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OVER TO YOU

Prepared By :

HD

Mr. Hesham Mohammed Al- Sakhwai

ELT Senior Supervisor:

Mrs. Suzan Al Bashiti

ELT Supervisor: Mr. Jawad Amrani

Dear students , As I count our blessings this term, I'm especially thankful for the joy of knowing you all. As love bears all things, endures all things, it never fails, so I love you all. Love is patient, love is kind. It doesn't envy, it doesn't boast, it is not proud, but it keeps no record of wrongs. Love always protects, always trusts and always hopes.
Remember that what you learn with pleasure you never forget . I wish you all the best of luck and success.

Dear colleagues , Seeing much, suffering much, working much are the three pillars for both of language learning and teaching. I can tell you that I learn from you, and we all learn from the experiences of our colleagues. You should know that knowledge has no boundaries and it seeks the people with minds open so be tolerant and flexible to accept the different points of view, make the right choice and be yourself.

Module 1 Culture Word Absorb ( v. )

We are what we eat

Unit 1

10th Grade 1st term 1st Period


Arabic meaning

English meaning & Example Sentence

To take something in, or soak up ( energy , or liquid or other substance )


by chemical or physical action .
Ex: Plants absorb carbon dioxide.

Antioxidant ( n .)

A substance in some foods that cleans the body and protects it from
diseases Ex: Antioxidants help combat diseases such as cancer and arthritis .

appeal to ( v. )

[ I not continuous ] to interest or attract someone


It's a programme designed to appeal mainly to 16 to 25 yearolds. I think what appeals to me about his painting is the colours he uses.

Arthritis ( n. ) Atmospheric (adj.) boost ( WB) ( v. ) Caffeine ( n. ) Calcium ( n. ) Carbohydrate ( n. )

A disease that causes painful inflammation and stiffness of the joints .


Ex: In later life she was crippled with arthritis.

( of a mood ) pleasurable and interesting or exciting .


Ex: I quite like fog because it's atmospheric.

To improve or increase something .


Ex: Passing exams boosts ones self-confidence.

A chemical, found for example in tea and coffee that cause health problems
Ex: Tea and coffee contain caffeine.

A metallic element that forms and strengthens bones and teeth


Ex: Milk contains calcium which is necessary for kids .

A substance in foods such as sugar , bread , potato which provides ones body
with heat and energy .

Ex: Sugar , bread and potato are rich in Carbohydrate Cholesterol ( n. ) Combat ( v. ) comprise ( WB )( v.)

A chemical substance found in your blood , causing heart diseases .


Ex: Oil is high in polyunsaturated and low in cholesterol .

To take action to reduce , destroy or prevent


Ex: T`he government have introduced measures to combat pollution.

To be made up of
Ex: The course comprises a class book, a practice book and an audio tape.

Composition ( n. ) Copious (adj. )

An artistic creation or arrangement


Ex: It is very difficult for me to Write composition.

Existing or being produced in large quantities.


Ex: Planting trees has become copious in big cities and towns .

Crammed ( adj. ) Deficiency ( n. )

Full of healthy properties.


Ex: The platform was crammed with people trying to board the train.

A state of not having enough, of something that is needed \ a lack of the


nutrients that our bodies need . Ex: Pregnant women often suffer from iron deficiency.

Dietician Dietitian ( n. ) dehydration ( WB ) ( n. ) Digestive ( adj.) eatery ( n. ) Fatigue ( n. ) fanatic ( W B ) ( n. )

a person who scientifically studies, and gives advice about, food and
eating. Ex: If you want to go on a diet, you can consult a dietician.

Lack of water in the body.


Ex: More than 11,000 children die every day around the world because of dehydration.

relating to the digestion of food


Ex: I have a problem in The digestive process .

snack bar, fast food restaurant


Ex: Lets have a sandwich in that eatery.

extreme tiredness
Ex: She was suffering from fatigue and a stress-related illness.

Zealot - someone who likes a particular thing or activity very much


Ex: A fanatic is one who can't change his mind and won't change the subject--Winston Churchill

Fibre = fiber ( n. ) Fry ( v. ) Grilled ( adj.) Honour ( v. )

Important nutrients found in wholegrain products like brown rice .


Ex: Fruits are rich in fibers that our bodies need to resist diseases.

To cook something in hot fat or oil


Ex: I like to fry fish than to grill them.

( US ALSO broil ) something cooked by direct heat, especially under a


very hot surface in a grill . Ex: I grilled the sausages.

To show respect for someone or something ; to revere ; to venerate


Ex: They honoured me by saying I am the best.

Iron ( n. ) Irresponsibly ( adv.) Malnutrition ( n. ) Metabolise ( V. ) Metabolism ( n. ) Neutralise ( V.)

A mineral found in food.


Ex: Pregnant women often suffer from iron deficiency.

In an irresponsible manner .
Ex: It's unlike you to behave so irresponsibly.

The lack of proper nutrition .


Ex: Many of the refugees are suffering from severe malnutrition.

All the chemical processes in your body, especially those that cause food
to be used for energy and growth . Ex: Exercise is supposed to speed up your metabolism .

to make something neutral .


Ex: Acidity in soil can be neutralized (= have the acid removed) by spreading lime on it.

nutrition ( n. ) obesity ( WB ) ( n. ) Organic ( adj.) Polished ( adj. ) Pomegranate ( n. ) Probiotic ( adj.) Protein ( n. )

The process of providing the food necessary for good health and growth.
Ex: Good nutrition is essential if patients are to make a quick recovery.

Being very overweight.


Ex: A diet that is high in fat can lead to obesity.

not using artificial chemicals .


Ex: Organic fertilizers is much more better than the chemical ones .

Made shiny by being rubbed ; buffed; burnished


Ex: I have my shoes polished every day before I go to school.

a round thick-skinned fruit .


Ex: Pomegranate is my favourite kind of fruits .

food or tablet that contains good bacteria which may keep you healthy.
Ex: Probiotic yogurt is very useful for our bodies.

One of the many substances found in food such as meat, cheese, fish or
eggs, that is necessary for the body to grow and be strong . Ex: Protein is necessary for keeping our body warm .

Redefine ( v. ) Relaxing ( adj. )

To define again or differently


Ex: They redfined the process again and gave it a different name.

Making one feel relaxed


Ex: We can have rest by relaxing our muscles in warm water .

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RDA (abbreviation) = Recommended Daily Allowance

the amount of substance such as a vitamin that should be in food everyday


Ex: The table below serves as an example as to what is recommended as normal intake.

Reminiscent ( WB ) ( adj.) salad bar ( n. ) saturated fat ( n. )

Tending to remind one of something ; evocative


Ex: This is a reminiscent film . It describes how people lived in the past.

a table where different prepared salads are served in a restaurant or shop


Ex: What a big salad bar ! It contains all kinds of vegetables.

A type of fat found in meat, eggs, milk, cheese, etc., which is thought to
be bad for your health because it has a chemical structure with no double bonds

Ex: Butter and cream contain a lot of saturated fats. Sodium ( n. ) Speciality (n. ) Steam ( v. ) Stimulant ( n. ) Supplement ( n. )
unsaturated fat

a chemical element that is found in salt


Ex: Sodium is a substance found in salt.

a particular thing that you regularly do or make


Ex: Unkind remarks are one of his specialities.

To cook something by hot mist that water produces when it is boiled


Ex: We can steam meat in that pot .

A substance that increases nervious activity in the body .


Ex: Coffee contains a stimulant named caffeine.

- -

A substance taken to add vitamins .etc, to a persons diet .


Ex: The doctor said she should be taking vitamin supplements.

( n. )

describes a fat or oil that is either monounsaturated or polyunsaturated , found in


plants, vegetable oil and fish and thought to be better for your health than
saturated fat

Ex: The doctor advised me to have diets which contain unsaturated fat. Vegetarian ( adj.) Vitamin ( n. ) Wholesome ( adj.) Wholegrain ( adj.)

The exclusion of meat from the diet.


Ex: Of the four million people who have become vegetarians in Britain, nearly two-thirds are women.

A chemical substance in food that is necessary for good health.


Ex: Oranges are full of vitamin C.

good for you, and likely to improve your life either physically, morally or emotionally
Ex: Theyre trying to show clean wholesome decent movies.Wholesome food are found in vitamins .

Made with or containing unprocessed grain


Ex: wholegrain breakfast \ cereal

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Questions and their answers:

We are what we eat . Explain . Our health and fitness depends mainly on what we eat and drink. There are three things can be added to our daily diet to keep our minds and bodies in tip-top shape. Mention them . a- Probiotic Drinks like Yakult and Actimel b- Green tea c- Dark chocolate Probiotic Drinks are of great importance to improve our immune system. Explain. a- They are important because they contain billions of good bacteria which help our digestive process and to absorb nutrients. b- Probiotic Drinks neutralise the bad bacteria that can lead to infections and diseases. Better to be deprived of food for three days than tea for one. This is an ancient Chinese proverb. What does it refer to? What did the Chinese use green tea for in the past? It means that green tea is very important as it can treat everything from headaches to depression. What are the benefits of green tea? Why is green tea useful? Green tea is rich in the antioxidants that remove harmful substances from the body. New researchers proved that having dark chocolate is not the type of food we should avoid. Why? They proved that having dark chocolate could lower blood pressure. What is the difference between good and bad bacteria? a- Good bacteria help to stimulate the digestive process and to absorb nutrients. b- Bad bacteria can lead to infections and illnesses. Why are antioxidants so good for our bodies?
a-It helps combat cancer and arthritis. b- It lowers the cholesterol c- it improves the general immune system.

How can dark chocolate help diabetics? It metabolises sugar. Which nutrients can improve sporting performance? a- Carbohydrates like; pasta, cereal and potatoes. b- Proteins like ; meat , pulses c- Minerals like; iodine , calcium and iron . d- Vitamins like; ( A , B , C and D ) Which nutrients should an athlete avoid? a- Fizzy drinks b- too much saturated fat What sort of nutrition do vegetarians always have? Vegetables and fruits. What are the pros and cons of vegetarian menu? Cons: Following a vegetarian menu irresponsibly can lead to malnutrition and health problems .Many vegetarians lack the RDA of iron, proteins , calcium and vitamin B 12 . Pros: Vegetable soups and salads are an important part of any diet.

Which nutrients should an athlete avoid? b- Fizzy drinks c- b- too much saturated fat What sort of nutrition do vegetarians always have? Vegetables and fruits. What are the pros and cons of vegetarian menu? Cons: Following a vegetarian menu irresponsibly can lead to malnutrition and health problems .Many vegetarians lack the RDA of iron, proteins , calcium and vitamin B 12 . Pros: Vegetable soups and salads are an important part of any diet.

Mark these statements true () or false (X) then justify your decision: 1. Beans of coloured shells are oxidants. ( ) - .. 2. We are what we eat. ( ) - .. 3. Our skin , muscles and bones are all maintained by bad nutrition . ( ) .. 4. Porbiotic drinks and food help to improve the immune system . ( ) .. 5 . The secret of the green tea lies on its antioxidants substances . ( ) .. 6. Pasta , cereal and potatoes are beneficial for sportsmen . ( )

.. 7. Too much saturated fats can lead to healthy life . ( ) .. 8. It is not important to have minerals like calcium , iodine and iron in our food . ( )

..

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Vocabulary A ) Fill in the spaces with words from the list : { absorbed - antioxidant - atmospheric - boosts - appeal - arthritis - irresponsibly } 1- A : .is a substance which slows down the rate at which something decays because of oxidization . B : So it can help combat diseases such as cancer and arthritis ,Cant it ? 2- A : What do you think of the new movie ? B : I think it will . to the public. 3- A : The drug is quickly .. into the bloodstream. B : Thats why it is so difficult to treat addicted people . 4- A : Passing exams ones self-confidence. B : Sure. They are not just for testing our memory. 5- A : Whats wrong with her legs? B : In later life she was crippled with She cannot walk because of painful and swollen joints. 6- A : Why do you like listening to this piece of music? B : Because it's It inspires great feelings. 7- A : Why is John always doing things like that ? B : Its typical of John , behaving so ..is his nature . Fill in the spaces with words from the list :
{ dehydration - eatery - reminiscent - relaxing - probiotic - vegetarian - stimulant }

1. A: Where did you first meet ? B : We met in a little ... just off the main road. 2. A : Caffeine , which found in coffee, is a mild. B : But drinking too much coffee can cause sleep problems. 3. A : That song is so .. of my adolescence. B : Isnt it strange ! it is the same to me. 4. A : Many children die every day around the world because of . B : As I see the governments of all countries should act to solve this dilemma . 5. A : ...is a type of food or tablet that contains good bacteria which keep you healthy. B : Do you recommend buying some? 6. A : I think he does not eat meat for health reasons . B : No , he is .. because he wants to avoid being cruel to animals .

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B) From a, b, c or d choose the correct the answer: 1- A : is a chemical, found in tea and coffee. B : Thats right , it is also stimulant . I mean this substance makes people more active. a - Metabolism b- Caffeine c- Calcium d- Composition 2- A : In this dictionary 'reality' is defined as 'the state of things as they are, rather than as they are imagined to be'. B : I couldnt get it. I hope they .. in easier words. a- combat b- comprise c- steam d- redefine 3- A : This train is crammed with people. Lets find a taxi. B : Ok.Lets get out of here. a- crammed b- copious c- grilled

d- organic

4- A : You are obese . You should consult a B: Ive already seen a lot of them but frankly I dont follow their advice because I do like food. a- carbohydrate b- cholesterol c- deficiency d- Dietician 5- A : ..food is a particular type of food containing whole seeds . B : Yes, like bread , mustard and cereal . a- digestive b- wholesome c- wholegrain d- polished

Definitions From a , b c and d choose the correct definition of the underlined words: 1- A: The doctor advised me to have probiotics at least once a day . B: Great ! they improve the immune system. abcdA lack of nutrients that our bodies need. A disease that cause painful inflammation and stiffness of the joins. Containing " good " bacteria to improve health. Products without the use of chemicals.

2- A: What must be done to combat crimes and violence ? B: The government must make strict laws to fight them. a-To be made up with. b-To take action to reduce ,destroy or prevent. c-To take in or soak up by chemical or physical action. d-To change for in our body into energy. 3- A: Every now and then I eat grilled fish in this restaurant. B: You are right. All the cooks are experts in cooking sea food. a- Cooked over a fire in a grill. b- Pleasurable and interesting or exciting. c- Exciting or being produced in large quantity. d- Full of healthy properties.

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C) Language Functions Expressing preferences


I prefer .to.. I like.better than/ more than Id prefer to. Id rather.than. Id better .

Introducing One self


Good (morning afternoon evening) My name is . This is .and we are here to talk about

Making comparisons
Ali is better than. It is much more powerful than A better place. in comparison . on the contrary. the opposite is true.

Talking about the past


Yesterday / in the past / Once / Long ago . Once upon a time .. One (night / day / evening)

Last (week / month / year / April / Friday )

Expressing personal opinions


In my opinion. I think . I believe . I feel that . As I see it. There is no doubt. From my point of view. As a matter of fact .

Expressing Uncertainty
Im not sure about. Maybe it is .I am not sure It is difficult to say. I am not certain about it.

Stating advantages and disadvantages


The advantages are. The disadvantages are. One of its cons is. One of its pros is . Some of the benefits are. It is harmful because.

Using expressions in a restaurant (WB)


Excuse me, Could I have another fork, please? Do you have any dishes without pepper? May I have Please, pass me .

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A ) Complete the missing parts of the following dialogues: 1- A: What would you like to drink tea , coffee or something cold? B: 2- A: Which is better at math. Ali or Omar ? B: . 3- A: What do you think of my new T-shirt ? B: 4- A:.. B: Hi, nice meeting you John . 5- A: B: But we have a lot to amuse ourselves these days. 6- A: What are your plans for the next holiday ? B : .. B ) Write what you would say in the following situations: 1- Somebody phoned you and talked about a certain problem but you dont know anything about . 2- You have had a meal in a new restaurant and you liked the food they served. 3- The English teacher has asked you about your plans when you leave school. 4- Someone says that television is harmful and has no educational value. You believe the opposite. 5- You are having difficulty in stepping down from the bus. Ask the bus driver to give you a hand. .. C ) Match the utterances in A with responses in B: A 1 . The storm was very strong. 2. That man is too fat. 3. Our house is too small. 4. Were very hungry. 5. My father has plans to go to London. B ) Why dont we have a bigger one. ) But I prefer going to London. ) He should eat less. ) maybe its a dog. ) Thats why the ship sank. ) What about having a tasty meal?

( ( ( ( ( (

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Correct the verbs in brackets :


1. A: While I (search) for my pen, I found your gold ring.
B: Thanks a million. How can I reward you? 2. A: What happened to Ziad? B: A car hit him while he (cross) the street. 3. A: When did you listen to the cassette? B: I listened to it while (doing) my homework. 4. A: They were watching TV when the explosion (happen). B: Oh! My God. 5. A: While I was doing my homework, the light (go) out. B: That means you didnt do your homework! 6. A: Whats wrong with your car? B: I hit another car while I (use) my mobile 7. A: I (deal) with customers all morning. B: You must be exhausted. 8. A: What were you doing when you heard the news? B: I (have) lunch when I heard that news. 9. A: Why was Ahmed so afraid? B: Thats because while he was swimming, he (see) a shark. 10. A: While my father was reading, my mother (cook) lunch. B: And you helped your mother, didnt you? Correct the verbs between brackets: 1. 2. A: Why do you look angry and nervous? B: My neighbour (claim) that I had hit his car yesterday. A: Why was your father so angry yesterday? B: Thats because my brother (break) three cups. 1. .. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

3. A: Where is Nasser? B: He (leave) the house two minutes ago. 4. A: Lets go to the zoo. B: Oh! I (go) there last Friday. 5. A: What made yesterdays seminar so successful? B: The principal (provide) the staff with all the necessary facilities. 6. A: Marie and Pierre Curie (discover) radium. B: True! That was in 1898.

15 Grammar assistant Order of adjectives When two or more adjectives are used in front of a noun , they are usually in this order :

Opinion Size Age Shape Colour Origin Material

Wonderful \ attractive Small \ huge Old \ young Fat \ round Black \ green Kuwaiti \ Brazilian Woolen \ metal

Ex. He gave her six beautiful large red shoes . Ex. A little old black American man.

Complete the phrases with the adjectives given . Put the adjectives in the correct order.
1- A ..mobile . 2- A .table. 3- A .girl. 4- A ....meat. 5- A ..day. 6- A \ An.lady. 7- A.jacket . ( grey round small ) ( wooden beautiful blue ) ( athletic tall thin ) ( red - huge delicious ) ( rainy great ) ( old fat beautiful Kuwaiti ) (wooden Egyptian wonderful )

8- A \ An sports car. ( small fantastic Japanese oval ) 9- A.cat . 10- A \ An .teacher . ( white small Iranian ) ( attractive French young )

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Module 1 Culture respecting cultures Unit 2 10th Grade 1st term 1st Period Arabic meaning

Word Account Noun Adorn ( W B ) Verb Aspiration Noun Calligraphy Noun Commemorate ( WB ) Verb Conduct Verb Consistently Adverb Cover Verb Cursive ( WB ) Adjective Creed Noun Delegate Noun Diverse Adjective Diversity Noun Embellish (WB ) verb Figure Noun Groundbreaking Adjective High-ranking Adjective

English meaning & Example Sentence

written or spoken description of an event


Ex: He kept a detailed account of the suspect's movements.

To make more beautiful or attractive .


Ex: The bride's hair was adorned with pearls and white flowers. something that you hope to achieve \ a strong desire to do something great . Ex: It is important to encourage children's dreams and aspirations.

Decorative handwriting or handwritten lettering .


Ex: There's some wonderful calligraphy in these old manuscripts.

To recall and showing respect for ( someone or something ) in a


ceremony . Ex: Gathered all together in this church, we commemorate those who lost their lives in the great war.

To organize and carry out


Ex: How you choose to conduct your private life is your own business!

Always every time continuing to happen .


Ex: The President has consistently denied the rumours.

To travel a particular distance .


Ex: We covered 400km in three hours.

Written with the characters joined .


Ex: Writing in cursive is difficult for me.

opinions points of view - faith


Ex: Creeds and leaders are engaged in peaceful dialogue .

a person sent or authorized to represent others .


Ex: Each union elects several delegates to the annual conference.

varied or different \ showing a great deal of variety .


Ex: New York is a very culturally/ethnically diverse city.

The state of being diverse .


Ex: She teaches the students to have respect for different races and

appreciate the diversity of other cultures.

Decorate - to make something more beautiful or interesting by adding


something to it Ex: The ceiling was embellished with flowers and leaves.

Person of a particular kind , often important .


Ex: He was a high- ranking political figure .

- -

Involving new discoveries.


Ex: His latest film is interesting, but not ground-breaking.

Important great
Ex: They work in high-ranking positions.

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Initiative Noun Inspirational Adjective Interfaith Adjective Master Verb Mentor Noun

The ability to assess and initiate things independently .


Ex: The peace initiative was welcomed by both sides.

Providing or showing creative or spiritual inspiration .


Ex: He gave an inspirational reading of his own poems.

relating to activities involving members of different religions


Ex: interfaith prayers/services/relations To acquire complete knowledge or skill in an accomplishment technique or art Ex: He quickly mastered the art of interviewing people.

- -

Adviser counselor guide teacher


Ex: A good senior teacher is someone who is able to mentor his

colleagues. Paraphrase ( WB ) Verb

rephrase express the meaning of something said or written by using


different words .
Ex: Could you paraphrase this story in a humorous form or in a

simpler and shorter form that makes the meaning clearer ? Pilgrimage Noun Relevant Adjective

journey to a holy place for religious purposes .


Ex: Most Muslims try to go on a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their lives.

Related closely connected or appropriate to a matter at hand


Opposite irrelevant
Ex: Education should be relevant to the child's needs. A critical evaluation of a book . Ex: The committee made a review to check the current situation.

Review Noun Richly adverb

In an elaborate , generous or plentiful way .


Ex: The facade of the house is richly decorated in green and white

marble. Seminar Noun

a group of people meet to study and discuss something


Ex: I'm giving a seminar on the latest developments in genetic

engineering next week. Tolerance Noun

the ability or willingness to tolerate something , in particular the


existence of opinions or behavior that one doesnt necessarily agree with.
Ex: My tolerance of heat is considerably greater after having lived in

the Far East for a couple of years.

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Questions and their answers:

What are the responsibilities of Mentors ? a- To mentor pupils from schools , hospitals and nursing homes . b- To collaborate creative projects and new skills . c- To encourage individual aspirations for education and employment . What are the benefits of mentoring ? a- To make use of our time . b- To work and collaborate with others . Who can benefit from being mentored ? a- Teenagers b- adults

c- middle aged

d- elderly people

How can mentoring schemes help build relationships in our community ? Mentoring schemes can help people from different ages to share experiences and learn from each others. What does the United nations logo stand for ? It is a symbol of peace , harmony and respecting cultures and shared moral values all over the world . What are the main purposes of the United Nations ? a- Discussing disagreements . b- Agreeing on rules and laws through which countries can work together and live harmoniously . What were the goals of the UN General Assembly mee ng on the culture of peace in New York on 12th Nov. 2008 ? a- Emphasizing the need for everyone to respect different cultures , religion and values . b- Emphasizing our common humanity and shared moral values . What did the speech of his highness Sheikh Sabah Al-Ahmad address ? a- Emphasizing the importance of dialogue between different cultures . b- He called the leaders to engage in peaceful dialogue and further the culture of peace . What has Kuwait done to further the culture of peace ? a- Kuwait has organized conferences in London and Washington to promote mutual understanding and respect. b- The Government has arranged seminars and programmes to raise awareness and promote respect and understanding amongst Kuwaiti citizens . Why has the Government of Kuwait arranged programmes and seminars ? a- To raise awareness b- To promote respect and understanding amongst Kuwaiti citizens . Why is it important to respect and tolerate other people and other faiths ? a- To live in a world of peace and harmony . b- To be able to understand each other and to treat each other with respect .

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What can be done to ensure people treat each other with respect ? a- We can hold regional and international conferences about religious tolerance among peoples. c- we can arranged seminars and programmes to raise awareness and respect amongst citizens . In what ways can you show respect for other cultures ? c- By emphasizing the need for everyone to respect different cultures , religion and values . d- By emphasizing our common humanity and shared moral values . What does Ibn Battutas account include ? a- Descriptions of his pilgrimages b- Descriptions of the cities he stayed in c- Local tales and sea adventures . Why was the Muqademmah by Ibn Khaldun a ground-breaking book ? It discussed many important theories which are still relevant today .

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Answer the following questions :


1. What are the main purposes of the United Na ons ?

a. .. b. ..
2. Any mentor of matters may have many opportunities to

a. .. b. ..
3. What is the best way to achieve tolerance and understanding among na ons ? .. 4. Kuwait has done a lot of activities to further the culture of peace such as . .. 5. In what way can you show respect for other culture ?

a. .. b. ..
6. In what way can you show respect for other cultures ?

a. .. b. ..
7. What are the most important fes vals in the Islamic calendar ?

a. .. b. ..
8. What does the term Islamic Art mean ? .. 9. Ibn Battuta adventures book was amazing . Why ? ..
Vocabulary A ) Fill in the spaces with words from the list : { embellish \ account \ paraphrase \ Ground-breaking \ richly \ relevant } 1- A : He kept a detailed of the suspect's movements. B : I think this will ease the police plan to arrest him. 2- A : What are the painters doing ? B : Dont you see ! They are about to ....It is the final step to finish the entire building . 3- A : This Villa is ..decorated . B : Yes , the glass outside is very expensive . 4- A : I wish I could make plans to make the project works . B : I'm sorry but your personal wishes are not . . 5- A : I must ..the stanzas of the poem again . B : You are right it very difficult to be understood this way . 6- A : It is the first time for me to see this film . B : Yes , it is .. and completely different from other films of its type .

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Fill in the spaces with words from the list :


{ master \ pilgrimage \ mentor \ diverse \ commemorate \ adorned

7. A: What is ..? B : It is a journey to a place which is considered special . 8. A : This castle is well decorated . B : Yes , it is ..with silver paintings and gold coated sockets and taps . 9. A : What a beautiful statue ! B : This statue has been built to the 5th anniversary of Kuwait Libration . 10. A : She lived in China for several years but never quite the language. B : Frankly speaking , it is a very difficult language . 11. A : You are the best Without you , I wouldnt have been in this position . B : Dont mention it . You are up to it .

B) From a, b, c or d choose the correct the answer: 6- A : Mr. Ashraf was chosen to represent the school at the conference. B : I think he is the best one to be our school.. a -aspiration b- calligraphy c- creed 7- A : How long does it usually take to get there ? B : We usually this distance in three hours. a- Conduct b- Cover c- embellish

d- delegate

d-paraphrase

8- A : What he said in the court was not matching the statement he made to the police B : Sooner or later , the police will know the suspect and every single detail will be taken against him . a- Consistently b-richly c- consequently d- tolerantly 9- A : What is his job ? B: I dont know exactly , but I think he enjoys .position. a- Cursive b-High-ranking c-Interfaith A : How can such a problem be solved ? B : I think there is no way but to accept the peace .by Kuwait. a- Diversity b-Figure c-Initiative

d-Inspirational

d- Review

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C- From a , b ,c or d choose the definition that best match the underlined words : 1- A : We need to hold a seminar soon to converse about the new methods of teaching . B: That 's right, otherwise, we won't be able to teach the new syllabus " Over To You ". a- A group of people meet to study and discuss something . b- The state of being diverse . c- a person sent or authorized to represent others . d- Decorative handwriting or handwritten lettering . 2- A : How do Kuwaitis commemorate the liberation Day annually ? B : They make festivals , shops offer discounts and flags are spread everywhere . a- To make more beautiful or attractive . b- To organize and carry out c- To travel a particular distance . d- To recall and showing respect for ( someone or something ) in a ceremony . 3- A : All countries participating in the conference set their Delegates to symbolize them . B : Yes , that is right . Ours is Mr. Ali , the Prime minister . a- Person of a particular kind , often important . b- A person sent or authorized to represent others . c- Adviser d- A critical evaluation of a book . 4- A : He gave a detailed account of what happened in the meeting yesterday . B : I don't think so he forgot to write about the purpose of the meeting . a- a group of people meet to study and discuss something b- A critical evaluation of a book . c- journey to a holy place for religious purposes . d- Written or spoken description of an event .

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Language Functions Making Suggestions


o We could

o
o o o o o o

Lets
Why not Why dont Its better to How \ What about + V. + ing I suggest It would be a good idea to . There is always

o Perhaps they might want to

Describing Past Experiences

o Ive seen o Ive visited o Ive been to o There has been Conducting a Survey \ Asking Permission to ask questions o Could you ? o Can I? o May I? o Can you please? o Will you.? o Do you mind.? o Could I ask you a few questions? o Id like to ask you some questions if you dont mind? o Can I ask ? o Could ? o Do you mind if I ask you a few questions? Agreement o Yes, Thats Fine o Yes, okay. o Yes, sure. o I agree. o Thats a Good Idea. o You are right o All right \ Interviewing

24

- Language Functions A /Match the following utterances with their responses A B 57. The storm was very strong. ( ) Why dont we have a bigger one ? 58. That man is too fat. ( ) But I prefer going to Bahrain. 59. Our house is too small. ( ) He should eat less. 60. Were very hungry. ( ) Maybe it is a dog. 61. My father has plans to go to London. ( ) Thats why the ship sank. ( ) What about having a tasty meal at the nearby restaurant ? B / Complete the missing parts of the exchanges below : 1. A: Look at this car. What do you think, son ? B: 2. A: So you like it very much. I am going to buy it for you but dont drive fast. B: 3. A : Look! I have bought a new coat . What do you think of it . B : . 4- A: But I dont like the zoo. B : . 5. A: The Towers? Great! There we can enjoy ourselves. B : . 6.A: But I thought it looked great. B : . 7.A: Anyhow, television is the best entertainment in the world. B : . 8.A: And heres your birthday present. B : . 9.A: Now, what would you like me to do ? B : . A ) Write what you would say in the following situations: 1. Your father is asking you to buy him some medicine. 2. You are an interviewer and panning to interview an important person . you are thinking of a good start. 3 .Your sister has given birth to a beautiful baby. 4.Your little sister says that young people are more experienced than old ones. You dont agree.

25 Grammar assistant The present Perfect Tense Have ( plural ) Has ( singular ) + P.P I He They She We It You Ex . Kuwait has organized conferences in London and Washington . Ex . They have suggested a good plan . With time words and phrases Already just never often ever since for yet recently Ex. They have just arrived at home . Ex. We have often travelled to other countries . Ex . I have never been to Syria . We use ever to ask other people about things they have done : Ex. Have you ever swum in the sea ? We use never to say we havent done something at any time. Ex. I have never played chess .
Meaning \ use

form

To refer to something happened in the past. ( We dont want to say when ) Ex. My brother has met Ali . Note : If we want to say when this happened , we use the past simple. I met Ali yesterday . A past experience or achievement with a definite result in the present . I have broken my leg .( so I cant walk ) How long something has happened for : He has played football for three years . He has played football since 2005 . Note : for is used with length of time Since is used with particular points in time .

Note : never is used to say we havent done something at any time : eg. Ive never played a musical instrument . Note : ever means at anytime in your past life .We use it to ask other people about things they have done . eg. Have you ever swum in the sea ? is used in negative statements . eg. I havent visited him yet.

Note : yet

26

27

28

Since :
For : For Three days (For two months For five years - For seven days For two hours , for a month .,etc .) For a long time a short time Ago : Three days ago ( two months ago five years ago ago ,etc .) A long time ago a short time ago yet : With sentences in the Negative form . I haven't finished my homework , yet . - seven days ago two hours ago , a month

Years Since 1999 1988 ., etc . Since 8 O'clock ( 5 O'clock .., etc. Since Yesterday last ( month year November ..,etc. Since I was child - the liberation of Kuwait this morning ., etc.

since

For

2 oclock Monday Yesterday last night last week/ last month/ last year 1996 last century he came Then

a moment 3 minutes an hour many hours 3 days/ 5 weeks / 4 months a year 10 years a century Several days

B) Choose the Correct answer from a) , b) , c) and d): 1- A: I've been looking for it .February. B: I hope you will find it. a) since b) for c) ago d) yet 2- A: I haven't heard about Ali .last year. B: He travelled to Kuwait and stayed there. a) for b) since c) yet d) ago 3- A: They are trying to modernize Kuwait . the liberation of Kuwait. B: It is a wonderful country now, isnt it? a) ago b) ever c) yet d) since 4- A: He has stayed in France. a couple of days. B: I hope I can go there. a) ago b) for c) yet d) since

29

5. A: I've been here . a long time. B: Sorry for keeping you waiting. a) for b) ever c) ago

d) since

6. A: The Olympic Games started three weeks .. B: Thats right. a) since b) never c) ago d) yet 7. A: I haven't finished my homework .. B: Thats why we cant go out tonight. a) yet b) ever c) for d) since 8. A: I have been studying English .1999. B: That means you are very good at it. a) yet b) ever c) for d) since 9. A: She has studied Arabic ..5 O'clock. B: Thats because t here will be an exam tomorrow. a) for b) yet c) since d) ago 10. A: I've been playing the lute ..I was a child. B: It is your hobby, isnt it? a) for b) yet c) since d) ago 11. A: I've studied French ..two years. B: Its a very nice language. a) yet b) for c) ever d) since Correct the verbs between brackets: 1. A: Do you know how to use my computer? B: Surely. I (already attend) a course in programming. 2. A: Our friend, Maha, has had a baby. B: I know. I (just send) her some flowers 3. A: You car is very dirty. B: I (not clean) it yet. 4. A: Excuse me. I'd like to see the headmaster. B: I'm afraid you'll have to wait. He (not come) yet. 5. A: How long did your father stay in London? B: He (leave) Kuwait two days a go. 6. A: I have (never fly) by aeroplane. B: You are afraid, arent you? 7. A: Bashayer is the most beautiful girl I (meet). B: Yes, she is extremely beautiful. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

30

Do as shown between brackets: 1. The situation has already improved. (Change into negative) .... 2. She has already done her homework. (Change into negative) .... 3. Yes, Ive seen the Pyramids. .... (Form a question)

4. I have worked in this company for 20 years. (Use: ago) .... 5. Sara has set a world record. .... 6. He has stayed in Kuwait for six years. (Begin with: They)

(Form a question)

....

31

1- ... 5-.. 9-.. 13-... 17-..

2- 6-. 10-. 14-.. 18-

3-. 7- 11- 15- 19-.

4-.. 8-.. 12- 16- 20-

32

Prepositions of Time ( in on at by )

in
I graduated in 1993. The morning the afternoon - the evening Summer winter autumn spring January February- March.etc.

on
I traveled to Spain on 1 st February 1997. Saturday Sunday Monday.etc.

at
Night - midnight - midday - dawn - noon 6 oclock 8 o clock..etc. Meals ( breakfast lunch dinner supper )

by
day the end of the ( year month day - etc.)

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34

35

36

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38
Module 1 Culture Unit 3 Inspiring architecture 10th Grade 1st term 1st Period

Advocate ( v. ) Affordable ( adj.) Apprehensive ( Adj. ) Boutique ( W B ) ( n. ) Brand ( W B ) ( n. ) Benefit ( v. ) Chic ( Adj. ) Concrete ( n. ) (v. adj. ) Cosy ( Adj. ) Council ( n. ) Design (n.) Detrimental ( adj. ) Drill ( v. ) Edutainment (WB)

to publicly recommend , support or suggest an idea.


Ex: He advocates the return of capital punishment.

Having a reasonable price


Ex: These are nice clothes at affordable prices .

\ - -

Anxious worried fearful that something bad will happen.


Ex: I'm a bit apprehensive about tomorrow's meeting.

a small shop \ store that sells fashionable clothes, shoes, jewellery, etc.
Ex: There are a range of colourful clothes in her boutique .

A product made and sold by a particular store


Ex: This isn't my usual brand of deodorant.

sort

Receive an advantage ; profit ; game


Ex: I feel that I have benefited greatly from her wisdom.

Elegantly and Stylishly fashionable modish


Ex: I like your haircut - it's very chic.

a substance made by mixing together cement , sand, small stones and water
Ex: We use cement to make concrete blocks. , warmth and relaxation Ex: This room is nice and cosy in the winter.

Giving a feeling of comfort

An advisory , deliberative or legislature body of people formally


constituted and meeting regularly . Ex: The British Council was established in the UK in 1934 .

The way that something g has been planned or made .


Ex: The design of this building in old .

Harmful negative or damaging


Ex: These chemicals have a detrimental effect/impact on the environment.

To make a hole in something using a special tool


Ex: Drill three holes in the wall for the screws.

educational entertainment or entertainment-education , is a form


of entertainment that is also educational . \ Introducing lessons in some familiar form of entertainment: television programs, computer and video games, films, music, websites, multimedia software, etc.

Evoke ( v. ) Expressionist (n.) Forecourt ( n. ) Foundation ( n. )

to produce a strong feeling in someone .


Ex: That smell always evokes memories of my old school.

( of style of building art ) seeking to express emotions Edvard


Ex: Munch's "The Scream" is a famous Expressionist painting.

An open area

\ a flat area in front of a large building Ex: The machine is in the garage forecourt .

The solid layer of cement, bricks, stones, etc. That is put under a
building to support it. Ex: The foundations will have to be reinforced to prevent the house from sinking further into the ground.

39

Framework ( n.) Geometric ( adj.) Gourmand( W B ) ( n.) Governmental ( adj.) Influx ( n. ) Mainstream (WB) (adj.) Modernistic ( adj. ) Objective ( n.) Predominance ( n. ) Profitable ( adj. ) Public ( adj. ) Renowned ( adj. ) Residential ( adj. ) Slightly (adv.) Spacious (Adj.) State (n.) State-of-the-art (W B ) (Adj.) Studio ( n. )

The main supporting parts of a building .


Ex: That building framework needs reparing .

Of relating to geometry or according to its methods.


Ex: What an accurate geometric design of overlapping circles!

- \

a person who enjoys eating large amounts of food Of a government. \ Legislative


Ex: We await a governmental decision about the future of the programme.

The arrival of a large number of people or things at the same time


Ex: Turkey is expecting an influx of several thousand refugees over the next few days.

Related to the most popular or dominant trend .


Ex: This is the director's first mainstream Hollywood film.

of or associated with modernism , a style that is more modern than


traditional. Ex: The new airport has a very modernistic appearance. goal Ex: Her main/prime objective now is simply to stay in power.

Aim

The greater number or amount


Ex: There is a predominance of people with an arts degree on the board of governors.

Gainful \ producing a financial gain


Ex: I made profitable use of my time . Opposite unprofitable

Open to all people.


Ex: The information only became public after his death .

-
-

Known and admired by a lot of people. \ Famous Designed for people to live in. \ Inhabited

\ well known Ex: The region is renowned for its outstanding natural beauty. Ex: You must satisfy the residential qualifications to get a work permit.

\ -

Somewhat to some extent a little bit


Ex: She's slightly taller than her sister.

Having plenty of space

\ Roomy \ open \ large \ airy \ large Ex: Id like to live in a spacious house .

Related to the civil government of a country .


Ex: The drought is worst in the central African states.

High tec. Up to date very modern and cutting edge .


Ex: The control panel uses all the newest technology and is considered state-of-the-art.

A small room used for performance .


Ex: She spent three months in the studio working on her latest album.

40

Sturdy ( adj. ) Substantial ( adj. ) Venue (n.)

powerful strongly and solidly built


Ex: They put up a sturdy defense of their proposal.

large in size, value or importance


Ex: She inherited a substantial fortune from her grandmother.

Site - location the place where a public event or meeting happens such
as concert , conference or sports events. Ex: The stadium has been specifically designed as a venue for European Cup matches.

Voice (v. ) ( n. adj . )

To express something in words .


give voice to sth Ex: I have voiced my objections to the plan .

Questions and their answers:

What do you know about Al-Wafra? It is an agricultural part in Ahmadi South of the state of Kuwait near Saudi Arabia . It is full of ground water. It is one of the main agricultural places in Kuwait . Would you like to live there ? Why or Why not ?
Yes , Id love to , the weather there is fresh . The streets are not crowded with cars or people .

List some of the advantages and disadvantages of building a new airport in Al -Wafra . Justify your answers . advantages It will create a valuable commuter link to other Gulf countries It will strengthen the economic growth of Al Wafra . People will be able to commute to Kuwait City in 10 minutes by helicopters . Disadvantages The school will be badly affected It will bring an unwelcomed influx of traffic to the region . Why is 360 shopping centre in Kuwait described as monumental ? a- The centre contains copious shops b- b- it is a relaxing and luxurious place . c- There is also a state-of-the-art family entertainment centre . d- you can find techno hub , Solar Garden, restaurants and activities for everyone . How is the 360 shopping centre in Kuwait considered educational ? The family centre features the latest in edutainment technology using modern means of entertainment such as TV programmes , video games and music. Who can the 360 shopping centre in Kuwait appeal to ? Why ? It attracts various age groups because all people from different ages can go and spend a fruitful time . Why do you think building impressive buildings is important ? Because these buildings are described as monumental , educational and attract various age groups .

41 Mark these statements true () or false (X) then justify your decision: 1. The 360 mall in Kuwait is described as monumental . ( ) - .... 2. 360 mall has the largest cinema complex in Kuwait . ( ) - .... 3. 360 mall has only one eating option . ( ) - ..... .. 4. Building impressive buildings isn't important . ( ) - ..... ..

Vocabulary A ) Fill in the spaces with words from the list : { advocate \ venue \ governmental \ drill \ detrimental \ boutique } 1- A : What is the best place to hold the meetings ? B : There is no doubt that Kuwait international hotel is an ideal ... for conferences and business meetings. 2- A : Have they accepted the project ? B : Not yet , the managers . taking a more long-term view. 3- A : it is not a .issue . B : How come ! Who else can make laws . 4- A : These drugs are .. B : So , we must keep them away from children. 5- A : We must a hole here . B : No ! Dont . There are elect wires behind. 6- A : Please , show me a place where I can find fashionable clothes, shoes and jewellery? B : Go straight ahead , there is a modern.beside the post office . B) From a, b, c or d choose the correct the answer: 10- A : How many people will attend the party ? B : I've invited a lot of people to the party, but I'm a bit .. about their arrival . a -apprehensive b-chic c-cosy d- residential 11- A : What is meant by . B : It is a form of entertainment that is also educational a-council b- design c- edutainment 12- A : Can the sales meet its financial .? B : Of Course , why not ? a-Forecourt b-foundation c-framework 13- A : What is wrong with you ? You look pale . B: I'm worried that she'll get lost on the way. a-slightly b-apprehensively c-detrimentally 14- A : I dream of having a big house with a ..garden. B : Your dream may come true once you work hard . a-profitable b-public c-spacious 15- A : When will the delegates come ? B: They will ... is tomorrow . a-influx b-gourmand

d- expressionist

d- objective

d- profitably

d- renowned

c-predominance

d- concrete

42

From a , b , c and d choose the right definition : 12. A: What was his problem ? B : He voiced his concern about the standard of his students .
a- To express something in words .

b- to produce a strong feeling in someone . c- To make a hole in something using a special tool . d- to publicly recommend , support or suggest an idea. 13. A : Ramzis marathon race is tomorrow . B :Thats why he bought a sturdy walking boots last week. abcdHigh tec. Up to date very modern and cutting edge . Designed for people to live in. \ Inhabited. large in size, value or importance. powerful strongly and solidly built .

14. A : Didnt I tell you before to save your money and stop buying unnecessary things ? B : Dont worry , I bought them at affordable prices. abcdAnxious worried fearful that something bad will happen. Having a reasonable price . Elegantly and Stylishly fashionable modish . Giving a feeling of comfort , warmth and relaxation .

A : No one can make me change my mind . B : I know you well , your head is as hard as the concrete . a- A product made and sold by a particular store sort. b- A substance made by mixing together cement , sand, small stones and water . c- An open area \ a flat area in front of a large building . d- A person who enjoys eating large amounts of food . A : How can we benefit those who most need our help ? B :Why dont we collect donations for them ?
a- To receive an advantage ; profit ; game. b- To make a hole in something using a special tool .

c- To publicly recommend , support or suggest an idea. d- To produce a strong feeling in someone . A : What is a studio ? B : It is a room with special equipment where television or radio programmes are made . abcdRelated to the civil government of a country . The greater number or amount. A small room used for performance . Aim goal .

43

II Language Functions Unit 3 Guessing - It may be -May be -It might be.. -It cant be..

Inspiring architecture
-It could be .. -Perhaps. -It must be.. -I guess.. Stating advantages and disadvantages Making Comparisons Making suggestions R Units 1 & 2 Agreeing and disagreeing with a suggestions - Thats a good idea - No , I dont think so - That sounds good - I am not so sure -Why not ? - I dont think its a good idea. -Brilliant idea! - Im not really keen on that idea. -I agree Giving reasons -This is because. for this reason.. -because of - so that \ so as to Persuading

- I like

Expressing likes and dislikes - I dont like - I dont feel like

-Id love

Stating ones purpose -the purpose of.is. this..will consider.

- Cant I persuade you to -It would be great if we. -Oh, come on! Please Language Functions A /Match the following utterances with their responses

A
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Ive heard youre going to the Entertainment City next Friday. You look terribly tried. I think you should go to the doctor. Im in a hurry! I wont stop at the red traffic light. Although he hasnt got a driving license, he is using his fathers car. Do you like this vase? I bought it this morning. B ( ( ( ( ( ( ) No, Ill be all right soon. I want to take some rest. Thats all. ) Oh, please come in. Its nice to see you. ) Nonsense ! How could he make such a mistake ? ) It looks very nice on that table. But what about putting some flowers in it ? ) Oh, no. You may be punished for that. ) Yes. Why dont you come with me? B / Complete the missing parts of the exchanges below 1- A: lets go on a picnic. Suggest a place and things we may need. B: . 2- A: It was the best film I have ever seen. B:

44 Grammar assistant

Adjectives
The adjective is a word that qualifies a noun.

One syllable One syllable One syllable Two syllable Two syllable

Great Clear Small Beautiful Interesting

Greater ( than ) Clearer ( than ) Smaller ( than ) more beautiful( than ) more interesting( than )

( The ) greatest ( The ) clearest ( The ) smallest ( The ) most beautiful ( The ) most interesting

Irregular Adjectives.
bad ill good little much many old far worse worse better less more more elder farther more X less most X least as adj. as X not as adj. as Or not
Or

worst worst best least most most eldest farthest

Note : Note :

so adj. as

She is as tall as her sister . She is not as tall as her sister. She is not so tall as her sister.

Compound Adjectives
A compound adjective is formed when two or more adjectives work together to modify the same noun . These terms should be hyphenated to avoid confusion . eg. A street of two kilometers . = A two-kilometer street . eg. A car with four wheels . = A four-wheel car .

Adjectives ending in ing and ed


ed for someone eg. I was amazed when I saw the Kuwait Book Fair . ing for something eg. The Kuwait Book Fair is amazing .

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46

47

48

Choose the correct Adjectives ; 1. I enjoyed the movie. It was ( exciting excited ) 2. Mr. Ashraf is a very ( interesting interested ) teacher . The students ( enjoy enjoying ) his lessons. 3. We had a very ( tired tiring ) day yesterday. 4. This film is really ( bore boring ) . I got ( bored boring ) after fives minutes from its start. as (so) adjective as -----------/ affirmative sentences. ----- not so (as) adjective as --------/ negative sentences B- Re-write the following sentences according to the instructions in brackets: 1. He is tall. His father is tall. ( Use: as ----- as ) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2- She is not clever. Her mother is clever. ( Use: not so ------ as ) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3- Hamad is clever. Ali is stupid. ( Use: not so ------ as ) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4- Im quite tall but you are taller. ( Use: not so ------ as ) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5- My salary is high. His salary is high. ( Use: as ----- as ) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Rewrite these phrases using compound adjective and its meaning; 1. A hotel with seven stars.= 2. A journey of 20 kilometres . = 3. A meal with three courses.=. 4. A block of 44 storeys .=. 5. Our apartment has three bedrooms .= 6. Walking along the bridge takes ten minutes.= 7. The motorway into the city has six lanes.= 8. A game of football lasts 90 minutes .= Choose the right answer from a , b , c or d : 1 -A)-I think English is one of...................................... languages in the world today. B)-I can't agree more. a-important b- more important c-most important 2 -A)-How was-the chemistry test ? B)-It was ................... than last year's. a-difficult b-more difficult

d-the most important

c-most difficult

d-as difficult as

3- A)-What a bad restaurant ?! B)-Right you are. The fewer people go there, the ................................ a-good b-the best c-best

d-better

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4- A)-English is not easy. B)-Sure, but German is ................................ than English. a-much difficult b-most difficult c-so difficult 5- A)-This work needs experience. B)-That's because experience is ................................. teacher. a-good b-better c-best 6- A)-He can hardly breathe. B)-Isn't it............................. for him to stop smoking? a-good b-bad c-better Complete these sentences with the correct verb form :

d- much more difficult

d-the best

d-worse

{ look see watch - hear tell speak } 1-Can you ..me where to find his office ? 2-While I was . , you didnt .a word I said . 3-at the car there. 4-I your friend yesterday. 5-What do you like to ..on TV this evening?

50

Module 2

Free Time

Unit 4 Computer games

10th Grade 1st term 2ndPeriod \

Analogue adj. Animator n. Anti-reflective adj. Arcade n.

( of technology ) using physical quantity such as voltage , often


contrasted to digital technology . Compare digital

An artist who creates computer images .


Ex: Walt Disney is the most famous animator of feature-length films.

Incapable of reflecting light or other radiation


Ex: My lenses are Anti-reflective .

A type of computer game that was first popular in amusement


arcades ( an amusement arcade is a place where one plays games by putting coins in machines .) Ex: Amusement arcades are found in modern malls .

Artificial Intelligence n.

The theory and development of computers to things that require


human intelligence Ex: The study of how to produce machines such as the ability to understand language, recognize pictures, solve problems and learn is called Artificial Intelligence

Idle ( W B ) adjective Incredibly ( W B ) Adverb Increase v. Interpersonal adj. Bird of prey n. Bonus Adjective Breathtaking adjective Breakneck Adjective Built-in adj. Caller n. Compete verb

lazy and not willing to work


Ex: This student is bone idle (= very lazy) .

\ \ \ \

extremely - unusually
Ex: He was incredibly rich/angry/quick.

Arise in number , amount or degree


Ex: The cost of the project has increased dramatically/significantly since it began.

Of or relating to relationships of communication between people


Ex: The successful applicant will have excellent interpersonal skills

A predatory bird , distinguished by a hooked bill and sharp claws .


Ex: a bird, such as an eagle or a hawk , that kills and eats small birds and animals is called a bird of prey .
Describing something extra , especially as a reward for good performance

Ex: The company used to give discretionary bonus payments.

Astonishing or awe-inspiring in quality so as to take ones breath away


Ex: The view from the top of the mountain is breathtaking. breathtakingly adverb
Dangerously or extremely fast Ex: They were cycling along at breakneck speed/at a breakneck pace .

Forming a necessary part of a structure or device .


Ex: All the rooms have built-in cupboards/wardrobes

A person who makes a telephone call.


Ex: Some callers dont give their names .

To make efforts to win something by defeating others who are


trying to do the same . Ex: Both girls compete for their father's attention.

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Competitive Adjective Computer-friendly Adjective Console n. Convoluted Adjective Courageous Adjective Creature n. Discourse n. Drive n. Employ Verb

Relating to , characterized by competition involving competition


Ex: Acting is very competitive - you've got to really push yourself if you want to succeed. competitively adverb

Able to use or be used by a computer A computer especially designed for playing games on
a computer console


) (

Complicated and difficult to understand


Ex: His grammar explanations are terribly convoluted. convolution noun [ C usually plural ] Extremely brave Ex: It was courageous of her to challenge the managing director's decision.

A living thing \ animal


Ex: Rain forests are filled with amazing creatures.

Speaking and conversation


Ex: a discourse on/upon the nature of life after death discourteous adjective FORMAL

Device that allows a computer to read discs.


device for storing computer information a floppy / hard drive \ a DVD drive

To hire for work \ to have someone work or do a job for you and
pay them for it Ex: How many people does your company employ? employable adjective employee someone who is paid to work for someone else

Enable Verb Exclusive Adjective Helpline n. Glory seeker n. Hold button n. Joystick n.

To give ( someone or something ) the authority or means to do


something. Ex: Computerization should enable us to cut production costs by half.

limited to only one person or group of people


Ex: This room is for the exclusive use of guests. exclusivity noun [ U ] ( ALSO exclusiveness exclusively adverb
a telephone service providing advice and comfort to worried or unhappy people Ex: A new helpline is now available for people trying to stop smoking.

Someone who seeks glory or fame


Ex: He is a glory- seeker and never thinks of money .
A button that pauses a game and prevents the game from being used momentarily .

Ex: Just press the hold button to receive another call.

A lever that can be moved in several directions to control the


movement of an image on a computer . Ex: This game has a joystick which controls the players movements.

52

Keypad n. Mundane (WB ) adj. Mode n. Naturalistic adjective Out of shape (WB) ( Expression ) Perception n. Rival adj. Sensor n. Simulate v. Speech recognition n. Stripes n. Touchscreen n. Visual effects n. Wireless adjective Willpower n. Wizard n.

A miniature keyboard or set of buttons used to control an electronic device .

Ex: The calculators keypad needs reparing.

Lacking interest or excitement \ very ordinary and therefore not


interesting Ex: Mundane matters such as paying bills and shopping for food do not interest her.

An option allowing a change in the method of operation of a device


Ex: Each department in the company has its own mode of operation and none of them are compatible.

\ \

Derived from or imitating real life


Ex:Naturalistic art, literature, acting, etc. shows things as they really are.

Unfit and unhealthy


Ex: What is wrong with you ? You look out of shape .
The ability to see , hear or become aware of something through the senses

Ex: Drugs can alter your perception of reality. perceptive adjective perceptively adverb perceptiveness noun [ U ]

Competing with a person or thing for the same objective or for


superiority in the same field of activity . Ex: He beat his closest/nearest rival by 20 marks. rival verb [ T ] rivalry noun

a device that detects or measure a physical property and records ,


indicates or otherwise responds to it . Ex: The security device has a heat sensor which detects the presence of people and animals.

To imitate the character or feeling


Ex: In cheap furniture, plastic is often used to simulate wood.

The ability of a computer to identify and respond to the sounds


produced in human speech Ex: One of this Computer best options is the Speech recognition Option.

Long, narrow lines of colour


Ex: The zebra is a wild African horse with black and white stripes.

A display device that allows a user to interact with a computer by


touching areas on the screen . Ex: Voters in Georgia will use a touch-screen voting system.

The graphics , sound , etc. used in films and computer games


Ex: This film got two prizes on its visual effects .

without a cable without wires


Ex: This computer has a wireless connection.

The faculty by which a person decides on and initiates action


It took a lot of willpower to stay calm. Ex: To quit smoking you have to have a willpower.

A man who is very skilled in a field or activity


Ex: My brother is a computer wizard.

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Questions and their answers:


What might computer games be like in the future? a- They will be more realistic and naturalistic b- Games will be more convoluted c- Using mobile phone networks. What are the results of the constant changes in computer games ? They make game technology a rapidly developing business . What are the problems that might be occurred when improving the graphic computer games ? a- Employ hundreds of animators . b- Spending too much time on visual effects and forgetting about the quality of the games. Why do game characters have to become more intelligent ? What will the characters discourse be able to perform ? To be able to perform : a- Visual perception , b- speech recognition

&

c- decision making

Why will game designers be working hard in the future ? To compete with the success of the Nintendo Wii , which has been flying of the shelves since its release . What effect can playing computer games have on young people ? Discuss good and bad effects . Good effects : playing computer games can develop our imagination and modern computer games used in gyms can make us healthier and fitter . Bad effects : playing computer games for a long time wastes our time and may lead to many health problems like back pain , eye pain and headache . What is the job of the computer helpline assistant ? He helps people who have problems with computers. Why dont parents of teenagers want their children to spend too much time playing computer or video games ? Because they say it makes them idle and they get out of shape . The game designers say that traditional exercise machines , like the ones in gyms and fitness centers , are incredibly mundane to use . Why ? People get tired of them very quickly and so they dont exercise for very long . What are the benefits of using joystick games ? a- They can improve our level of fitness . b- players can build up their muscles

Computer games are detrimental to childrens social development .Do you agree or disagree ? Why or Why not ? I do agree because : a- Children lose family communications as they spend too much time alone playing these games . b- They suffer from a lot of healthy and social problems .

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Vocabulary A ) Fill in the spaces with words from the list : { analogue \ employ \ console \ prey \ willpower \ incredibly \ increased } 7- A : What type of machines is it ? I mean, is it ...or digital ? B : It is digital of course , dont you see the numbers ? 8- A : It is the first time for me to see such a fight ! B : This black one is a bird of it kills and eats small birds and animals. 9- A : You are very overweight , you should do something . B : Frankly, I don't have the to go on a diet. 10- A : Can't we ... someone as an assistant to help with all this paperwork ? B : I think it is a must now . 11- A : My computer ...is not working . B : Why dont you consult a computer expert ? 12- A : The number of injured people in yesterdays crash has dramatically. B : How many has been injured exactly ? 13- A : , no one was hurt in the accident. B : Oh! Really ! Are you sure ? B) From a, b, c or d choose the correct the answer: 1- A : How is this machine working ? I dont see any connections . B : I think the connections are all .. . a -courageous b- interpersonal c- wireless

d- bonus

2- A : It's difficult for a small company like yours to with our big company . B : It is not a matter of size . We make the best quality . a-compete b- simulate c-increase d- employ 3- A : Amusement ...are spread all over the town . B : Yes , they attract a great number of children . a-arcades b-modes c-callers 4- A : How was your exam like ? B: Terrible , it was full of long .. questions . a-convoluted b-built-in c-anti-reflective 5- A : Excuse me , How can I contact the programme . B : Dont worry, a new .. .. is available now for all people . a-helpline b-animator c-wizard

d- creature

d- breathtaking

d- sensor

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From a , b , c or d choose the right definition : 1. A: Most zoos try to exhibit animals in naturalistic settings. B : That makes them live a life not completely different from their original environment .
a- Lacking interest or excitement. b- Derived from or imitating real life . c- limited to only one person or group of people .

d- Extremely brave. 2. A : Why did the accident happen ? B : I think he was driving along at breakneck speed .
abcdDangerously or extremely fast. Astonishing or awe-inspiring in quality so as to take ones breath away . Of or relating to relationships of communication between people. Extremely.

3. A : Excuse me sir , What is meant by direct discourse? B : It means direct speech .


a- Speaking and conversation . b- Device that allows a computer to read discs. c- A computer especially designed for playing games.

d- A person who makes a telephone call. 4. A : Computerization should enable us to cut production costs by half. B : We all hope so .
a- To hire for work

b- To imitate the character or feeling c- Arise in number , amount or degree d- To give ( someone or something ) the authority or means to do something. 5. A : Unemployment has risen again this year . B : Yes , Almost half of the workforce are now idle. a- lazy and not willing to work
b- Describing something extra , especially as a reward for good performance c- Dangerously or extremely fast

d- Forming a necessary part of a structure or device . 6. A : Why do you look out of shape? B : This is because I go on a severe diet these days . don't respect my opinion s . I'm not used to that.
a- A button that pauses a game and prevents the game from being used momentarily . b- a telephone service providing advice and comfort to worried or unhappy people.

c- Unfit and unhealthy . d- Able to use or be used by a computer .

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Language Functions

Unit 4
Talking about the future Planning for the future -I will - I am + V + ing - I am going to - I plan to - I'm determined to - I've made up my mind Predicting& Guessing - I expect - I think - I predict - probably \ possibly Asking for Advice - What do you think I should do ? - What would you do if you were me ? - What would you do if you were in my position?

Computer games
Stating advantages and Disadvantages Expressing Opinion (agreement disagreement ) Planning and writing instructions Giving Advice R Identifying a problem - Hi . Im calling about - I was + V+ing .when.. Suggesting Solutions - Why dont you ? - Have you tried .? - What \ How about ..+ V + ing ?

A) match the utterances in A with responses in B: A 1. This bracelet is a model of our latest design. 2. Have you finished repairing my car? 3. That was a marvellous meal. 4. This old castle looks very interesting. 5. Wheres that noise coming from? Im frightened. B ( ) Yes, it was out of this world. ( ) It must be the pilot putting the wheels down. He is an expert, so dont worry. ( ) Im afraid not; we havent got any spare parts yet. ( ) Dont be ridiculous. Of course I am. ( ) Yes, it must be at least 200 years old. ( ) I dont think it goes with any dress Ive got. B) Complete the missing parts of the following dialogues: 1- A: I fancy going on a picnic next Friday. B: . 2- A: What do you think of this coat ? B: . 3- A: You are probably right. Its all wrong, isnt it ? B: . 4- A: Come on! Lets go for a walk. B: . 5- A: Why dont you sit down and relax, my dear? B: . 6- A: Would you like to have dinner with me tonight? B: .

57 Grammar assistant The will future form Statements : We will (well) get home before six oclock.

Questions : Who will win the next race ? Negative forms : Im sure it will not ( wont ) rain tomorrow . Use \ Meaning We can use ( expect think predict ) + that with the will future form I expect (that ) it will be sunny tomorrow . I dont think ( that ) I will pass the exam. We can use the adverbs ( definitely probably possibly ) to show how likely we think something is . Laptop computers will definitely get cheaper. We can use may instead of will if we are not sure about the prediction . It may be sunny tomorrow. The going to future form Statements : Reem is going to win next time . Questions : What are you going to do at the weekend ? Negative forms : Im not going to do any work this evening.

Use \ Meaning
We use going to future form for plans and intentions : Im going to start my own business next year. The present continuous future form
Form

verb to be ( am is are ) + Verb + ing

Statements : Im ( am ) designing my own website . Questions : Are you studying law at university ? Negative forms : He isnt learning to ride .

Use \ Meaning
We use the present continuous for future arrangements we have already made : He is having his interview on Tuesday next week . The more the more We use comparatives with the more ..the more .to say that things change at the same time , or that two different quantities are related . The more I study , the more I want to learn .

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CONTRAST

It is often possible to use either tense:


I'm seeing them tomorrow. I'm going to see them tomorrow.

The going to future is very common, especially in conversation.


If there is doubt about which of the two futures to use, it is better to use going to.

With the verbs go and come, it is better to use the present continuous.
Present continuous + time word is generally used for plans arranged for a particular time in the future.

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Write these sentences, putting the verbs into the future simple. 1- I'm sure he (not be)late. I'm sure he won't be late, 2- [I open) the window for you? Shall I open the window for you? 3 - How long (the journey take?) 4- 1 suppose (she be) in London next week. 6- John (phone) your office for you. . 7- (There be) a lot of people at the meeting? .. 8- What time (the race start?) 9- He (never agree) to your idea. 10- You (never see) your money again. going to-future plan, and will- sudden decision CONTRAST

In conversation, going to is often used to indicate a future plan that has been made before the time of speaking:
I'm going to see Pat tomorrow - we arranged it this morning.

Will is often used to indicate a sudden decision, made at the time of speaking:
How can we get to the airport? I know! I'll borrow Sue's car! going to and will CONTRAST

Sometimes it is possible to use either going to or will, but at other times only one of them is correct:
going to 1 future plan decided future result from 2 present evidence before time of speaking Will 1 -future willingness 2- sudden decision made at time of speaking 3- offer/suggestion Ex : I'm going to leave next week. Ex :He's going to fall off his bike. Ex : I won't do it. Ex : I'll phone her now, Ex :Shall I open the door for you?

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going to 1 neutral future fact1 or will 2 first conditional1 3 when/as soon as, etc.

Ex : Danny's going to be eight next week. Ex : Danny will be eight next week. Ex : If it rains, we're going to leave. Ex : If it rains, we'll leave. Ex : I'm going to phone when I arrive. Ex : I'll phone when I arrive.

Practice
Write the correct form of going to or will to complete the dialogue. LAURA: What are you doing this weekend, Jan? TANYA: I ..'m going to see (see) a new play tomorrow at the Royal Court Theatre - 'Day of the Flood'. LAURA: Have you got the tickets yet? TANYA: NO, I (get) them this afternoon, actually. Would you like to come? LAURA: Oh, thank you, that would be nice. TANYA: OK, I (get) you a ticket too. LAURA: Great! what time does it start? TANYA: Eight o'clock, but we (all meet) in the Green Cafe at 7.15 LAURA:OK, I .(meet) you in the cafe, but, er.. I (be) there about half-past seven. TANYA: That's fine. LAURA: Oh, one other thing . I've got no money at the moment . I.................. (pay) for the ticket on Saturday. Is that OK? TANYA: Yes, that's OK, no problem. LAURA: .(you eat) in the cafe, or just have a cup of coffee? TANYA: Just a coffee I think ... LAURA: Look, (we go) to a restaurant after the show? I know a very good Chinese restaurant ... TANYA: That's a good idea . I .(phone) the others and see if they want to come too. LAURA: Good, and then I (book) a table .Great! I. (see) you tomorrow.

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when + Present Simple to describe the future

FORM
.

when + When As soon as Before After If / Unless

present simple

future simple

I see him

I'll phone you.

USE
The present simple is used in clauses of time and condition (after when, as soon as, if ,until etc.) to refer to the future. Notes

The present perfect can also be used with when, etc: I'll speak to you when I've finished. Going to or the imperative can be used, when appropriate, instead of the future simple:
Ex : I've decided what to do. I'm going to talk to him when he gets here. Phone me when he arrives. The more the more Choose the right option : 1- A)-...................... the teacher is, the faster his students understand his explanations. B)-I couldn't agree more. a-best b-better c-the better d-the best 2- A)-What do you advise me to do, doctor ? B)-The less you eat,...................... you get. a-healthy b-healthier c-the healthiest

d-the healthier

3 - A)I find history too difficult. B)-Not at all The more you study, the ....................... you will find it. a-easiest b-the easiest c-easy d-easier 4- A)-How can you explain this ? B)-The higher we climb oxygen there is to breathe. a-the less b-the least c-less d-little. Complete the sentences using the more the more.. 1. The more realistic games become , 2. I think that the more games I play , .. 3. I predict that the more .., 4. The more I read books ,.

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Module 2 Free Time Unit 5 Sports psychology 10th Grade 1st term 2nd Period

able-bodied adjective adversity noun aggression noun

Fit strong and healthy ; not physically disabled


Ex: All able-bodied young men were forced to join the army. the able-bodied plural noun

\ \ \ \

Difficulty ; misfortune
Ex: The road to happiness is paved with adversities.

Hostile or violent behaviour or attitudes towards another ;


readiness to attack or confront Ex: Some types of dogs are bred for aggression. aggressively adverb

aggressive adjective application noun badminton noun brave adjective cowardly adjective determination Noun

Behaving in an angry and violent way towards another person


Ex: Men tend to be more aggressive than women.

A formal , usually written , request for something such as a job or


club membership Ex: I've sent off applications for four different jobs.

a sport in which two or four people hit a shuttlecock (= a light


object with feathers) over a high net Ex: My favourite sport is badminton.

Not afraid of danger


Ex: She was very brave to learn to ski at fifty.

Lacking courage
Ex: This was a particularly brutal and cowardly attack.

Firmness of purpose ; resoluteness

\ the ability to continue trying to do something, although it is very difficult Ex: She has a great determination to succeed. See also self-determination

decline Verb easy going adj. equestrian adj.

To decrease ; to become fewer or smaller


Ex: His interest in the project declined after his wife died.

Not easily upset or annoyed


an easy-going attitude/manner a friendly, easy-going type of guy

1-

2Ex: They plan to hold the Olympics' equestrian events in another part of the city. extrovert noun feather noun

Connected with the riding of horses a person who rides horses, especially as a job or very skillfully
\an energetic, happy person who enjoys .X introvert

an out going personality

being with other people Ex: Most sales people are extroverts

One of the soft light things that covers a birds body


Ex: The bird ruffled its feathers.

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feedback
noun

Advice or information about something done


Ex: Have you had any feedback from customers about the new products ?

\ \ \

handsome adjective interpersonal (WB) adjective


(intrapersonal )

Attractive
Ex: She is a handsome woman in her fifties

connected with relationships between people


Ex: The successful applicant will have excellent interpersonal skills .

introvert adjective gymnastics noun member Noun mentality noun motivation noun navigate( W B ) verb

someone who is shy, quiet and typically self-centered person .


X extrovert introversion noun

Developing or displaying physical agility and coordination .


Ex: The US women's gymnastics team is the best in the world.

An individual belonging to a group such as a club or team


Ex: Car parking facilities are for members only.

Attitude or way of thinking


Ex: can't understand the mentality of people who hurt defenseless animals.

mentally adverb

The general desire of someone to do something


Ex: There seems to be a lack of motivation among the staff.

motivational adjective

To travel on a set route , especially carefully or with difficulty


Ex: Sailors have special equipment to help them navigate.

navigation noun navigational adjective neurologist noun Observe verb Opponent noun Paralympics noun Personal trainer noun (WB) Predator noun Phenomenon noun

navigator noun

a doctor who studies the nervous system


neurology noun Ex: He works as a Neurologist in Al-Rashid Hospital.

To notice or perceive something and register it as being significant.


Ex: Children learn by observing adults.

a person who disagrees with something and speaks against it or


tries to change it Ex: He is a political opponent.

An international athletic competition for disabled athletes .


Ex: The Paralympics happen every four years .

A fitness coach who works

one on one Ex: Sandy works out with her personal trainer every week.

An animal that tries to eat other animals


Ex: Lions and wolves are two kinds of predators .

A fact or situation that is observed to exist or happen , especially


one whose cause or explanation is in question ( plural phenomena ) Ex: Gravity is a natural phenomenon.

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Physiotherapy noun rehabilitation noun sauna noun self-discipline noun

the treatment that uses special physical exercises to treat injuries


and diseases .
( INFORMAL physio , US physical therapy ) Ex: She is a Physiotherapy specialist .

The helping of someone to live a healthy life again .


Ex: The drug rehabilitation clinic is in our town .

A small room using hot-air for cleaning and refreshing the body .
Ex: You should have/go for/take a sauna

The ability to focus and achieve your goals and resist temptations .
Ex: You need a lot of self-discipline when you're doing research

work on your own. self-disciplined adjective shy adj. solarium noun sportsmanship noun stimulation noun

Nervous or uncomfortable with other people


Ex: She is shy and obedient .

A room with tanning beds , used for an artificial suntan


plural solariums or solaria

Behavior in sport that is fair , honest and polite .


Ex: Athletes should gain the spirit of sportswoman ship.

The interest or motivation in something


Ex: While she was at home looking after her children, she felt

deprived of intellectual stimulation. teammate noun underpart noun stamina ( W B ) noun virtue Noun vividly adv. wingspan noun

a player on the same team a fellow member of a team


Ex: He is my teammate we used to be together in the same team.

The underside of an animals body


Ex: Its underpart is black in colour.

the physical and mental strength over a long period of time


Ex: The triathlon is a great test of stamina.

\ \

Behavior showing high moral standards .


X vice Ex: Patience is a virtue.

Lively and vigorously


Ex: Despite being seventy , she walks vividly .

The maximum distance across the wings of an aircraft , bird or


other flying animal measured from tip to tip
Ex: The planes wingspan is very big.

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Questions and their answers:

1- What are the Paralympics ? It is an international sports competition for people with physical disabilities . 2- Paralypics are important because.. a-They draw people's attention to disabled. b-They give power and self confidence to disabled. 3- What skills are important to athletes , whatever their abilities ? a- patience b- sacrifice c- self-discipline 4- Describe the Kuwait Disabled Sports Club . a- It has more than 1,500 members b- The track and field stadium is equipped with a digital screen and a Physiotherapy section. 5- Do you enjoy watching big sporting events , like the Olympic Games ? Justify your answer . Yes , I enjoy watching them very much because unlike before sports now are like science . 6- What are the pressures of being a world champion ? a-The lifestyle changes completely . b- A big change in the champion's behaviour . 7- What do different sportsmen need to do to stay motivated ? a- They need to be excited. b- They need to acquire open skills and lots of unpredictability . c- They need to arouse the spirit of sportsmanship. 8- Kuwait has done a lot to encourage and motivate disabled. Mention some. a- building The Kuwait Disabled Sports Club. b-organizing competitions for them and taking part in international competitions. 9- What is meant by motivation ? It means the interest and desire caused by someone to others to do something well.

10- " Your personality can affect your choice of a sport ".Explain. -If you are extrovert, you will choose a sport where you interact with others, like football. -If you are introvert, you will choose a sport where you deal with fewer number of people like volleyball.

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11-To join a sports club, you should -Fill in an application form. -Choose a certain sport that suit your body.
12-To be a sports champion you need some Psychological factors or mental factors , why ?

Because these factors can help or prevent sportspeople from being in the right frame of mind to perform well . 13-Write some of the Psychological factors or mental factors that sportspeople need to perform well. a- Motivation b- feedback 14-Give examples to some direct aggression and some indirect aggression sports . Justify your answers. ( Your personality can affect your choice of sports and performance .How ?) Some extroverts like contact sports in which they can show direct aggression , such as boxing and football . Introverts are usually shy and prefer sports with fine movements , closed skills and regular routine such as golf and they involve indirect aggression like volleyball . 15-Which sport do you find the most exciting? What are the Psychological factors that make it exciting? Marathon racing , the Psychological factors are a- tolerance b- decision making 16-Write the names of two famous types of racing . a- Formula One b- Marathon racing
17-Which is more important to an athlete, natural ability or determination to succeed? Why?

An athlete needs both natural ability and determination because when he fails to connect these forces , then his success is not guaranteed . 18- How should a boxer be ? a- Fit b- strong c- tough d- determined e- agile

19-Compare between the marathon racer and the other sprinters?


a) Sprinters : receive more recognition , They run just for seconds. b) Marathon racers should work harder , They run for hours , They have personal trainers

20- What is the job of a secretary in the sports club? a) Taking the members' personal information b) Knowing their level in the game c) Informing members about the rules

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State whether the following statements are TRUE or FALSE, then justify your answer:

1. Fasting helps athletes to perform better. (


2. Kuwait has always been one of the leading countries to help the disabled. 3.Despite all the safety precautions, Formula One racing can be dangerous. ( (

)
) ) )

4.Formula One driver should be Courageous , aware and determined to win. ( 5. The psychological factors are not important in sports . ( 6. Sportspeople consider feedback important. ( 7. A person's personality don't affect his/her choice of sports. ( 8. Introverts are usually daring. (
Vocabulary A ) Fill in the spaces with words from the list : { member - cowardly - determination declined teammate - Phenomenon } 1- A : Do you know that man over there , he is smiling at you . B : Wait ! Of course , he is my . 2- A : Dont you notice that the lion looks like a cat ? B : This is simply because The lion is a of the cat family. 3- A : He looks sad and not interested . Why so? B : His interest in the project after his wife died. 4- A : The Israeli soldiers attacked Gaza Fiercely . B : This was a particularly brutal and . attack. 5- A : Who discovered the force of gravity ? B : Newton discovered that the Gravity is a natural ... 6- A : I doubt he is able to achieve his goals . B : Dont say so , he is a man of fierce and ruthless ..

) ) ) )

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From a , b , c or d choose the best definition : 1. A: Mona left her job and started her own business. B: Yes, It was a brave decision to quit her job.
a- Behaving in an angry and violent way towards another person b- Not afraid of danger c- Lacking courage d- Not easily upset or annoyed

2. A : What does the ball of the badminton look like ? B : It is a light object with feathers.
a- A room with tanning beds , used for an artificial suntan b- a doctor who studies the nervous system c- a sport in which two or four people hit a shuttlecock d- Difficulty ; misfortune

3. A : As I see , he is not extrovert. B : Yes, exactly , he doesnt enjoys being with other people .
abcdan out going personality \an energetic, happy person who enjoys being with other people One of the soft light things that covers a birds body Advice or information about something done Developing or displaying physical agility and coordination .

4. A :Where will they take him for treatment ? B : In a drug rehabilitation clinic , of course .
a- Behavior showing high moral standards .

b- the physical and mental strength over a long period of time c- The underside of an animals body d- The helping of someone to live a healthy life again .

5. A : Do you think she likes him ? B : I think so , she gave him a shy smile.
a- Nervous or uncomfortable with other people b- someone who is shy, quiet and typically self-centered person . c- connected with relationships between people d- Connected with the riding of horses

6. A : How well is he at school ? B: He's a bright enough student , he just lacks motivation.
abcda person who disagrees with something and speaks against it or tries to change it The general desire of someone to do something Attitude or way of thinking Developing or displaying physical agility and coordination .

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B) From a, b, c or d choose the correct the answer: 1. A : The road to happiness is paved with . B : I totally agree with you . a -virtue b- adversity c- wingspan

d- mentality

2- A :Where will they plan to hold the Olympics' . events B : They plan to hold it in Bahrain. a- able-bodied b- introvert c- equestrian d- aggressive 3- A : I think scientists have the upper hand in the world and control it nowadays . B : That s wrong the role of scientists is mainly to . and describe the world, not to try to control it. a-observe b-decline c- navigate d- motivate 4- A : What should we do to join the English Summer School ? B: Fill in this ..form first . a-solarium b-stimulation c-sportsmanship

d- application

5- A : What qualifications needed for that job ? B : First and foremost applicants must have excellent .. skills . a-handsome b-easy going c-interpersonal d- brave

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Language Functions

Study the following :


Asking and answering Questions Giving istructions Expressing opinions ( agreement \ Disagreement ) Interviewing Expressing Gratitude Checking information Responding on the telephone Greeting and enquiring on the telephone

Repeated

Justifying ones answer - Because - so that . - Because of - In order to - so as to - In order that

Requesting Politely Could you please.? Can you please? Would you, please ? Would you mind + V. + ing ? Id be grateful if you would.? Id like to. Do you mind? Can I? May I? Will you.? Do you mind

A ) Match the utterances in A with responses in B: A 01. My car! Somebody has stolen it. 02. Somebody ate 27 chickens. 03. Some wild animals are good to eat. 04. We need new sources of food. 05. I feel red and unhappy. A 06. The sea waves were very strong. 07. Your house is too small. 08. We are planning to go to London. 09. He is very fat. 10. Im hungry; are you ? ( ( ( ( ( ( B ) I dont believe you. ) But we have to examine them. ) Why dont you travel somewhere ? ) You should report it to the police. ) I feel great. ) You are right. B

( ) we are going to buy a bigger one. ( ) I prefer to go to Cairo this year. ( ) thats why the boy sank. ( ) Yes, I am. Lets go to a restaurant. ( ) he should eat less sweets. ( ) here you are. Anything else ? B ) Complete the missing parts of the exchanges below : 1.A: How do you like this camera, son ? B: . 2.A: SO, you like it very much. Im going to buy it for you. B: .

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Write what you would say in the following situations: 1-It's windy outside and your friend wants to go for a walk. 2-Your teacher said something that you didn't hear well. 3-You can't deal with your new calculator, seek your brother's advice. 4-Your sister asks you to make a new e-mail for her . 5-It's a holiday today, the family doesn't know where to spend it.

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Form Questions to the following statements : 1- I play football on Fridays. ( When ) 2- Last week I met my cousin . (When ) 3- We stayed three hours in the cinema. ( How long ) 4-The street is 40 metres wide. ( How wide ) 5- He is playing in the playground. ( Where ) 6- He is looking for his dictionary. ( What ) 7- The girl with the red jacket answered well. ( Which ) 8- Your wife telephoned you . ( Who ) 9- He goes to the cinema twice a week. ( How often )

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10- He couldnt come because he was ill. ( Why ) 11- It is 40 kilometre to Jahrah. ( How far ) 12- They went to New York . 13- I saw Naji today. 14- He comes to Cairo once a month. 15- They come by bus . 16- They went to the museum yesterday. 17-- I eat two apples a day. 18- This is Toms car. 19- I bought a T-shirt. 20- The boys have been waiting an hour at the bus stop. 21 -He didn't lose weight because he refused to go on a diet. ( Ask a question ) .......................................................................................................................................................................? 22-He paid KD 4QQO for his Toyota. ( Complete ) How.................................................................................................................................................................? 23 -The company deals in leisure goods. ( Ask a question ) ? 24-They went to New York via London .. ( Make a question ) ? 25 -The peace conference will begin next month. ( Make a question ) ? 26-We stayed in a first class hotel during our last holiday. ( Make a question ) ........................................................................................................................................................ ? 27-He had to walk six miles before reaching the station. ( Ask aquestion ) .............................................................................................................................................. ........ ? 28-They have been swimming since 4 o'clock. ( Ask a question ) ....................................................................................................................................... .................... ?

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29-It's nearly 35 kilometres to Jahra. ( Complete ) -How.............................................................................................................................................. ? 30-It takes half an hour to finish this work . ( Ask a question ) ......................................................................................................................................................? 31 -There are only twenty chickens and a lot of rice ! ! ( Complete ) How.................................................................................................................... ? 32-The tallest tower is 1 87 meters high. ( Ask a question ) ..................................................................................................................... ? 33 -He does his work quietly and perfectly. ( Ask a question ) .................................................................................................................................................... ? 3 4- We sometimes go to the cinema in our area. ( Ask a question ) ............................................................................................................................... ? 3 5 -It's too hot and humid in summer. (Complete ) -What .....................................................................................................................? 36- We met an old friend at the supermarket. ( Ask a question ) ......................................................................................................................? 37-She goes to bed at 10 o 'clock exactly. ( Ask a question ) .......................................................................................................................................................? 38-Al-Arabi team won the Cup Final last year. ( Complete ) What....................................................................................................................................................?

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Question Tags It is a good idea , ........................ ? It is not a good idea , ..................... ? They are running , ....................... .? They are not running , .....................? She was playing volley , ...................? She was not playing , .......................? They were eating , .......................... ? Hesham he Amal she cat it cats \ Boys they Hassan is a great man , ? Amani can't speak English ,? Israel is a terrorist country , ..? Dogs can swim ,.? doesn't don't didn't Ali sleeps early ,....? Monkeys like dates ,.? Haidi traveled to Syria ,? Order To be more polite we use ( will you )with the imperative Look at that , ..? Stop fooling me , .. ? Let us go , .? Dont tell Ali , .. ? Never smoke here , . ? : ( s ) ( ) : / / /

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Special cases Im arent I

I am a good boy , arent I ? d better = had better Youd better stay , hadnt you? d + rather = would rather Id rather stay at home , wouldnt I ? d + P.P = had Hed finished the work , hadnt he? s + P.P = has + P.P shes bought a car , hasnt she ? Suggestions Lets play chess , shall we ? Use there after there was there were- there is there are There is a new course out now , isnt there? : ( Scarcely , hardly , barely , rarely , seldom, never, impossible , few , little ) Examiners were seldom unkind , were they ? Youve never been to London , have you ? It happens so rarely , does it ?

85

Add question tags to the following


1- Youve met Fadi ,.? 2- They wont be late , ..? 3- Mary left a message ..? 4- The boys are listening to music , .? 5- He can speak English ,. 6- I am writing English, ? 8- He has never gone there alone ,. ? 9- There isnt time for another game , ? 10- Omar hadnt any luck ,..? 11- They look for trouble ,.. ? 12- Let us have fun,. ? 13- Im afraid Im little late ,.? 14- Open the door ,.? 15- We must not leave so soon ,.? 16- Ali should be here ,...? 17- Youd better do that ,? 18- Youd rather sleep,.? ?

19-They usually visit us,? 20-I cant go to the cinema every week,.? 21-Salim always takes part in the school competitions,.? 22 -They proved to be the best pupils, ....... ..........................?
24 -He never says "No " to danger , ....... ..........................? 26-Mona used to buy a new dress for each party, ...........................? 27-I'm your teacher of English , ....... ..........................? 28-Let's go out for a walk, ....... ..........................? 29-Let us move t6':ahother place, ............................? 30- Give me a cup of water, please, .......................? 32-They have dinner at nine o'clock, ..........................? 33-He has to leave immediately, ..................................? 34-They need more care, ......................................?

86 35- We needn't come earlier, .......................................? 36- I'd better go, ...........................? 37-She'd rather change her car, ................................? 39-They had had the same experience before , ....... ..........................? 40-Look ! He's coming over there, ....... ..........................? 41-They never have lunch at one o'clock, ......................................? 42-Don't wait for him any more, .................... ..........? 43-I'd prefer to sleep early and get up early, ................................? 44-I'm not late today, .................... .......? 45-Wehad a wonderful time at the party, .....................................? 46- You've never been in London, ..............................? 47-He promised not to do the same tiling again, ............................? 48-lf you suspect him, you can phone the police, ...........................? 49-There are a lot of irresponsible people everywhere, .. ....... ..........................? 50 -We never need waste time, ...............................? 51-We dare say the truth, ......................................? 52-Rashid and Faisal will be here tonight, .......... ....... ..........................? 53- You'd better prepare for your exam , ....... ..........................? 54-I'm ready for the race, ....... ..........................? 55- You father won't agree to let you go on a voyage, .................................? 57-She does her work efficiently, ...........................? 58-This is not a no smoking area, ..........................? 59-1 wonder if you could lend me your tape recorder, .................................? 60- It is too difficult to be answered ,.?

87
Module 2 Free Time Unit 6 Nature 10th Grade 1st term 2nd Term Period \ \

Adjacent ( adj.) Aggressive ( adj.)

very near, next to, or touching adjoining something else


Ex: They work in adjacent buildings.
behaving in an angry and threatening way , as if you to fight or attack someone .

Ex: Men tend to be more aggressive than women. aggressively / adverb aggression noun aggressor noun

Bed out phrasal verb Call ( WB ) noun Carbon monoxide noun Cleanup noun Conservation noun

to transfer a plant from a pot or seed tray to a garden plot


Ex: May is the time to bed out the geraniums.

The characteristic sound of a bird or other animal


Ex: The whale has a very distinctive call.

The poisonous gas produced when carbon , especially in petrol ,


burns in a small space . Ex: Plants absorb carbon monoxide from the atmosphere.

The removal of waste and rubbish from land and returning it to its
natural state . Ex: It's time you gave your bedroom a good clean-up.

the protection of natural things , such as animals, to prevent them


from being destroyed . Ex: wildlife conservation conservationist noun conservative adjective

Deserve verb

To be worthy of something especially as a reward or punishment .


Ex: After all that hard work, you deserve a holiday. deserved adjective deservedly adverb

Effluent noun Exotic adj.

liquid waste or sewage discharged into a river or the sea


Ex: Effluents from local factories are finding their way into the river.

unusual and related to a foreign country


exotic flowers/food/designs exotically adverb exotica plural exoticism noun

Fauna noun Fence off phrasal verb Fierce ( adj.)

the animals of a particular region , habitat or geological period


Ex: An expedition to explore the flora and fauna of Horn church Wood .

to enclose a space with a fence


Ex: The hill had been fenced off to stop animals grazing on it.

Angry or ready to attack

\ a fierce attack/battle Ex: Two men were shot during fierce fighting last weekend. fierceness noun fiercely adverb

Finance verb

To provide funding for a person or enterprise


Ex: The local authority has refused to finance the scheme.

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Flora noun

All the plants of a particular region , habitat or geographical period


flora and fauna plural Ex: The flora and fauna of a place are its plants and animals. floral adjective

Genus ( WB ) noun Global adjective

One of the groups into which scientists divide animals or plants ; it is


similar than a species and larger than a family . plural genera

Of or related to the whole world


Ex: a global catastrophe/problem globally adverb globalism noun globalization noun globalize verb globalist noun

Greenery noun Hectare noun Herbivore noun

Green foliage , growing plants or vegetation


EX : Greenery is the government first aim for this month .

\
\

A metric unit of square measure equal to 100 acres ( 2.471 acres or


10000 square meters ) Ex: This area will be sold by the meter not the hectare .

An animal that feeds on plants


Ex: Cows and sheep are herbivores. X carnivore ( an animal that eats meat ) Ex: Lions and tigers are carnivores.

Hostile adjective Hunting noun Imperative adjective

unfriendly ; antagonistic
Ex: I'm not hostile to (= against) the idea of change as such. hostility noun

\ \ \ \

The activity of chasing and killing wild animals


Ex: Hunting rare animals is considered a capital crime nowadays.

of vital importance - ; crucial


Ex: The president said it was imperative that the release of all hostages be secured.

Mammal noun

A warm-blooded animal

\ any animal of which the female gives birth to babies, not eggs, and feeds them on milk from her own body Ex: Humans, dogs, elephants and dolphins are all mammals, but birds, fish and crocodiles are not.

Marsh noun Nest noun On behalf of phrasal noun

An area of low- lying land that is flooded in wet seasons or at high


tide , and typically remains waterlogged at all times Ex: At the mouth of the river is a large area of marsh.

a structure made by a bird for lying eggs and sheltering its young
a bird's nest \ a rat's nest Ex: Cuckoos are famous for laying their eggs in the nests of other birds.

In the interests of a person , group or principle


Ex: On behalf of the entire company, I would like to thank you for all your work.

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Pesticide ( WB ) noun Poacher ( WB ) noun Propagation Noun Proud adjective

a chemical substance used to kill harmful insects, small animals


Ex: The pesticides that farmers spray on their crops kill pests but they can also damage people's health. Compare( herbicide ( ; ) insecticide )

someone who catches and kills animals illegally


Ex: There should be strict law to prevent poachers from killing animals.


\ \

The breeding of plants and animals by natural processes


Propagate ( verb )

feeling of happiness as a result of something you have achieved


Ex: You must be very proud of your son. See also houseproud proud adjective , adverb proudly adverb

Sanctuary noun Solar power noun Stubborn adjective

A place for refugee or safety usually singular protection or a safe


place, especially for someone or something being chased or hunted Ex: Illegal immigrants found/sought/took sanctuary in a local church.

Power of the sun


Ex: Japan is the country which makes the most use of Solar Power.

Determined not to change your mind , especially inspite of a good


reason to do so . Ex: They have massive rows because they're both so stubborn. stubbornly adverb stubbornness noun

Sustenance Noun Tame adjective Testing device noun Toxin noun Underpart ( WB ) noun Vegetation Noun

food and drink regarded as a source of strength ; nourishment


Ex: During this freezing weather, the food put out by householders is the only form of sustenance that the birds have.

Not dangerous or frightening ; domesticated


Ex: After a few months' contact the monkeys become very tame. X WILD tame verb

Something used to check an experiment


Ex: They depended on an advanced testing device to get better results.

\
\

Chemical that has a negative effect on the body


Ex: Toxion that comes out from these chimnys may kill birds .

The underside of an animals body Plants considered collectively , especially those found in a particular
area or habitat Ex: The railway track will have to be cleared of vegetation if it is to be used again.

Wasteland noun Wave farm


Widespread (WB ) adjective

an unused area of land that has become barren or overgrown


Ex: The car was dumped in a stretch of wasteland in the south of the city.

A collection of 40 wave machines Found or distributed over a large area


Ex: The campaign has received widespread support.

90 Set Books Unit 6

1- How important do you think it is for countries to protect animals and wild birds in the modern world ? a- The wild should be preserved so we don't lose any more precious creatures . b- Wild life in general is essential for our life , so losing them means losing life itself. 2- Give some simple instructions and guidelines for Children to keep animals and wild life. Don't hurt or frighten animals Be careful of their homes Look but don't touch. Don't trap or catch animals Don't drop litter Keep your environment clean

3- What are the threats to animals and birds in their natural environment? ( What things threaten animals and cause them to be extinct ? ) a- people hunting them( poachers ). b- the use of pesticides d- people are building roads through the forests e- Cutting trees

c- forest fires

4- How was Al-Jahra Pools Nature Reserve in Kuwait formed ? They were formed from effluent waste flowing from the nearby town of Al-Jahra and this waste has now become a significant environmental site . 5- What makes Al-Jahra Pools Nature Reserve in Kuwait the best bird watching sites ? a- It has become a crucial sanctuary for birds. b- You can see rare birds from all over the world. 6- What can bird watchers see in Al-Jahra Pools Nature Reserve in Kuwait? ( Many animals come to live at Al-Jahra Pools Nature Reserve such as: ) a) rare animals
d)Migrated birds .

b) rare plants

c ) A variety of buzzards , eagles , vultures and harriers

d ) Rich vegetation .

7- Al-Jahra Pools Nature Reserve in Kuwait offers vital protection for birds in Kuwait and in the Middle East .Explain . a- It is fenced off to provide refuge from hunting . b- Two full-time guards monitor the reserve. 8- What are the results of protecting Al-Jahra Pools Nature Reserve in Kuwait ? ( What has Al Jahra Pools Nature Reserve been a crucial centre for? ) The reserve has become a crucial centre for conservation , propagation education and research . 9- What does WWF stand for ? What is the work of the WWF ?
(World Wildlife Fund ) is a global organization which works to stop the destruction of the natural world.

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10-Why are birds and butterflies in danger in big cities ? Because of carbon monoxide from cars , buses and motorbikes there. 11-How can you \ government \ WWF prevent the wild life ( the natural world ) from destruction ? (We can help protecting wild animals in many ways: ) (How does the WWF contribute in saving the natural world? ) a- By looking after birds b- By providing running or dripping water . c- Removing dangerous toxin from the area . d-By collecting money . e- Turning wastelands into a home for animals .
12- Kuwait is a great place to go shopping .Why ? (Kuwait is a shoppers Paradise .Comment . )

a- It has some of the best malls and shopping centers in the Middle East like Villa Moda . b- Shopaholics can spend a great time there . 13-Should human development be more important than animal welfare ? Why ? No , of course not because they share life and they depend on each other . 14-Mention some wild animals that are in danger. a) Lesser Kestrel b) Siberian Tiger b) Ostrich 15-Why are Lesser Kestrels in danger? a) use of pesticides b) destruction of habitat 17-How do you know that some one is shopaholic? a) He buys things he doesn't need b ) He enjoys shopping very much. 18-What makes a mall a successful destination for shopping? a) It has exciting brands. b) Great customer service. c) Breathtaking designs.

State whether these sentences are true or false: Justify your answers: 1- Having green wild areas is important for our life. ( ) . 2- Al-Jahra Pools Nature Reserve was formed artificially. ( ) .. 3-Wild animals should be protected everywhere. ( ) 4- the role of the " WWF " is to stop the destruction of the natural world. ( ) 5- Ostriches are world's largest flying birds. ( ) 6- Man is ostrich's main enemy. ( ) 7- The Siberian tigers are in danger.

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Vocabulary A ) Fill in the spaces with words from the list : { adjacent - vegetation deserves - widespread - fence off proud - sanctuary } 7- A : We owe Mr. Jehad a lot for helping us to learn English. B : Thats right , he .. our special thanks for all his efforts. 8- A : Where do they live ? B : They live in a house .. to the railway. 9- A : Malnutrition in the region is .. B : Yes , affecting up to 78% of children under five years old. 10- A : What happened to the refugees ? B : They took the mosque as a 11- A : Why are you so happy ? B : Im so .. that my son has been chosen for the national team. 12- A : What happened to the area ? It looks terrible now . B : Much of the region's native . has been damaged by developers who are building hotels along the coast. From a, b, c or d choose the correct the answer: 16- A : Why dont you tell him yourself ? B: Oh! No If I criticize him, he gets .. and starts shouting. a -aggressive b- exotic c-global d- hostile 17- A : What did they do to keep their streets free from rubbish ? B : They have called for a .. campaign. a-call b-cleanup c-effluent 18- A : Why is this area fenced off ? B : I think it is a part of the Kuwait natural .. a- conservation b-herbivore c-hectare

d- genus d- hunting

19- A : What are the pros and cons of a .. B: They can kill pests but they can also damage people's health. a-pesticide b-poacher c- propagation d- underpart 20- A : Why do they refuse him that much ? B : Because he was famed for his . resistance and his refusal to accept defeat. a-stubborn b-tame c-proud d- adjacent

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From a , b , c or d choose the right option that best match the underlined words : 15.A: I need to report to the government to finance our project . B : Why dont you find a partner instead . abcdTo be worthy of something especially as a reward or punishment . To provide funding for a person or enterprise . To produce for the first time . To teach .

16.A : Why did they cancel the race ? B : This is because fierce winds prevented the race from taking place. abcdFound or distributed over a large area. Not dangerous or frightening ; domesticated . Determined not to change your mind , especially inspite of a good reason to do so . Angry or ready to attack .

17.A : Where do the alligators usually build their nests ? B : I think they build them out of grass near the water's edge. abcdA structure made by a bird for lying eggs and sheltering its young . A chemical substance used to kill harmful insects, small animals. Someone who catches and kills animals illegally . The breeding of plants and animals by natural processes .

18.A : Rain had been falling steadily all day and the ground had become a marsh . B : As I see no one can pass at least for two days. abcdGreen foliage , growing plants or vegetation . An area of low- lying land that is flooded in wet seasons or at high . Power of the sun. Something used to check an experiment .

19.A :What was the speech of the president about ? B : The president said it was imperative that the release of all hostages be secured. abcdFeeling of happiness as a result of something you have achieved. Of or related to the whole world . Of vital importance - ; crucial . Not dangerous or frightening ; domesticated .

94

Language Functions
Study the following :
Expressing Opinion ( agreement \ disagreement ) Giving Advice Describing Justifying

Describing character Being persuasive Forming an action plan Planning and writing a formal letter

Pre- Taught

Saying why something is important - it is important because - the main reason is.. - Id like to explain .

Talking about Quantity - a lot of - Many -much \ more - One \ Two .,etc.

A ) match the utterances in A with responses in B: A


6. This bracelet is a model of our latest design. 7. Have you finished repairing my car? 8. That was a marvellous meal. 9. This old castle looks very interesting. 10. Wheres that noise coming from? Im frightened. B ( ( ( ( ( ( ) Yes, it was out of this world. ) It must be the pilot putting the wheels down. He is an expert, so dont worry. ) Im afraid not; we havent got any spare parts yet. ) Dont be ridiculous. Of course I am. ) Yes, it must be at least 200 years old. ) I dont think it goes with any dress Ive got.

Write what you would say in the following situations: 1. You haven't understood what your teacher said. . 2. You want your friend to go with you to the club. ...... 3. Many Muslims are killed everywhere. ..... C- Complete the missing parts in the following exchanges: 1- A: Where is Ali? I'd like to tell him something. Is he in? B: 2- A: Our neighbour's house was stolen last night. B : 3- A: I am very grateful to you for the favour you did to me. B: .

95 Grammar Assistant

Countable nouns Countable nouns have singular and plural forms : Ex. I have one brother and four sisters . \ you can see animals in zoos and on farms .

We use these words with countable nouns : a \ one two \ four \ six , etc . Ive got a ( one ) brother . People walk on two legs but dogs walk on four legs .

{ a few \ a lot of \ any \ how many \ many \ no \ some \ the } Uncountable nouns Uncountable nouns dont have a plural form , and are not used with a \ an : Ex. When Im thirsty I drink water. We use these words with uncountable nouns : A little \ a lot of \ lots of \ any \ how much \ much \ no \ some \ the Note : Much and many are usually used in questions and negative sentences. A lot of \ lots of are usually used in affirmative sentences. Nouns which can be countable and uncountable : Meat \ animals I like lamb \ chicken \ turkey \ duck . ( meat ) On his farm hes got lambs \ chickens \ turkeys \ ducks . ( animals ) Drinks I love the taste of coffee \ tea .( coffee \ tea in general ) Can I have two coffees \ teas , please ? ( cups of coffee \ tea ) Portions Cake is not good for you . ( cake in general ) Would you like a cake ? ( an individual cake )

dog, cat, animal, man, person

Note
"People" is countable. "People" is the plural of "person". We can count people: There is one person here. There are three people here.

96

Here are some more uncountable nouns:


Uncountable nouns are also called "mass nouns".

Salt Music luggage Currency Information Paper Equipment Paper

Coffee Advice News Flour luggage Food Garbage

Tea Art Sugar Glass Progress Milk Pasta

Meat Information gas knowledge research baggage grass

Gold Love Butter Wood Travel Accommodation Steel

Blood furniture Rice Cheese Information Milk Work

Food Happiness Water Currency Luggage Food Rain

We usually treat uncountable nouns as singular. We use a singular verb. For example:

This news is very important. Your luggage looks heavy.

We do not usually use the indefinite article a/an with uncountable nouns. We cannot say "an information" or "a music". But we can say a something of:

a piece of news a bottle of water \ a glass of water a grain of rice a piece of equipment a slice of cheese accommodation - a place to stay advice - a piece of advice baggage - a piece of baggage bread - a slice of bread, a loaf of bread furniture - a piece of furniture garbage - a piece of garbage information - a piece of information knowledge - a fact luggage - a piece of luggage, a bag, a suitcase money - a note, a coin pasta - a plate of pasta, a serving of pasta research - a piece of research, a research project

travel - a journey, a trip work - a job, a position wind - a gust of wind rain - a shower of rain / a drop of rain lightning - a flash of lightning thunder - a clap / a rumble of thunder frost - a touch of frost fog - a patch of fog snow - a flurry of snow / a flake of snow money - a note, a coin pasta - a plate of pasta, a serving of pasta research - a piece of research, a research work - a job, a position wind - a gust of wind rain - a shower of rain / a drop of rain lightning - a flash of lightning money - a note, a coin

We can use some and any with uncountable nouns:


I've got some money. Have you got any rice?

We can use a little and much with uncountable nouns:


I've got a little money. I haven't got much rice.

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Nouns that can be Countable and Uncountable


Sometimes, the same noun can be countable and uncountable, often with a change of meaning.

Countable
There are two hairs in my coffee! There are two lights in our bedroom. Shhhhh! I thought I heard a noise. Have you got a paper to read? (= newspaper) Our house has seven rooms. We had a great time at the party.
Macbeth is one of Shakespeare's greatest works.

Uncountable hair light noise paper room time work


I don't have much hair. Close the curtain. There's too much light! It's difficult to work when there is too much noise.

I want to draw a picture. Have you got some paper? Is there room for me to sit here? Have you got time for a coffee? I have no money. I need work!

Note
Drinks (coffee, water, orange juice) are usually uncountable. But if we are thinking of a cup or a glass, we can say (in a restaurant, for example): Two teas and one coffee please. Underline the right options in the dialogue below : 1- CHRIS: Hi! What are you up to? PETE: Oh I'm just looking for (a)many (b)some (c)any antiques at this sale. 2- CHRIS: Have you found (a) something (b) anything (c) nothing yet ? PETE: Well there seems to be (a) a few (b) few (c) little things of interest. It really is a shame. 3- CHRIS: I can't believe that. I'm sure you can find (a) a thing (b) something (c) anything interesting if you look in (a) all (b) each (c) some stall .

PETE: You're probably right. It's just that there are (a) a few (b) a lot (c) a lot of collectors and th (a) every (b) each (c) all seem to be set on finding (a) a thing (b) anything (c) much of value. It so stressful competing with them! 4- CHRIS: How (a) many (b) much (c) few antique furniture do you think there is? PETE: Oh I'd say there must be (a) many (b) several (c) much pieces . However only (a) a few (b) few (c) little are really worth (a) the high (b) a high (c) high prices they are asking .

98

5- CHRIS: Why don't you take a break? Would you like to have (a) any (b) some (c) little coffee ? PETE: Sure I'd love to have (a) any (b) little (c) one . I could use (a) some (b) a few (c) a little minutes of downtime . 6- CHRIS: Great, let's go over there. There're (a) a few (b) some (c) little seats left . Complete the missing parts using { few-many much little some any } 1-I'm thirsty, I need ..water, please. 2-How..roofs are there in this building ? 3-How.luggage do you have, sir? 4-Ineed only.amount of money, I have 5-I dont know.information about the accident. 6-I need similar copies of this books for my family members, three or four. 7-Don't add .salt, amount will be enough.

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Present Perfect Continuous


Form :

[has/have + been + present participle] Examples : You have been waiting here for two hours. Have you been waiting here for two hours? You have not been waiting here for two hours.
USE 1 Duration from the Past Until Now

We use the Present Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect Continuous. Examples:

They have been talking for the last hour. She has been working at that company for three years. What have you been doing for the last 30 minutes? James has been teaching at the university since June. We have been waiting here for over two hours! Why has Nancy not been taking her medicine for the last three days?

USE 2 Recently, Lately

You can also use the Present Perfect Continuous WITHOUT a duration such as "for two weeks." Without the duration, the tense has a more general meaning of "lately." We often use the words "lately" or "recently" to emphasize this meaning. Examples: Recently, I have been feeling really tired. She has been watching too much television lately. Have you been exercising lately? Mary has been feeling a little depressed.

100

IMPORTANT

Remember that the Present Perfect Continuous has the meaning of "lately" or "recently." If you use the Present Perfect Continuous in a question such as "Have you been feeling alright?", it can suggest that the person looks sick or unhealthy. A question such as "Have you been smoking?" can suggest that you smell the smoke on the person. Using this tense in a question suggests you can see, smell, hear or feel the results of the action. It is possible to insult someone by using this tense incorrectly.

REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs/ Mixed Verbs

It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Present Perfect Continuous with these verbs, you must use Present Perfect. Examples : Sam has been having his car for two years. Not Correct Sam has had his car for two years. Correct
ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc. Examples: You have only been waiting here for one hour. Have you only been waiting here for one hour? The present perfect tense: ( have, has + P.P. ) 1. I ( just write ) two letters. 2. You ( ever see ) an elephant ? 3. I ( never see ) an elephant. 4. Ali ( study ) English for 6 years. 5. He ( work ) in Kuwait since 1986. 6. How many sh you ( catch ) so far ? 7. She ( already sell ) her car. 8. I ( not make ) up my mind yet. 9. They 9 not meet ) each other since the war. 10. He ( just break ) The World Record. The Present Perfect Continuous: ( have,has + been + v. +ing ) 1. The bus hasnt arrived yet. I ( wait ) for ages. 2. Our teacher ( teach ) us English since 1987. 3. She ( work ) with us since last May. 4. We ( learn English for seven years now. 5. The two armies ( ght ) all last month. 6. The guard ( stand ) there all day.

1. .. 2. .. 3. .. 4. .. 5. .. 6. .. 7. .. 8. .. 9. .. 10. ..

1. .. 2. .. 3. .. 4. .. 5. .. 6. ..

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Present Perfect Simple

VS Present Perfect Progressive

Emphasis on completion or duration? Do you want to emphasise the completion of an action or its continuous course (how has somebody spent his time)? Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive Emphasis on completion Emphasis on duration I have done my homework. (Meaning: My I have been doing my homework. (Meaning: homework is completed now.) That's how I have spent my time. It does not matter whether the homework is completed now.) Result or side effect? Do you want to express that a completed action led to a desired result or that the action had an unwanted side effect? Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive desired result unwanted side effect I have washed the car. (Result: The car is Why are you so wet? - I have been washing the car. (side effect: I became clean now.) wet when I was washing the car. It does not matter whether the car is clean now.) Time + negation: last time or beginning of an action? In negative sentences: Do you want to express how much time has past since the last time the action took place or since the beginning of the action? Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive since the last time since the beginning I haven't played that game for years. I haven't been playing that game for an (Meaning: It's years ago that I last played hour, only for 10 minutes. (Meaning: It's that game.) not even an hour ago that I started to play that game.) Permanent or temporary? If an action is still going on and we want to express that it is a permanent situation, we would usually use the Present Perfect Simple. For temporary situations, we would prefer the Present Perfect Progressive. This is not a rule, however, only a tendency. Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive Permanent Temporary James has lived in this town for 10 years. James has been living here for a year. (Meaning: He is a permanent resident of (Meaning: This situation is only temporary. this town.) Maybe he is an exchange student and only here for one or two years.) Signal words
Present Perfect Simple how often ... times Present Perfect Progressive how long since for

102

Practice
Using the words in parentheses, complete the text below with the appropriate tenses, Robin: I think the waiter (forget) and nobody (take) our order yet. by us at least twenty times. He probably thinks us. We (wait) here for over half an hour

Michele: I think you're right. He (walk) we (order, already) .

Robin: Look at that couple over there, they (be, only) they already have their food. Michele: He must realize we (order, not) an hour staring at him. Robin: I don't know if he (notice, even) taking orders and serving food. Michele: That's true, and he (look, not)

here for five or ten minutes and

yet! We (sit)

here for over half

us. He (run)

from table to table

in our direction once.

Put the verbs into the correct tense (Present Perfect Simple or Present Perfect Progressive).
1. A: (you / take) the dog for a walk yet? all day. I (come / just) home from work and I (have / not) the time yet

B: I (work) to walk the dog. 2. 3. 4. 5. A: Well, I (laze / not)

A: How long (the dog / be) B: For about 6 hours. You (walk / not)

home alone? the dog for a long time. Don't you want to go?

about all day either, you know. I have a very important meeting tomorrow and I still (finish / not) my presentation.

6. 7.

B: Okay, I will go then. Where (you / put)

collar and leash?

A: They are in the kitchen. By the way, (you / eat)

anything yet? If not, could you get us something from the supermarket?

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Inversions with "so", "neither" and "nor" When "so", "neither" and "nor" are used to make short agreements they are followed by an inversion. "I am not into hip hop." "Neither am I." (Or: "Nor am I.") "I am fond of flamenco dancing." "So am I." Inversions after negative adverbials There are some words and phrases that function as adverbials that sometimes need an inversion. Look at these two sentences. Bob rarely speaks to himself. Rarely does Bob speak to himself. Seldom does Bob get invited to parties. (seldom = rarely) Never have we seen such a breathtaking view. At no time did the prisoner look as if he might confess. Not only is she a great dancer but she is also an amazing mathematician. Not until she took up rock climbing did she overcome her fear of heights. Under no circumstances* will prisoners be allowed to give interviews to the media. Little** did she realize that her grandmother was really a wolf. The following three are used to describe an event that happened immediately after another. Hardly had he stepped outside when it started to rain. Scarcely had he stepped outside when it started to rain. No sooner had he stepped outside than it started to rain. Note that the past perfect tense is used to describe the event that happened first. The following sentences with "only" include inversions. Note that it is not always the first verb that is inverted. Only after he arrived at the airport did he look for his passport. Only if you look through this dark glass will you be able to see the spots on the sun. We accepted the invitation. Only later did we suspect it might be a trap. Only by threatening extreme physical violence was the teacher able to control the class. Note that there is no inversion when "only" is used in the following way. Only Fiona knew the answer to the question.

Conditionals with inversions


In conditional (hypothetical) sentences we can sometimes drop "if" and use an inversion. Should you see Nigel, give him my regards. Were I in your shoes, I would make a formal complaint. Had I known it was her birthday, I would have bought her a gift. Note that "should", "were" and "had" are the only verbs that can be inverted in this way. (And "were" is also used with he, she and it.)

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Inversions with "as" Elisabeth was too shy to dance, as was Gerald. She decided to leave early, as did Gerald. In these sentences "as" indicates the similarity between two things. Inversions with "so" and "such" So excited were they that they couldn't sit still. Such was their excitement that they began to jump up and down. Note that "so" is followed by an adjective and "such" can be replaced by "so great" (So great was their excitement that...). Inversions after adjectives A few very literary sentences begin with an adjective and include an inversion. Blessed are the children who are still unaware of what the future holds. Gone* are the days when I could have been happy. * Here the past participle is used like an adjective. However there is no inversion in the following sentence. Strange as it may seem, we were sorry to leave in the end.

Practice Complete the following sentences :


1- We had hardly started when it began to rain. Hardly 2- I have seldom heard such beautiful singing. Seldom 3- I shall never forget your kindness. Never 4- We had no sooner left the house than it exploded. No sooner . 5- They not only robbed you, they smashed everything. Not only . 6- If an emergency should arise, dial 999. Should

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7- If Rex were a little more hardworking, he would not have failed. Were 8- If Mr Chan had been kinder to his employees, his business would not have collapsed. Had Do as required : 1- Our Kuwait Wild Wells' Killers put out oil fires. They also capped the wells. ( Use : not only .... but also ) 2- The meal was very delicious. We hardly talked for ten minutes. -So ............................................................................................................................................................... (Complete) 3-The dictator broke his promise. He told lies. ( Use : not only ....hut also ) 4- Our Kuwait Wild Wells' Killers put out oil fires. They also capped the wells. ( Use : not only .... but also ) . 21- As soon as we arrived home, the lights went out. ( use : no sooner.......... than) 7-He behaves foolishly and speaks rudely. ( Use : not only...... but also) 8-I couldn't find Ahmed. I didn't know where he had gone. (Use : neither ..... nor) .. 9-1 can't eat tripe. I can't eat liver. ( Join using : either......... or ) .. 10-1 can't eat tripe. I can't eat liver. ( Join using : neither ...... nor ) 11- He likes her and wants to marry her. ( Begin with :- Not only ..... ) . 12- Columbus was anxious about the safety of his men. He made hard rules to ensure their safety So anxious..................................................................................................................................................( Complete ) 13- If you hadn't invited me, I wouldn't have come. (Begin with Had) . 14- Mr. Ashraf is so faithful that all students respect him. (Begin with so) ........................................................... 15- Our friends came late. They lost the tickets. ( Begin with:Not only) 16-The dictator broke his promise. He told lies. ( Join with: Not only..but also)

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