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Let X and Y be two nonempty sets. A function from X into Y is a relation that associates with each element of X exactly one element of Y. In other words, a function is a set of ordered pairs in which no two ordered pairs have the same first coordinate and different second coordinate.

Domain

Range

The following guidelines can help determine whether a relation is a function. 1. Each element in the domain must be matched with exactly one element of the range. 2. Some elements in the range may not be matched with any element in the domain. 3. Two or more elements of the domain may be matched with the same element of the range. So how can we tell if a graph represents a function? Each ____ will correspond with exactly one ____. An easy way to check is to use the Vertical Line Test. Theorem:

In other words, if any vertical line intersects a graph at more than one point, the graph is not the graph of a function. Now we can play a quick game of Function? Not a Function?

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Example1 : Use the graph of the function f to answer parts (a)-(n). (a) Find f ( 0 ) and f ( 6 ) .

-4 -6 8

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One idea for explaining the mechanics of functions is the idea of a Function Machine.

1. It accepts numbers from the domain of the function. 2. For each input, there is exactly one output (which may be repeated for different inputs). Example4: For the function f defined by f ( x ) = 3 x 2 + 2 x , evaluate: (a) f ( 3)

(b) f ( x ) + f ( 3)

(c) f ( x )

(d) f ( x )

Copyright 2008 by Farimah Fazeli

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(e) f ( x + 3)

(f)

Summary Important facts about functions. For each x in the domain of f, there is exactly one image f(x) in the range; however, an element in the range can result from more than one x in the domain. f is the symbol that we use to denote the function. It is symbolic of the equation that we use to get from an x in the domain to f(x) in the range. If y = f(x), then x is called the independent variable or argument of f, and y is called the dependent variable or the value of f at x. Unless otherwise stated, the domain of a function f is the largest set of real numbers for which the value f ( x ) is a real number. Sometimes its helpful to ask yourself, What values of the independent variable make sense in the given equation? Example5: Find the domain and range of each of the following functions: (a) f ( x ) =

x+4 x 2x 3

2

(b) g ( x= ) x2 9

(c) h ( x = )

3 2x

Page 5

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The domain of the greatest integer function is all real numbers and the range is all integers. The y-intercept is 0 and the x-intercept is [ 0,1) . The function is neither even nor odd and has a discontinuity at every integer.

Copyright 2008 by Farimah Fazeli

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Sometimes a function is defined differently on different parts of its domain. When functions are defined by more than one equation, they are called piecewise-defined functions.

3 + x, 3 x < 0 x=0 Example: Graph f ( x ) = 3, x, x > 0 Find the domain, intercepts, and, based on the graph, the range.

Example: An economy car rented in Florida from National Car Rental on a weekly basis costs $95 per week. Extra days cost $24 per day until the day rate exceeds the weekly rate, in which case the weekly rate applies. Also, any part of a day used counts as a full day. Find the cost C of renting an economy car as a piecewise-defined function of the number x of days used, where 7 x 14 . Graph this function.

Sometimes we are asked to graph a function that is almost like one that we already know from our library of functions. In this section, well look at some of these functions and develop techniques for graphing them. Collectively, these techniques are referred to as transformations. All the transformations of a function form a family of functions. Rigid Nonrigid; Well start by graphing functions using vertical and horizontal shifts. On the same screen, graph the following functions:

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3

Example1 : Start with the graph of the basic function and use shifts to graph f ( x ) = ( x + 2 ) 3 .

Basic function: Vertical Shift: Horizontal shift: Does the order of the vertical and horizontal shift matter? Example: Write the function whose graph is the graph of y = x 2 , but is shifted 5 units to the right and 7 units up.

We can also transform graphs by stretching or compressing. Stretching and compressing can be done in either the vertical or horizontal direction. On the same screen, graph the following functions:

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Now in the horizontal direction On the same screen, graph the functions:

Example2 : Write the equation of the function whose graph is the graph of y = x 2 , but is: 1 (a) vertically compressed by a factor of . 3 (b) horizontally compressed by a factor of 4.

If you were to apply both vertical and horizontal stretches/compressions to a graph, would the order in which those transformations are made matter? The last types of transformations we will study are reflections about the x-axis and y-axis. First well look at a reflection about the x-axis. On the same screen, graph the functions:

Y1 = x 2 4

Y2 = x 2 4 = x 2 + 4

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Next, a reflection about the y-axis On the same screen, graph the functions:

Y1 = x 4 + x Y2 = ( x ) + ( x ) = x 4 x

4

Example 3 : Write the equation of the function whose graph is the graph of y = ( x 3) 4 , but is: (a) reflected about the x-axis.

2

When you apply reflections in both the x- and y-axes, would the order in which those transformations are made matter?

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When discussing the symmetry of the graphs of functions, it can get long and tedious to use the phrase symmetric with respect to the y-axis or symmetry with respect to the origin. Instead, well use the words even and odd to describe the symmetry that exists for the graph of a function. A function is even if and only if its graph is symmetric with respect to the y-axis.

For an even function, for every point (x, y) on the graph, the point (-x, y) is also on the graph.

A function is odd if and only if its graph is symmetric with respect to the origin.

So for an odd function, for every point (x, y) on the graph, the point (-x, -y) is also on the graph.

f ( x ) = 3 x 4 x 2 + 2

f ( x ) = 3 x 4 x 2 + 2

g ( x ) = 5 x 3 1

g ( x ) = 5 x3 1

h ( x ) = 2 x3 x h ( x ) = 2 x 3 + x

Functions, like numbers, can be added, subtracted, multiplied, and divided. If f and g are functions: The sum f + g is the function defined by ( f + g )( x ) = f ( x ) + g ( x ) The difference f g is the function defined by ( f g )( x ) = f ( x ) g ( x ) The product f g is the function defined by ( f g )( x ) = f ( x ) g ( x ) The quotient

f ( x) f f is the function defined = by ( x ) , g ( x) 0 g ( x) g g

(a) ( f + g )( x ) =

(b) ( f g )( x ) =

(c) ( f g )( x ) =

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Composition of Functions

We can evaluate composite functions either by hand or using a calculator. Example 3: Suppose that f (= x ) 2 x 2 + 3 and g (= x ) 4 x3 + 1 . Find: (a)

( f g )(1)

(b) ( g f )(1)

(c)

( f f )( 2 )

(d) ( g g )( 1)

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This means that the domain of f g is a subset of the domain of g. (And the range of f g is a subset of the range of f.)

1 and g ( x = ) x

(b) f f

The composite functions f g and g f are usually different. Guess what? We can also undo, or decompose, a composite function. These decompositions are not always unique but there is usually one that is more natural than the others.

1 x2 .

Copyright 2008 by Farimah Fazeli

Sometimes its easier to look at what a 1-1 (one-toone) function is not: A function is NOT 1-1 if two different inputs correspond to the same output.

The vertical line test tells us if a _________________ is a __________________ . The horizontal line test tells us if a _________________ is __________________ .

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For each function, use the graph to determine whether the function is one-to-one.

To verify that one function is the inverse of another, we need to check that

f 1 ( f ( x ) ) = x

f ( f 1 ( x ) ) = x

Copyright 2008 by Farimah Fazeli

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To find the inverse of a function by Switch and Solve Method (pg 243) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Example: The function f ( x ) =

In the above example, compare the horizontal and vertical asymptotes of f and f 1 . What do you notice? Surprised?

Copyright 2008 by Farimah Fazeli

Page 4

Variation is how one quantity varies in relation to another. Quantities may vary directly, inversely, or jointly.

Example 1: the cost of a smoothie is directly proportional to its size. If a 12-ounce smoothie is $3.60, them what is the cost of a 16-ounce smoothie?

Now well take a look at problems that use either inverse variation or joint (combined) variation.

Example 2: The time required to rake the grounds at Rockwood Manor varies inversely with the number of rakers. If 4 rakers can complete the job in 12 hours, then how long would it take for 6 rakers to complete the job?

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Example 3: The cost of a fence that is 200 t long and 5 feet high is $3000. If the cost varies jointly with the length and height, then what is the cost of a fence that is 25 feet long and 6 feet high?

Example 4: The cost of carpeting a room varies jointly as the length and the width. Julie advertises a price of $263.40 to carpet a 9-ft by 12-ft room with Dupont Stainmaster. Julie gave a customer a price of $482.90 for carpeting a room with a width of 4yd with that same carpeting, but she has forgotten the length of the room. What is the length of the room?

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