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Study Guide for Honors Biology Exam Chapter 8

Life Cycle- the series of changes in the life of an organism, including reproduction Sexual Reproduction- the production of new living organisms by combining genetic information from two individuals of different sexes Genome- the complete set of genetic material of an organism Asexual Reproduction- reproduction without the fusion of gametes Chromosomes- a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and proteins found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of DNA Cell Division- the division of a cell into two daughter cells with the same genetic material Binary Fission- a form of asexual reproduction and cell division used by all prokaryotes and some organelles within eukaryotic organisms Chromatin- the material of which the chromosomes of organisms other than bacteria are composed Sister Chromatids- 2 identical copies of a chromatin connected by a centromere Centromere- the point on a chromosome by which it is attached to a spindle fiber during cell division Cell Cycle- the series of events that takes place in a cell leading to its division and duplication Mitosis- a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each the same as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth Interphase- the resting phase between successive mitotic divisions of a cell, or between the first and second divisions of meiosis Cytokinesis- the cytoplasmic division of a cell at the end of mitosis of meiosis, bringing about the separation into two daughter cells Mitotic Phase- the phase of the cell cycle that includes mitosis and cytokinesis Prophase- the first stage of cell division, during which the chromosomes become visible as paired chromatids and the nuclear envelope disappears Telophase- the final phase of cell division, between anaphase and interphase, in which the chromatids or chromosomes move to opposite ends of the cell and two nuclei are formed Anaphase- the stage of meiotic or mitotic cell division in which the chromosomes move away from one another to opposite poles of the spindle Cleavage Furrow- the indentation that begins the process of cleavage, by which animal and algal cells undergo cytokinesis Cell Plate- a plate the develops at the midpoint between the two groups of chromosomes in a dividing cell; becomes a cell wall Anchorage Dependence- dependence of cell growth on attachment to a substratum Density Dependent- when cell growth is facilitated by increased cell density Growth Factor- a substance, such as a vitamin or hormone, that is required for the stimulation of growth in living cells Inhibition- something that restrains, blocks, or suppresses Cell Cycle Control- a cyclically operating set of proteins that triggers and coordinates events I the eukaryotic cell cycle Cancer Cells- a cell that is part of a malignant tumor Tumor- a swelling of a part of the body, generally without inflammation, caused by an abnormal growth of tissue, whether benign or malignant Benign- gentle; kindly Malignant- very virulent or infectious Metastasis- the development of secondary malignant growths at a distance from the primary site Somatic Cell- any cell of a living organism other than the reproductive cells Homologous Chromosomes- chromosome pairs of approximately the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern, with genes for the same characteristics at corresponding loci Autosomes- any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome

Sex Chromosomes- a chromosome involved with determining the sex of an organism, typically one of two kinds; X or Y Locus- the position of a gene or mutation on a chromosome Diploid Cells- cells that have two sets of chromosomes Gametes- a mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote Haploid Cells- cells that have one set of chromosomes Fertilization- the action or process of fertilizing an egg, female animal, or plant, involving the fusion of male and female gametes to form a zygote Zygote- a fertilized female egg Meiosis- a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores Crossing Over- exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes, resulting in a mixture of parental characteristics in offspring Chiasma- a point at which paired chromosomes remain in contact during the first metaphase of meiosis, and at which crossing over and exchange of genetic material occur between the strands Genetic Recombination- a process by which a molecule of nucleic acid is broken and then joined to a different one Karyotype- the number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organism or species Trisomy 21- having an extra 21st chromosome; results in a flat face, short stature and mental retardation Down Syndrome- a congenital disorder arising from a chromosome defect, causing intellectual impairment and physical abnormalities including short stature and a broad facial profile Nondisjunction- the failure of homologous chromosomes to separate normally during nuclear division Chapter 9 Wild Type- a strain, gene, or characteristic that prevails among individuals in natural conditions, as distinct from an atypical mutant type Genetics- the study of heredity and the variation of inherited characteristics Self Fertilization- fertilization by the union of male and female gametes from the same individual Hybrids- the offspring of two plants or animals of different species or varieties Cross- an animal or plant resulting from crossbreeding; a hybrid P generation- the parent individuals from which offspring are derived in studies of inheritance; P stands for parental F1 Generation- offspring of a cross between true breeding plants, homozygous for the trait of interest F2 Generation- offspring resulting from a cross of F1 generation individuals Mendel- father of genetics Monohybrid Cross- hybridization using a single trait with two alleles (as in Mendels experiments with garden peas) Alleles- one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome Dominant Allele- an allele that produces the same phenotype whether its paired allele is identical or different Recessive Allele- an allele that produces its characteristic phenotype only when its paired allele is identical Homozygous- having identical alleles at corresponding chromosomal loci Heterozygous- having dissimilar alleles at corresponding chromosomal loci Punnett Square- a diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment Genotype- the genetic constitution of an individual organism

Phenotype- the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment Principle of Segregation- Mendels first law; holds that each pair of factors of heredity separate during gamete formation so that each gamete receive one member of a pair Dihybrid cross- hybridization using two traits with two alleles each Principle of Independent Assortment- Mendels second law; holds that during gamete formation, alleles in one gene pair segregate into gametes independently of the alleles of other gene pairs Test Cross- a genetic cross between a double heterozygote and a double homozygote Color Blindness- genetic inability to distinguish differences in hue Rule of Multiplication- a rule stating that the probability of a compound event is the product of the separate probabilities of the independent events Rule of Addition- the probability that an event can occur in two or more alternative ways is the sum of the separate probabilities of the different ways Cystic Fibrosis- a hereditary disorder affecting the exocrine glands, causing the production of abnormally thick mucus Achondroplasia- a hereditary condition in which the growth of long bones by ossification of cartilage is retarded, resulting in very short limbs and sometimes a face that is small in relation to the normal-sized skull Huntingtons Disease- a progressive neurodegenerative genetic disorder that ends with dementia Amniocentesis- the sampling of amniotic fluid using a hollow needle inserted into the uterus, to screen for developmental abnormalities in a fetus Incomplete Dominance- the allele dominates the recessive allele, but not completely Hemophilia- a medical condition in which the ability of the blood to clot is severely reduced, causing the sufferer to bleed severely from even a slight injury ABO Blood Groups- classification of red blood cells based on the presence of absence of A and B carbohydrate antigens Codominance- a condition in which both alleles of a gene pair in a heterozygote are fully expressed, with neither one being dominant or recessive to the other Pleiotropy- the production by a single gene of two or more apparently unrelated genes Genetic Screening- analyzing a group of people to determine genetic susceptibility to a particular disease Polygenic Inheritance- occurs when a trait is controlled by several gene pairs; usually results in continuous variation Chromosome Theory of Inheritance- holds that chromosomes are the cellular components that physically contain genes Recombination Frequency- the proportion of recombinant progeny arising from a genetic cross Sex Chromosomes- a chromosome involved with determining the sex of an organism, typically one of two kinds Monoecious- having both the male and female reproductive organs in the same individual Hermaphroditic- having both male and female reproductive organs Sex-Linked Gene- genes that depend on the gender of the individual Chapter 10 Bacteriophages- a virus that parasitizes a bacterium by infecting it and reproducing inside it Molecular Biology- The branch of biology that deals with the structure and function of the macromolecules essential to life Nucleotide- a compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group Sugar-Phosphates- sugars used in biological systems to store or transfer energy Thymine- a compound that is one of the four constituent bases of nucleic acids; a pyrimidine derivative, it is paired with adenine in double-stranded DNA

Cytosine- a compound found in living tissue as a constituent base of nucleic acids; is paired with guanine in double-stranded DNA Adenine- a compound that is one of the four constituent bases of nucleic acids; a purine derivative, it is paired with thymine in double-stranded DNA Guanine- a compound that occurs in guano and fish scales, and is one of the four constituent bases o nucleic acids; a purine derivative, is paired with cytosine in double-stranded DNA Double Helix- A pair of parallel helices intertwined about a common axis, esp. that in the structure of the DNA molecule Antiparallel- parallel but moving or oriented in opposite directions DNA Replication- the use of existing DNA as a template for the synthesis of new DNA strands DNA Polymerase- the enzyme responsible for DNA replication DNA Ligase- an enzyme that seals together two DNA fragments from different sources to form a recombinant DNA molecule Transcription- the process by which genetic information represented by a sequence of DNA nucleotides is copied into newly synthesized molecules of RNA, with the DNA serving as a template HIV/ AIDS- HIV is a retrovirus that causes AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections Translation- the process by which a sequence of nucleotide triplets in a messenger RNA molecule gives rise to a specific sequence of amino acids during synthesis of a polypeptide or protein Triplet Code- a set of three-nucleotide-long words that specify the amino acids for polypeptide chains Codons- a sequence of three nucleotides which together form a unit of genetic code in a DNA or RNA molecule Reverse Transcriptase- an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of DNA from an RNA template in reverse transcription RNA polymerase- transcriptase: the enzyme that copies DNA into RNA Promoter- a region of a DNA molecule that forms the site at which transcription of a gene starts Terminator- a sequence of polynucleotides that causes transcription to end and the newly synthesized nucleic acid to be released from the template molecule mRNA- messenger RNA tRNA- transfer RNA Anticodon- a sequence of three nucleotides forming a unit of genetic code in a transfer RNA molecule, corresponding to a complementary codon in messenger RNA rRNA- ribosomal RNA Start Codon- the codon (AUG) on a messenger RNA molecule where protein synthesis begins Stop Codon- a nucleotide triplet within messenger RNA that signals a termination of translation Mutagen- an agent, such as radiation or a chemical substance, that causes genetic mutation Mutation- the changing of the structure of a gene, resulting in a variant form that may be transmitted to subsequent generations, caused by the alteration of single base units in DNA, or the deletion, insertion, or rearrangement of larger sections of genes or chromosomes Reading Frame- a way of breaking a sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA into three letter codons which can be translated in amino acids Mutagenesis- an event capable of causing a mutation Lytic and Lysogenic Cycles- (lytic) a type of viral replication cycle resulting in the release of new phages by lysis of the host cell; (lysogenic) is characterized by integration of the bacteriophage nucleic acid into the host bacterium's genome Prophage- the genetic material of a bacteriophage, incorporated into the genome of a bacterium and able to produce phages if specifically activated Retrovirus- any of a group of RNA viruses that insert a DNA copy of their genome into the host cell in order to replicate Chapter 11

X-Inactivation- a process by which one of the two copies of the X chromosome present in female mammals is inactivated Barr Bodies- the inactive X chromosome in a female somatic cell Therapeutic Cloning- the cloning of an embryo for the purpose of deriving stem cells for use in research and treatment of disease Reproductive Cloning- a form of artificial reproduction based on cloning in which a cloned embryo is implanted in a woman's uterus Microarrays- a grid of DNA segments of known sequence that is used to test and map DNA fragments, antibodies, or proteins Genetics of Cancer- a genetic disorder in which the normal control of cell growth is lost Operons- a unit made up of linked genes that is thought to regulate other genes responsible for protein synthesis Homeobox Genes- one of various similar homeotic genes that are involved in bodily segmentation during embryonic development Master Control Switches- a single gene whose expression is both necessary and sufficient to trigger activation of many other genes in a coordinated fashion, leading to the development of a specific tissue or organ Alternative RNA Splicing- a type of regulation at the RNA-processing level in which different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcript, depending on which RNA segments are treated as exons and which as introns Introns- a segment of a DNA or RNA molecule that does not code for proteins and interrupts the sequence of genes Exons- a segment of a DNA or RNA molecule containing information coding for a protein or peptide sequence Chapter 12 DNA Fingerprinting- the analysis of DNA from samples of body tissues or fluids in order to identify individuals Human Genome Project- an international project to study the entire genetic material of a human being Polymerase Chain Reaction- a scientific technique in molecular biology to amplify a single or few copies of a piece of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence Restriction Enzymes- an enzyme produced chiefly by certain bacteria, having the property of cleaving DNA molecules at or near a specific sequence of bases Gene Therapy- the transplantation of normal genes into cells in place of missing or defective ones in order to correct genetic disorders Electrophoresis- the movement of charged particles in a fluid or gel under the influence of an electric field Plasmids- a genetic structure in a cell that can replicate independently of the chromosomes, typically a small circular DNA strand in the cytoplasm of a bacterium or protozoan Chapter 13 Evolutionary Adaptations- a trait with a current functional role in the life history of an organism that is maintained and evolved by means of natural selection Evolution- the process by which different kinds of living organisms are thought to have developed and diversified from earlier forms during the history of the earth Fossils- the remains or impression of a prehistoric organism preserved in petrified form or as a mold or cast in rock Fossil Record- shows us when species went extinct relative to the passage of millions of years

Biogeography- the branch of biology that deals with the geographical distribution of plants and animals Comparative Anatomy- the study of anatomical features of animals of different species Homologous Structures- any feature that shares a common design with a similar feature in another species of organism Comparative Embryology- comparison of the development of embryos of two or more species Artificial Selection- the process in which breeders choose the variants to be used to produce succeeding generations Natural Selection- the process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring Population- a community of animals, plants, or humans among whose members interbreeding occurs Genetic Drift- variation in the relative frequency of different genotypes in a small population, owing to the chance disappearance of particular genes as individuals die or do not reproduce Directional Selection- a process of natural selection that tends to favor phenotypes at one extreme of the phenotypic range Diversifying Selection- describes changes in population genetics in which extreme values for a trait are favored over intermediate values Stabilizing Selection- a type of natural selection in which genetic diversity decreases as the population stabilizes on a particular trait value Stable Populations- if fertility and mortality rates are constant in time, the population tends to increase Hardy-Weinberg Principle- in a large random intrabreeding population, not subjected to excessive selection or mutation, the gene and genotype frequencies will remain constant overt time Chapter 14 Taxonomy- the branch of science concerned with classification, esp. of organisms; systematics Biological Species- consists of populations that can interbreed freely within and among themselves, but which are reproductively isolated from other such populations or groups of populations Speciation- the formation of new and distinct species in the course of evolution Evolutionary Species- group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring Reproductive Barrier- any biological trait that interferes with reproductive interactions among populations Prezygotic- temporal, habitat, behavioral, mechanical and gametic isolation Temporal Isolation- individuals do not mate because they are active at different times Habitat Isolation- a prezygotic barrier in which two species whose ranges overlap live in different habitats Behavioral Isolation- when two populations have differences in courtship rituals or other types of behavior that prevents them from interbreeding Mechanical Isolation- copulation may be attempted but transfer of sperm does not take place Gametic Isolation- the gametes of the two species are chemically incompatible, thus preventing fertilization Postzygotic- hybrid inviability, hybrid sterility, hybrid breakdown (offspring of hybrids weak or infertile) Hybrid Inviability- reduces a hybrid's capacity to mature into a healthy, fit adult Hybrid Sterility- hybrid is viable, but the resulting adult is sterile Hybrid Breakdown- First generation hybrids are viable and fertile, but further hybrid generations are inviable or sterile Punctuated Equilibrium- the hypothesis that evolutionary development is marked by isolated episodes of rapid speciation between long periods of little or no change Adaptive Radiation- the diversification of a group of organisms into forms filling different ecological niches Gradualist Model- mutations and phenotypical changes are gradual and explain the fossil record gaps as simply missing because fossils are hard to find Polyploid Cells- those containing more than two homologous sets of chromosomes

Chapter 15 Geological Time Scale- a system of measurements used by scientists to describe the timing and relationships between events that have occurred during the history of the Earth Radiometric Dating- a method of dating geological or archeological specimens by determining the relative proportions of particular radioactive isotopes present in a sample Continental Drift- the gradual movement of the continents across the earths surface through geological time Laurasia- a vast continental area believed to have existed in the northern hemisphere and to have resulted from the breakup of Pangaea that included present-day North America, Greenland, Europe, and most of Asia north of the Himalayas Gondwana- a vast continental area believed to have existed in the southern hemisphere and to have resulted from the breakup of Pangaea that included present-day Arabia, Africa, South America, Antarctica, Australia, and the peninsula of India Pangaea- a supercontinent comprising the entire continental crust of the earth; broke into Gondwana and Laurasia Plate Tectonics- the concept that the Earth's crust is composed of rigid plates that move over a less rigid interior Exaptation- the use of a biological structure or function for a purpose other than that for which it initially evolved Paedomorphosis- development of sexual maturity in an otherwise juvenile body Phylogeny- the branch of biology that deals with phylogenesis Phylogenetic Trees- branching diagram or "tree" showing the inferred evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities based upon similarities and differences in their physical and/or genetic characteristics Systematics- the branch of biology that deals with classification and nomenclature; taxonomy Binomial- A two-part name, esp. the Latin name of a species of living organism (consisting of the genus followed by the specific species) Genus- a principal taxonomic category that ranks above species and below family, denoted by a capitalized Latin name Species- a group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of exchanging genes or interbreeding Family- a principal taxonomic category that ranks above genus and below order Order- a principal taxonomic category that ranks below class and above family Classes- a principal taxonomic grouping that ranks above order and below phylum or division Phyla- a principal taxonomic category that ranks above class and below kingdom Kingdom- the highest category in taxonomic classification; below domain Domain- the highest taxonomic category Taxon- a taxonomic group of any rank, such as a species, family, or class Chapter 17 Classification- the arrangement of animals and plants in taxonomic groups according to their observed similarities Alternation of Generations- a pattern of reproduction occurring in the life cycles of many lower plants and some invertebrates, involving a regular alternation between two distinct forms; generations are alternately sexual and asexual Stomata- a pore found in the leaf and stem epidermis that is used for gas exchange Vascular Tissue- the tissue in higher plants that constitutes the vascular system, consisting of phloem and xylem, by which water and nutrients are conducted throughout the plant

Xylem- the vascular tissue in plants that conducts water and dissolved nutrients upward from the root and also helps to form the woody element in the stem Phloem- the vascular tissue in plants that conducts sugars and other metabolic products downward from the leaves Sporangium- a receptacle in which asexual spores are formed Gametophyte- the gamete-producing and usually haploid phase, producing the zygote from which the sporophyte arises; dominant in bryophytes Sporophyte- the asexual and usually diploid phase, producing spores from which the gametophyte arises; dominant in vascular plants Mosses- a small flowerless green plant that lacks true roots, growing in low carpets or rounded cushions in damp habitats and reproducing by means of spores released from stalked capsules Bryophytes- a small flowerless green plant of the division Bryophyta, which comprises the mosses and liverworts Vascular Plants- a plant that is characterized by the presence of conducting tissue Pollination- transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of a plant Gymnosperms- a plant that has seeds unprotected by an ovary or fruit Angiosperms- a plant that has flowers and produces seeds enclosed within a carpel Ferns- A flowerless plant that has feathery or leafy fronds and reproduces by spores released from the undersides of the fronds Conifers- a tree that bears cones and evergreen needlelike or scalelike leaves Ovules- a small or immature ovum Pollen Grains- each of the microscopic particles, typically single cells, of which pollen is composed Angiosperm Life Cycle- ovule becomes egg, fertilized by male anther, forms zygote, becomes a germinating seed, then grows into a mature flower Fruit- the seed-bearing structure of a plant Flower- the seed-bearing part of a plant, consisting of reproductive organs (stamens and carpels) that are typically surrounded by brightly colored petals and green sepals Sepals- each of the parts of the calyx of a flower, enclosing the petals and typically green and leaflike Petals- each of the segments of the corolla of a flower, which are modified leaves and are typically colored Stamen- the male fertilizing organ of a flower, typically consisting of a pollen-containing anther and a filament Anther- the part of a stamen that contains the pollen Carpel- the female reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an ovary, a stigma, and usually a style Stigma- the part of a pistil that receives the pollen during pollination Ovary- the hollow base of the carpel of a flower, containing one or more ovules Spreading Seeds- seeds spread either through the wind, or an animal inadvertently picks them up and drops them off at another location Pollinators- an insect that carries pollen from one flower to another Chapter 18 Metamorphosis- the process of transformation from an immature form to an adult form in two or more distinct stages Amoebocytes- a mobile cell (moving like an amoeba) in the body of invertebrates such as echinoderms, mollusks or sponges Radial Symmetry- symmetry around a central axis, as in a starfish or a tulip flower Polyp- a solitary or colonial sedentary form of a coelenterate such as a sea anemone, typically having a columnar body with the mouth uppermost surrounded by a ring of tentacles Medusa- a free-swimming sexual form of a coelenterate such as a jellyfish, typically having an umbrellashaped body with stinging tentacles around the edge

Lancelets- a small elongated marine invertebrate that resembles a fish but lacks jaws and obvious sense organs; possess a notochord Gastrovascular Cavity- an extensive pouch that serves as the site of extracellular digestion and a passageway to disperse materials throughout most of an animal's body Anterior- nearer the front, esp. situated in the front of the body, or nearer to the head or forepart Bilateral Symmetry- the property of being divisible into symmetrical halves on either side of a unique plane Dorsal- of, on, or relating to the upper side or back of an animal, plant, or organ Posterior- further back in position; of or nearer the rear or hind end, esp. of the body or a part of it Lateral- of, at, toward, or from the side or sides Ventral- of, on, or relating to the underside of an animal or plant; abdominal Tunicates- a marine invertebrate of a group that includes the sea squirts and salps; rubbery or hard outer coat and two siphons to draw water in and out of the body Free Living- not parasitic on another organism Coelom- the body cavity in metazoans, located between the intestinal canal and the body wall Body Cavities- a fluid-containing space between the digestive tract and the body wall; houses the internal organs Water Vascular System- system of fluid-filled tubes used by echinoderms in locomotion and feeding and respiration Pseudocoelom- a body cavity that is not entirely surrounded by mesoderm Foot- he lower extremity of the leg below the ankle, on which a person stands or walks; a corresponding part of the leg in vertebrate animals; a locomotory or adhesive organ of an invertebrate Mollusks- an invertebrate of a large phylum that includes snails, slugs, mussels, and octopuses; they have a soft, unsegmented body and live in aquatic or damp habitats, and most kinds have an external calcareous shell Radula- a rasplike structure of tiny teeth used for scraping food particles off a surface and drawing them into the mouth Mantle- an outer or enclosing layer of tissue, esp. (in mollusks) a fold of skin enclosing the viscera and secreting the substance that produces the shell Exoskeleton- a rigid external covering for the body in some invertebrate animals, esp. arthropods, providing both support and protection Segmentation- the division of some animal and plant body plans into a series of repetitive segments Endoskeleton- an internal skeleton, such as the bony or cartilaginous skeleton of vertebrates Molting- shed old feathers, hair, or skin, or an old shell, to make way for a new growth Complete Metamorphosis- a term applied to insect groups to describe the specific kind of insect development which includes four life stages - as an embryo or egg, a larva, a pupa and an imago or adult Incomplete Metamorphosis- a term used to describe the mode of development of certain insects that includes three distinct stages: the egg, nymph, and the adult stage, or imago; no pupal stage Nerve Cord- the major cord of nerve fibers running the length of an animal's body Pharyngeal Gill Structures- filter-feeding organs found in non-vertebrate chordates (lancelets and tunicates) and hemichordates living in aquatic environments Notochord- a cartilaginous skeletal rod supporting the body in all embryonic and some adult chordate animals Post-Anal Tail- an extension of the body past the anal opening Gastropoda- a large class of mollusks which includes snails, slugs, whelks, and all terrestrial kinds Bivalvia- oysters; clams; scallops; mussels; having two shells Cephalopoda- a class of active predatory mollusks comprising octopuses, squids, and cuttlefish Cnidaria- a phylum of aquatic invertebrate animals that comprises the coelenterates Echinodermata- a phylum of marine invertebrates that includes starfishes, sea urchins, brittlestars, crinoids, and sea cucumbers; radial symmetry, calcareous skeleton and tube feet

Chapter 27 Reproduction the creating of new individuals from existing ones Asexual reproduction the creation of genetically identical offspring by a lone parent -no fertilization Fragmentation the breaking of the parent body into several pieces Budding splitting off new individuals from existing one -assex repro Fission the separation of one parent into two or more individuals of about equal size -assex repro Regeneration the regrowth of lost body parts -assexual repro Sexual reproduction the creation of offspring by the fusion of two gametes to form a zygote Zygote diploid fertilized egg Gamete haploid sex cells Sperm the male gamete -small cell that moves by the flagellum Egg the female gamete -larger cell compared to sperm and not self-propelled Hermaphroditism an individual has both female and male reproductive systems External fertilization -many aquatic invertebrates and most fish and amphibians The parents discharge their gametes into the water, where fertilization occurs, often woo female and male making physical contact -the eggs must be fertile when the sperm contact them Internal fertilization when sperm are deposited in or close to the female reproductive tract, and gametes unite within the tract -nearly all terrestrial animals Copulation sexual intercourse Gonads produce gametes Female and male humans both have -a pair of gonads -ducts to deliver gametes -structures to facilitate copulation Ovaries Female gonads -inch long with a bumpy surface -produce hormones and egg cells Follicles bumps on the ovaries, consisting of one or more layers of follicle cells that surround, nourish, and protect a single developing cell -produce estrogen Ovulation the process when an egg is ejected from the follicle Corpus luteum the solid mass within the ovary formed by the follicular tissue that had been surrounding the previously ejected egg -secretes estrogen and progesterone Progesterone a hormone that helps maintain the uterine line during pregnancy -secreted by corpus luteum Hormone chemical substance secreted by endocrine glands that affect body processes Oviduct a fallopian tube -each ovary lies next to the opening of an oviduct -cilia will sweep the ovary through the oviduct to the uterus if ovulation occurs If the released egg is not fertilized the corpus luteum degenerates and a new follicle matures during the next cycle Uterus the womb, the site of pregnancy

Endometrium the inner lining of the uterus that is richly supplied with blood vessels -where the embryo implants and completes development Ectopic pregnancy when the embryo implants somewhere other than the uterus Cervix the narrow neck at the bottom of the uterus that opens into the vagina Vagina a thin-walled but muscular chamber that serves as the birth canal through which the baby is born -glands near the vag secrete mucus during sex Embryo the stage of development from the first division of the zygote until the body features begin to appear (9 weeks) Fetus the stage of development from the embryonic stage to birth - A developing human Labia minora a pair of slender skin folds borders the openings Hymen a thin piece of tissue covering the vaginal opening until sex or physical contact ruptures it Labia majora a pair of thick, fatty ridges that protect the vaginal opening Clitoris a small erectile organ -sole purpose is sexual arousal -consists of a short shaft supporting the glans covered by the prepuce -enormous amount of nerve endings and sensitive to touch Glans a rounded head supported by a short shaft that is covered by the prepuce Prepuce a small hood of skin that covers the glans Testes the male gonads found outside the abdominal cavity Scrotum a sac that holds the testes -keeps the sperm cool to function Epididymis a coiled tube that sperm passes into through each testis -holds the sperm while they continue to develop Ejaculation the expulsion of sperm-containing fluid from the penis Vas deferens a duct that the sperm leaves the epididymis through -passes into the abdomen and loops around the urinary bladder -joins a small duct protruding from the seminal vesicle Seminal vesicles a gland that secretes a thick fluid that contains fructose -fluid that gives the sperm most of the energy it needs to propel itself through the female the repro tract Ejaculatory duct the two ducts, the seminal vesicle and the vas deferens, unite to form the ejaculatory duct -joins its counterpart which has the sperm from the other testis -empties into the urethra Three glands of the male repro sys seminal vesicles, prostate glands, and bulbourethral glands Prostate gland secretes a thin fluid that further nourishes sperm Bulbourethral glands secrete clear, alkaline mucus Semen the fluid ejaculated from the penis during an orgasm -made up of the sperm and glandular secretions Penis consists mainly of erectile tissue that can fill with blood to cause an erection during sexual arousal -has a glans and prepuce like vagina Follicle stimulating hormone increases sperm production by the testis Stimulates one of the dormant follicles to develop -from the pituitary gland Luteinizing Hormone promotes the secretion of androgens mainly testosterone Triggers ovulation, growth of ovarian follicle, and production of secondary oocyte Promotes development of corpus luteum and secretion of hormones -secreted from the pituitary gland Hypothalamus secretes a releasing hormone that regulates release of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone by the anterior pituitary

Androgens stimulate sperm production and maintain homeostasis -secreted by the luteinizing hormone Spermatogenesis the formation of sperm cells Seminiferous tubules coiled tubes in the testes where sperm develops Primary spermatocytes the sperm cells that undergo meiosis Secondary spermatocytes the 2 cells produced by the product of meiosis 1 from the primary spermatocytes -each has haploid number of chromosomes Oogenesis the development of an ova -occurs in ovary Ova mature egg cells Primary oocyte a diploid cell that is resting in prophase of meiosis 1 -contained in a follicle Secondary oocyte the 2 product cells of meiosis 1 resulting from the primary oocyte - One secondary oocyte will be much larger than the other by the division of the cytoplasm in meiosis one is unequal First polar body the secondary oocyte that receives almost no cytoplasm Process of spermatogenesis diploid cells develop in seminiferous tubules Cells multiply by mitosis and differentiate into primary spermatocytes These undergo meiosis 1 and produce secondary spermatocytes which undergo meiosis 2 and form 4 haploid cells A sperm cell forms by differentiation of each of these cells and is gradually pushed toward the center of the seminiferous tubule. From there it passes into the epididymis, where it matures, becomes motile, and is stored until ejaculation Process of oogenesis diploid cell in each developing follicle begins meiosis A dormant primary oocyte at prophase 1 is hormonally triggered to continue the process The follicle enlarges and the primary oocyte completes meiosis 1, ovulation occurs, and the secondary oocyte remains dormant at metaphase 2 until the entry of a sperm triggers the cell to complete meiosis The ruptured follicle then develops into a corpus luteum which degenerates unless fertilization occurs Ovarian cycle cyclic events that occur every 28 days - In sync with menstrual cycle, a series of hormone-induced changes in which the ovaries prepare and release a mature ovum each month Menstrual cycle -in sync with the ovarian cycle A reoccurring cycle when menstruation occurs Menstruation uterine bleeding The endometrium breaks down and leaves the body through the vagina -the menstrual discharge consists of blood, small clusters of endometrial cells, and mucus Orgasm a series of rhythmic involuntary actions of the reproductive system Estrogen promotes/maintains endometrium Inhibits pituitary and stimulates hypothalamus Promotes menstruation -secreted by corpus luteum and ovarian follicle Vasectomy the removal of part of the vas deferens to prevent the sperm from reaching the urethra Sexually transmitted diseases are contagious diseases spread by sex Contraception the deliberate prevention of pregnancy Tubal ligation the removal of a short section from each oviduct -prevents the sperm from reaching the egg Spermicides sperm-killing foam -unreliable Rhythm method temporal abstinence to prevent pregnancy -refraining from sex during the days around ovulation when fertilization is most likely

Barrier method a condom or diaphragm (covers penis or cervix) -prevents fertilization Morning after pills combination birth control pills that are prescribed in high does for emergency contraception 75 percent effective in preventing pregnancy -have side effects, only for emergencies Acrosome a vesicle in the head of a sperm -contains enzymes that help the sperm penetrate the egg cell Withdrawal removing the penis from the vagina before ejaculation Fertilization membrane the plasma membrane of the egg cell and the vitalize layer that are both impenetrable to sperm cells Process of fertilization sperm approaches egg and squeezes through cells left from follicle Acrosomal enzymes from the sperm digest the eggs jelly coating Proteins on the sperm head receptors bind to the egg receptors The plasma membranes of egg and sperm fuse The sperm nucleus enters the egg cytoplasm A fertilization membrane forms The nuclei of the sperm and egg fuse Cleavage a rapid succession of cell divisions that produces a ball of cells (multicellular embryo) from the zygote Blastocoel a fluid-filled cavity in the center of the embryo that forms during cleavage Blastula a hallow ball of cells that is formed at the end of cleavage -surrounded by one or more layers of cells Gastrula a three layer stage of the embryo during gastrulation Gastrulation the second major phase of embryonic development -division of cells dramatically slows compared to cleavage Three embryonic tissues ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm -formed in gastrulation Ectoderm the outer layer of skin of the gastrula -epidermis and nervous system develop from the ectoderm Endoderm the embryonic digestive tract -innermost lining of the digest tract, repro sys, urinary bladder, liver, and pancreas develop from the endoderm
Mesoderm partly fills the space between the endoderm and the ectoderm -most other muscles and tissues and the dermis develop from the mesoderm Notochord -visible in the mesoderm Extends for most of the embryos length and provides support for the developing tissues -later will function as a core around the mesodermal cells gather and form the backbone Amnion innermost membranous sac surrounding the developing fetus Oxytocin stimulates contraction of uterus -secreted by the posterior pituitary Placenta organ in placental mammals through which nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and wastes are exchanged between embryo and mother Batholin's Glands Glands located at the base of the labia minora in women that contribute a small amount of an alkaline fluid to their inner surfaces during sexual arousal Intrauterine device contraceptive device consisting of a piece of bent plastic or metal that is inserted through the vagina into the uterus In virto fertilization a technique in which eggs are surgically removed from a woman and fertilized with sperm in the laboratory and then put into a women's uterus Resolution phase phase in human sexual response following orgasm, in which people report relaxation and a sense of well-being Plateau phase phase in human sexual response in which sexual tension builds Labor series of rhythmic contractions of the uterus that expel the baby from the uterus, resulting in birth

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