of Literature

3.2.0 SOURCES OF RELATED LITERATURE
There are several sources of review of related literature in which some source
are reliable and some unreliable. The reliable sources have an important place in
research but sometimes unreliable sources play an important role in research.
Unreliable sources give clues and insight to researches. So both types of the sources
have their own importance. It is necessary to review thoroughly both types of the
sources. There are several sources of review of related literature in periodicals,
indices, abstracts, books and text books, monographs, year books, bulletins and
survey reports, educational research information centers, microfilms, dissertations and
thesis, newspapers etc. These sources can be divided in two parts : (i) Primary sources
(ii) Secondary sources
Primary source is a description of the study by the individual who actually
observes or wishes the accurance can carries it out.
Secondary source materials in education include publication in the events
described. These materials comprise text, books, encyclopedia. So both type sources
have their own importance. It is necessary to the researcher to review thoroughly both
types of sources.
The significant source of literature which can be exposed by the novice
researcher are exhibited as following :
.

[ 26 ]


Fig. 3.1.2: Showing the significant sources of Related Literature

Thus it can be concluded that review of literature is the foundation of research
work. Keeping in view the importance of related literature before the actual work on
the problem investigation made survey of the related literature.
3.3.0 SOME RECENT RELATED INDIAN STUDIES
Contaminated and polluted water now kills more people than all forms of
violence including wars, according to a United Nations report released on March 22,
2010 on World Water Day that calls for turning unsanitary wastewater into an
environmentally safe economic resource. According to the report titled "Sick Water"
90 percent of wastewater discharged daily in developing countries is untreated,
contributing to the deaths of some 2.2 million people a year from diarrheal diseases
caused by unsafe drinking water and poor hygiene. At least 1.8 million children
youngerthan 5 die every year from water related diseases.
Fully 80 percent of urban waste in India ends up in the country's rivers and
unchecked urban growth across the country combined with poor government
oversight means the problem is only getting worse. A growing number of bodies of
water in India are unfit for human use, and in the River Ganga, holy to the country's
82 percent Hindu majority, is dying slowly due to unchecked pollution.
New Delhi's body of water is little more than a flowing garbage dump, with
fully 57 percent of the city's waste finding its way to the Yamuna. It is that three
billion liters of waste are pumped into Delhi's Yamuna (River Yamuna) each day.
.

[ 27 ]

Only 55 percent of the 15 million Delhi residents are connected to the city's sewage
system. The remainder flush their bath water, waste water and just about everything
else down pipes and into drains, most of them empty into the Yamuna. According to
the Centre for Science and Environment, between 75 and 80 percent of the river's
pollution is the result of raw sewage. Combined with industrial runoff, the garbage
thrown into the river and it totals over 3 billion liters of waste per day. Nearly 20
billion rupees, or almost US $500 million, has been spent on various clean up efforts.
3.3.1 MAHARASHTRA HAS THE MOST POLLUTED RIVERS IN INDIA
That Mithi river has been reduced to a filthy nullah is well-known. However,
now a report of the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) shows that Maharashtra
has the largest number of polluted rivers in the country. The CPCB draws up a list of
polluted river stretches in the country on the basis of what it calls "water quality
monitoring". It has identified 26 such rivers in Maharashtra with 28 polluted stretches.
Mula and Mutha in Pune, Kalu and Bhatsa in Thana and Mithi river in Mumbai are
among these.
Environmental experts are worried that it is not only industrial pollution,
which is responsible for degrading the quality of water in state rivers. The rapid
urbanisation across the state is a major culprit as well. "Domestic sewage is a source
of pollution besides industrial and other sources," said an official from the Union
ministry of environment and forests. So even a river like Kundalika, which flows
through the Sahyadris in Raigad, now house a polluted stretch. Similarly, Nira a
tributary of Bhima in Solapur, and Kanhan, a rive flowing through Nagpur have been
polluted because of industrial and domestic effluence.
The CPCB has marked 1.50 polluted river stretches in India, which includes
almost all the major rivers. After Maharashtra, Gujarat has the most polluted rivers,
showing that industrial activity is a major source of pollution.
The National River Conservation Programme (NRCP) is the nodal central
government plan to fight river water pollution. However, it covers only 38 rivers in 20
states. Of these, the clean-up of just four rivers in Maharashtra Panchganga, Tapi,
Krishna and Godavari is getting funds under NCRP. But CPCB data shows that
even small rivers and tributaries in the state are polluted. This means a lot of effort
will have to be made by the state and local authorities to clean them up.
Magsaysay Award winnde Rajendra Singh, who has revived several dying
rivers in Rajasthan, said, "I have seen Mula and Mutha rivers when they were
.

[ 28 ]

absolutely clean. Today they only carry industrial discharge. As long as the
government allows factories and individuals to keep flouting environmental
guidelines, nothing will change" "If rivers are to be saved, pollution abetment
schemes must be taken up urgently. These include interception, diversion and
treatment of sewage, lowcost sanitation works on river banks as well as electric
crematoria," said another expert.
The most polluted rivers in the state are Bhima, Godavari, Mula & Mutha,
Pawana, Panchganga, Patalganga, Indrayani, Koyna, Kundalika, Kalu, Kanhan, Kolar,
Mithi, Tapi, Girna, Nira, Wainganga, Wardha, Krishna, Purna, Nira, Chandrabhaga,
Venna, Ulhas, Rangavali and Bhatsa.
3.3.2 THE MOST POLLUTED PLACES IN INDIA
Vapi in Gujarat and Sukinda in Orrisa in among the world's top 10 most
polluted places, according to the Blacksmith Institute, a New York-based nonprofit
group.
Vapi : Potentially affected people : 71,000 Pollutants : Chemicals and heavy
metals due to its industrial estates.
Sukinda : Potentially affected people : 2,600,000. Pollutants : Hexavalent
chromium due to its Chromite mines.
3.3.3 TOP 20 CRITICALLY POLLUTED PLACES IN INDIA
We list the TOP 20 places from this infamous record. ANKLESHWAR
Pollution score: 88.5/ 100
Ankleshwar in the Bharuch district of Gujarat takes the top spot in the
'critically polluted places' with a score of 88.5.
Ankleshwar is known for its industrial township called GIDC (Gujarat
Industrial Development Corporation), which is one of the biggest in Asia. Ankleshwar
also has an office of the ONGC (Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited). Today,
Ankleshwar has over 5000 big and small chemical plants. These chemical plants
produce products such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals, specialty chemicals, and paint.
VAPI Pollution score: 88.09/ 100
Located in the in Valsad district of Gujarat, for Vapi, the cost of growth has
been severe: levels of mercury in the city's groundwater are reportedly 96 times
higher than WHO safety levels, and heavy metals are present in the air and the local
produce.
.

[ 29 ]

The industrial township of Vapi holds its place of importance on the
"industrial" map and it is the largest industrial area in Asia in terms of small-scale
industries, dominated by chemical industry plants, along with their unfortunate
hazards. Vapi has also been listed in the Top 10 most polluted places in the world by
the US-based Blacksmith Institute.
GHAZIABAD Pollution score: 87.37/ 100
The industrial city of Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, has industries that
manufacture railway coaches, diesel engines, bicycles, tapestries, glassware, pottery,
paint and varnish, heavy chains, etc. Also It has ordinance factory (Muradnagar) &
Bharat electronics ltd. for manufacturing defense products.
CHANDRAPU Pollution score: 83.88/ 100-Chandrapur in Maharashtra is very rich
in mineral wealth such as iron ore, limestone and coal and this boon has been its bane.
Many cement factories are located in this region. Due to large number of coal mines
present around the city, the city is also known as City of Black Gold. The mammoth
coal mines in an around the city also contribute to the heavy industrialization of the
city.
KORBA Pollution score: 83/ 100
This city in Chattisgarh, is the Power Capital of Central India with the NTPC's
Super Thermal Power Plant in Korba is working at 90% Plant Load Factor. There are
huge coal reserves in the vicinity, offering cheap pithead power generation
opportunities and there is enough water from the State's largest reservoir of Hasdeo
Bango. 84% of India's cool is in Chhattisgarh and two other States. Korba is also the
site of an aluminium facility operated by Bharat Aluminium Company (BALCO).
BHIWADI Pollution score: 82.91/ 100
Located in the Alwar district of Rajasthan, Bhiwadi has around 1,000 tiny,
small, medium, large, industries and including MNC industrial units manufacturing
various types of products. They include all types of industries like steel, furnace,
electronics, engineering, textiles, pharmaceuticals, printing, cables, rolling mills, food
processing, herbal care etc.
ANGUL TALCHER Pollution score: 82.09/ 100
Angul district is located in the center of the state of Orissa.



Source : The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) in conjunction with IIT-Delhi recently (28 June,
2010) surveyed 88 industrial clusters around the country, and found 43"critically polluted"
(score above 70 on a 100 point scale) while 32 were "severely polluted" score (60-70).
.

[ 30 ]

Even though Angul district is blessed with rich natural resources, it is the
hottest district in India where maximum temperature goes up to 50C during summer.
Many blame the Orissa government for destroying the natural greens of the district.
And yet the industrialization of the district has not stopped in spite of the public anger
for destroying jungles. The state government in its way to setup more and more
mines, plants in the district.
VELLORE-Pollution score: 81.79/ 100
This city in Tamil Nadu is considered to be one of the oldest surviving cities
in South India. The city, along with its nearby industrial towns has witnessed a
consistent industrial growth, followed by the implementation of South Asia's second
railway track between Chennai, Royapuram and Walajah. The Golden Quadrilateral
road; has significantly improved the region's industrial activities. This city is a hub for
leather industries, chemical industries as well as automobile and mechanical
industries.
SINGRAULI Pollution score: 81.73/ 100
Singrauli in Uttar Pradesh is fast emerging as an energy hub of India,
especially for electric power and coal. The total installed capacity of all power plants
at Singaruli is around ten percent of total installed capacity of India (as of 10
November 2006).
LUDHIANA-Pollution score: 81.66/ 100
This city in Punjab is also known as the 'Manchester of India' because it is the
industrial hub of Punjab, Ludhiana has been reputed to be the most polluted city on
Punjab. It is home to 8 large integrated knitwear factories, roughly 6,000 small to
medium sized knitwear factories, 10 big hosiery yarn mills and 150 small- to medium-
sized worsted and woollen yarns mills, factories of bicycles like Hero Cycles, Avon
Cycles, and a number of machine tools, sewing machines, generators, diesel engines,
tyres & tubes factories.
Industry is the main cause of water and air pollution in the city. Now a sewage
treatment plant is being set up at Ludhiana to control pollution of surface water under
the Satluj Action Plan.
NAJAFGARH DRAIN BASIN Pollution score: 79.54/ 100
Najafgarh drain basin in East Delhi (including Anand Parvat, Naraina, Okhala
and Wazirpur which are industrial hubs) is in the eleventh place in the over all list.
Najafgarh drain basin is also the biggest polluter to Yamuna.
.

[ 31 ]

NOIDA Pollution score: 78.90/ 100
This suburb of Delhi is a major hub for automobile ancillary units, with
companies like Escorts, Honda-SIEL and New Holland Tractors operating from the
city's SEZ.
DHANBAD Pollution score: 78.63/ 100
Located in Jharkhand, Dhanbad is also known as the 'Coal Capital of India'
and is 79th among the fastest growing cities of the world. Dhanbad is famous for its
coal mines and industrial establishments; it has 112 coal mines with a total produce of
27.5 million tonnes. Many sponge iron factories and ceramic factories are located in
the Dhanbad district.
DOMBIVLI Pollution score: 78.41/ 100
Dombivli as the 14th most polluted city in the country and second in the state
of Maharashtra. Dombivll is an industrial township in Thane district of Maharashtra.
Any taxi driver can point it out to you from a distance. This small town with a big
industrial estate, comprising some 50 chemicals units manufacturing dye
intermediaries, is perpetually engulfed in smog. For the 100,000 residents, life is
worse than hell. "The factories emit gases at night. They discharge effluents openly
into the drain passing through our colony. Any complaint against them will only mean
that we lose our jobs," laments Saroj Panicker, a resident of Dombivli, whose father
works in a chemicals factory.
KANPUR Pollution score: 78.09/ 100
The nineth most populous city in India, Kanpur is located on the banks of the
river Ganga and is an important industrial centre. The city is famous for its leather
products and cotton wears. Unfortunately, because of the heavy industrialization,
Kanpur is also famous for its pollution.
Kanpur went into decline after the 1960s; many industries shut down or left
the city, and those that remained -- like the tanneries acquired a bad reputation
because they were so polluting.
CUDDALORE Pollution score: 77.45/ 100
Cuddalore in Tamil Nadu has a large number of industries including one
industrial pocket -SIPCOT - which has secured it a place in the dubious club of global
toxic hotspots owing to the area's high levels of pollution. A report for the Tamil
Nadu Pollution Board by the Nagpur-based National Environmental Engineering
Research Institute found that residents of the SIPCOT area of Cuddalore were at least
.

[ 32 ]

2000 times more likely to contract cancer in their lifetimes due to their exposure to
high levels of toxic gases from chemical industries in the region.
AURANGABAD Pollution score: 77.44/ 100
This city in Maharashtra is surrounded with many historical monuments,
including the Ajanta Caves and Ellora Caves, which are UNESCO World Heritage
Sites. Many renowned Indian and MNCs have established themselves in the Industrial
Estates of Aurangabad including Videocon, Skoda Auto, Wockhardt, Siemens, Bajaj
Auto, Goodyear etc. Many firms have their manufacturing bases in Aurangabad, in
the sectors of automotive and auto components, pharmaceuticals and breweries,
consumer durables, plastic processing, aluminium processing, agriculture and biotech.
FARIDABAD Pollution score: 77.07/ 100
Faridabad's residential and industrial areas are in the grip of severe air
pollution. The air in the Delhi suburb is full of deadly elements like carbon dioxide,
carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide along with dust particles.
It is a major industrial city home to many units manufacturing tractors,
motorcycles, switch gears, refrigerators, shoes and tyres. Numerous brick kilns
located around Faridabad have emerged as one of the greatest air pollutants and use
rubber tyres and other high polluting materials to bake mud bricks.
The result of the large scale environmental pollution is that public health has
taken a severe beating. In many parts of Faridabad people suffer from diseases like
asthma, cancer, skin problems etc.
AGRA Pollution score: 76.48/ X00
The city of the Taj, has expanded rapidly without much planning, leading to
residential and business areas that lack civic amenities. Diesel generators, diesel
vehicles and numerous tanneries add to high levels of air pollution.
As it flows into Agra, the river Yamuna is hugely contaminated -- because 80
percent of the city's sewage flows into it. Choked drains and piled up garbage are
common sights.
3.3.4 INDIA'S 10 MOST POLLUTED INDUSTRIAL HUBS
Pollution level in ten major industrial hubs in the country, including some in
Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh has reached to a 'very alarmingly' level, according to a
study.
The hubs in the top ten list are located in Ankleshwar and Vapi in Gujarat,
Ghaziabad and Singrauli in Uttar Pradesh, Korba in Chhattisgarh, Chandrapur
.

[ 33 ]

(Maharashtra), Ludhiana in Punjab. Vellore in Tamil Nadu, Bhiwadi in Rajasthan
and Angul Telcher in Orissa.
"Many of these areas have already exhausted their capacity. We might put on
hold new approvals in these ten polluted hotspots till their environmental health is
restored," said Environment Minister Jairam Ramesh after releasing a report on
'Comprehensive environmental assessment of industrial clusters' in New Delhi.
The study, a first of its kind, has been prepared by IIT-Delhi along with the
Central Pollution Control Board, ranking the 88 industrial clusters across the country
on Comprehensive Environment Pollution Index (CEPI) on the basis of water, land
and air pollution.
The clusters have been ranked on a scale of 0-100, based on their sensitivity
towards the environment with ten of them topping the infamous list by scoring above
80 indicating the high level of metals and effluent discharged by them in the nearby
rivers and region.
Thirty-three industrial hubs have scored about 70-80 and categorised as
'critically' polluted, at least 32 others scored around 60-70 and tagged as 'seriously'
polluted clusters, while 10 in the score of 50-60 are in the 'warning' zone
The idea is to identify them in order to take concerted action and to centrally
monitor them at the national level to improve the current status of their environmental
components such as air and water quality," Ramesh said.
Subsequently, the CPCB along with State PCBs have been asked to prepare an
action plan for the 43 industrial clusters including ten 'very alarmingly' and 33 'most
severely' polluted areas within next three months, he said.
Such environmental assessment will be done once in a two year.
The scientists who have developed yardsticks have assessed all available data
on issues like water and air pollution, biodiversity conservation, land degradation,
ecological damage and waste management.
"I will soon approach the Finance Commission for fund for clean-up
programmes in these clusters," Ramesh said, adding that efforts are also on to study
the health impact from such critically polluted clusters.
3.4.0 WORLD WIDE RELATED STUDIES
To present study the present chapter embodies a brief review of reseaches
done in the area related to this investigation.
Sources : Tags : Central Pollution Control Board, Jairam Ramesh, Uttar Pradesh, Angul Telcher,
Finance Commission
.

[ 34 ]

Researcher tried to search all related literature from all possible sources to get
acquainted with different problems of desired area methods and techniques relevant to
the selected problem and to have clear concept of the work itself, keeping in view the
importance of related literature before started the actual work out the problem the
researcher survey of related literature in relation to the variables of the study.
To have clear understanding of literature available studies have been
categorized broadly in two sections according to the need of studies. Some relevant
studies undertaking by the researcher are categorized into two major heads :
1. Researches carried out at International level
2. Researches carried out at National level
So the review of related literature of present investigation can be depicted in
following manner:

3.4.1 RESEARCHES CARRIED OUT AT INTERNATIONAL LEVEL
FOREIGN STUDY
Clark michael, Tobin Lucas (1999) did work on the Torrens river at the river
banks of Adelaide city (Australia) and he found. That the down stream of river more
polluted as physical and chemical characteristics than up stream.
Scientist reported about industrial effluents and sewage outflow increase the pollution
of the river torrens at Adelaide city. So they suggested to pollution control board that
sewage treatment plants (STP) and Effluent Treatment plants (ETP) should be more
effected.
Kluivert Edwin, Bommel Van Mark (2001) found that amsel river at
Amsterdam (Netherlands) is less polluted compare with down stream of the city. The
physical characteristics of River as TDS, TSS and turbidity be reduced by the city
outfall.
So they reported significant information about the water system of the city.
They reported that the water of city dilute the pollutants of the river Ansel at
Amsterdam city (Netherlands). So the result was very significant about the sewage of
city.
Sedki Hamada (2001) released significant report about Nile River (Egypt). He
called sample at two point and he choosed Alexandaria (Egypt) and the second
.

[ 35 ]

sampling point was cairo (Egypt) and he found cairo is more polluted than
Alexandaria.
According to Recber and Hiddink (2003) Kazil river of turkey at the river
bank of Ankara (Turkey) was found more polluted compare with down stream of the
city as chemically. They collect sample at down stream and upstream of the city and
found the water of upstream is more polluted than water of down stream. So the result
was negative about the city outfall to river kazil.
Prapakamal Chareon (2003) reported by his research work that the industrial
effluent of Bangkok is being more polluted the water of river Chao Paraya. He called
the sample of various point of the down stream and up stream and the sampling
process was composite sampling method.
He found after comparison the water of down stream is physically and
chemically. More polluted than the water of up stream. That mean the waste water of
city is not treating proper.
Karim and Jassim (2004) have done research work on the sewage of Basra
(Iraq). They found the sewage of North Basra is more polluted than the sewage of
South Basra. They done work about the basis of pH, TDS, TSS, BOD and COD.
They found pH, TDS, BOD and COD of North Basra is so high than South
Basara and they also reported that the STP of north Basara many times suffer as
overloading. The average waste water of North Basara is high than the capacity of
STP.
Bierhoff et al. (2004) choose the Bonn (Germany) for the study of pollutants
in sewages and the industrial effluents.
He collected composite samples of various industry at the bonn city of
Germany and the same city sewage samples also and he compared the pH, TSS, TDS,
BOD, COD, oil and grease and heavy metals (Cr, Zn, Ni, Fe, Pb, Cd) and he found
industrial effluent is rich in pollution than the sewage before treatment.
Egervari and Bozsik (2005) checked the efficiency of Budapest (Hungary)
sewage treatment plants (STP) and he found that the efficiency of every plant is
different and it also affected by the dilution of waste water various part of city.
The efficiency of North STP is better than the south. So he conclused about
the various factor effect the efficiency STP.
.

[ 36 ]

Vazguez et al. (2000) determined the efficiency of potable water treatment
plant at Buenos Aires (Argentina) and he reported about the efficiency of treatment
plant. He found the potable water treatment plant's efficiency nearby 95.0%.
Lifang Wen (2003) found about the sewage of canton city of China going to
river si-kiang is out of standards.
He analysis the pH, TSS, TDS, BOD, COD and found more polluted than
standards. The total suspended solid and COD was very high and its not acceptable to
river canton.
Advocaat Dick and Onopko (2006) checked the pH, COD BOD and Oil and
grease of leningrad (Russia) sewage.
This study was based after STP and before STP analysis and the comparison
both and evaluate the efficiency of STP. The efficiency of STP was appreciable and
the water which was going towards the river Neva also in standards.
Gere Richards (2004) analysed the physical, chemical and biological
characteristics of the river Hudson at riverbank of New York (U.S.A.) and he also
sampling point of New orleans (U.S.A) and he found the water of river Hudson
slightly in the better position than the water of river mississippi at New orleans.
Kawamoto and Shimomura (2007) determined the efficiency of STP and ETP
and compared its also. The efficiency of sewage treatment plants is better than the
efficiency of effluents treatment plants.
They analysed on the basis of parameter pH, colour, TDS, TSS, BOD, COD
and the heavy metals. They found the efficiency of STP is appreciable than the
efficiency of ETP.
Zoff and Cannavaro (2005) have done research work on the industrial effluent
and sewage of the Rome city (Italy). He wanted about the qualitative characteristics of
industrial effluent and the sewage after treatment process and he found the waste
water of industries are out of standards and the water of sewage after treatment is
under standards.
Krug and Loth (2006) did work on the Vistula river at the riverbank of warsaw
(Poland) he determined the bacteriological characteristics of river vistula. The
sampling point was after city and the before city of Warsaw and they result was the
bacteriological contamination increased due to city water.


.

[ 37 ]

3.4.2 RESEARCH CARRIED OUT AT NATIONAL LEVEL
Indian study
Khurana and Mehta (2004) have done comparison study of the water of river
Yamuna and the Chambal river near at Agra. They collected water at Pinhat (Agra) of
river Chambal and near Taj Mahal at Agra. They made object pH, Temperature, EC,
DO, turbidity and found that the river Yamuna is very polluted than the Chambal river
and every parameters was better of river Chambal.
Shuri and Sharma (2008) checked the efficiency of Burhi Ka Nagla (STP) at
Agra. He took the analysed characteristics, colour, odour pH, TSS, TDS and found
about 90% efficiency of this treatment plant.
Garg et al. (2004) analysed the Yamuna river at Delhi. They took the sample
from various point at river bank of Delhi and comparison. This with down stream of
Delhi. The difference was too much the before city water was very clean with the
comparison of Delhi.
So he found that the Delhi is being very polluted to river Yamuna. Srivastava
(2006) have done comparison study of river Ganga. He choosed sampling point of
Haridwar and Kanpur and he implemented the composite sampling method. He found
the water of river Ganga at Haridwar is many times better than Kanpur.
The BOD, COD, TSS, TDS and odour, colour and TC and FC was study
parameters and the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of river Ganga
was compared each other. The study conclusion occurred. The water of river Ganga
from Haridwar to Kanpur carry many sewages and other type pollutants and been
very polluted.
Sharma et al. (2005) reported about the Uttangan river at Arnota (Agra) is
qualitative fruitful than the river Yamuna at Bateshwar (Agra). The study parameters
was physical and chemical and the sampling method used as grab sampling. First he
studied the physical parameters colour, odour, turbidity, specific conductivity and the
chemically examine as TDS, TSS, BOD, COD,

Cl , pH and DO.
The Uttangan river at Arnota was in better condition compare with Yamuna
river at Bateswar. The cause was found that the many sewage and other waste water
fall in river yamuna through the various city and the Uttangan faces less problems at
this type in the way.
.

[ 38 ]

Subramanyam and Krishnamurti (2003) have shown by report about Vapi
(Gujarat) is among the word's top ten most polluted places, according to them
research.
They did work on sewage and the industrial effluents of Vapi and found, the
waste water was very polluted as chemicals and heavy metals due to its industrial
estates. They used composite sampling method in his research and found high range
pollutants in the waste water of Vapi in Gujarat.
Kshirsagar (2002) according to is report, the up stream of Gomti river is better
than the down stream. He examined the river water and evaluate by the physical,
chemical and biological characteristics and he found. The waste water of city being
more polluted to river Gomti at Lucknow due to its heavy polluted sewages he chosen
the different sampling point before city and after city of Lucknow and extract this
result.
Raghwan and Koshik (2008) found, Sukinda in Orrissa is the very polluted
place in India. They did our research on waste water and obtain. The waste water of
Sukinda (Orrisa) have the pollutants as hexavalent chromium (Cr
6
) due to its chromite
mines.
Gupta and Srivastava (2006) found in his study. They did comparison study of
river Chambal. They compared the biological and chemical characteristics of river
Chambal at Kota and near the Udi bridge (Etawah) and they reported comparison of
the chemical and biological characteristics of river Chambal at Kota and Etawah is
nearby equal.
In other words "The comparison study of the river Chambal at both places
have no more qualitative difference so and the cause was found; in the way from Kota
to Etawah river Chambal did not face, critical circumstances due to waste water. So
water found in better position after the long way.
.

[ 39 ]

Chapter-4


4.0.0 INTRODUCTION
This chapter is a mapping strategy and the index of the whole work. It is
essentially a statement of the object of the inquiry and the strategies for collecting the
evidence, analyzing the evidence and reporting the findings. Thus, research design is
the statement of the object of the inquiry and how a satisfactory culmination is to be
effected. Moreover, design is the process of making decisions before the situation
arises in which the decision has to be carried out. It is a process of deliberate
anticipation directed towards bringing an expected situation under control.
According to Claire Seltiz and other [1962], a research design is the
arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to
combine relevance of the research purpose with the economy in procedure. Thus it is
every important step for the conduct of any research work. Without an intelligent
planning, the difficulties to be encountered during the process of the work, cannot be
anticipated and solved because planning includes the possibility of performance in all
jobs. The present chapter gives an elaborated details of the actual plan and procedure
adopted by the researcher as follows.All work have done in the Agra.
4.1.0 PLANNING OF STUDY:
In the study the research used Standards method of water and waste water
prepared and published jointly by American Health Association, American water
works association and water pollution control federation. Published by American
Public Health Association Washington here in this study have been choose industrial
effluents, sewages water of river Yamuna at Agra and here composite sampling
method is used all samples of industries, sewages, and water of river Yamuna are
collected over a period of 12 hours in day time at 1 hour regular intervals.
In this research work have been choose selected industrial effluents of Agra
sewages of Agra and water of river Yamuna at Agra.
The selected Industries are dairy, Petha and Tannery and the sample points is
before ETP and Water ETP of industrial effluents and we selected Ajanta Raj dairy
[dairy industry] Park leather industry [Tannery Industry]and Panchhi Petha Agra India
[Petha Industry] and we will do four months analysis of mentioned Industry and will
.

[ 40 ]

also 4 months average of selected characteristics of industries waste water and that
will considered as final results. The characteristics is taken according to U.P.
Pollution Control Board.
In the Agra there is three sewage treatment plants. The name of sewage
treatments plants are Dhandupura, Pilakhar, Burhi Ka Nagla.
In the study we did collect before STP and after STP samples of sewages and
select the observing parameters according to U.P. Pollution Control Board and here
we will also make 4 month average of analyzed characteristics as final result.
We choosed up stream as sampling points for the study of river yamuna at
Agra. The beginning of Kailash Ghat is up stream of Agra and near the Taj Mahal is
down stream of river Yamuna at Agra. In this study we will also average of 4 month
analyzed characteristics. The water of river Yamuna and we choosed as final
characteristics according to U.P. Pollution Control Board.
4.2.0 METHODS OF ANALYSIS
In the present study the researcher has employed Standards methods prepared
and published jointly by American Public Health Association, American water works
Association and water pollution control federation published by American Public
Health Association for the examination of Industrial effluents before ETP and after
ETP, Examination of sewages after STP stream water of river Yamuna at Agra.
Whole study have done at Agra region.

4.3.0 SAMPLING PROCEDURE
Good result can be expected from a good sample hence great care should be
observed in the selection of the sample.
The researcher is used composite sampling procedure in this study. Samples of
waste water are collected over a period of 12 hours at regular intervals say after an
hour. The volume of samples have been collected 4 liters. This have been kept in a
sterilosed bottle. Samples have been taken little below the top surface where due to
turbulence, waste water is mixed with impurities. The samples are taken from Jan.,
2010 to April, May 2010. Samples are taken 12 Times in a day, one time sample is
collected 350 ml in the beaker and finally filled to 4 litres cane. Composite samples
have been collected manually.


.

[ 41 ]

4.4.0 GLASS WARES AND PLASTIC WARES
All the glassware used were from Borosil and Duran. Plastic ware were from
Tarson and Axygen [USA]
The main equipment were used: Used only the best quality equipments from
certified companies.
1. Autoclave
2. Bacteriological incubator
3. Digital Burette
4. Desicator
5. Digester
6. Digital Cond, TDS meter
7. Digital turbidity meter
8. Expandable ion analyzer
9. Hot air oven
10. Weighing Balance
11. Digital incubator
12. Lab Heating Plate
13. Magnetic Stirrer
14. Muffle Furnace
15. Soxlet Unit
16. Distilling Unit
17. Aerating Unit

4.5.0 CHEMICAL/REAGENTS
It will be described with the procedure of parameters here we used only the
best quality chemical reagents even though this instruction is not repeated on the
description of particular method all A grade chemical reagents were used and all
chemicals were standardized by the standard methods.

4.6.0 PROCEDURE OF PHYSICAL EXAMINATION
Physical analysis of water is carried out in order to determine the physical
characteristics of water. This include tests for determining colour, odour, TSS, TDS,
TS, Temperature Turbidity, conductivity [EC].

.

[ 42 ]

4.6.1 COLOUR
Colour is determined by the visual comparison of the sample of known
concentrations of coloured solutions. Comparison also may be made with special
properly colibraded glass colour disc. Sample have been compared with the known
coloured solutions and match with the simultaneous colour.

4.6.2 ODOUR: By the help of nose.

4.6.3 TOTAL SOLIDS [TS]
Apparatus
[a] Evaporating dishes: Dishes of 100 ml. capacity made of the following
materials:
1. Porcelain, 90 mm diam.
2. Platinum- Generally satisfactory for all purposes.
3. High-silica glass.
[b] Muffle furnace for operation at 550 + 50 C
[c] Steam bath.
[d] Drying oven, for operation at 103 to 105 C.
[e] Desiccator, provided with a desiccant containing a colour indicator of
moisture concentration.
[f] Analytical balance, 200g. capacity, capable of weighing to 0.1 mg.

Procedure
[a] Ignite clean evaporating dish at 550 + 50 C for 1 hr. in a muffle
furnace.
[b] Cool, desiccate, weigh, and store dish in desiccator until ready for use.
[c] Transfer a measured volume: of sample to preweighed dish and
evaporate to dryness on a steam bath or in a drying even. Choose a
sample volume that will yield a residue between 2.5 mg and 200 mg.
Volume required may be estimated from conductivity. If necessary,
add successive sample portions to the same dish. When evaporating in
a drying oven, lower temperature to approximately 2C below boiling to
prevent splattering.
[d] Dry evaporated sample for at least 1 hr at 103 to 105 C.
.

[ 43 ]

[e] Cool dish in desiccator to balance temperature and weigh.
[f] Repeat cycle of drying at 103 to 105 C, cooling, desiccating, and
weighing until a constant weight is obtained, or until weight loss is less
than 4% of previous weight.
Calculation

( )
ml volume Sample
B A
L residue total mg
,
1000
/

=
Where
A = weight of sample + dish, mg. and
B = weight of dish, mg.

4.6.4 TOTAL DISSOLVE SOLIDS [TDS]
Apparatus
All of the apparatus listed in Section 209A. 2 is required and in addition:
[a] Glass-fiber filter. Circular, without organic binder.
[b] Filtration apparatus suitable for filter selected:
1. Filter holder: Gooch crucible adapter or membrane filter funnel.
2. Gooch crucible, 25 ml to 40 ml capacity, suitable for filter size
selected.
[c] Suction flask, 500 ml capacity

Procedure
[a] Preparation of glass-fiber filter: Place filter either on membrane filter
apparatus or bottom of a suitable Gooch crucible. Apply vacuum and wash filter with
three successive 20 ml volumes of distilled water. Continue suction to remove all
traces of water. Discard washings.
[b] Preparation of evaporating dish: 1gnite cleaned evaporating dish at 550 + 50 C
for 1 hr in a muffle furnace. Cool and store in desiccator until needed. Weigh
immediately before use.

[c] Sample analysis: Because excessive residue in the evaporating dish may form
a water entrapping crust, use a sample yielding between 2.5 mg and 200 mg total
filterable residue. If sample contains less than 10 mg filterable residue/L. use 250 ml.
Under vaccum, filter, wash with three successive 10 ml. volumes of distilled water,
.

[ 44 ]

and continue suction for about 3 min after filtration is complete. Transfer filtrate to a
weighed evaporating dish and evaporate to dryness on a steam bath. Dry for at least
1hr in an oven at 180 + 2C. cool in a desiccator to balance temperature, and weigh.
Repeat drying cycle until a constant weight is obtained or until weight loss is less than
4% of previous weight or 0.5 mg. whichever is less. Base calculation on original
sample volume because all filtrate is evaporated.

Calculation

( )
ml volume Sample
B A
L residue filterable total mg
,
1000
/

=
Where
A = weight of dried residue + dish, mg.
B = weight of dish, mg.
4.6.5 TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS [TSS]
Apparatus
Apparatus listed in Section 209A. 2 and 209 B. 2 is required.

Procedure
[a] Preparation of glass-fiber filter: Place filter either: Place filter either on
membrane filter apparatus or the bottom of a suitable Gooch crucible. Apply vaccum
and wash filter with three successive 20ml. portions of distilled water. Continue
suction to remove all traces of water, and discard washings. Remove filter from
membrane filter apparatus and transfer to an aluminum or stainless steel planchet as a
support. Remove crucible and filter combination of a Gooch crucible is used. Dry in
an oven at 103 to 105 C for 1 hr. Store in desiccator until needed. Weigh immediately
before use.
[b] Sample treatment: Because excessive residue on the filter may entrap water
and extend drying time, take for analysis a sample volume that will yield between 2.5
mg. and 200 mg total nonfiltrable residue. As a practical limit, filter 100 ml of well
mixed sample under vaccum. Wash filter with three successive 10 mL portions of
distilled water. Carefully remove filter from membrane filter funnel assembly and
transfer to an aluminum or stainless steel planchet as a support. Alternatively remove
crucible and filter combination from crucible adapter if a Gooch crucible is used. Dry
for at least 1 hr at 103 to 105 C, cool in a desiccator to balance temperature, and
.

[ 45 ]

weigh. Repeat drying cycle until a constant weight is attained or until weight loss is
less than 4% of previous weight, or 0.5 mg, whichever is less.
[c] The dried residue in the Gooch crucible may be used for determining volatile
and fixed matter at 550C in section 209G.3b4

Calculation
Mg total non filterable residue/L
( )
ml volume Sample
B A
,
1000
=
Where
A = weight of filter + residue Mg. and
B = weight of filter Mg.
4.6.6 TURBIDITY
Apparatus
Turbidimeter
Reagents
1. Solution I. Dissolve 1.0 g Hydrazine sulfate and dilute to 100 ml.
2. Solution II. Dissolve 10.0 g hexamethylenetetramine and dilute to 100 ml.
3. Mix 5 ml. of I with 5 ml of II, Allow to stand for 24 hrs and dilute to 1000
ml. This will have turbidity of 400 units.
4. Standard turbidity suspension: Dilute 10 ml of solution III as prepared
above to 100 ml to have turbidity of 40 units.

Procedure
1. Prepare calibration curves in the range 0-400 unit by carrying out
appropriate dilutions of solutions III and IV above and taking readings on
turbidimeter.
2. Take sample or a suitably diluted aliquot and determine its turbidity either
by visual comparison with the diluted standards or by reading on
turbidimeter.
3. Read turbidity from the standard curves and apply correction due to
dilution, if necessary.
4. Report the readings in turbidity unit.


.

[ 46 ]

4.6.7 CONDUCTIVITY
Apparatus
[a] Self-contained conductivity instruments: Use an instrument consisting
of a source of alternating current, a wheatstone bridge, a null indicator, and a
conductivity cell or other instrument measuring the ratio of alternating current
through the cell to voltage across it. The latter has the advantage of a linear reading of
conductivity. Choose an instrument capable of measuring conductivity with an error
not exceeding 1% or 1mho/cm. whichever is greater.
[b] Thermometer. Capable of being read to the nearest 0.1 C and covering
the range 23 C to 27 C. An electrical thermometer having a small thermistor sensing
element is convenient because of its rapid response.
[c] Conductivity cell:
1. Platinum-electrode type- Conductivity cells containing platinized
electrodes are available in either pipet or immersion form. Cell choice depends on
expected range of conductivity and resistance range of the instrument. Experimentally
check range for complete instrument assemble by comparing instrumental results with
the true conductivities of the KCl solutions listed in Table Clean new cells with
chromic sulfuric acid cleaning mixture and platinize the electrodes before use.
Table 4.1.1: Conductivity of Potassium Chloride Solutions at 25 C
Concentration
N
Equivalent Conductivity
mho/cm/equiv.
Conductivity
mhos/cm.
0
0.0001
0.0005
0.001
0.005
0.01
0.02
0.05
0.1
0.2
0.5
1
149.85
149.43
147.81
146.95
143.35
141.27
138.34
133.37
128.96
124.08
117.27
111.87

14.94+
73.90
147.0
717.8
1.413
2.767
6.668
12.900
24.820
58.640
111.900
.

[ 47 ]

Reagents
[a] Conductivity water: Pass distilled water through a mixed bed deionizer and
discard first 1.00 ml. Conductivity should be less than 1 mho cm.
[b] Standard potassium Chloride isolation, KCL, 0.0100 N: Dissolve 745.6 mg
anhydrous KCl in conductivity water and dilute to 1.000 mL at 25 C. This is the
standard reference solution. Which at 25 C has a conductivity of 1.413 mho/cm. It is
satisfactory for most samples when the cell has a constant between 1 and 2. For other
cell constants, use stronger or weaker KCl solutions listed in Table Store in a glass-
stoppered borosilicate glass bottle.

Procedure
[a] Determination of cell constant Rinse conductivity cell with at least three
portions of 0.01 N KCl solution. Adjust temperature of a fourth portion to 25.0 + 0.1
C. Measure resistance of this portion and note temperature. Compute cell constant, C:
C = [0.001413] [R
kcl
] [1+0.0191 [t-25]]
Where
R
kcl
= measured resistance, ohms and
t = observed temperature, degrees C.
[b] Conductivity measurement: Rinse cell with one or more portions of sample.
Adjust temperature of a final portion to 25.0=0.1c. measure sample resistance or
conductivity and note temperature.

Calculation
The temperature coefficient of most waters is only approximately the same
as that of standard KCl solution: The more the temperature of measurement deviates
from 25.0 C, the greater the uncertainty in applying the temperature correction Report
all conductivities at 25.0 C.
[a] When sample resistance is measured, conductivity at 25 C is:
( )( )( )
( ) 25 0191 . 0 1
000 . 1000
+
=
t
C K
K
m


Where:
K
m
= measured conductivity, mhos at t C.
.

[ 48 ]

K = Conductivity mhos/cm.
C = Cell constant.cm
t = Temperature measurement
Note: If conductivity readout is in micromhos per centimeter, delete the factor
1.000.000 in the numerator.

4.6.8 TEMPERATURE
Normally, temperature measurements may be made with good mercury filled
Celsius thermometer. As a minimum, the thermometer should have a scale marked for
every 0.1 C, with markings etched on the capillary glass. The thermometer should
have a minimal thermal capacity to permit rapid equilibration. Periodically check the
thermometer against a precision thermometer certified by the National Bureau of
Standards that is used with its certificate and correction chart. For field operations use
a thermometer having a metal case to prevent breakage.
Depth temperature required for limnological studies may be measured with a
reversing thermometer, thermophone, or thermistor. The thermistor is most
convenient and accurate: however, higher cost may preclude its use. Calibrate any
temperature measurement devices with a National Bureau of Standards certified
thermometer before field use. Make readings with the thermometer of device
immersed in water long enough to permit complete equilibration. Report results to the
nearest 0.1 or 1.0 C.

4.7.0 PROCEDURE OF CHEMICAL EXAMINATION
Chemical analysis of water is carried out in order to determine the chemical
characteristics of water. This involves test for determining, pH value chloride content,
DO, BOD, COD.
4.7.1 pH Value
Apparatus
[a] pH meter consisting of potentiometer, a glass electrode, a reference
electrode and a temperature compensating device. A balanced circuit is completed
through the potentiometer when the electrodes are immersed in the test solution.
Many pH meters are capable of reading pH or millivolts and some have scale
expansion that permits reading to 0.001 pH unit.
.

[ 49 ]

For routine work we used a pH 0.1 meter accurate and reproducible to 0.01 pH
unit with a range of 0 to 14 and equipped with a temperature compensation
adjustment.
[b] Reference electrode consisting of a half cell that provides a standard electrode
potential. Commonly used are calomel and silver: Silver-chloride electrodes. Either is
available with several types of liquid junctions.
Except for sealed electrodes, refill only with the correct electrolyte to proper
level and make sure junction is properly wetted.

Glass Electrode:
The sensor electrode is a bulb of special glass containing a fixed concentration
of HCl or a buffered chloride solution in contact with an internal reference electrode.
Upon immersion of a new electrode in a solution the outer bulb surface becomes
hydrated and exchanges sodium ions for hydrogen ions to bulb up a surface layer of
hydrogen ions. This together with the repulsion of anions by fixed, negatively charged
silicate sites, produces at the glass-solution interface a potential that is a function of
hydrogen ion activity in solution.

Beakers: Preferably use polyethylene or TFE beakers.
E. Stirrer:
Use either a magnetic. TFE coated stirring bar or a mechanical stirrer with
inert plastic coated impeller.
Reagents
[a] General preparation: Calibrate the electrode system against standard
buffer solutions of 4 pH and 9 respectively. Because buffer solutions may deteriorate
as a result of mold growth or contamination, prepare fresh as needed for accurate
work by weighing the amounts of chemicals specified in dissolving in distilled water
at 25 C, and diluting to 1.000 ml. This is particularly important for borate and
carbonate buffers.
[b] Saturated potassium hydrogen tartrate solution: Shake vigorously an
excess [5 to 10 g] of finely crystalline KHC
4
H
4
O
6
with 100 to 300 ml. distilled water
at 25 C in a glass stoppered bottle. Separate clear solution from undissolved
materially by decantation or filtration. Preserve for 2 months or more by adding one
thymol crystal [8 mm diam] per 200 ml. solution
.

[ 50 ]

[c] Saturated calcium hydroxide solution: Use filtrate as the buffer
solution. Discard buffer solution when atmospheric CO
2
causes turbidity to appear.
[d] Auxiliary solution: 0.1N NaOH. 0.1N HCl [dilute five volumes 6N
HCl with one volume distilled water], and 20% ammonium bifluoride [NH
4
HF
2
]
[dissolve 20 g NH
4
HF
2
in distilled water and dilute to 100 ml.]

Procedure
[a] Instrument calibration: In each case follow manufacturer is instructions
for pH meter used and for storage and preparation of electrodes for use.
Recommended solutions for short-term storage of electrodes very with type of
electrode and manufacturer, but generally have a conductivity greater than 4.000
mhos/cm. Tap water is a better substitute than distilled water. Keep electrodes wet
by returning them to storage solution whenever pH meter is not in use. We use 4 and
9 pH standard buffer solution 4 to calibrate pH meters.
Before use, remove electrodes from storage solution and rinse with distilled or
demineralized water. Dry electrodes by gently blotting with a soft tissue. Bring
sample and buffer to same temperature, which may be the room temperature, a fixed
temperature such as 25 C. or the temperature of a fresh sample. Record temperature of
measurement and adjust temperature dial on meter to this temperature.
Standardize instrument with electrodes immersed in a buffer solution within
4pH units of sample pH. Remove electrodes from buffer, rinse thoroughly and blot
dry. Immerse in a second buffer pH 9 approximately 3pH units different from the
first: the reading should be within 0.1 unit for the pH of the second buffer. If the
meter response shows a difference greater than 0.1 pH unit from expected value look
for trouble with the electrodes or protentiometer.
The purpose of standardization is to compensate for changes in potentionmeter
or electrodes. When only occasional pH measurements are made, standardize
instrument before each measurement. When frequent measurements are made and the
instrument is stable, standardize less frequently. If sample pH values very widely,
standardize for each sample with a buffer having a pH within 1 to 2 pH units of the
sample.

.

[ 51 ]

[b] Sample analysis: Establish equilibrium between electrodes and sample by
stirring sample to insure homogeneity. For buffered samples or those of high ionic
strength, condition electrodes after cleaning by dipping them into sample for 1 min.
Blot dry immerse in a fresh portion of the same sample and read pH.

4.7.2 OIL AND GREASE
Apparatus
a. Extraction apparatus. Soxhlet.
b. Vaccum pump or other source of vaccum.
c. Buchner funnel 12 cm.
d. Electric heating mantle.
e. Extraction thimble paper
f. Filter paper, 11 cm diam.
g. Muslin cloth disks. 1 cm diam.

Reagents
a. Hydrochloric acid HCl, 1+1
b. Trichlorotrifluoraethane
c. Diatomaceous-silica filter aid suspension, 10g/l distilled water.

Procedure
Collect about 1 L. of sample in a wide mouth glass bottle and mark sample
level in bottle for later determination of sample volume. Acidify to pH 2 or lower;
generally. 5 ml. HCl is sufficient. Prepare a filter consisting of a muslin cloth disk
overlaid with filter paper. Wet paper and muslin and press down edges of paper.
Using a vacuum. Pass 100 ml. filter aid suspension through prepared filter and wash
with 1L. distilled water. Apply vacuum until no more water passes filter. Filter
acidified sample. Apply vacuum until no more water passes through filter. Using
forceps transfer filter paper to a watch glass. Add material adhering to edges of
muslin cloth disk. Wipe sides and bottom of collecting vessel and Buchner funnel
with pieces of filter paper soaked in solvent, taking care to remove all films caused by
grease and to collect all solid material. Add pieces of filter paper to filter paper on
watch glass. Roll all filter paper containing sample and fit into a paper extraction
thimble. Add any pieces of material remaining on watch glass. Wipe watch glass with
.

[ 52 ]

a filter paper soaked in solvent and place in paper extraction thimble. Dry filled
thimble in a hot-air oven at 103 C for 30 min. Fill thimble with glass wool or small
glass heads. Weigh extraction flask. Extract oil and grease in a Soxhlet apparatus,
using trichlorotrifluoroethane at a rate of 20 cycles/hr for 4 hr. Time from first cycle.
Distill solvent from extraction flask in a water bath at 70 C. Place flask on a water
bath at 70 C for 15 min and draw air through it using an applied vacuum for the final
1 min. Cool in a desiccator for 30 min. and weigh.
Calculation
If the organic solvent is free of residue the gain in weight of the tared distilling
flask is mainly due to oil and grease. Total gain in weight, A of tared flask less
calculated residue B from relevant flask is the amount of oil and grease in the
sample.

( )
Sample ML
B A
h grease and oil g
1000
/

=
Reagents
1. Potassium chromate indicator: Dissolve 50 g in distilled water. Add
AgNo
3
till definite red pre is formed. Allow to stand for 12 hrs. Filter and
dil. 1000 ml.
2. Silver nitrate 0.0141 N: Dissolve 2.395 g AgNO
3
dilute to 1000 ml.
Standardize against NaCl, 0.0141 N. 0.0141 NagNO
3
= 0.5mg Cl.
3. Sodium chloride 0.0141 N: Dissolve 824.1 mg NaCl [dried at 140
0
C] and
dilute to 1000 ml. 1 ml = 0.5 mg Cl.
4. Special reagent to remove colour and turbidity: 125 g. Alk[SO
4
]
2
. 12H
2
O
or AlNH
4
[SO
4
]
2
12H
2
O and dilute 100 ml. Warm to 60
0
C and add 55 ml
conc. NH
4
OH slowly. A stand for 1 hr. Solution should be free from Cl.
Procedure
[a] 1. Pretreatment: Take 100 ml sample and add 3 ml special reagent. Mix well
and allow to settle. Filter the supernatant for titration purpose.
2. To the samples containing sulphite, add about 1 ml. H
2
O
2
after
neutralization.
3. In case if sulphide or thiosulphate is present raise the pH of the sample to
8.3 or more, add H
2
O
2
1 ml. and then again neutralize the sample.


.

[ 53 ]

[b] Titration:
1. Adjust the pH of sample between 7.0 and 8.0.
2. Take .50 ml well mixed sample adjusted to pH 7.0-8.0 and add 1.00 ml
K
2
CrO
4
.
3. Titrate with standard AgNO
3
solution till AgCrO
4
starts precipitating.
4. Standardize AgNO
3
against std. NaCl.
5. For better accuracy titrate distilled water [50 ml] in the same way to establish
reagent blank.
6. Calculate as follows:

( )
Sample ml
N A
mg Cl
35450 3
1 /

=
Where
A = ml AgNO
3
for sample
B = ml AgNO
3
for blank
N = Normality of AgNO
3
used
4.7.3 DISSOLVE OXYGEN (DO)
Apparatus
1. BOD bottles capacity 300 ml.
2. Sampling device for collection of samples.

Reagents
1. Manganese sulphate: Dissolve 480 g tetrahydrate manganeus sulphate and
dilute to 100 ml. Filter if necessary. This solution should not give colour
with starch when added to an acidified solution of KI.
2. Alkali iodide-azide reagent: Dissolve 500 g NaOH and 150 g KI and dilute
to 1000 ml. Add 10 g NaN
3
dissolved in 40 ml distilled water. This
solution should not give colour with starch solution when diluted and
acidified.
3. H
2
SO
4
, Conc.
4. Starch indicator: Prepare paste or solution of 0.5 g starch powder in
distilled water. Pour this solution in 10 ml boiling water. Allow to boil for
few minutes. Cool and then use.
.

[ 54 ]

5. Stock sodium thiosulphateo.1N: Dissolve 24.82 g Na
2
S
2
O
3
5H
2
O in boiled
cooled distilled water and dilute to 1000 ml. preserve by adding 5 ml.
chloroform per litre.
6. Standard sodium thiosulphate 0.025 N: Dilute 250 ml. stock Na
2
S
2
O
3

solution to 1000 ml with freshly boiled and cooled distilled water. Preserve
by adding 5 ml chloroform per litre. [This solution will have to be
standardized for each set of titrations].
Procedure
1. Collect sample in a BOD bottle using DO sampler.
2. Add 2 ml MnSO
4
followed by 2 ml of NaOH+KI+NaN
3
. the tip of the
pipet should be below the liquid level while adding these reagents. Stopper
immediately.
3. Mix well by inverting the bottle 2-3 times and allow the precipitate to
settle leaving 150 ml clear supernatant.
4. At this stage, add 2 ml. conc. H
2
SO
4
. Mix well till precipitate goes into
solution.
5. Take 203 ml in a conical flask and titrate against Na
2
S
2
O
3
using starch as
an indicator. When 2 ml. MnSO
4
followed by 2 ml NaOH+KI+NaN
3
is
added to the sample as in [2] above 4.0 ml of original sample is lost. Thus
203 ml taken for titration will correspond to 200 ml of original sample.
200 x 300/[300-4] = 203 ml
Calculation
1 ml of 0.025 N Na
2
S
2
O
3
= 0.2 mg of O
2

D.O. in mg/1 =
( )
200
1000 2 . 0 sulfate Thio of ml

4.7.4 BIO CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD)
Apparatus
1. BOD bottles 300 ml. capacity
2. Incubator, to be controlled at 20
0
C + 1
0
C

Reagents
1. Phosphate buffer: Dissolve 8.5 g KH
2
PO
4
, 21.75 g K
2
HPO
4
, 33.4 g
Na
2
PHO
4
7H
2
O and 1.7 g NH
4
Cl in distilled water and dilute to 1000 ml.
Adjust pH to 7.2.
.

[ 55 ]

2. Magnesium sulfate: Dissolve 82.5 g MgSO
4
7H
2
O and dilute to 1000 ml.
3. Calcium chloride: Dissolve 27.5 g anhydrous Cacl
2
and dilute to 1000 ml.
4. Ferric chloride: Dissolve 0.25 g FeCl
3
6H
2
O and dilute to 1000 ml.
5. Sodium sulfite solution 0.025N: Dissolve 1.575 g Na
2
SO
3
and dilute to
1000 ml. Solution should be prepared freshly.

Procedure
[a] Preparation of dilution water
1. Aerated the required volume of distilled water in a container by bubbling
compressed air for 1-2 days to attain DO saturation. Try to maintain the temperature
near 20
0
C.
2. Add 1 ml. each of phosphate buffer, magnesium sulphate, calcium chloride,
and ferric chloride solutions for each litre of dilution water, Mix well.
3. In the case of the wastes which are not expected to have sufficient bacterial
population add seed to the dilution water. Generally, 2ml settled sewage. It considered
sufficient for 1000 ml of dilution water.
[b] Dilution of sample
1. Neutralize the sample to pH around 7.0 if it is highly alkaline or acidic.
2. The sample should be free from residual chlorine. If it contains residual
chlorine remove it by using Na
2
SO
3
solution as follows:
Take 50 ml of the sample and acidify with addition of 2 ml salt of
alkaliazide+1 acetic acid. Add about 1 g KI. Titrate with Na
2
S
2
O
3
0.025 N using
starch indictor. Calculate the volume of Na
2
SO
3
required per ml of the sample and ad
accordingly to the sample to be tested for BOD.
3. Samples having high DO content, i.e., DO 9 mg/1 due to either algal growth or
some other reason, reduce the DO content by aerating and agitating the samples.
4. Make several dilutions of the prepared sample so as to contain about 50%
depletion of DO in dilution water but not less than 2mg and the residual oxygen after
5 days of incubation should not be less than 1mg/1L. prepare.
Dilutions as follows:
Siphon out seeded dilution water in a measuring cylinder or volumetric flask
half the required volume. Add the required quantity of carefully mixed sample. Dilute
to the desired volume by siphoning dilution water and mix well.
The following dilutions are suggested:
.

[ 56 ]

0.1% to 1 .. Strong trade waste
1% to 5% .. Raw or settled sewage
5% to 25% .. Treated effluent [Biological]
25% to 100% .. river water [Polluted]
5. Siphon the dilution prepared as above in 4 labelled BOD bottles as
demonstrated and stopper immediately.
6. keep 1 bottle for determination of the initial DO and incubates at 20
0
C for
5 days. See that the bottles have a water seal.
7. Prepare a blank in duplicate by siphoning plain dilution water [without
seed] to measure the O
2
consumption in dilution water.
8. Fix the bottles kept for immediate DO determination and blank by adding
2 ml. MnSO
4
followed by 2 ml NaOH + KI + NaN
3
as described in the
estimation of DO.
9. Determine DO in the sample and in the blank on initial day and after 5
days.
10. Calculate BOD of the sample as follows:
Let D
0
= DO in the sample bottle on 0
th
day
D
1
= DO in the sample bottle on 5
th
day
C
0
= DO in the in the blank bottle on 0
th
day
C
1
= DO in the in the blank bottle on 5
th
day
C
0
-C1= DO depletion in the dilution water alone
D
0
-D
1
= DO depletion in sample + dilution water
[D
0
-D
1
] [C
0
-C
1
] = DO depletion due to microbes
BOD mg/1 = [D
0
-D
1
] [C
0
-C
1
] mg x decimal fraction of
sample used.
If the sample is seeded find out BOD of seed in the above, manner and apply
correction, as per demonstration.

4.7.5 CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (COD)
Apparatus
1. Reflux apparatus consisting of a flat bottom 250 to 500 ml capacity
flask with ground glass joint and a condenser with 24/40 joint.
2. Burner or hot plate

.

[ 57 ]

Reagents
1. Standard potassium dichromate 0.25 N: Dissolve, 12.259 g K
2
Cr
2
O
7
dried at
103
0
C for 24 hrs. in distilled water and dilute to 1000 ml. Add about 120 mg
sulphamic acid to take care of 6 mg/1 NO
2
-N.
2. Sulphuric acid reagent: Add 22 g Ag
2
SO
4
to 9 1bs conc. H
2
SO
4
and keep
overnight for dissolution.
3. Standard ferrous ammonium sulfate 0.1N: Dissolve 39 g Fe (NH
4
)
2
(SO
4
)
2

6H
2
O in about 400 ml distilled water. Add 20 ml conc. H
2
SO
4
and dilute to
1000 ml.
4. Ferroin indicator: Dissolve 1.485 g 1-10 phenanthroline monohydrate and 695
mg FeSO
4
7H
2
O and dilute to 100 ml with distilled water.
5. HgSO
4
: analytical grade.

Procedure
1. Place 0.4 g HgSO
4
in a reflux flask.
2. Add 20 ml sample or an aliquot of sample diluted to 20 ml with distilled
water. Mix well.
3. Add pumice stone or glass beads followed by 10 ml std. K
2
Cr
2
O
7
.
4. Add slowly 30 ml. H
2
SO
4
containing Ag
2
SO
4
mixing thoroughly. This
slow addition along with swirling prevents fatty acids to escape out due to
high temperature.
5. Mix well. If the colour turns green either take fresh sample with lesser
aliquot or add more dichromate and acid.
6. Connect the flask to condensor. Mix the contents before heating because
improper mixing will result in bumping and samples may be blown out.
7. Reflux for a minimum of 2 hrs. Cool and then wash down the condenser
with distilled water.
8. Dilute to about 150 ml, cool and titrate excess K
2
Cr
2
O
7
with 0.1N Fe
[NH
4
]
2
[SO
4
]
2
using ferroin indicator. Sharp colour change from blue green
to wine red indicates end-point or completion of the titration.
9. Reflux blank in the same manner using distilled water instead of sample.
10. Calculate COD from the following equation:
COD mg/1 =
( )
sample ml
N b a 8000

.

[ 58 ]

Where
a = ml Fe[NH
4
]
2
[SO
4
]
2
for blank
b = ml Fe[NH
4
]
2
[SO
4
]
2
for sample
N = normality of Fe [NH
4
]
2
[SO
4
]
2
Note: For standardization of ferrous ammonium sulfate, use 10.0 ml std. K
2
Cr
2
O
7
,
acidity by adding 10.0 ml H
2
SO
4
and titrate with Ferr. Amm. Sulphate to be
standardized using ferro in indicator. Calculate N by N
1
V
1
= N
2
V
2
.

4.8.0 MICROBIAL EXAMINATION: Presently, several tests are in use to assay for
coliforms in water, The oldest of these is the multiple tube fermentatation test. In this
test three steps are performed; the presumptive, confirmed, and completed tests.

4.8.1 STANDARD TOTAL COLIFORM MPN TESTS: A moderately selective
lactose broth medium (Lactose Lauryl Tryptose Broth), containing a Durham tube, is
first used in the presumptive test to encourage the recovery and growth of potentially
stressed coliforms in the sample. If harsher selective conditions are used, a
deceptively low count may result. A tube containing both growth and gas is recorded
as a positive result. It is possible for non-coliforms (Clostridium or Bacillus) to cause
false positives in this medium and therefore all positive tubes are then inoculated into
a more selective medium (Brilliant Green Lactose Broth or EC Broth) to begin the
confirmed test.

1. Presumptive Test
Use lauryl tryptose broth in the presumptive Test, but do not use positive
results without confirmation.

Procedure
1. Inoculate a series of fermentation tubes [primary fermentation tubes] with
appropriate graduated quantities [multiples and submultiples of 1 ml.] of sample. If
100 ml. sample portions are used pre warm bottles at 35 C. After adding sample mix
thoroughly. Be sure that the concentration of nutritive ingredients in the mixture of
medium and added sample conforms to the requirements. Media Specifications. The
portions of sample used for in oculting lauryl tryptose broth fermentation tubes will
vary in size and number with the character of the water under examination, but in
.

[ 59 ]

general use decimal multiples and submultiples of 1 ml. Select these in accordance
with the discussion of the multiple-tube test above.
In making dilutions and measuring diluted sample volumes, follow the
precautions given in Section 907.5. Use Figure 907. 1 as a guide to preparing
dilutions.
2. Incubate inoculated fermentation tubes at 35+0.5C. After 24+2 hr. shake each
tube gently and examine it and, if no gas has formed and been trapped in the inverted
vial, reincubate and reexamine at the end of 48 + 3 hr. Record presence or absence of
gass formation regardless of amount at each examination of the tubes.

2. Confirmed Test
Use lauryl tryptose broth for the primary fermentation. Use brilliant green
lactose bile broth fermentation tubes for the confirmed Test.
Procedure
Submit all primary fermentation tubes showing any amount of gas within 24
hr of incubation to the confirmed test. If active fermentation appears in the primary
fermentation tube earlier than 24 hr preferably transfer to the confirmatory medium
without waiting for the full 24 hr. period to elapse. If additional primary fermentation
tubes show gas production at the end of 48 hr. incubation, submit these to the
Confirmed Test.
Procedure with brilliant green lactose bile broth
Gently shake or rotate primary fermentation tube showing gas and either with
a sterile metal loop. 3 mm in diameter. Transfer one loopful of culture to a
fermentation tube containing brilliant green lactose bile broth or insert a sterile
wooden applicator at least 2.5 cm into the culture, promptly remove and plunge
applicator to bottom of fermentation tube containing brilliant green lactose bile broth.
Remove and discard applicator.
Incubate the inoculated brilliant green lactose bile broth tube for 48 + 3 hr at
35 + 0.5 C.
Formation of gas in any amount in the inverted vial of the brilliant green
lactose bile broth fermentation tube at any time within 48+3hr constitutes a positive
Confirmed Test.


.

[ 60 ]

[c] Alternative procedure
Use this alternative only for polluted water or waste water known to produce
positive results consistently.
If all presumptive tubes are positive in two or more consecutive dilutions
within 24 hr, submit to the Confirmed Test only the tubes of the highest dilution
[smallest volume] in which all tubes are positive and any positive tubes in still higher
dilutions. Submit to the Confirmed Test all tubes in which gas is produced only after
48 hr.

3. Completed Test
Use the Completed Test on positive confirmed tubes to establish definitively
the presence of coliform bacteria and to provide quality control data. Double
confirmation into brilliant green lactose bile broth for total coliforms and EC broth for
fecal coliforms may be used. Consider positive EC broth results as a positive
Completed Test response. Submit all other confirmation positive tubes, not doubly
confirmed, to the Completed Test procedure.
Procedure
1.Streak one or more eosin methylene blue plates from each tube of brilliant green
lactose bile broth showing gas, as soon as possible after the appearance of gas. Streak
plates to insure presence of some discrete colonies separated by at least 0.5 cm.
Observe the following precautions when streaking plates to obtain a high proportion
of successful isolations if coliform organisms are present: [a] Use an inoculating
needle slightly curved at the tip; [b] tap and incline the fermentation tube to avoid
picking up any membrane or scum on the needle [c] Insert end of needle into the
liquid in the tube to a depth of approximately 5.0 mm [d] streak plate with curved
section of the needle in contact with the agar to avoid a scratched or torn surface.
Incubate plate [inverted] at 35+0.5 C for 24+2 hr.
2.The colonies developing on eosin methylene blue agar are called typical [nucleated,
with or without metallic sheen]: atypical [opaque, unnucleated, mucoid, pink after 24
hr incubation], or negative [all others]. From each of these plates pick one or more
typical well-isolated coliform colonies or if no typical colonies are present, pick two
or more colonies considered most likely to consist of organisms of the coliform group
and transfer growth from each isolate to a lauryl tryptose broth fermentation tube and
to a nutrient agar slant.
.

[ 61 ]

Use a colony magnifying device to provide optimum magnification when
colonies are picked from the plates of selective medium.
If possible, when transferring colonies, choose well isolated colonies and
barely touch the surface of the colony with a flame sterilized air cooled transfer
needle to minimize the danger of transferring a mixed culture.
Incubate secondary broth tubes at 35+0.5 for 24+2hr. if gas is not produced
within 24+2hr reincubate and examine again at 48+3 hr. Microscopically examine
Gram-stained preparations from those 24 hr. agar slant cultures corresponding to the
secondary tubes that show gas.

4.8.2 MPN OF FECAL COLIFORM
Reagents

1. Ammonium oxalate-crystal violet [Huckers]: Dissolve 2g crystal violet
[90% dye content] in 20 ml. 95% ethyl alcohol; dissolve 0.8 g
[NH
4
]
2
C
2
O
4
H
2
O in 80 ml. distilled water, mix the two solutions and age
for 24 hr. before use: filter through paper into a staining bottle.
2. Lugols solution, Grams modifications; Grind 1 g iodine crystals and 2g
Kl in a mortar. Add distilled water, a few milliters at a time and grind
thoroughly after each addition until solution is complete. Rinse solution
into an amber glass bottle with the remaining water [using a total of 300
ml.]
3. Counterstain: Dissolve 2.5 g safraining dye in 100 ml. 95% ethyl alcohol.
Add 10 ml to 100 ml distilled water.
4. Acetone alcohol: Mix equal volumes of ethyl alcohol, 95% with acetone.

The fecal coliform test [EC medium] is applicable to investigations of stream
pollution: raw water sources, wastewater treatment systems, bathing waters,
seawaters. and general water quality monitoring. The procedure is not recommended
as a substitute for the coliform test in the examination of potable waters, because no
coliform bacteria of any kind should be tolerated in a treated water. The test using A-1
medium is applicable to seawaters. Fecal Coliform Test [EC Medium]
.

[ 62 ]

The fecal coliform test may be expected to differentiate between coliforms of
fecal origin [intestines of ward-blooded animals] and coliforms from other sources.
Use EC medium as described in Section 905 C. Media Specification.

Procedure
Make transfers from all positive presumptive tubes from the total coliform
MPN test to EC medium. Make this examination simultaneously with the
confirmatory procedure using brilliant green lactose bile broth. Use a sterile metal
loop with a minimum 3 mm. diam or a sterile wooden applicator to transfer from the
positive fermentation tube to EC medium. When making such transfers, first gently
shake the presumptive tube or mix by rotating. Incubate inoculated tubes in a water
bath at 44.5+0.2 C for 24 + 2 hr. Place all EC tubes in the water bath within 30 min
after inoculation. Maintain the water depth in the incubator sufficient to immerse
tubes to the upper level of the medium.
Estimation of Bacterial Density
Even when five fermentation tubes are used, the precision of the results
obtained is not of a high order. Consequently, exercise great caution when interpreting
the sanitary significance of coliform results obtained from the use of a few tubes with
each sample dilution especially when the number of samples from a given sampling
point is limited.

4.9.0 COMPUTING AND RECORDING OF MPN
Record the number of positive findings of coliform group organisms [either
presumptive, confirmed or completed] resulting from multiple-portion decimal
dilution plantings as the combination of positives and compute in terms of the Most
Probable Number [MPN]. Included Table MPN Index and 95% confidence limit for
various combination of positive results when five 10 ml. portions are used.
No of tubes Giving
Positive Reaction out of 5
of 10 ml Each
MPN index/100 ml 95% Confidence Limited
Lower Upper
0 2.2 0 6.0
1 2.2 0.1 12.6
2 5.1 0.5 19.2
3 9.2 1.6 29.4
4 16 3.3 52.9
5 16 8.0 Infinite
.

[ 63 ]

Use the values in computing the MPN in larger or smaller portion plantings in the
following manner. If instead of portions of 10. 1.0 and 0.1 ml. a combination of
portions of 100. 10 and 1 ml is used record the MPN as 0.1 times the value given in
the applicable table. If, on the other hand a combination of corresponding portions at
1.0, 0.1 and 0.01 ml is planted record 10 times the value shown in the table: If a
combination of portions of 0.1., 0.01 and 0.001 ml is planted record 100 times the
value shown
Table 4.1.2 MPN Index and 95% confidence limits for various combinations of
positive results when five tubes are used per dilution [10 ml. 1.0 ml, 0.1 ml]
Combination of
Positives
MPN index/100 ml 95% Confidence Limited
Lower Upper
0.0-0 <0 - -
0.0-1 2 <0.5 7
0.1-0 2 <0.5 7
0.2-0 4 <0.5 11
1.0-0 2 <0.5 7
1.0-1 4 <0.5 11
1-1-0 4 <0.5 11
1.1-1 6 <0.5 15
1.2-0 6 <0.5 15
2.0-0 5 <0.5 13
2.0-1 7 1 17
2.1-0 7 1 17
2-1-1 9 2 21
2-2-0 9 2 21
2-3-0 12 3 28
3-0-0 8 1 19
3-0-1 11 2 25
3-1-0 11 2 25
3-1-1 14 4 34
3-2-0 14 4 34
3-2-1 17 5 46
4-0-0 13 3 31
4-0-1 17 5 46
.

[ 64 ]

4-1-0 17 5 46
4-1-1 21 7 63
4-1-2 26 9 78
4-2-0 22 7 67
4-2-1 26 9 78
4-3-0 27 9 80
4-3-1 33 11 93
4-4-0 34 12 93
5-0-0 23 7 70
5-0-1 31 11 89
5-0-2 43 15 110
5-1-0 33 11 93
5-1-1 46 16 120
5-1-2 63 21 150
5-2-0 49 17 130
5-2-1 70 23 170
5-2-2 94 28 220
5-3-0 79 25 190
5-3-1 110 31 250
5-3-2 140 37 340
5-3-3 180 44 500
5-4-0 130 35 300
5-4-1 170 43 490
5-4-2 220 57 700
5-4-3 280 90 850
5-4-4 350 120 1000
5-5-0 240 68 750
5-5-1 350 120 1000
5-5-2 540 180 1400
5-5-3 920 300 3200
5-5-4 1600 640 5800
5-5-5 >2400 - -



.

[ 65 ]

In the table: and so on for other combinations.
When more than three dilutions are used in a decimal series of dilutions, use
the results from only three of these in computing the MPN. To select the three
dilutions to be used in determining the MPN index, choose the highest dilution that
gives positive results in all five portions tested [no lower dilution giving any negative
results] and the two next succeeding higher dilutions. Use the results at these three
volumes in computing the MPN index. In the examples given below, the examples
given below the significant dilution results are shown in boldface. The number in the
numerator represents positive tubes, That in the dominator, the total tubes planted, the
combination of positives simply represents the total number of positive tubes per
dilution:
Example 1ml 0.1ml 0.01 ml. 0.001 ml Combination of
positives
a. 5/5 5/5 2/5 0/5 5-2-0
b. 5/5 4/5 2/5 0/5 5-4-2
c. 0/5 1/5 0/5 0/5 0-1-0

In c take the first three dilutions so as to throw the positive result in the middle
dilution.
When a case such as that shown below in line d arises, where a positive occurs
in a dilution higher than the three choosen according to the rule. Incorporate it in the
result for the highest choosen dilution.
When it is desired to summarize with a single MPN value the results from a
series of samples use the geometric mean, the arithmetic mean or the median.

Example 1ml 0.1ml 0.01 ml. 0.001 ml Combination of
positives
a. 5/5 3/5 1/5 1/5 5-3-2
b. 5/5 3/5 2/5 0/5

Table 908: II does not include all positive combinations; however, the most likely
ones are shown. If unlikely combinations occur with a frequency greater than 1% it is
an indication that the technic is faulty or that the statistical assumptions underlying
.

[ 66 ]

the MPN estimate are not being fulfilled. The MPN for combinations not appearing in
the table or for other combinations of tubes or dilutions may be estimated by Thomas
simple formula:
MPN/100 ml. =
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

tubes all
in Sample mL
tubes negative
in sample mL
tubes positive of no 100 .


While the MPN tables and calculations are described for use in the coliform
test, they are equally applicable to determination of the MPN of any organisms
provided a suitable test is available.
.

[ 67 ]

CHAPTER 5

5.0.0 INTRODUCTION :
In the present chapter, the analysis and interpretation of the data is presented.
The fundamental aim of any analysis is to organise a data in a meaningful form, so
that valid conclusion can be drawn from them. The analysis and interpretation give
shape and form to aims and objectives of the study. According to Mouly (1958),
"Among the more common errors in the interpretation of results of research are failing
to see the significance of data, to see the limitations of research design, over looking
contrary evidences, mistaking, coincidence for cause and effect and reversing the
effect and cause. The best safe-guards such error are common sense and insight into
the field".
The set of data collected is considered as a base upon which the structure of
research rests. The wheel of the whole research machinery is analysis and
interpretation, without which data and other material have no specific function to
perform. It involves breaking down existing complex factors into simple and putting
the parts together in a new arrangement for the purpose of interpretation. Analysis of
data means studying the organized material in order to discover inherent facts. The
data are studied from as many angles as possible to explore the new facts.
The purpose of analysis is to summarize the complete observation in such a
manner that they yield answer to the research problem, while the purpose of
interpretation is to investigation for the broader meaning of these answer by linking
them to the other available knowledge. Both these purpose govern the entire research
process. The analysis is not an end in itself, but is a basic preliminary step in scientific
development of the problem.
Keeping in view to objectives of the study, the data is analyzed under
following heads :
1. To examine the selected physical chemical characteristics of industrial
effluents at Agra and comparison between treated and non treated
characteristics of the effluents.
2. Comparison among the characteristics of non treated effluents of the petha,
tannery, dairy industries.
3. To examine the selected physical and chemical characteristics of sewages at
Agra and comparison between treated and before treated characteristics of
sewages.
.

[ 68 ]

4. To examine the selected physical, chemical and biological characteristics the
water of river Yamuna and comparison between upstream and down stream
characteristics the water of River Yamuna at Agra.
5. Comparison the value of treated industrial effluents characteristics and treated
sewages characteristics with the U.P.P.C.B. standards.

5.1.0 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT
Unlike the domestic sewage, the industrial wastes are very difficult to
generalize. The characteristics of industrial wastes not only vary with the type of the
industry but also from plant to plant producing some type of end products. Different
types of liquid wastes originate from various type of industrial processes. The
pollutants include the raw materials process chemicals, find products, process
intermediates, process by products and impurities in raw materials and process
chemicals.
Whenever an industrial waste is decided to be discharged in to a sewage
through the effluent treatment plant.
Characteristics of the wastes from some selected industries of Agra are given
in following tables.
Table 5.1.1 : Characteristics of selected industrial effluents of Agra. January, 2010
Name of
Industry
Sampling
Point
Physical Characteristics Chemical Characteristics
Colour Odour TDS TSS TS pH BOD COD
Oil &
Grease
Dairy
Before ETP Milky gray Unpleasant 2060 760 2820 6.88 1080 1620 280
After ETP Light gray Not specific 1688 92.0 1780 8.26 28 240 9.6
Tannery
Before ETP Blackish Unpleasant 3032 1132 4164 9.62 1552 3448 49.6
After ETP Gray Not specific 2348 86.0 2434 8.82 28 216 4.6
Petha
Before ETP Gray Unpleasant 1870 1860 3730 6.24 804 1412 120.8
After ETP Light Gray Not specific 1532 96 1628 7.66 26 238 7.2
Note All the parameters are expressed in mg/l except pH.
We took the colour and odour as physical characteristics and TDS, TSS, TS, pH,
BOD, COD, oil and grease as chemical characteristics are analysed in the month of
January 2010. The own sample collected on January 2010. The analysed date was day
after collection and the sampling point are before and after effluent treatment plants
(ETPs). So the before ETP mean non treated waste water and after ETP means treated
waste water.

.

[ 69 ]

Figure 5.1.1 : Showing the comparison between treated and non-treated
industrial effluent of Dairy industry


(a)

(b)
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
TDS TSS TS BOD COD Oil and
Grease
V
a
l
u
e

(
m
g
/
l
)

Characteristics of Dairy Industry
Before (ETP) After (ETP)
-1
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
pH
V
a
l
u
e


Characteristics of Dairy Industry
Before (ETP) After (ETP)
.

[ 70 ]

Table 5.1.2 : Characteristics of the selected industrial effluents of Agra,
February 2010
Name of
Industry
Sampling
Point
Physical
Characteristics
Chemical Characteristics
Colour Odour TDS TSS TS pH BOD COD
Oil &
Grease
Dairy
Before ETP Milky gray Unpleasant 2180 746 2926 7.12 1060 1672 250
After ETP Light gray Not specific 1724 96 1820 8.32 30 232 9.2
Tannery
Before ETP Blackish Unpleasant 2998 1208 4206 9.24 1662 3662 46.8
After ETP Blackish Not specific 2256 92 2348 8.62 26 248 7.8
Petha
Before ETP Gray Unpleasant 1962 1840 3802 6.66 896 1432 124.6
After ETP Light Gray Not specific 1602 92 1694 7.42 28 242 9.2

Note All the parameters are expressed in mg/l except pH.

This table is showing the analysed characteristics of February 2010 of selected
industrial effluents of Agra. Have sampling February 2010 and to be analysed day
after collection. We can use easily here also sample collected from before and after
ETPs. Values of Parameters are nearly before month. All parameters are taken same
as before month.
Table 5.1.3 : Characteristics of the selected industrial effluents of Agra, March 2010
Name of
Industry
Sampling
Point
Physical
Characteristics
Chemical Characteristics
Colour Odour TDS TSS TS pH BOD COD
Oil &
Grease
Dairy
Before ETP Milky gray Unpleasant 2090 802 2892 7.22 1032 1682 250.6
After ETP Light gray Not specific 1692 94 1986 8.42 26 232 8.4
Tannery
Before ETP Blackish Unpleasant 2988 1224 4212 9.44 1602 3842 48.2
After ETP Blackish Not specific 2286 96 2382 8.84 32 256 5.8
Petha
Before ETP Gray Unpleasant 1898 1830 3728 6.44 866 1420 102.6
After ETP Light Gray Not specific 1582 90 1672 7.64 26 242 9.4

Note All the parameters are expressed in mg/lit except pH.
Own sample collected on March 2010. One day after researcher analysed the sample in
favourable circumstances. Here is also sampling point are after and before ETP of all
sewage plants and the characteristics of the waste waters are taken same like before and
the all values of parameter are varying little to be compared with values of before month.

.

[ 71 ]

Figure 5.1.2 : Showing the comparison between treated and non-treated
industrial effluent of Tannery industry


(a)

(b)
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
TDS TSS TS BOD COD Oil and
Grease
V
a
l
u
e

(
m
g
/
l
)

Characteristics of Tannery Industry
Before (ETP) After (ETP)
-1
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
pH
V
a
l
u
e


Characteristics of Tannery Industry
Before (ETP) After (ETP)
.

[ 72 ]

Table 5.1.4 : Characteristics of the selected industrial effluents of Agra, April 2010
Name of
Industry
Sampling
Point
Physical Characteristics Chemical Characteristics
Colour Odour TDS TSS TS pH BOD COD
Oil &
Grease
Dairy
Before ETP Milky gray Unpleasant 2080 760 2840 7.26 1044 1648 280.4
After ETP Light gray
Not specific 1698 84 1782 8.46 32 248 9.6
Tannery
Before ETP Blackish Unpleasant 3012 1246 4258 9.48 1598 3640 42.4
After ETP Blackish
Not specific 2296 84 2380 8.22 36 230 6.2
Petha
Before ETP Gray Unpleasant 1896 1620 3516 6.84 836 1442 112.8
After ETP Light Gray
Not specific 1564 98 1662 7.86 28 256 8.6
Note All the parameters are expressed in mg/lit except pH.
Here is also little variation in data. Sample collected on April 2010. The day of
analysis is day after collection. We can easily know about the variation of data
comparison with before result. It is shown in the tables. Tables are showing that the ETPs
are working proper.
Table 5.1.5 : Comparison between the treated and non treated selected industrial
effluents of Agra
Name of
Industry
Sampling
Point
Chemical Characteristics
TDS TSS TS pH BOD COD
Oil &
Grease
Dairy
Before ETP 2102.5 767 2869.5 7.12 1054 1656 265.3
After ETP 1700.5 91.5 1792 8.37 29 238 9.2
Tannery
Before ETP 3007.5 1202.5 4210 9.46 1603.5 364.8 46.8
After ETP 2296.5 89.5 2386 8.63 30.5 238 6.1
Petha
Before ETP 1906.5 1787.5 3694 6.55 850.5 1426.5 115.2
After ETP 1570 94 1664 7.65 27 244 8.6
Note All the parameters are expressed in mg/lit except pH.

This is the average of 4 month analysed characteristics and we will consider it as final
result to fullfilled the objective. We shall be extracted conclusion by the help of this
result. It is shown in this table that there is wide variation between the same
parameters of selected industries and we can also see that the ETP are working proper
in all industries and the ETPs have extracted sufficient pollutants.

.

[ 73 ]

Figure 5.1.3 : Showing the comparison between treated and non-treated
industrial effluent of Petha industry

(a)

(b)
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
TDS TSS TS BOD COD Oil and
Grease
V
a
l
u
e

(
m
g
/
l
)

Characteristics of Petha Industry
Before (ETP) After (ETP)
-1
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
pH
V
a
l
u
e


Characteristics of Petha Industry
Before (ETP) After (ETP)
.

[ 74 ]

Table 5.1.6 : Comparison among the non treated selected industrial effluents of
Agra
Physical
Characteristics
Chemical Characteristics
Name of Industry TDS TSS TS pH BOD COD
Oil &
Grease
Dairy 2102.5 767 2869.5 7.11 1052 1656 265.3
Tannary 3007.5 1202.5 4209.5 9.45 1604 3648 46.8
Petha 1906.5 1804.5 3694 6.55 850 1426 115.2

It is very clear that Tannery waste water have very high COD value but relatively low
BOD values in all industries waste water characteristics are shown in above
mentioned table. The total suspended solids are high of petha industry waste water
and low of dairy idnustries effluent. The dairy industry waste is characterised by
moderate BOD value. The waste from the Tannery industry are showing high total
solids and comparatively small amount of oil and grease in Tannery waste.

.

[ 75 ]

Figure 5.1.4 : Showing the comparison among non-treated characteristics of
selected industrial effluents in Agra

(a)

(b)
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
Oil and
Grease
TSS TDS TS BOD COD
V
a
l
u
e

Characteristics of Industries Effluents
Dairy Tannery Petha
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
pH
V
a
l
u
e

Characteristic of Industries Effluents
Dairy Tannery Petha
.

[ 76 ]

5.2.0 CHARACTERISTICS OF SEWAGE
The characterization of the raw waste is essential in the planning for effective
and economical method of water pollution control. Due to the varying nature of the
industrial waste many of the recent installation have designed their treatment unit with
due consideration to the raw waste characteristics, and the effluent characteristics, as
established by the Indian standard Institution (ISL), state pollution control board, or
by the local administrative authorities. But the characterization of the municipal waste
water prior to a treatment plant design have not received the attention it deserves,
probably because of its lower pollution potential compared to that of industrial waste.
The characteristic of municipal waste water vary from place to place and
depend on various factor like economic status and food habits of the community,
water supply position and the weather conditions of the locality. The characteristics of
the waste from an Indian city may not be similar to that from a city in the USA.
Characteristics of wastes from all three sewage plants of Agra are given in
following tables.

Table 5.2.1 : Characteristics of sewage (February, 2010) at Agra
Name of
Industry
Sampling
Point
Physical
Characteristics
Chemical Characteristics
Colour Odour TDS TSS TS pH BOD COD
Dhand-
upura
Inlet Blackish Unpleasant 392 2178 2570 7.62 168 584
Outlet Not Clear Odourless 86 1942 2028 7.40 34 190
Pila
Khar
Inlet Blackish Unpleasant 372 2220 2592 7.72 140 432
Outlet Not Clear Odourless 88 1872 1960 7.50 48 292
Bhuri ka
Nagla
Inlet Blackish Unpleasant 425 2116 2541 7.22 160 448
Outlet Not Clear Odourless 96 1814 1910 7.48 34 248

Note All the parameters are expressed in mg/lit except pH.

The characteristics of sewage are shown in above table are varying plant to plant. It
depend on various factor like type of community and the type of food habits of
citizens. The own sample collection with the help of others and the sample was taken
on Feb 2010. The samples are collected of all places from inlet and outlet of STPs.
and it was analysed day after collection.

.

[ 77 ]

Figure 5.2.1 : Showing the comparison between treated and non-treated
characteristic of Dhabdupura sewage at Agra


(a)

(b)
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
TSS TDS TS BOD COD
V
a
l
u
e

(
m
g
/
l
)

Characteristics of Dhandupura STP
Inlet Outlet
-1
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
pH
V
a
l
u
e


Characteristics of Dhandupura STP
Inlet Outlet
.

[ 78 ]

Table 5.2.2 : Characteristics of sewage (March, 2010) at Agra

Name of
Industry
Sampling
Point
Physical
Characteristics
Chemical Characteristics
Colour Odour TDS TSS TS pH BOD COD
Dhand
hupura
Inlet Blackish Unpleasant 382 2146 2528 7.54 158 578
Outlet Not Clear Odourless 64 1936 2000 7.26 34 188
Pila
Khar
Inlet Blackish Unpleasant 318 1936 2254 8.36 160 618
Outlet Not Clear Odourless 88 1712 1800 7.56 32 204
Bhuri
ka
Nagla
Inlet Blackish Unpleasant 420 2032 2452 7.82 178 662
Outlet
Not Clear Odourless 96 1734 1830 7.24 38 232

Note All the parameters are expressed in mg/lit except pH.
Samples are collected March 2010 and here is also examine the sample day after
collection of all STPs. In this table. We can it is shown the high TSS value of Burhi
Ka Nagla (STP) and the high TDS value of Dhandupura (STP) high BOD value are
showing in Burhi Ka Nagla plant.
Table 5.2.3 : Characteristics of sewage at Agra, April 2010
Name of
Industry
Sampling
Point
Physical
Characteristics
Chemical Characteristics
Colour Odour TDS TSS TS pH BOD COD
Dhand
hupura
Inlet Blackish Unpleasant 412 2182 2594 8.24 128 428
Outlet Not Clear Odourless 98 1738 1836 7.64 34 240
Pila
Khar
Inlet Blackish Unpleasant 372 1983 2355 7.88 142 398
Outlet Not Clear Odourless 86 1758 1844 7.34 30 234
Bhuri
ka
Nagla
Inlet Blackish Unpleasant 438 2286 2724 7.64 96 496
Outlet
Not Clear Odourless 96 1814 1910 7.52 28 240

Note All the parameters are expressed in mg/lit except pH.

Here is also sample collected from inlet and outlet of sewage treatment plants. We can
see high BOD of Pila Khar plant as non treated sewage. All samples were taken April
2010 and analyzed day after sample collection. Here we can see the variation in data
matching with the values from before months.
.

[ 79 ]

Figure 5.2.2 : Showing the comparison between treated and non-treated
characteristic of Pilakhar sewage at Agra


(a)

(b)
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
TSS TDS TS BOD COD
V
a
l
u
e

(
m
g
/
l
)

Characteristics of Pilakhar STP
Inlet Outlet
-1
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
pH
V
a
l
u
e


Characteristics of Pilakhar STP
Inlet Outlet
.

[ 80 ]

Table 5.2.4 : Characteristics of sewage at Agra, May, 2010
Name of
Industry
Sampling
Point
Physical
Characteristics
Chemical Characteristics
Colour Odour TDS TSS TS pH BOD COD
Dhand
hupura
Inlet Blackish Unpleasant 496 2248 2744 8.24 148 338
Outlet Not Clear Odourless 94 1930 2024 7.86 28 220
Pila
Khar
Inlet Blackish Unpleasant 396 2166 2562 7.82 142 456
Outlet Not Clear Odourless 92 1938 2030 7.32 32 248
Bhuri
ka
Nagla
Inlet Blackish Unpleasant 442 2312 2754 8.64 128 432
Outlet
Not Clear Odourless 90 1996 2086 7.82 34 236

Note All the parameters are expressed in mg/lit except pH.
The mean of inlet is before treatment sewage and the outlet mean is after treatment
sewage. Here we are using the STP to be reduced pollutants of waste water. Samples
are collected May 2010 and be analysed day after collection.
Table 5.2.5 : Comparison between the treated and non treated characteristics of
sewage at Agra
Physical Characteristics
Chemical
Characteristics
Name of STP
Sampling
Point
TSS TDS TS pH BOD COD
Dhandhupura Inlet 420.5 2188.5 2609 7.81 150.5 482
Outlet 85.5 1886.5 1972 7.54 32.5 209.5
Pila Khar Inlet 364.5 2076.3 2665.8 7.95 121 476
Outlet 88.5 1820 1908.5 7.43 35.5 244.5
Burhi ka Nagla Inlet 431.3 2186.5 2617.8 7.83 140.5 509.5
Outlet 94.5 1839.5 1934 7.52 33.5 239

Note All the parameters are expressed in mg/lit except pH.

We can easily compare the above mentioned value of sewage as treated and non
treated. We also determined the efficiency of all STPs at Agra by the help of this
table. It is the average of 4 months analysis. We did the 4 month analysis of all
sewage to be maintained much accuracy. and we can see the efficiency of sewage
treatment plant in this table.
.

[ 81 ]

Figure 5.2.3 : Showing the comparison between treated and non-treated
characteristic of Burhi ka Nagla sewage at Agra
(a)

(b)
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
TSS TDS TS BOD COD
V
a
l
u
e

(
m
g
/
l
)

Characteristics of Burhi ka Nagla STP
Inlet Outlet
-1
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
pH
V
a
l
u
e


Characteristics of Burhi ka Nagla STP
Inlet Outlet
.

[ 82 ]

5.3.0 Characteristics of River Yamuna :
When sewage is discharged into a natural body of water. The receiving water gets polluted due to waste products, present in sewage
effluents. But the condition do not remain so far ever, because the natural forces of purification, such as dilution, sedimentation oxidation
reduction in sun light, etc but that purification process takes long distance or time. In the short time all pollutants occur in river water, because
the purification process not possible in short time and less distance. The distance between up stream and the down stream of river yamuna at
Agra is about 10 km. in this distance many nullah and sewer fall in to the river yamuna. So we can determine the comparison of upstream and
down stream of Agra. This comparison will be showing the effect of city waste water on the basis of characteristics the study between up stream
and down stream of river yamuna at Agra is given in following tables.

Table 5.3.1 : Characteristics of River Yamuna (January, 2010) at Agra
Sampling Point
Physical Characteristics Chemical Characteristics
Microbiological
MPN/100ml
Colour Odour
Temp.
(C)
Turbidity
(NTU)
EC
( )
/cm. mHos
pH DO BOD COD
l C
TC FC
Upstream (Poia
Ghat)
Slightly green Odourless 19.5 22 1602 7.93 7.6 09 20 376 92,000 37,000
Downstream (Near
Tajmahal)
Slightly yellowish Odourless 20.0 26 1710 7.54 6.4 11.0 26 398 160,000 92,000
Note : All the parameters are expressed in mg/lt except pH and stated otherwise.
.

[ 83 ]

Own sample collected with the help of other practical hands. We took the first sample of river yamuna on January 2010. We were choosen the
sampling point Poia ghat as upstream and near Taj Mahal as down stream of Agra. at the time of sampling we did also judge the difference
between upstream and the down stream as colour and odour. After analysis we were found the waste water of Agra is affected the water of River
yamuna.

Table 5.3.2 : Characteristics of River Yamuna (February, 2010) at Agra
Sampling Point
Physical Characteristics Chemical Characteristics
Microbiological
MPN/100ml
Colour Odour
Temp.
(C)
Turbidity
(NTU)
EC
( )
/cm. mHos
pH DO BOD COD
l C
TC FC
Upstream (Kailash
Ghat)
Slightly green Odourless 21.5 23 1632 7.96 7.8 09 24 372 92,000 43,000
Downstream (Near
Tajmahal)
Slightly yellowish Odourless 22.0 28 1708 7.60 6.8 12 30 388 160,000 92,000
Note : All the parameters are expressed in mg/lt except pH and stated otherwise.

In this month we also took the sample with the help of some other technical hand from U.P.P.C.B. Agra and we shown the slight increment in
value of some parameters and decrese in rest of both streams. It may be the cause of increment in temperature and reduced the water level.
Except pH and DO value of all parameters are increasing from last month.
.

[ 84 ]

Table 5.3.3 : Characteristics of River Yamuna (March, 2010) at Agra
Sampling Point
Physical Characteristics Chemical Characteristics
Microbiological
MPN/100ml
Colour Odour
Temp.
(C)
Turbidity
(NTU)
EC
( )
/cm. mHos
pH DO BOD COD
l C
TC FC
Upstream (Kailash
Ghat)
Slightly green Odourless 23.0 23 1648 7.82 7.2 10 24 362 160,000 43,000
Downstream (Near
Tajmahal)
Slightly yellowish Odourless 24.0 27 1728 7.66 6.6 14 30 392 2,40,000 92,000
Note : All the parameters are expressed in mg/lt except pH and stated otherwise.

All parameters are taken same as before months here we can also see the to exceed in value of some parameters and we can also see the decrese
in value of DO slight in pH. The MPN/100 ml also increasing as TC and FC. The physical parameters are same from last months.
.

[ 85 ]

Table 5.3.4 : Characteristics of River Yamuna (April, 2010) at Agra
Sampling Point
Physical Characteristics Chemical Characteristics
Microbiological
MPN/100ml
Colour Odour
Temp.
(C)
Turbidity
(NTU)
EC
( )
/cm. mHos
pH DO BOD COD
l C
TC FC
Upstream (Poia
Ghat)
Slightly green Odourless 26.5 25.0 1678 7.92 6.8 11 28 388 160,000 92,000
Downstream (Near
Tajmahal)
Slightly yellowish Odourless 27.0 28.0 1836 7.76 6.0 14 34 410 2,40,000 1,60,000
Note : All the parameters are expressed in mg/lt except pH and stated otherwise.
We took the sample on April 2010 and analysed it day after collection here we also took the sample of both stream and we also found the
increment in the down stream water of river yamuna. We took the same parameters like before months and we are also found increment in value
of Temperature, BOD, COD and decrement in value of BOD here also increment in value of microbiological characteristics, salt is also
increased.
.

[ 86 ]

Table 5.3.5 : Comparison the characteristics between upstream and down stream of river Yamuna at Agra.

Sampling Point
Temp.
(C)
Turbidity
(NTU)
EC pH DO BOD COD
l C
MPN/100ml
TC FC
Upstream 22.6 23.3 1640 7.92 7.4 9.8 24.0 374.5 126,000 53,750
Downstream 23.3 27.3 1745.5 7.64 6.4 12.8 30.0 397 200,000 109,000

Note : All the parameters are expressed in mg/lit except pH and stated otherwise.

This is the average value of 4 months analysis. We can easily see the difference between the value of up stream and down stream characteristics
of river Yamuna all parameters are varying together. With the help of this table we can easily extract. The object of the study. Here we can see
that the pollutants of down stream is higher than the upstream of river Yamuna at Agra.
.

[ 87 ]

Figure 5.3.0 : Showing the comparison between down stream and upstream
water of River Yamuna at Agra

(a)

(b)

(c)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Temp.
(C)
Turbidity
(NTU)
pH DO
(mg/l)
BOD
(mg/l)
COD
(mg/l)
V
a
l
u
e

(
m
g
/
l
)

Characteristics of River Yamuna at Agra
Upstream Downstream
0
500
1000
1500
2000
EC uMhos/cm) Cl-
V
a
l
u
e

Characteristics of River Yamuna Agra
Upstream Downstream
0
50000
100000
150000
200000
TC FC
V
a
l
u
e

(
M
P
N
/
1
0
0
m
l
)

Characteristics of River Yamuna at Agra
Upstream Downstream
EC (Mhos/cm) l C (mg/l)
Characteristics of River Yamuna at Agra
.

[ 88 ]

5.4.0 COMPARISON THE FINAL OUTLET OF WASTE WATER WITH THE
STANDARDS PRESCRIBED BY U.P.P.C.B.
Here we need to have comparing the final outlet characteristics of industrial
effluents and also the final outlet of sewage.
It is very necessary to know about the research result as qualitative. The
U.P.P.C.B. have prescribed the standards to maintain the quality of river Yamuna
under the Yamuna action plan. The U.P.P.C.B. have prescribed the standards for final
outlet of industrial effluents and sewage but no standard prescribed for Yamuna river
so the comparison of final out let of industrial effluents and sewage of Agra with the
standards prescribed by U.P.P.C.B. are given in following tables.

Table 5.4.1 : COMPARISON THE FINAL OUTLET OF INDUSTRIAL
EFFLUENTS WITH THE STANDARDS PRESCRIBED BY U.P.P.C.B.

S.No. Parameter
After treatment
findings of Petha
Industry
After
treatment
findings of
Tannery
Industry
After
treatment
findings of
Dairy
Industry
Standards
Prescribed by
U.P.P.C.B.
1. Colour Light Gray Light Gray Milky Gray Colourless
2. Odour Not clear Not clear Not clear Odourless
3. pH 7.65 8.63 8.37 5.5 9.0
4. TSS 94.0 89.5 91.5 < 100 mg/L
5. TDS 1570 2296.5 1700.5
6. TS 1664 2386.0 1792.0
7. BOD 27.0 30.5 29.0 < 30 mg/L
8. COD 244.0 238.0 238.0 <250 mg/L
9. Oil and
grease
8.6 6.1 9.2 <10 mg/L

Note : All parameters are expressed in mg/L except pH.
This standards prescribed by Uttar Pradesh pollution control board and it have
taken from the Agra Branch office of U.P.P.C.B.
All parameters are shown under the standards of U.P.P.
C.B. except BOD of Tannery Industry it is very less variation so it is not noticible.

.

[ 89 ]

Figure 5.4.1 : Showing the comparison between final outlet of all STPs and
maximum standard prescribed by U.P.P.C.B.




0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
pH TSS BOD COD
A
l
l

v
a
l
u
e

i
n

(
m
g
/
l
)

e
x
c
e
p
t

p
H

Parameters
U.P.P.C.B. Dhandupura
.

[ 90 ]

Table 5.4.2 : COMPARISON THE FINAL OUTLET OF SEWAGE WITH THE
STANDARDS PRESCRIBED BY U.P.P.C.B.
S.No. Parameter
After treatment
findings of
Dhandupura plant
After
treatment
findings of
Pilakhar
plant
After
treatment
findings of
Burhi Ka
Nagla
Standards
Prescribed by
U.P.P.C.B.
1. Colour Slightly
yellowish
Light gray Light gray Colourless
2. Odour Not specific Not specific Not specific Odourless
3. pH 7.5 7.43 7.52 5.5 9.0
4. TSS 85.5 88.5 94.5 < 100 mg/L
5. TDS 1886.5 1820 1839.5
6. TS 1972 1908.5 1934
7. BOD 32.5 35.5 33.5 < 30 mg/L
8. COD 209.5 244.5 239 <250 mg/L

Note : All the parameters are expressed in mg/L except pH.
All the parameters are shown under the standards of U.P.P.C.B. except BOD
of all three sewage treatment plants.



.

[ 91 ]

Figure 5.4.2 : Showing the comparison between final outlet of all selected
industrial effluents and maximum standard prescribed by U.P.P.C.B.








0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
pH TSS BOD COD Oil and
Grease
A
l
l

v
a
l
u
e

i
n

(
m
g
/
l
)

e
x
c
e
p
t

p
H

Parameters
U,P,PC.B Petha Tannery Dairy
.

[ 92 ]

CHAPTER 6

6.0.0 INTRODUCTION
Every research project entails a lot hard work and whole hearted dedication to explore
and solve its underlying intricacies. The researcher put insight to make objectives
more fruitful and significant so layman as well as technical person's associated with
the work at various levels. Everything is combined together during writing of the
findings. It is a matter of communication what has done, what has occurred and what
the results mean, in a concise, understandable, accurate and logical manner. The final
process of summarizing the findings, arrival at conclusions making recommendations
and formulating generalization for population to which they will be applicable is an
important component of any research. It serves as a refresher of the person involved
in the research project to focus on the investigation perspective of the problem. It has
dissemination function because it is crucial to future practical application of the study
findings. It aids the future workers to understand the general purpose and the findings
of the study. On the basis of analysis and interpretation of the data discussed in the
various chapter certain findings have been obtained. The findings have been presented
in last chapter accordance with the objectives of the study.
6.1.0 FINDINGS OF THE STUDY :
Findings of study always be according to objective in the research work. So we initial
focused at the first objective which is basis on the industrial effluents. So we shall
discuss about the findings related to Industrial effluents.
6.1.1 FINDINGS RELATED TO INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS : here is two
findings following.
(1) Before treated waste water of during, petha and tannery industries have been
analysed and we found the deep variation among the parameters of selected
industrial effluents.
(2) In the comparison between before treatment and after treatment of Industrial
effluents findings are following.
(a) In the dairy industry we obtained the efficiency of effluent treatment
plant (ETP) with the help of comparison between after and before ETP and
we found :
.

[ 93 ]

19.12% TDS, 88.07% TSS, 37.55% TS, 97.27% BOD, 85.62% COD
and 96.53% oil & grease treatment efficiency of ETP in Ajanta Raj
Dairy Plant.
(b) In the Tannery Industry we obtained the 23.64% TDS, 92.55% TSS,
43.32% TS, 98.09% BOD, 93.47% COD and 86.96% oil & grease treatment
efficiency of ETP in the park leather Industries in this research work.
C. In the Petha industry we obtained the 17.62% TDS, 94.74% TSS, 54.94%
TS, 96.82 BOD, 82.89% COD and 92.53% oil & grease treatment efficiency
of ETP in the Panchhi Petha, Agra
6.1.2 Findings Related to Sewage : We analysed the sewage characteristics and we
chose the all sewage treatment plants which are located in Agra and we compared the
after and before treatment characteristics of Burhi ka Nagla, Pila Khar and
Dhandupura sewage treatment plant and in the comparison between before and after
STP findings are following.
a. We obtained 79.66% TSS, 13.80% TDS, 24.38% TS, 78.40% BOD
and 56.53% COD treatment efficiency of Dhandupura sewage
treatment plant.
b. We obtained in this research work 75.72% TSS, 12.33% TDS, 28.40%
TS, 70.66% BOD and 48.63% COD treatment efficiency of Pila khar
sewage treatment plant.
c. We obtained 78.08% TSS, 15.87% TDS, 26.12% TS, 76.15% BOD
and 53.09% COD treatment efficiency of Burhi ka Nagla sewage
treatment plant.
6.1.3 FINDING RELATED TO YAMUNA RIVER : We found in the analysis of
up stream and down stream of River Yamuna and we obtained that the waste water of
Agra which is falling in to the river Yamuna is being more polluted the water of River
Yamuna.
The final characteristics of upstream and down stream is following.
Up stream Characteristics
Temperature 22.6C, Turbidity 23.3 NTU, EC 1640 mHos/cm, DO 7.4 mg/l,
BOD 9.8 mg/l, COD 24.0 mg/l, l C - 374.5 mg/l.
MPN of TC is 1,26,00 and FC is 53750 per 100ml.
.

[ 94 ]

Down stream Characteristics
Temperature 23.3C, Turbidity 27.3 NTU, EC 1745.5mHos/cm, DO 6.4
mg/l, BOD 12.8 mg/l, COD 30.0 mg/l, l C - 397 mg/l, MPN of TC 2,00,000 and
FC 109,000 per 100 ml.
We can see by his comparison that the quality of upstream is better than the down
stream on the basis of analysed characteristics. So we can say that the waste water of
Agra city is being more polluted to the river Yamuna.
6.2.0 CONCLUSION :
The conclusion which are described on the basis of findings are following.
(1) We found the appreciable capacity of effluent treatment plant (ETP) at the
time of sampling in Ajanta Raj Dairy Plant, Park Leather Industries and
Panchhi Petha at Agra.
(2) The sewage treatment plant are also working in better efficiency at
Dhandhupura, Pilakar, Burhi ka Nagla in Agra at the time of sampling.
(3) We found in this analysis that the waste water of Agra which is falling into
river Yamuna is being more polluted to the water of River Yamuna.
(4) (a) With the comparison of U.P.P.C.B. we find out the all parameters of final
outlet of the industrial effluents are under the standards prescribed by
U.P.P.C.B.
(b) We are also found about the final outlet of sewage treatment plants. According to
the findings all parameters except BOD are under standards here all three sewage
treatments plants were releasing high BOD in final outlets.