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The general nonhomogeneous (forced) linear dier- Examples: ential equation is (1) If F (x) = x3 we try a solution of the (n) an (x)y + + a1 (x)y + a0 (x)y = F (x). () form yp (x) = Ax3 + Bx2 + Cx + D . Substituting into the dierential equation and equating coThe general solution to this equation takes the form ecients gives A = 1/2, B = 9/4, C = 21/4 and y (x) = yc (x) + yp (x) , D = 45/8, so where yc is the general solution to the associated unforced equation an (x)y (n) + + a1 (x)y + a0 (x)y = 0 ( ) 9 21 45 1 y (x) = C1 ex + C2 e2x + x3 + x2 + x + . 2 4 4 8 (2) If F (x) = x2 e3x we try a solution of the form yp (x) = Ax2 e3x + Bxe3x + Ce3x . Substituting into the equation gives A = 1/2, B = 3/2 and C = 7/4, so 1 3 7 y (x) = C1 ex + C2 e2x + ( x2 x + )e3x . 2 2 4 (3) If F (x) = sin(2x) we try a solution of the form yp (x) = A cos(2x) + B sin(2x) . Substituting into the equation gives A = 3/20 and B = 1/20, so y (x) = C1 ex + C2 e2x + 3 1 cos(2x) sin(2x). 20 20

and yp is one particular solution to (). There are two common methods for nding such a particular solution: undetermined coecients and variation of parameters.

I. Method of Undetermined Coecients: This works if F (x) is a linear combination of any of the following functions or any products of these functions: 1. polynomials in x; 2. exponential functions ekx ; 3. cos(kx) or sin(kx). In this case, we guess that yp will be a linear combination (with coecients to be determined) of all terms in F (x) and all terms which appear in their derivatives. Substituting this trial solution back into () will yield a collection of simultaneous linear equations for the coecients, which can be solved to nd yp . To illustrate we will nd the general solution to the dierential equation y 3y + 2y = F (x) for several choices of the forcing function F (x). Observe that the complementary solution is yc (x) = C1 ex + C2 e2x .

The procedure is slightly dierent in the case when one of the terms in F (x) is a solution to the homogeneous equation (). In this case, multiply the appropriate terms in the trial solution by the smallest power of x needed to eliminate duplication with terms in yc . Examples: (1) For the dierential equation y 3y + 2y = ex , we observe that the forcing term f (x) = ex is duplicated in the complementary solution. Therefore, instead of choosing yp (x) = Aex for the 1

trial solution, we try yp (x) = Axex . Substituting where W (x) = y1 (x)y2 (x) y1 (x)y2 (x) into the equation and equating coecients gives A = 1. The general solution is is the Wronskian of y1 and y2 . To nd u1 and u2 we just have to integrate these expressions for u1 and u2 ; x 2x x y (x) = C1 e + C2 e xe . in many cases, however, these integrals are impossible to evaluate in closed form. (2) For the dierential equation Consider the two examples from before. y 2y + y = ex , Examples: (1) y 3y + 2y = ex . Here x the complementary solution is yc (x) = C1 e + y1 (x) = ex and y2 (x) = e2x C2 xex . We observe that the forcing term f (x) = ex is duplicated in the complementary solution. In solve the associated homogeneous equation. The this case, we must use the trial solution yp (x) = Wronskian of y1 and y2 is W (x) = e3x . Hence Ax2 ex . Substituting into the original equation and 1 . The general soequating coecients gives A = 2 (e2x )(ex ) (ex )(ex ) u ( x ) = = 1 , u ( x ) = = ex lution is 1 2 e3x e3x 1 y (x) = C1 ex + C2 xex + x2 ex . 2 so u1 (x) = x, u2 (x) = ex , and yp (x) = (x)(ex ) + (ex )(e2x ) = ex xex . II. Method of Variation of Parameters: This As before, the general solution is the sum of yp with method always works, but involves the computation of the general solution yc of the complementary equation. x several integrals which in many cases cannot be done (2) y 2y + y = e . Here in closed form. For simplicity we only consider the case n = 2, in other words, y1 (x) = ex and y2 (x) = xex () are linearly independent solutions to the associated homogeneous equation. The Wronskian of y1 and y2 is Let y1 and y2 be two linearly independent solutions to W (x) = e2x , whence y + P (x)y + Q(x)y = 0. Then a particular solution (xex )(ex ) (ex )(ex ) to () is u1 (x) = = x, u ( x ) = = 1, 2 e2x e2x yp (x) = u1 (x)y1 (x) + u2 (x)y2 (x), 1 2 x , u2 (x) = x, and u1 (x) = 2 where u1 and u2 satisfy the following two equations: 1 2 x 2 x x yp (x) = ( 1 2 x )(e ) + (x)(xe ) = 2 x e . u1 (x)y1 (x) + u2 (x)y2 (x) = 0, () u1 (x)y1 (x) + u2 (x)y2 (x) = F (x). As before, the general solution is the sum of yp with the general solution yc of the complementary equation. The solution to () is y + P (x)y + Q(x)y = F (x).

x) F ( x) 2 ( x) F ( x) = y2 ( u1 (x) = y1 (x)yy( W ( x) x) y ( x) y 2 ( x)

2 1

and u2 (x) =

y 1 ( x) F ( x) y 1 ( x) y 2 ( x) y 1 ( x) y 2 ( x)

y 1 ( x) F ( x) W ( x)

Notice that the particular solution in (2) is the same one which we found using the method of undetermined coecients. This is not exactly the case in (1). Can you explain why the particular solutions which we found by these two methods are dierent and why this is not a contradiction?

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