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You are on page 1of 22

**1 – Functions and Graphs
**

Let X and Y be two nonempty sets. A function from X into Y is a relation that associates with each element of X exactly one element of Y. In other words, a function is a set of ordered pairs in which no two ordered pairs have the same first coordinate and different second coordinate.

Domain

Range

The following guidelines can help determine whether a relation is a function. 1. Each element in the domain must be matched with exactly one element of the range. 2. Some elements in the range may not be matched with any element in the domain. 3. Two or more elements of the domain may be matched with the same element of the range. So how can we tell if a graph represents a function? Each ____ will correspond with exactly one ____. An easy way to check is to use the Vertical Line Test. Theorem:

In other words, if any vertical line intersects a graph at more than one point, the graph is not the graph of a function. Now we can play a quick game of “Function? Not a Function?”

Copyright © 2008 by Farimah Fazeli

Section 2.1 – Functions and Graphs

Page 2

Example1 : Use the graph of the function f to answer parts (a)-(n). (a) Find f ( 0 ) and f ( 6 ) .

6

(b) Find f ( 2 ) and f ( −2 ) .

(c) Is f ( 3) positive or negative?

-4 -6 8

(d) Is f ( −1) positive or negative?

(e) For what numbers x is f ( x ) = 0 ?

(f) For what numbers x is f ( x ) < 0 ?

(g) What is the domain of f ?

(k) How often does the line y = −1 intersect the graph?

(h) What is the range of f ?

(l) How often does the line x = 1 intersect the graph?

(i) What are the x-intercepts?

(m) For what values of x does f ( x ) = 3 ?

(j) What is the y-intercept?

(n) For what values of x does f ( x ) = −2 ?

Copyright © 2008 by Farimah Fazeli

2 Example3: Determine if the equation = x 2 y 2 + 1 defines y as a function of x. there is exactly one output (which may be repeated for different inputs). Example4: For the function f defined by f ( x ) = −3 x 2 + 2 x . For each input. 1.1 – Functions and Graphs Page 3 1 Example2: Determine if the equation y = − x − 3 defines y as a function of x. evaluate: (a) f ( 3) (b) f ( x ) + f ( 3) (c) f ( − x ) (d) − f ( x ) Copyright © 2008 by Farimah Fazeli . 2. It accepts numbers from the domain of the function. One idea for explaining the mechanics of functions is the idea of a Function Machine.Section 2.

however.Section 2. Sometimes it’s helpful to ask yourself. there is exactly one image f(x) in the range. the domain of a function f is the largest set of real numbers for which the value f ( x ) is a real number. • f is the symbol that we use to denote the function. then x is called the independent variable or argument of f. • If y = f(x). Unless otherwise stated. and y is called the dependent variable or the value of f at x. • For each x in the domain of f. an element in the range can result from more than one x in the domain.1 – Functions and Graphs Page 4 (e) f ( x + 3) (f) f ( x + h) − f ( x) . It is symbolic of the equation that we use to get from an x in the domain to f(x) in the range. “What values of the independent variable make sense in the given equation?” Example5: Find the domain and range of each of the following functions: (a) f ( x ) = x+4 x − 2x − 3 2 (b) g ( x= ) x2 − 9 (c) h ( x = ) 3 − 2x Copyright © 2008 by Farimah Fazeli . h ≠ 0 ( The difference quotient) h Summary – Important facts about functions.

Section 2.1 – Functions and Graphs Page 5 Copyright © 2008 by Farimah Fazeli .

College Algebra Section 2.2 – Graph of Relations and Function Copyright © 2008 by Farimah Fazeli .

2 – Graph of Relations and Function Page 2 Another basic function is the greatest integer function.Section 2. The function is neither even nor odd and has a discontinuity at every integer.1) . The y-intercept is 0 and the x-intercept is [ 0. Copyright © 2008 by Farimah Fazeli . * You’ll also see f ( x ) = x The domain of the greatest integer function is all real numbers and the range is all integers.

2 ) . Extra days cost $24 per day until the day rate exceeds the weekly rate. f ( 2. f (1. in which case the weekly rate applies.2 ) . the range.Section 2. ⎪ ⎩ x. f ( −1. and. Find the cost C of renting an economy car as a piecewise-defined function of the number x of days used.2 – Graph of Relations and Function Page 3 ⎛ x⎞ Example: If f ( x ) = int ⎜ ⎟ . ⎧3 + x.8 ) ⎝2⎠ Sometimes a function is defined differently on different parts of its domain. any part of a day used counts as a full day. Graph this function. When functions are defined by more than one equation. intercepts. x > 0 Find the domain. where 7 ≤ x ≤ 14 . they are called piecewise-defined functions. Also.99 ) . Copyright © 2008 by Farimah Fazeli . Example: An economy car rented in Florida from National Car Rental® on a weekly basis costs $95 per week. − 3 ≤ x < 0 ⎪ x=0 Example: Graph f ( x ) = ⎨3. based on the graph. find f (1.

graph the following functions: Next.College Algebra Section 2. On the same screen. Collectively. graph the functions: Copyright © 2008 by Farimah Fazeli . Transformations. these techniques are referred to as transformations. and Symmetry Sometimes we are asked to graph a function that is “almost” like one that we already know from our library of functions. All the transformations of a function form a family of functions.3 – Families of Functions. We’ll start by graphing functions using vertical and horizontal shifts. Rigid Nonrigid. In this section. on the same screen. we’ll look at some of these functions and develop techniques for graphing them.

graph the following functions: Copyright © 2008 by Farimah Fazeli . Transformations. We can also transform graphs by stretching or compressing. On the same screen.Section 2. Basic function: Vertical Shift: Horizontal shift: Does the order of the vertical and horizontal shift matter? Example: Write the function whose graph is the graph of y = x 2 .3 – Families of Functions. but is shifted 5 units to the right and 7 units up. and Symmetry Page 2 3 Example1 : Start with the graph of the basic function and use shifts to graph f ( x ) = ( x + 2 ) − 3 . Stretching and compressing can be done in either the vertical or horizontal direction.

Transformations. 3 (b) horizontally compressed by a factor of 4. but is: 1 (a) vertically compressed by a factor of .Section 2. graph the functions: Y1 = x 2 − 4 Y2 = − x 2 − 4 = − x 2 + 4 ( ) Copyright © 2008 by Farimah Fazeli . and Symmetry Page 3 Now in the horizontal direction… On the same screen. On the same screen. If you were to apply both vertical and horizontal stretches/compressions to a graph. First we’ll look at a reflection about the x-axis. would the order in which those transformations are made matter? The last types of transformations we will study are reflections about the x-axis and y-axis. graph the functions: Example2 : Write the equation of the function whose graph is the graph of y = x 2 .3 – Families of Functions.

and Symmetry Page 4 Next. When you apply reflections in both the x. would the order in which those transformations are made matter? Copyright © 2008 by Farimah Fazeli . 2 (b) reflected about the y-axis. Transformations. (c) reflected about both the x.and y-axes.3 – Families of Functions.axis.and y. a reflection about the y-axis… On the same screen.Section 2. but is: (a) reflected about the x-axis. graph the functions: Y1 = x 4 + x Y2 = ( − x ) + ( − x ) = x 4 − x 4 Example 3 : Write the equation of the function whose graph is the graph of y = ( x − 3) − 4 .

For an even function. odd.Section 2. -y) is also on the graph. So for an odd function. we’ll use the words even and odd to describe the symmetry that exists for the graph of a function. y) is also on the graph. the point (-x. Transformations. for every point (x. odd. and Symmetry Page 5 When discussing the symmetry of the graphs of functions. A function is odd if and only if its graph is symmetric with respect to the origin. the point (-x.3 – Families of Functions. for every point (x. A function is even if and only if its graph is symmetric with respect to the y-axis. it can get long and tedious to use the phrase “symmetric with respect to the y-axis” or “symmetry with respect to the origin.” Instead. Do the following graphs appear to be even. or neither? Verify algebraically if the following graphs are even. f ( x ) = −3 x 4 − x 2 + 2 f ( − x ) = −3 x 4 − x 2 + 2 g ( − x ) = −5 x 3 − 1 g ( x ) = 5 x3 − 1 h ( x ) = 2 x3 − x h ( − x ) = −2 x 3 + x Copyright © 2008 by Farimah Fazeli . y) on the graph. y) on the graph. or neither.

College Algebra Section 2. subtracted. can be added. If f and g are functions: The sum f + g is the function defined by ( f + g )( x ) = f ( x ) + g ( x ) The difference f − g is the function defined by ( f − g )( x ) = f ( x ) − g ( x ) The product f ⋅ g is the function defined by ( f ⋅ g )( x ) = f ( x ) ⋅ g ( x ) The quotient f ( x) f f is the function defined = by ( x ) .4 – Operations with Functions Functions. multiplied. and divided. like numbers. g ( x) ≠ 0 g ( x) g g x ) 4 x3 + 1 find the following: x ) 2 x 2 + 3 and g (= Example 1: For the functions f (= (a) ( f + g )( x ) = (b) ( f − g )( x ) = (c) ( f ⋅ g )( x ) = f (d) ( x ) = g Example 2: Ex 14 pg 235 Copyright © 2008 by Farimah Fazeli .

4 – Operations with Functions Page 2 Composition of Functions We can evaluate composite functions either by hand or using a calculator.Section 2. the domain of a composite function f g depends on both f and g. Copyright © 2008 by Farimah Fazeli . Example 3: Suppose that f (= x ) 2 x 2 + 3 and g (= x ) 4 x3 + 1 . Find: (a) ( f g )(1) (b) ( g f )(1) (c) ( f f )( −2 ) (d) ( g g )( −1) Not surprisingly.

a composite function. These decompositions are not always unique but there is usually one that is more natural than the others. then write v as a function of t. = Example 5: Find the functions f and g such that f g = H if H ( x ) 1 − x2 . Find the composites and state their domains.4ex 102 Copyright © 2008 by Farimah Fazeli . Example 6: If u is the sum of t and 9. and v is u divided by 3.4 ex 100 Example 8: 2. (And the range of f g is a subset of the range of f. (b) f f The composite functions f g and g f are usually different.4 – Operations with Functions Page 3 This means that the domain of f g is a subset of the domain of g.Section 2. or decompose. Example 7: 2.) 1 and g ( x = ) x Example 4: Suppose that f ( x ) = (a) f g x − 1 . Guess what? We can also “undo”.

College Algebra Section 2. Copyright © 2008 by Farimah Fazeli . Inverse Functions Sometimes it’s easier to look at what a 1-1 (one-toone) function is not: A function is NOT 1-1 if two different inputs correspond to the same output. The horizontal line test tells us if a _________________ is __________________ . The vertical line test tells us if a _________________ is a __________________ .5 – One-to-One Functions.

( 3. graph Y1 = f ( x ) . and Y3 = x . Copyright © 2008 by Farimah Fazeli . If a function. Inverse Functions Page 2 For each function. ( 2.32 )} To verify that one function is the inverse of another. f −1 . 2 ) . Zoom square. Example: Find the inverse of the 1-1 function {(1. f ( f −1 ( x ) ) = x Example: Verify that f ( x ) = 2 x + 6 and g ( x ) = 1 x − 3 are inverses of each other.5 – One-to-One Functions.Section 2.18) . use the graph to determine whether the function is one-to-one. is 1-1 then it has an inverse. we need to check that f −1 ( f ( x ) ) = x where x is in the domain of f and where x is in the domain of f −1 . Y2 = g ( x ) .8) . 2 Using your calculator. f. ( 4.

Section 2. x+2 In the above example. x −5 3x + 5 is g ( x ) = both algebraically and 2x + 3 1− 2x To find the inverse of a function by Switch and Solve Method (pg 243) 1. 3. compare the horizontal and vertical asymptotes of f and f −1 . Example: The function f ( x ) = 2x + 3 . x ≠ −2 . is one-to-one. Find its inverse and check the result.5 – One-to-One Functions. Inverse Functions Page 3 What do you notice? Example: Verify that the inverse of f ( x ) = graphically. 2. What do you notice? Surprised? Copyright © 2008 by Farimah Fazeli . 4. 5.

Check your answer and state the domain of f and 3x 2 Copyright © 2008 by Farimah Fazeli . Inverse Functions Page 4 Example: Find the inverse of f ( x ) = find its range using f −1 . x > 0 . x2 + 3 .5 – One-to-One Functions.Section 2.

Example 1: the cost of a smoothie is directly proportional to its size.60.College Algebra Section 2.6 – Constructing Functions with Variation Variation is how one quantity varies in relation to another. or jointly. If a 12-ounce smoothie is $3. then how long would it take for 6 rakers to complete the job? Copyright © 2008 by Farimah Fazeli . If 4 rakers can complete the job in 12 hours. them what is the cost of a 16-ounce smoothie? Now we’ll take a look at problems that use either inverse variation or joint (combined) variation. inversely. Quantities may vary directly. Example 2: The time required to rake the grounds at Rockwood Manor varies inversely with the number of rakers.

90 for carpeting a room with a width of 4yd with that same carpeting. If the cost varies jointly with the length and height.5 – Linear Functions and Models Page 2 Joint and Combined variation Example 3: The cost of a fence that is 200 t long and 5 feet high is $3000. What is the length of the room? .Section 2. then what is the cost of a fence that is 25 feet long and 6 feet high? Example 4: The cost of carpeting a room varies jointly as the length and the width.40 to carpet a 9-ft by 12-ft room with Dupont Stainmaster. but she has forgotten the length of the room. Julie advertises a price of $263. Julie gave a customer a price of $482.

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