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Question

Solve :

12 sin x + 5 cos x = 4

P

Method 1

12

.

5

13

67.380o .

12

Also,

OP = 5 2 +12 2 =13

Now,

12 sin x + 5 cos x = 4

13 (cos x cos + sin x sin ) = 4

13 cos (x ) = 4

cos( x ) =

4

13

x 360 n 72.080 o + 67.380

x 360 n + 139.460

or

. (1)

Method 2

Construct a triangle OPQ with tan =

5

.

12

22.620o .

13

Also,

OP = 5 +12 =13

Now,

12 sin x + 5 cos x = 4

12

13 sin ( x + ) = 4

sin ( x + ) =

4

13

n

n

, where n is an integer .

. (2)

To show that the solution set (2) is the same as the solution set (1), we need to divide the solution into odd

and even cases :

(a)

n = 2m ,

(b) n = 2m + 1,

Method 3

(t method)

1

Let t = tan

x

.

2

x

x

sin x = 2 sin cos = 2

2

2

x

x

2 tan

x

2 cos 2 =

2 = 2t

x

x 1 + t2

2

cos

sec 2

2

2

sin

2 x

1 tan 2

sin

2

x

x

x

2 cos 2 =

2 = 1 t

cos x = cos 2 sin 2 = 1

x

2

2

2

1+ t2

2 x

sec 2

cos

2

2

12 sin x + 5 cos x = 4

2

2t 1 t

=4

12

+

5

2

2

1 + t 1 + t

12( 2 t ) + 5(1 t 2 ) = 4(1 + t 2 )

9 t 2 24 t 1 = 0

t=

x

2.7077 or

2

4 17

3

x

0.041035

2

tan

x

180 n + 69.730

2

or

x

180 n 2.3500

2

x 360 n + 139.460

or

Method 4

tan

. (3)

(unsatisfactory)

12 sin x + 5 cos x = 4

12 sin x 5 1 sin 2 x = 4

5 1 sin 2 x = 4 12 sin x

sin x =

48 15 17

169

0.64998

x 180 n + ( 1) 40.540

n

or

or

0.081932

x 180 n + ( 1) 4.700

n

. (4)

Method 4 is unsatisfactory since solution set (4) gives a larger solution set than (1), (2) or (3).

Readers please explain. What solutions should be rejected ? How to reject ?

Explanation

Squaring equation creates roots! That is why Method 4 is not recommended.

2

In (4),

(a)

When

(i)

x 180 n + ( 1) 40.540 .

n

n = 2m,

(ii) n = 2m + 1,

(b) When

(i)

x 360 m + 40.540

x 360 m +139.460

x 180 n + ( 1) 4.700

n = 2m,

(ii) n = 2m + 1,

x 360 m 4.700

x 360 m +184.700

x 360 m + 40.540

x 360 m + 139.460

x 360 m 4.700

x 360 m + 184.700

....( 4.1)

....( 4.2)

....( 4.3)

....( 4.4)

(4.1) and (4.4) should be rejected.

For (4.1), 12 sin x + 5 cos x = 12 sin (360 m + 40.540 ) + 5 cos(360 m + 40.540 )

= 12 sin 40.540 + 5 cos 40.540

11.59951

4

x 360 m + 40.540

does not satisfy the equation 12 sin x + 5 cos x = 4, and should be rejected.

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