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AIR CONDITIONING LOAD ESTIMATE The primary function of air conditioning is to maintain conditions that are conducive to human

comfort. To perform this function, equipment of the proper capacity must be installed and controlled throughout the year. The equipment capacity is determined by the actual instantaneous peak load requirements; type of control is determined by the conditions to be maintained during peak and partial load. The heat gain or loss is the amount of heat instantaneously coming into or going out of the space. The actual load is defined as that amount of heat which is instantaneously added or removed by the equipment. The air conditioning load is estimated to provide the basis for selecting the conditioning equipment. It must take into account the heat coming into the space from outdoors and the heat gained from the interiors. A design day is defined as A day on which the dryand wet-bulb temperatures are peaking simultaneously, and all the internal loads are normal. Outdoor air is usually required for ventilation purposes, to flush out the space and keep the odor level down. This ventilation air imposes a cooling and dehumidifying load on the apparatus because the heat and/or moisture must be removed. Most air conditioning equipment permits some outdoor air to bypass the cooling surface. This bypassed outdoor air becomes a load within the conditioned space, similar to infiltration; instead of coming through a crack around the window, it enters the room through the supply air duct. THE FOLLOWING PHYSICAL ASPECTS MUST BE CONSIDERED: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Orientation of building Occupancy Elements of space Construction materials Surrounding conditions Infiltration Motors, Appliances, business machines, electronic equipment Lighting Different usage of spaces Ventilation Thermal storage

12. Continuous or intermittent operation 13. Glass application 1. Location of the space to be air conditioned with respect to: Compass points sun and wind effects. The sun angle and the solar direction add up to make the solar load. Which in turn affects the layout of the duct system. The wind blowing against a side of the building causes the outdoor air that is higher in temperature and moisture content to infiltrate through the cracks around the doors and windows, resulting in localized sensible and latent heat gains. All or part of this infiltration may be offset by air being introduced through the apparatus for ventilation purposes. 2. Occupancy No. of occupants and the duration of occupancy and nature of activity increase the heat load . At times, it is required to estimate the number of people on the basis of square feet per person, or on average traffic in relation to the solar load. 3. Elements of space ex: dimensions Length, width, and ceiling height. Floor to door height, floor to ceiling, clearance between suspended ceiling and beams. Size and depth of columns and beams. These known dimensions are used to determine the conduction and convection, heating or cooling load caused by sun, wind, and outdoor weather conditions. 4. Construction materials The materials and thickness of walls, roof, ceiling, floors and partitions, and their relative position in the structure. The heating and the cooling load of the building varies according to whether the material of construction is glass, wooden frame or concrete. The use and the amount of insulation used also affects the cooling and heating load. 5. Surrounding conditions Nearby permanent structures can give shading effects to the building under consideration. Surfaces such as water, sand, parking lots, etc. reflect heat. Whereas exterior color of walls and roof can or absorb or reflect. Temperature of non-conditioned adjacent spaces, such as furnace or boiler room, and kitchens add to the heat load. 6. Infiltration Losses occur through cracks and openings in the structure. Losses in mechanical ventilation are known as infiltration losses. It is vital to design the dimensions of doors and windows and their placement in relation to the prevailing winds. More the no. of simultaneous openings on opposite sides, more the infiltration. Infiltration is reduced by use of weather stripping in doors and windows. The location of stairways, elevators, and escalators, i.e., if opened in to an unconditioned area would lead to penetration of air causing

infiltration. 7. Motors, Appliances, business machines, electronic equipment Location, rated wattage, steam or gas consumption, hooded or unhooded, frequency of usage etc. are used to evaluate the load. Frequently motors may be operating under a continuous overload, or at less than rated capacity. It is always advisable to measure the power input especially in industrial installations. Greater accuracy may be obtained by measuring the power or gas input during times of peak loading. Electronic equipment often requires individual air conditioning. Restaurants, hospitals, laboratories, and some specialty shops (beauty shops) have electrical, gas, or steam appliances which release heat into the space. If a positive exhaust hood is used with the appliances, the heat gain is reduced. 8. Lighting If the lights are recessed, the type of air flow over the lights, exhaust, return or supply, should be anticipated. At times, it is required to estimate the wattage on a basis of watts per sq ft, due to lack of exact information. Illuminants convert electrical power into light and heat. Some of the heat is radiant and is partially stored. 9. Different use of spaces generate different amounts of heat load. ex: Office, hospital, department store, specialty shop, machine shop, factory, assembly plant, etc. 10. Ventilation The introduction of outdoor air for ventilation of paces id necessary to dilute the odors arising out of people inhabiting the room smoking and other internal air contaminants. 11. Thermal storage Includes system operating schedule (12, 16 or 24 hours per day) specifically during peak outdoor conditions, thermal storage in rugs on floor, nature of surface materials enclosing the space. 12. Continuous or intermittent operation Whether system be required to operate every business day during cooling season, or only occasionally, such as churches and ballrooms. If intermittent operation, determine duration of time available for pre-cooling or pulldown. 13. Glass application- The percentage of glass area the type of glass used, are the factors that affect air- conditioning load if the glass panels have storm sash it reduces the conduction load considerably. If the glass area is shaded by blinds both indoor and by overhangs outdoor the radiation load is reduced. Miscellaneous sources There may be other sources of heat and moisture gain within a space, such as escaping steam (industrial cleaning devices, pressing machines,etc.).

INTERNAL LOADS The internal load, or heat generated within the space, depends on the character of the application. As with the solar heat gain, some of the internal gains consist of radiant heat which is partially stored, thus reducing the load to be impressed on the air conditioning equipment. Generally, internal heat gains consist of some or all of the following items: generates heat within itself and releases it by radiation, convection, and evaporation from the surface, and by convection and evaporation in the respiratory tract. The amount generated and released depends on surrounding temperature and on the activity level of the person. In addition to the heat gains from the indoor and outdoor sources, the air conditioning equipment and duct system gain or lose heat. The fans and pumps required to distribute the air or water through the system add heat; heat is also added to supply and return air ducts running through warmer or hot spaces; cold air may leak out of the supply duct and hot air may leak into the return duct. The procedure for estimating the heat gains from these sources in percentage of room sensible load, room latent load, and grand total heat load is contained in. HEATING LOAD CALCULATION H1 : Widows/Wall heat losses The component combines the winter transmission losses through all components of the wall: windows, doors, opaque wall surfaces. They are combined on an area-weighted basis as follows: Uh1= UwallAwall + UwindowAwindow + UdoorAdoor A0 H2 : Roof/ Skylight heat losses This component combines the winter transmission losses through all components of the roof: skylights and opaque roof surfaces. They are combined on an area weighted basis as follows: U0 = UroofAroof + UskylightAskylight A0 H3 : Infiltration heat losses It is a complex & vital load component. The range,0.25-0.75 air changes /hr, is reasonable for approx. estimating purposes. H4 : Slab losses this component recognizes the conductive loss through a slab on grade. it would generally not be used for full depth basement floors. H5 : Below grade wall losses These are not a large component of heat loss in commercial buildings

COOLING LOAD CALCULATION Cooling load calculations are considerably more complex than heating load calculations coz time dependent & solar & occupancy loads and latent loads must be considered in addition to the basic thermal transmission loads. C1 : WINDOW/WALL HEAT GAINS This component combines the summer heat gains through all components of the wall: windows and opaque wall surfaces. The overall thermal transfer value (ottv) combines load components on an area weighted basis as follows: OTTV= [(Uwall x Awall x TDeq)] + (Afenestration x SOLAR FACTOR x SHADING COEFFICIENT) + (Ufenestration x Afenestration x Ts)]/A0 C2 : ROOF/SKYLIGHT GAINS This component combines the summer heat gains through all components of the roof: opaque surfaces & skylights. The ottv for roof combines load components on an area weighted basis as follows: OTTVr = [UrArTDr) + (Askylight x 138 x shading coefficient) + (Uskylight x Askylight x dt)]/A0 Source time-saver standards C3 : OCCUPANT HEAT GAINS Heat generation by humans can vary from 330 to 1800 btu/hr. C4 : HEAT GAIN FROM LIGHTS Lighting load is a major part of the overall cooling load but due to lighting systems becoming more efficient it is practical to achieve good lighting designs with modest watt/sq.ft. energy levels. C5 : HEAT GAIN FROM EQUIPMENT The approach to assessing the cooling load implications of these equipments to evaluate at the design peak time, the following: Heat Gain = Equipment power requirements x Use factor x Allowance factor C6 : HEAT GAIN FROM VENTILATION Ventilation introduces two forms of cooling load, sensible, that is required to change the temp. and latent, i.e. required to remove moisture.

AIR CONDITIONING LOAD


(SF/TON) LOW APARTMENTS, HI RISE AUDITORIUMS, CHURCHES EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES FACTORIES HOSPITALS
LIGHT HEAVY PATIENT ROOMS PUBLIC AREAS

MEDIUM 425 300 300 250 100 250 250 400 350 400 600 700
250,400,200 ,300,350

HIGH 350 150 200 150 75 180 150 300 300 300 400 600
200,300, 150,200,250

550 400 400 350 150 350 300 500 400 500 800
300,500, 250,400, 450

HOTELS,DORMITERIES LIBRARIES, MUSEUMS OFFICE BUILDINGS


RESIDENTIAL

SHOPPING CENTRES

AIR CONDITIONING LOAD


(SF/TON) LOW APARTMENTS, HI RISE AUDITORIUMS, CHURCHES EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES FACTORIES HOSPITALS
LIGHT HEAVY PATIENT ROOMS PUBLIC AREAS

MEDIUM 425 300 300 250 100 250 250 400 350 400 600 700
250,400,200 ,300,350

HIGH 350 150 200 150 75 180 150 300 300 300 400 600
200,300, 150,200,250

550 400 400 350 150 350 300 500 400 500 800
300,500, 250,400, 450

HOTELS,DORMITERIES LIBRARIES, MUSEUMS OFFICE BUILDINGS


RESIDENTIAL

SHOPPING CENTRES