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SECTION C - STATEMENT OF WORK USAID/Kenya Office of Education and Youth Kenya Early Grade Reading Project C.1.

Purpose The Office of Education and Youth in USAID/Kenya plans to launch a five-year basic education initiative to improve the reading skills of approximately 2.7 million children by 2018. USAID anticipates that this initiative will consist of two components: 1. One 3.5 year contract, tentatively dubbed the Kenya Early Grade Reading Project (KEGRP), that will increase the reading skills of approximately 1.5 million children by the end of 2015 through the implementation of the components laid out in this SOW; and 2. Ongoing capacity building to the Ministry of Education (MOE), provided through separate mechanisms, to prepare for a transition to MOE implementation of KEGRP through direct government-to-government assistance in Years 4 and 5, which will result in at least 1.2 million additional children with improved reading skills. This SOW is for the 3.5 year Kenya Early Grade Reading Project (KEGRP), which builds on researchbased reading initiatives to create a sustainable and affordable national reading program in the approximately 28,000 formal and non-formal1 public and private primary schools across Kenya. Through a highly collaborative approach, the program will create interventions that expand and bring to scale proven ongoing improvements in reading development that are taking place in Kenya, with integrated options for transition to government and community ownership during the out years of the project. Primary activities will include the production and distribution of materials; training of nearly 100,000 education personnel; community engagement initiatives; and the development of high quality assessments and evaluations to measure the impact of the various components. By the end of the initiative, USAID/Kenya anticipates the early grade reading (EGR) initiative will lead to the following results: 1. Improved supervision, support, and delivery of reading instruction to target students; 2. Greater engagement in reading by communities, the private sector, and the public; and 3. Improved government capacity, in target departments, to review, revise, and implement reading-related policies.

C.2. Background Since 2005, EDY has supported Ministry of Education (MOE) efforts to improve access to quality education, build the capacity of education personnel and institutions, sponsor HIV/AIDS and Life Skills
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Non-formal schools or low-cost private community schools are the predominant form of schooling for children in Kenyas informal urban settlements (slums). The 2011 UWEZO report estimates 20% of Kenyas school-going age children attend private schools, with rates much higher in slums. These community private schools charge a nominal fee to educate thousands of underserved and poor children who would not otherwise have access to schooling despite a national free primary education policy.

education projects, and collaborate with the private sector in various ways to maximize information and communication technologies (ICT) to improve education. These efforts complement the GOKs education and social reforms that, in 2003, were dramatically bolstered by the termination of school fees and levies for primary education. As a result of this act by the GOK, total student enrollment increased 46% over seven years, from 5.9 million public and private primary school students in 2002 to 8.6 million in 2009. While this amounts to a Net Enrollment Rate (NER) of 92.5%, with near gender parity, the effect of such drastic change on systematic service delivery and instructional quality including in the core skill of reading was damaging. Over a seven-year period (2000-2007), Kenya's reading proficiency dropped from second to fifth of the 15 African countries participating in the Standard 6 examination administered by the Southern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ). UWEZOs 2011 Are Our Children Learning? assessment study reported that only 30% of Standard 3 children could read a Standard 2 level story in English or Kiswahili, and that 4% of Standard 8 children could not read a Standard 2 story in English. The 2007 analysis of EGR in the Malindi district of Coast province found that students in Standard 2 could read, on average, just 11 words per minute, far below the international benchmark of 52 words per minute for at risk grade 2 students. A similar analysis in 2009 reported that 14% of students tested in English, 18.6% in Kiswahili, 14.8% in Gikuyu, and 20.3% in Dholuo in the last term of Standard 3 could not read a single word correctly. Simply put, a large number of Kenyan children are unable to read or comprehend simple text. Since it is a foundational skill, poor reading ability links to students dropout rates, repeating of courses, and underperformance in other content areas. The 2011 USAID Global Education Strategy recognizes the importance of developing strong early grade readers: Given limited resources the most strategic impact [the Agency] can make in basic education is to address early grade reading as an outcome that is critical to sustain and ensure learning for children. In Kenya, children who perform poorly in Standards 1 and 2 are likely to score lower on the Kenya Certificate of Primary Education (KCPE) Standard 8 exam, repeat a year, or drop out. The strategy continues: in stable, well performing countries with unmet needs in basic education, the priority focus will be on assuring learning outcomes for primary grade children, especially in reading. KEGRP will support this goal and aims to improve the reading skills of approximately 30 percent of the more than eight million children who will be enrolled in Grades 1 and 2 through 2018. This Request for Information will inform the solicitation that covers the first 3.5 years of the project before full or partial transition of activities to the GOK. C.3. Rationale In order to bolster its educational standards, the GOK enacted in 2005 a series of structured policy reforms and investment via the Kenya Education Sector Support Program (KESSP). At its core, KESSP utilized specially designed interventions to rapidly and adequately increase access to quality basic education. The first five-year phase of KESSP ended in 2010. Phase Two (called NESSP, the National Education Sector Support Program) is under development; it is expected to launch in 2013 and continue through 2018. The draft version of NESSP outlines the GOK strategy to improve the quality of basic education services, specifically those surrounding the development of reading. It is anticipated that the MOE will launch a national reading program via NESSP that will encompass early childhood education (pre-school) through Standard 2, of which KEGRP will be an integral component. The interest of the MOE in facilitating their own knowledge of what works in education was evident throughout KESSP, notably by their active participation and subsequent leadership in the development

of a set of instructional materials and assessment tools. These tools included the USAID-funded Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) in 2007, the Early Grade Mathematics Assessment (EGMA) in June 2009, and an additional, experimental EGR intervention in 2009 focused on improving reading outcomes in Kiswahilli, English, Dholuo, and Gikuyu (funded by Hewlett). The results of these interventions provided strong evidence that the explicit focus on reading at the policy level, combined with targeted lesson plan development and ongoing teacher training and feedback has a significant impact on student achievement. Based on the success of these efforts, both EGRA and EGMA tools are now in use in other countries across the developing world. The MOE further demonstrated its commitment to reading through the creation of the National Assessment System for Monitoring Learner Achievement (NASMLA), the MOE system that tracks student achievement, and the development of the National Assessment Center (NAC), the overarching GOK body that oversees national assessments. Both efforts define standard assessment practices and measure reading gains akin to EGRA and EGMA. KNEC currently leads NASMLA and, in June 2010, released the first Report on Monitoring Learner Achievement Study for Class 3 in Literacy and Numeracy. Due in part to the success of these early interventions and the already extensive research on EGR in Kenya, USAID/Kenya launched the three-year Primary Math and Reading (PRIMR) initiative in August 2011. PRIMR was designed to serve as a research study to examine additional areas for MOE intervention. To date, PRIMR and the MOE have completed a revised scope and sequence of the current reading curriculum for Standard 1 and 2 English and Kiswahili subject areas, produced 150-detailed lesson plans in both English and Kiswahili, and trained teachers and Teacher Advisory Center (TAC) tutors in the use of the methodology. The GOK recognized that a nationwide expansion of the EGR interventions of recent years was an immediate priority. As such, USAID/Kenya received a formal request from the MOE in early 2012 to develop and implement a nationwide EGR program. The MOE requested that the program deliver targeted reading interventions via each of the language subject areas (Kiswahili and English), to begin in 2013, with appropriate scale up by 2014. At the same time, PRIMR conducted a baseline and midterm evaluation of 225 target schools in Nairobi, Thika, and Nakuru. The midterm evaluation assessed more than 1,800 pupils in July 2012, and compared with the baseline study gains in treatment and control schools. Given that the intervention was only active for approximately four instructional months, the PRIMR initiative showed impressive gains. PRIMR increased English and Kiswahili letter sound knowledge by 18 letters per minute in four months, which is more than the average gain for a year. For reading, the causal impact was an additional 7 words per minute in English and 3 words per minute in Kiswahili. For reading comprehension, the effect was a 7% increase for English and 4% for Kiswahili. In short, PRIMRs impact was approximately the equivalent of an additional half-year of schooling, so pupils in PRIMR schools learned as much in a few months as what non-PRIMR pupils learned in a full year.

The PRIMR effect demonstrates a significant increase in Kiswahili fluency in PRIMR versus control schools.

In February 2012, PRIMR, along with approximately 35 MOE and USAID/Kenya officials participated in a high-level workshop to map the way forward for the national reading program. The result of the meeting was a newly established Reading Program Design and Implementation Team (PDIT), a high-level secretariat chaired by the Education Secretary charged with directly supporting early grade reading initiatives. EDY and PRIMR both retain positions within the secretariat, which will manage the national reading program. This project design incorporates extensive GOK input received during the February 2012 workshop, as well as ongoing input provided via the PDIT secretariat, including their input into PRIMRs Education Policy Study Report in July 2012. According to this report, attached as Annex 1, the research literature on reading development designates six key institutional and policy factors that must be considered when designing a national reading improvement program: the reading curriculum; instructional time; language of instruction; teacher training and continuing professional development; reading textbooks and other teaching-learning materials; and assessment. The report further clarifies these factors and offers suggestions for program development. KEGRP will build upon this strong foundation of EGR in Kenya and bring successful initiatives to scale at a national level. The following project description describes how KEGRP will collaborate with PRIMR (through its completion date in August 2014), the GOK, the private sector, and the Kenyan public to put into place an evidence-based, systematic process to ensure Kenyas children can read.

C.4. Project Description USAID/Kenya will collaborate with the MOE to create a national English and Kiswahili reading project in the approximately 28,000 formal and non-formal primary schools across Kenya. The project will improve reading instruction, advance reading delivery systems, and promote greater engagement by communities, the private sector, and the Kenyan public. The project will also assist the GOK at the technical and policy levels to review, revise, and implement reading-related policies.

KEGRP will operate through existing GOK structures, particularly at the nationwide network of primary schools, TACs, and the Primary Teacher Training Colleges (PTTCs). KEGRP implementers will work with and through the Ministry of Education, the Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD, formerly the Kenya Institute of Education2), the Kenya Education Management Institute (KEMI, formerly the Kenya Education Staff Institute), the Teachers Service Commission (TSC), the Kenya Institute for Special Education (KISE), and the Kenya National Examinations Council (KNEC). KEGRP will collaborate with the private sector, and other development partners and foundations, particularly DfID, Global Partnership for Education (GPE), UWEZO and the Hewlett Foundation, as well as teachers unions and parents organizations. It will work particularly closely with PRIMR to provide technical and policy guidance to the MOE. KEGRP has potential to work with multiple partners (public and private) across sectors and to complement other initiatives on issues affecting young children including nutrition and hygiene, as well as establishing a foundation for a cohesive, economically vibrant and just society. KEGRP will require strategies for private sector engagement through partnerships and other innovative models that leverage USAID investment. KEGRP aims to gradually move to Government to Government (G2G) assistance to ensure local ownership and sustainability. The plan is to build capacity during implementation for a full transition to the MOE. As early as possible during implementation of KEGRP, EDY will initiate the process for relevant local entities at the appropriate levels of government to undergo financial and other USAID-required assessments, with the aim of building their capacities so that management and implementation can be effectively transitioned. The expectation is that, by year four, the MOE and the SAGAs will have sufficient capacity in the areas of finance and procurement, human resources, and teaching and learning materials to mainstream and sustain a continuous learning outcomes assessment system for improved quality education. To support KEGRP to realize the expected results, external monitoring will be incorporated and procured from the private sector and civil society. It is critical that the activities be implemented and both internally and externally assessed to promote continued rigorous learning about the effectiveness of the interventions in the varied contexts of a nationwide program. USAID/Kenya encourages KEGRP applicants to propose a strategic learning agenda that is integrated into the program design and explores specific research questions to illuminate the ongoing process of a national scale-up. The strategic objective of KEGRP is to improve reading skills among Standard 1 and 2 Students. The ultimate beneficiaries are the approximately 2.7 million Standard 1 and 2 students in Kenyas public and non-formal education system each year. Intermediate beneficiaries include approximately: 1) 60,000 Standard 1 and 2 teachers3, 2) 28,000 primary school head teachers, 3) 1,052 TAC tutors, 4) 300 senior education personnel, and 5) tens of thousands of parents and community members. A detailed Results Framework is described in the following sections.

To realign to the new Constitution dispensation several education sector Bills have been enacted into law including the Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development [formerly the Kenya Institute of Education] Act, 2012; 3 The figure of approximately 60,000 teachers assumes that some of the approximately 28,000 schools will have more than one Standard 1 and/or Standard 2 class (double stream), thus multiple Standard 1 and 2 teachers work at these schools.

C.5. Results Framework

Strategic Objective Improved reading skills of Standard 1 and 2 students

Result 1 Improved supervision, support, and delivery of reading instruction to target students

Result 2 Greater engagement in reading by communities, the private sector, and the public

Result 3 Improved government capacity for sutainable transition, in target departments, to review, revise, and implement reading-related policies

IR 1.1 Increased availability and use of appropriate textbooks and supplementary materials that support reading

IR 2.1 Strengthened roles of the community and private sector in the development and use of supplemental learning materials

IR 3.1 Increased capacity of MOE to set clear reading benchmarks and national standards

IR 1.2 Improved reading instruction delivered by teachers using sound methodological approaches

IR 2.2 Increased public awareness of the importance of reading

IR 3.2 Increased capacity of KNEC to conduct and utilize reading assessment data

IR 1.3 Supportive supervision in teaching and assessing reading provided to teachers by TAC tutors and head teachers IR 3.3 Increased capacity of MOE to set revised quality assurance policy

Result 1: Improved supervision, support, and delivery of reading instruction to target students Several national reading programs show that direct, classroom-level intervention results in positive gains in student learning. Various programs in India, Liberia, and Ghana, as well as PRIMRs midterm evaluation results, show how impressive reading results were achieved by establishing clearly defined classroom times for reading skills development, providing intense training and supervision for teachers, assuring continuous assessment, and making available appropriate instructional materials. Informed by this research, Result 1 will focus on improving reading instruction through three types of interventions: (1) increasing availability and use of reading materials; (2) improving teacher effectiveness; and (3) strengthening supervision of teachers by TAC tutors and head teachers. Intermediate Result 1.1: Increased availability and use of appropriate textbooks and supplementary materials that support reading The MOE has placed great emphasis on increasing the number of instructional resources in schools; however, the student to textbook ratio is still inadequate, especially in the early primary grades. Moreover, the current instructional materials in Standards 1 and 2 do not systematically teach reading skills in a developmentally appropriate scope and sequence. USAID/Kenya is committed to enacting the USAID Forward principles of support for country ownership, leveraged partner engagement, strategic coordination, and sustainability. As such, KEGRP will work with a range of public, private, and civil efforts to ensure that all targeted children receive instructionally sound English and Kiswahili learning materials in a timely manner. PRIMR, with the MOE, KICD, KNEC, and teachers, has developed a draft set of 150 lesson plans to teach reading in both English and Kiswahili at the Standard 1 and 2 levels. Each lesson plan has common core elements that include phonemic awareness and alphabetic skills, decoding activities, strategies for reinforcing fluency in identifying common words, teacher-reading time, and self-read time. Each of these lesson elements occurs daily. In every lesson, the activities focus on the explicit teaching of reading combined with listening comprehension, writing, and speaking skills. These materials, which incorporate MOEs four communicative strands of literacy (reading, listening, speaking, and writing) are currently under review by KICD for curriculum alignment. KICD will also carefully review the materials for gender sensitivity. KEGRP will collaborate with KICD to finalize these materials and have them added to The Approved List of Primary and Secondary School Textbooks and Other Instructional Materials, popularly referred to as the Orange Book. Once incorporated into the Orange Book, KEGRP, in coordination with the MOE, will support the printing and distribution of these lesson plans to all Standard 1 and 2 teachers. KEGRP will also collaborate with KISE to ensure that appropriate lesson plans are developed for special-needs students. Each year, students receive official textbooks via the conventional MOE distribution mechanism, which includes the allocation of Free Primary Education (FPE) textbook funds to schools, with which each school buys books listed in the Orange Book from local retailers. Despite efforts to improve the supply chain, textbooks often arrive weeks after the start of school and are in short supply. When texts do arrive, teachers utilize them as direct, recall-recite instructional tools. KEGRP will work with MOE, KICD, TSC, and publishers to ensure appropriate textbooks, instructional materials, and diagnostic tools are available to complement the 150 lesson plans and instructional guides. The cadre of books, materials, and instructional tools serve to improve diagnostic reading at the classroom level. This includes pre- and post-testing, real time data-driven instruction feedback from instructional coaches to teachers, and

other efforts that will increase teachers ability to respond to students learning needs in more timely and formative ways. KEGRP will collaborate with KICD to ensure such materials are appropriately vetted and incorporated into the Orange Book. KEGRP will collaborate with MOE, KICD, and publishers to ensure that materials are distributed to schools in a timely manner. In 2013 and early 2014, materials development and distribution will focus on Standard 1 lesson plans and learning materials (electronic and print), which will be used by both Standard 1 and 2 students throughout the 2014 school year4. In 2014, materials production and distribution will focus on Standard 2 lesson plans and learning materials for use during the 2015 school year. KEGRP will work with the MOE, publishers, and commercial transporters to ensure that materials are distributed before the start of the school year to both GOK and non-formal schools. Where applicable to non-formal schools, KEGRP will utilize private printing and distribution means to ensure equitable opportunity. All materials will be integrated and reinforced equally across both English and Kiswahili. KEGRP will welcome responses from applicants that incorporate cost-effective ICT options to facilitate the review, publication, and/or distribution of these materials, and that identify areas for innovative and sustainable private sector collaboration. Expected Activities for 1.1 Support the MOE, KICD, and publishers in the drafting, review, publication, and distribution of textbooks and lesson plans for reading in English and Kiswahili for Standards 1 and 2. Expected Outcomes for 1.1 Textbooks, instructional materials, and diagnostic tools that reflect a cohesive approach to improved reading. Effective and timely distribution of instructional materials.

Intermediate Result 1.2: Improved reading instruction delivered by teachers using sound methodological approaches The instructional materials in KEGRP advocate for a radical departure from the current practice of reading instruction in Kenyan schools, where textbooks emphasize the rote memorization of picture letters, as opposed to an approach that utilizes processing skills to decode and understand new letters, words, and phonemes. Incorporating more contemporary pedagogical approaches like these into instructional skills and content knowledge will require intensive teacher training and follow-up support to directly increase childrens reading skills. Teacher training will consist of the following three major components: Component 1: Nationwide training on the Standard 1 materials, which will be utilized by both Standard 1 and 2 teachers beginning in 2014. Component 2: Nationwide training on the Standard 2 materials, which will be used by Standard 2 teachers beginning in 2015. Component 3: Ongoing refresher trainings and reflection sessions throughout the life of the program.
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The new Standard 2 materials cannot be introduced to the 2014 Standard 2 students since they will not have been adequately prepared during a regular Standard 1 school year to adequately respond to the more rigorous content in the revised materials.

For Component 1, USAID/Kenya anticipates an intensive four-phase training program to be completed by early in the 2014 school year. Trainings will utilize reading experts and MOE personnel. The phases include: Phase 1: Train senior county- and national-level education leadership in the new reading techniques, clarify the technical and theoretical underpinnings of the KEGRP approach, and ensure that senior education officials work closely with county, district and schoollevel personnel to properly adopt and support the program. This training includes roughly 300 personnel from the MOE, Semi-Autonomous Government Agencies (SAGAs), provinces, and counties over multiple days in Nairobi. Key targets are KICD and Quality Assurance and Standards Officers (QASOs), as they verify instructional materials for Kenyas schools. The specific roles of the various SAGAs will be clarified in the relevant policy documents that will govern the implementation of the new education sector laws and in line with the new constitution dispensation. Phase 2: Train head teachers from the approximately 28,000 target schools to ensure buy-in, understanding of the methodology, awareness of ways to provide ongoing monitoring and support to teachers, and awareness of techniques to garner community support and buy-in. This will be a multi-day training at a variety of locations throughout Kenya. Phase 3: Train all TAC tutors (1,052 as of 2012) in the reading methodology, materials, and training techniques so that they can return to the school clusters (both government and non-formal) to train classroom teachers. This will be a multi-day training at a variety of locations throughout Kenya. Phase 4: TAC tutors train approximately 60,000 Standard 1 and 2 teachers to ensure that they understand the methodology and properly utilize the instructional materials. TAC tutors, on average, will train approximately 57 teachers each from within their cluster of schools. Trainings may be weeklong non-residential programs, or take place 1-2 days per week over the course of multiple weeks. TAC tutors will also sensitize members of local PTAs and SMCs in the EGR methodologies during their ongoing school visits. For Component 2, USAID/Kenya anticipates a repeat of Phase 3 and 4 above before the 2015 school year. However, Phase 4 will only be carried out for the approximately 30,000 Standard 2 teachers who will use the Standard 2 materials and lesson plans. For Component 3, teachers will take part in regular, cluster-based reflection sessions led by TAC tutors. This component will focus on practical instructional modalities along with troubleshooting pieces for teachers via individualized coaching sessions. Sessions will be held throughout the instructional year on a monthly basis. In order to harmonize reading instruction provided through pre-service and in-service teacher training programs, USAID expects that the key staff of the 21 PTTCs will serve as representatives who effectively incorporate appropriate EGR methodologies into their pre-service teacher training responsibilities.

Phase 2 is an appropriate activity for participation by PTTC principals; Phase 3 will be for PTTC language instructors/tutors. USAID/Kenya and the MOE recognize the importance of face-to-face monitoring and follow-up support and thereby welcome solutions from offerors that facilitate this process in innovative and cost-effective ways (e.g., ICT), and that are inclusive of private sector, communities, and civil society to this end. Expected Activities for 1.2 Training of approximately 300 senior education officials by early in the 2014 school year. Training of one head teacher per school (approximately 28,000) by early in the 2014 school year. Training of 84 PTTC principals, language heads of department (HOD), and tutors by early in the 2014 school year. Training of all TAC tutors (approximately 1,052) by early in the 2014 school year. Training in the Standard 1 materials for approximately 60,000 Standard 1 and 2 teachers by early in the 2014 school year. Training in the Standard 2 materials for approximately 30,000 Standard 2 teachers by early in the 2015 school year. Ongoing TAC tutor-led reflection sessions for teachers. Expected Outcomes for 1.2 Increased capacity of 1,052 TAC tutors to provide professional support to teachers. Increased capacity of approximately 28,000 head teachers and 300 senior education officials to provide effective monitoring and support to teachers. Increased capacity of approximately 60,000 Standard 1 and 2 teachers to teach reading skills. Increase capacity for 84 PTTC principals, language HOD, and tutors in providing pre-service teacher training in EGR.

Intermediate Result 1.3: Supportive supervision in teaching and assessing reading provided to teachers by TAC tutors and head teachers The current culture of assessment in Kenyan classrooms relies on isolated snapshots of student and teacher performance. The result is a limited view of value-added instructional gains for both teachers and students alike. KEGRP will develop a model of continuous, formative assessment that takes into consideration the instructional environment and large class sizes of typical Kenyan classrooms. In essence, continuous assessment is a classroom approach that documents the existing knowledge, understanding, and skills of both teachers and students; to accomplish an accurate picture, teachers assess students, school heads do the same of teachers, and an analysis of both for improvement allows decision-makers to timely customize training, instruction methods, and curricula. KEGRP will utilize this continuous assessment model throughout the project. Teachers will receive feedback from school heads and TAC tutors based on their performance, which will allow them to focus on topics they have not yet mastered. TAC tutors, who will evaluate, replicate, and share innovative strategies and approaches with teachers, school heads, and district/county education officers, will administer followup. KEGRP will work with QASOs, head teachers, and TAC tutors to increase monitoring and feedback (such as regular reflection meetings for teachers) and implement incentive programs (such as

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recognition for teachers and schools who are meeting or exceeding reading goals.) KEGRP will also work with senior officials at the MOE, TSC, KICD, and KNEC to identify ways in which to monitor instructional quality via continuous assessment, rather than through traditional end-of-year or end-of-cycle formal examinations of students and end-of-year reviews of teachers. In addition, KEGRP will work with head teachers to address issues of teacher absenteeism and poor time-on-task levels while being sensitive to those with priority needs, such as those affected by or infected with HIV/AIDS. In Kenya, the amount of time devoted to language instruction is 30 minutes for each language, English and Kiswahili. While reading is just one of the four components of language instruction, the actual amount of time devoted to reading in English and Kiswahili is, on average, less than four minutes per language per day. Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, and Ethiopia each offer reading classes of at least 45 minutes. Given the small amount of time devoted to languages in Kenyan classrooms, it is important that teacher absenteeism and poor time-on-task levels do not further erode the 30-minute block devoted to language classes. In 2012, PRIMR, with funding from USAID/Washington, began research via the Snapshot of School Management Effectiveness protocol to both ascertain the actual levels of absenteeism and time-on-task. The research will propose recommendations for improving each as well as the KICD-endorsed thematic components (reading, writing, speaking, listening) of literacy. KEGRP will work with PRIMR and the MOE to implement the recommendations. Expected Activities for 1.3 Train county MOE and TSC education officers, head teachers, and TAC tutors in effective classroom observation and feedback. Carry out regular feedback sessions for teachers to meet and discuss instructional challenges. Support MOE and TSC to initiate continuous assessment programs that regularly monitor and provide feedback on the performance of students and teachers. Support county MOE and TSC officers, TAC tutors, and head teachers to carry out regular feedback sessions for teachers to meet and discuss their challenges and use of time. Expected Outcomes for 1.3 Increased utilization of classroom observation and feedback models by county MOE and TSC education officers, school heads, and TAC tutors. Increased use of instructional and management practices that make effective use of a continuous assessment model. Increased instructional time spent on the teaching of reading in English and Kiswahili languages.

Result 2: Greater engagement in reading by communities, the private sector, and the public Identifying and integrating community partners like Parent Teacher Associations (PTAs) and School Management Committees (SMCs) to strengthen school reading programs and student learning are a major focus of KEGRP. While USAID/Kenya retains active and ongoing partnerships with the GOK and displays a robust commitment to future engagement, new partnerships with publishers, media houses, and other relevant partners will help to leverage the resources of the private sector. Applicants will

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utilize a private sector development fund of approximately $2 million to leverage, develop and implement relevant and sustainable private sector engagement strategies over the life of the program. This will assist KEGRP in providing more cost-effective learning materials at the national level. For example, EGR programs will leverage this economy of scale to update the supply chain for reading materials and include additional, low-cost materials to parents and community partners via print, radio, and television mechanisms. The result of more widespread, usable reading materials is greater engagement, accountability, and transparency by the public at large. Ultimately, a sense of earnestness is created when access to quality materials matches the political and social will for a nation of lower primary school students with strong reading comprehension skills. As such, KEGRP envisions a national campaign for literacy where, for example, the youth of the National Youth Bunge Association5 (NYBA) or other community-based volunteers serve as literacy brigades to enhance and promote reading development across the early grades. For example, a small grants program with the NYBA may support youth to serve as reading mentors with young children, establish community libraries, or advocate with county and national governments on issues related to quality education. KEGRP will also reach out to local independent media to act as both monitors and collaborators for literacy efforts. Additional, writ-large public engagement in KEGRP will be highly inclusive. Rather than relegating parents and community members to the schooling sidelines, KEGRP and the new USAID/DRG devolution program, will invite all to join the public dialogue surrounding literacy and provide them with the tools to do so productively. A central issue is how accountability and transparency can optimize the engagement of all stakeholders. To do so, KEGRP will create a network of parents, teachers, and community members dedicated to strengthening public involvement around literacy (akin to the methods of the Pratham model in India). The network will monitor and report on the work of the MOE and further increase public awareness. The network will also advocate for improved accountability, transparency, and community engagement in the MOE decision-making process. Community participation in KEGRP will also provide additional opportunities and incentives for local education officials to respond to local educational needs. This will create opportunities for more downward accountability and thus reduce the gap between citizens and MOE policymakers.

Intermediate Result 2.1: Strengthened roles of the community and private sector in the development and use of supplemental learning materials In addition to official materials produced for inclusion in the Orange Book (see 1.1), KEGRP will work with teachers, communities, and the private sector to produce and distribute supplemental reading materials for children. Examples may include the use of grade-appropriate childrens books donated from organizations such as Books for Africa, working with teachers to develop locally produced stories, and/or engaging the private sector to develop standardized, cost-effective learning materials via print, radio, and television mechanisms. Since the teaching of reading requires a systematic approach, KEGRP will strive to ensure that supplementary materials directly align to the standardized, curricular goals of Standards 1 and 2. KEGRP will also work with TAC tutors to ensure that teachers are effectively trained on the utilization of these supplementary materials.

The National Youth Bunge Association (NYBA) was developed by youth with support from USAIDs Yes Youth Can program. The NYBA consists of a network of nearly 1 million youth members (aged 18-35) in approximately 20,000 villages across 25 of Kenyas 47 counties.

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Since reading development is maximized through developmentally appropriate activities, stimulating environments, and positive interactions with parents and caregivers, KEGRP will also actively develop co-curricular materials (with PTAs, SMCs, and other partners) for use at home and within the local community (e.g. community libraries). To do so, KEGRP will utilize literacy brigades via the NYBA network and/or other civil society organizations (CSOs). The literacy brigades will serve as literacy frontrunners that organize reading programs throughout their communities. This type of grassroots outreach will serve to build and strengthen partnerships between the youth, government, private sector, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) at the community levels. The brigades will also provide opportunity for the newly formed counties to influence the national education agenda highlighting local views on literacy issues and provide a powerful means to advocate for these interests. Collectively, the brigades can facilitate constructive engagement in an already robust, viable network to enhance KEGRP activities and increase advocacy at the national level and share best practices at the county level. Expected Activities for 2.1 Collaborate with KICD, communities, and private sector to produce and distribute supplementary reading materials to schools. Produce standardized, co-curricular learning materials at the national level and distribute via print, radio, television, and SMS mechanisms. Incorporate NYBA and CSO networks to serve as community literacy brigades. Expected Outcomes for 2.1 Increased use of supplementary reading materials by teachers at the classroom level. Increased use of co-curricular literacy materials at the local level. Greater engagement in literacy building efforts by the public at large.

Intermediate Result 2.2: Increased public awareness of the importance of reading When children become strong readers in the early grades, they become stronger learners throughout their school years, and while reading achievement is ultimately an individual responsibility, a proreading environment facilitates greater growth. KEGRP will create a network of parents, teachers, and community members dedicated to strengthening public involvement around the importance of reading. Libraries, outreach programs, service clubs, media outlets, and nonprofit organizations will serve as partners. KEGRP will collaborate with the Ministry of Education to create public service announcements (PSAs) to inspire Kenyans to explore new worlds through reading and to promote literacy for all types of learning, including books, periodicals, and informal print. Although these EGR efforts are designed to specifically increase the reading skills of lower primary school children, the multimedia and broadcasting wraparounds are universally age-applicable. In addition, PEPFAR funding, if received, will enable the multimedia components to incorporate HIV prevention and positive health messages into the programming. All multimedia and broadcasting efforts will include print components for non-television audiences. Expected Activities for IR 2.2

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Create a network of individuals and organizations to actively strengthen public awareness about the importance of lifelong reading. Develop a media and public awareness campaign.

Expected Outcomes for IR 2.2 Strengthened public awareness about the importance of lifelong reading. Sustainable network of parents, teachers, and community members dedicated to early grade reading.

Result 3: Improved government capacity, in target departments, to review, revise, and implement reading-related policies The rationale for, and experience with, the use of assessment to improve the quality of education in Kenya reflects strong MOE commitment to monitoring education development in students. In 2006, the GOK established the National Assessment Centre to conduct the National Assessment of Monitoring Learner Achievement (NASMLA). NASMLA documents how students, schools, and districts perform at various levels of primary education before sitting for the Kenya Certificate of Primary Education (KCPE) examination. NASMLA effectively harmonized all assessment initiatives under the Kenya National Examinations Council (KNEC) and formed a foundation for ongoing policy dialogue about learning practices and performance. The intent of KNEC was to capture how the educational practices in the typical Kenyan classroom can inform MOE policy, but the reality is that KNEC has limited capacity to effectively present school and district-level data along these aims. While EGR efforts are critical components of the current MOE strategy to expand and integrate literacy programming across the primary school curriculum, the various evidence of school and system performance around reading (beyond the individual student level) fails to inform policy decisions. The EGRA process shows that strategic investments in policy development have a significant impact on student learning. To this effect, KEGRP will increase the technical capacity of KNEC to measure students achievement against set standards, to evaluate how schools and districts are carrying out their literacy responsibilities within these standards, and provide the expertise in translating assessment data into new instructional and governing policies that will increase the quality of teaching and learning. KEGRP will provide ongoing, comprehensive analysis of EGR outcomes and create the necessary feedback mechanisms within the MOE so that data can inform policy development early and often. An additional result of this revised policy dialogue is that schools, families, and communities will be better able to communicate about actual reading performance in plain form and, as a result, endorse and select prevention practices that support MOE-defined performance standards (e.g., benchmarks).

Intermediate Result 3.1: Increased capacity of MOE to set clear reading benchmarks and national standards KEGRP presents a significant and historic opportunity for the GOK to collectively develop and adopt a core set of benchmarks for reading at the Standard 1 and 2 levels. While the current reading curriculum is standardized to local norms, it provides little information for teachers on how to define the individual skills necessary to create success as stronger readers. KEGRP will help MOE officials identify the knowledge and skills that students should acquire and assist school heads and teachers to develop

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appropriate instructional plans. To achieve this, clear benchmarks and standards will be developed to help school leadership teams plan explicit, annual goals for reading improvement. Together with lesson plans and teaching guides, teachers will be prepared to create a new generation of strong readers. To do this, KEGRP will commission yearly policy studies that examine phase-in, resource allocation, and the actual provision of reading skill development plans in primary schools. This will help with measuring the viability of various implementation options as well as enhance efforts to better identify and understand the sociopolitical and resource constraints of maintaining a national reading program. KEGRP will assist MOE leadership in assessing important internal research questions and operational dilemmas for the GOK; for example: approaches to and resources required to scale up early grade reading interventions in local languages; investments in ICT options; and analysis of student performance across various languages and demographics. To further this effort, KEGRP will provide technical assistance and partner with USAID/DRGs new devolution program to ensure that ongoing policy dialogue results in proper (and timely) response by the MOE and TSC at national and local levels. Expected Activities for 3.1 Develop and adopt a core set of benchmarks and standards for reading at Standards 1 and 2. Assist schools in developing appropriate instructional plans to match the revised benchmarks and standards. Assist school heads and QASOs to develop annual goals for student learning that align to the revised benchmarks and standards. Conduct a yearly policy study to ascertain phase-in, resource allocation, and actual provision of reading development plans in primary schools. Expected Outcomes for 3.1 Clearly defined benchmarks and standards for literacy attainment at Standards 1 and 2. Functional instructional development plans at the school level that aligns pedagogical practices with revised benchmarks and standards. Usable policy-level research for improved decision making at all operational phases of the MOE.

Intermediate Result 3.2: Increased capacity of KNEC to conduct and utilize reading assessment data KEGRP will track the reading skills of students at the Standard 1 and 2 levels. While KNEC does not have a formalized process for tracking these skills at these levels, KEGRP will co-develop an appropriate grade-level assessment to properly do so. The assessments will use a nationally representative sample to ensure that results can be extrapolated for larger student populations. In order to inform and report on the results in-country, KEGRP will gather cross-sectional reading performance data at the same grade levels over time, calculate changes in performance levels, and extrapolate any observed performance gains to the larger student population from which the probability sample was drawn. These will provide the evidence-based, national-level indicators that will ultimately support stronger policy dialogue. USAID anticipates that the assessment of a nationally representative sample will provide the MOE and USAID with data on the number of students demonstrating improved reading skills according to the benchmarks established in 3.1. Collectively, these data will provide the comparative indicators

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necessary to effectively perform regional analyses, to examine policy priorities at the higher, standardsbased system level, and to aid the MOE in ongoing strategic planning. Expected Activities for 3.2 Co-develop with KNEC validated reading assessment tools for Standards 1 and 2. Support KNEC to conduct periodic reading assessments. Expected Outcomes for 3.2 The creation of a field-tested, usable cadre of validated EGR assessment tools. Reports from reading assessments.

Intermediate Result 3.3: Increased capacity of MOE to set revised quality assurance policy USAID and the MOE believe that assurance monitoring a set of techniques for assessing student and school performance on a regular and frequent basis can be an essential and integral part of a standards-based assessment and accountability system. In order to meet the higher expectations of a standards-based system, teachers will need information that can be used to project how students perform against the grade-level standard throughout the course of the academic year. By identifying which students are at risk, teachers can be proactive, making sound instructional choices and using the EGR resources more strategically to ensure that every student has the chance to succeed. Likewise, county MOE and TSC officials can employ a system for evaluation and support of teachers, head teachers, and TAC tutors. At the MOE level, a clear quality assurance policy will enable more rigorous longitudinal analysis of student performance. To this effect, KEGRP will incorporate targeted training in quality assurance metrics at the county and national levels. This will be in the form of technical assistance to senior education leadership in the design of sound assurance policy and programming planning. To date, the use of EGR information is limited to GOK commissions, reviews, and reform programs. By working with the MOE and KNEC, KEGRP will ensure that all assessments are consistent with the goals of a national reading program, take into account users specific information needs, and accurately report results to the wide-range of stakeholders. The overall aim is to provide information on reading achievement in a rapid, useable fashion. This means providing parents and caregivers information on the performance of their child, but also including a description and example of the kind of performance that is expected at their grade level. The quality assurance team at the MOE will also enable stakeholders to develop informed opinions about the quality of schools in terms of students academic achievement, but not to use the results to compare or rank schools or district areas. As appropriate, results will be reported to distinguish the economic and sociocultural levels of the students that the schools serve, as well as the schools infrastructure, facilities, and community involvement. Expected Activities for 3.3 Provide targeted quality assurance training for county- and national-level MOE officials. Provide technical assistance to support design for revised quality assurance policy. Develop systems for reporting student achievement. Expected Outcomes for 3.3

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Improved regular and systemic feedback on student performance at school, county, and national levels. Increased research/evidence-based quality assurance policy reviews.

C.6. Relationships This EGR project stems from the development hypothesis that education is both foundational to human development and critically linked to broad-based economic growth and democratic governance. They aim to directly contribute to the broad, scalable objective of quality learning by leveraging USAID/Kenyas comparative advantage and ongoing leadership in the sector. These EGR programs directly align to Goal 1 of the 2011 USAID Education Strategy (to contribute to improving reading skills for 100 million children in the primary grades) and as appropriate, will incorporate a thematic or sectoral design in the 2013 Country Development and Cooperation Strategy (CDCS). Grounded in the most current, evidence-based analysis of educational effectiveness, KEGRP aims to improve reading instruction, advance reading delivery systems, and promote greater engagement by communities and the public. Additional crosscutting issues include youth development, gender equality, devolved quality assurance, and efforts to mainstream marginalized populations (including OVCs) and disabled learners. Through enhanced selectivity, focus, country led programming, division of labor, and innovation, KEGRP will integrate literacy development with other USAID/Kenya development initiatives, in addition to PRIMR. USAID/Kenyas experience shows that working in an integrated fashion linking donors, education management systems, and strong research is a best practice that contributes to better student learning results. The approach has helped strengthen the roles of education administrators at the subnational levels, increased stakeholder commitment, and contributed to long-term sustainability all evidenced by national and provincial governments interest in early grade reading expansion. The EGR initiatives outlined in this RFP present a timely opportunity to achieve greater impact and scale in USAID/Kenyas development goals, the GOKs policy reforms, the MOE's next strategy, and the improved achievement of Kenya's adolescent readers. In terms of GOK country projects, ongoing efforts at the MOE, TSC, KICD, KEMI, KISE, and KNEC will serve as key partners. They will also serve as the principal service mechanisms. Additional partnerships will be formed with various teachers unions, parents organizations, and the private sector as applicable. KEGRP will provide specific technical and policy assistance to all levels of the MOE. In addition, KEGRP will collaborate with USAID/Kenyas Education for Marginalized Children in Kenya (EMACK II) program, an eight-year effort to increase opportunities in quality education for pre- to lower secondary-aged children. The project works exclusively with children who are historically marginalized by cultural practices and poverty and those in the conflict-affected environments near the border with Somalia. EMACK reaches 767 schools in 9 counties and 23 districts for almost 500,000 children in three of the eight provinces: Coast, North Eastern, and Nairobi. Recently, EMACK added a Reading to Learn component to their portfolio. The effort aims at capturing sustained, improved reading outcomes in 170 target schools and to realign the program in light of USAIDs global education strategy. The effort also serves to complement the intervention elements of the PRIMR program. Yes Youth Can (YYC) is a nationwide project designed to empower youth to improve their lives and communities. It consists of six regional awards and one national award, each aims to enable youth to

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achieve greater voice in national policy and to create new livelihood opportunities. YYC directly supports youth in building new, more representative networks that leverage resources and encourage collaboration. Currently, nearly 1 million youth from over 15,000 villages are members of a youth bunge local parliament-style groups that have clear electoral and representative responsibilities. YYC recently launched a national grant-making effort, the Tahidi Fund, which is youth-led and youthmanaged and supports grassroots community development programs with actionable resources. The fund fully incorporates youth into the management and administration of its resources thereby promoting transparency and accountability, ownership, and authentic opportunities for leadership development. After YYC ends, legacy organizations such as the National Youth Bunge Association (NYBA) and at least 25 county youth forums will continue these partnerships and the grant fund. USAID/Kenya is committed to the proactive coordination of the international development partners in education, and continues to play a lead role in ensuring donor and host country efforts are not duplicative, but complimentary. USAID/Kenya is an active member of the Education Donors Coordination Group (EDCG), which is chaired by the Permanent Secretary of the MOE and includes all education donors in Kenya. The World Bank and DfID provided substantial direct budgetary support for KESSP between 2005-2010. However, their engagement in the education sector is currently limited following a MOE corruption scandal in 2009. DfID has recently partnered with USAID to expand PRIMR to 800 more schools. Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) is spearheading capacity building and training in the area of teaching Math and Science at the secondary school level. Along with USAID, UNICEF is the other major donor currently implementing projects specifically focused on the Coast and North Eastern provinces with a focus on Early Childhood Development Education (ECDE). Other than a few EGR pilot assessments, neither GOK nor other donors are engaged in large-scale EGRtype initiatives. Current pilot EGR assessments include Reading to Learn (RTL), funded by the Hewlett Foundation, implemented by the Aga Khan Foundation, and expanded by USAID to North Eastern Province and Nairobi as part of the expansion of the EMACK program; Health and Literacy Intervention (HALI) implemented in Coast Province, World Bank and Hewlett Foundation-funded; Reading Kenya, a program of the National Book Development Council of Kenya (NBDCK), the Canadian Organization for Development through Education (CODE), and the MOE in Western Kenya; Opportunity Schools, a pilot program that uses Maasai language materials, implemented by the Women Education Researchers of Kenya (WERK), based in Kajiado Central and Loitokitok; and Bridge International Academies, based in the informal settlements of Kenyas urban centers. C.8. Implementation Plan KEGRP builds on several years of research in Kenya and around the world, which shows that the reading crisis many countries face can be solved with the right mix of interventions. The proposed interventions are tailored specifically to Kenya, including a focus on gender equality, innovation and technology, enhanced evaluation practices, and country ownership and responsibility. Where applicable, indigenous NGOs and other private and public organizations will serve as partners. Financial and in-kind contributions will be leveraged through public-private partnerships and/or a Global Development Alliance, proposed by the Applicant. EGR initiatives are anticipated to begin in September 2013. KEGRP will be implemented by a contractor for an initial 3.5 years, working closely with the MOE on implementation. During that time, USAIDrequired assessments in finance and procurement will be conducted for the Ministry of Education, followed by capacity building efforts designed to be responsive to the assessment findings.

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Consideration of the newly devolved context will be made when conducting and responding to any assessments. Approximately 2.5 years into implementation, USAID/Kenya will determine whether particular activities under KEGRP implementation of Result 1 can be fully or partially transitioned to the GOK in year four, based on financial and other capacities. The Mission will also consider those different and possibly devolved levels of government that are essential to the successful achievement of KEGRP objectives, and whether capacity exists on those levels. At this time, USAID/Kenya may exercise the option to transition fully to G2G assistance in years four and five, providing technical assistance to the MOE where needed. Alternatively, USAID/Kenya may determine to extend contractor implementation of activities. A similar determination will be made by USAID/Kenya on whether and how to extend the community activities that fall primarily under Result 2 and the MOE technical assistance components under Result 3. C.9. Key Personnel The Applicant will propose key personnel positions, and will include in the proposal an organizational chart that delineates the key position together with a position description and brief biographical sketch for each candidate. USAID/Kenya has identified the following positions as key personnel for this activity. However, Applicants are encouraged to propose alternate key personnel positions, including for communications and outreach, and should consider the nationwide scope of the project when doing so. Chief of Party: The Chief of Party (COP) shall be responsible for the overall management and implementation of the project and report directly to the designated USAID Contracting Officers Representative (COR). S/he shall supervise project implementation and ensure the project meets stated goals and reporting requirements. The COP will take a leadership role in coordination among USAID and key stakeholders including other implementing partners, and will work together with USAID and national and county-level government officials. The COP shall have a doctorate-level degree in a relevant field from an accredited university, and at least ten years of experience in managing and implementing education programs in developing countries, preferably in the implementation of a national scale-up and coordination of such activities. Fifteen years of leadership and management experience is accepted in lieu of the doctorate degree. Previous experience in Kenya or East Africa is highly desired. Previous experience in implementing national scale-ups is also highly desired. The COP will have demonstrated exemplary management, communication, and interpersonal skills to ensure internal coherence among diverse team members, as well as relations with the GOK, donors and the international community. Deputy Chief of Party, Programs: The Deputy Chief of Party, Programs (DCOP Programs) shall work under the leadership of the COP and will support the organization in appropriate technical and coordination aspects of the project. S/he shall have an advance degree in education or social sciences (Masters degree) from an accredited university. The DCOP Programs shall have at least ten years of relevant technical experience in program management in developing countries, preferably in the implementation of a national scale-up and coordination of such activities. Additional experience in similar type of programs may be considered in lieu of an advanced degree. Previous experience in Kenya or East Africa is highly desired. S/he shall have demonstrated exemplary management, communication, and interpersonal skills to ensure internal coherence among diverse team members, as well as relations with the GOK, donors and the international community.

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Deputy Chief of Party, Operations: The Deputy Chief of Party (DCOP Operations) shall work under the leadership of the COP and will be the responsible for all aspects of operations, including administration, finance, procurement, human resources, and grants administration, if relevant. S/he shall have an advanced management or financial degree (Masters degree) from an accredited university. The DCOP Operations shall have at least ten years of experience in managing and implementing projects in developing countries specifically in the areas mentioned above. Previous experience in Kenya or East Africa is highly desired. S/he shall have demonstrated exemplary management, communication, and interpersonal skills to ensure internal coherence among diverse team members, as well as relations with the GOK, donors and the international community. Private Sector Development Specialist: The Private Sector Development Specialist will be responsible for the private sector development fund (consisting of a minimum $2 million) and utilize it to leverage private sector support for quality education, in particular improved reading skills, and inculcating a reading culture within Kenya. S/he shall have a proven ability to identify high-potential business ideas, demonstrated experience working collaboratively with institutional and private partners and stakeholders in Kenya, and experience implementing activities designed to leverage private investments to support development goals. Note: in lieu of an individual for this position, offerors may also propose a relevant Kenyan firm to lead this effort via a sub-contract. C.10. Monitoring and Evaluation Plan and Learning Approach The aim of KEGRP is to improve quality of learning outcomes, particularly the reading skills of children, through evidence-based policy decision making. In line with USAIDs monitoring and evaluation policy, scientific testing for innovative results is built into the KEGRP design and the preceding PRIMR project. USAID/Kenya will conduct external baseline, midline, and endline evaluations to document progress as well as make recommendations to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of its ongoing activities. As such, the external evaluations will primarily focus on utilizing the EGRA tool to measure students reading fluency and comprehension against a control group. USAID/Kenya must report these figures to USAID/Washington in order to track progress against the Global Education Strategys goal of 100 million children with improved reading skills. Within the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, including leveraging and cost effective use of resources, KEGRP is planned to reach out to other stakeholders (including development partners, public and private sector, civil society, and beneficiaries) for best results and sustainability. The evaluation schedule will be as follows: 2013 Nov Baseline (control) Baseline (control) 2014 Nov 2015 Nov 2016 Nov 2017 Nov Final Midterm Final

Standard 1 Standard 2

EGR programs will incorporate an evaluation plan that examines outcomes, effects, and impact of the 5year initiative by examining: 1. Process: How the programs were implemented (ownership, gender equity, and participation). Whether the beneficiaries were satisfied, and what was learned to improve future activities. 2. Outcome: Whether or not the desired changes occurred. 3. Impact: Whether or not changes are attributable to the EGR programs.

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In all cases, the monitoring and evaluation (M&E) model will focus on measuring program performance and achievement. The following monitoring and reporting methods will be used USAID/Kenya. Additional tools will be developed as needed: 1. Performance Monitoring Plan The Performance Monitoring Plan (PMP) will guide key project activities, indicators of achievement, and the associated annual and life-of-project targets. This plan will be developed by the implementing partner, reviewed, and approved by the Contracting Officers Representative (COR). Performance monitoring will take into account the requirements for two levels of reporting: (1) the selection of indicators consistent with USAID/Kenyas annual Operational Plan; and (2) the selection of indictors for internal, project-level management. The implementing partner may utilize separate, additional indicators for each level since some standard indicators may not be appropriate for all levels. While a partner may suggest more relevant indicators to better illustrate progress and outcomes of the project, the COR will make final indicator selection upon the review and approval of the PMP. These indicators will take into account the results, performance requirements, and performance standards. At minimum, the following Foreign Assistance Framework (FAF) indicators will be included in the PMP: a. 3.2.1-3: Number of administrators and officials trained b. 3.2.1-14: Number of learners enrolled in USG-supported primary schools or equivalent nonschool-based settings c. 3.2.1-27: Proportion of students who, by the end of two grades of primary schooling, demonstrate that they can read and understand the meaning of grade level text d. 3.2.1-31: Number of teachers/educators/teaching assistants who have successfully completed in-service training or received intensive coaching or mentoring with USG support e. 3.2.1-33: Number of textbooks and other teaching and learning materials (TLM) provided with USG assistance f. 3.2.1-35: Number of learners receiving reading interventions at the primary level 2. Quarterly Narrative and Financial Reports Quarterly narrative and financial reports will provide indication of progress on all planned activities. The narratives will include both quantitative and qualitative descriptions of all activities conducted and partnerships leveraged. While the quantitative aspects will provide measureable evidence of achievements, the qualitative dimension will contextualize the nature of the outcome and its possible effects. Narrative reports will further indicate key implementation challenges, how they were resolved, and how they will be utilized throughout the KEGRP project. These quarterly performance assessments will be conducted against the quarterly targets that were provided in the PMP and will therefore reflect these plans. Financial reports will include budget versus actual expenditures and include a brief explanation of the variance, if any. Reporting periods will coincide with USAID fiscal-year quarters or other schedule agreed-upon by USAID/Kenya and the implementing partner(s). 3. Annual Progress Reports

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Annual reports will reflect the overall performance of the KEGRP activities against the Annual Work Plans (AWP) and work in conjunction with the PMP. Annual reports will complement the quarterly reports for each year and indicate the results and impact of the project on the target populations (direct and indirect) in light of the larger constituencies. 4. Special Reporting EGR programs will fulfill all requests from Agency, congressional, or presidential inquiries. As necessary, programs will illustrate the outcome result of any/all activities. As applicable, any special reporting requirements will be communicated to the implementing partner well in advance. Programs will also monitor the education environment to include the coverage of priority EGR issues, analysis of MOE and USAID development partner activities, and public perceptions of EGR issues. As appropriate, the implementing partners will develop a list of media to be monitored and develop the criteria to conduct ongoing monitoring. The media monitoring results will be discussed in stakeholders forums as per the monitoring and evaluation reporting schedule and project work plans. 5. External Reports As requested, EGR programs will regularly report progress and metrics to key stakeholders implementing partners, media houses, private sector, civil society, and communities. External reports that USAID/Kenya may request from the implementing partner(s) include: a. b. c. d. e. f. Annual work plans with key project activities and substantive performance indicators Program performance reports (quarterly and annual) Financial management and audit reports Performance management system strategy and M&E plans Annual work plans indicating key program activities and performance indicators Long-term project implementation strategy

6. Management Review and External Evaluation A joint annual management review of EGR progress will be conducted by the COR(s) with USAID/Kenya and project staff. This will assess the overall direction of the projects, examine the achievement of yearly work plan objectives, and resolve any major management or implementation issues. The review meeting will make recommendations for appropriate changes and broaden its participation to include other strategic stakeholders, partners, and implementing partner(s). USAID/Kenya may, at any given time in the program cycle, conduct one or more external midterm process evaluation/s to review overall progress, relevance of the project design and implementation methodologies, and identify any factors likely to have a negative impact on success. The results of a midterm evaluation may be used by USAID/Kenya to change project implementation strategy and/or to determine future direction. 7. Master and Annual Work Plans

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EGR programs will be guided by a master work plan (MWP), an overall project map that indicates broad activities, expected outcomes, annual milestones, and budget along the five year timeline. Annual work plans (AWP) are developed yearly and include proposed activities for the given year, time-frame, implementation of activities, an itemized and detailed budget, review of the previous years accomplishments (if applicable), problems and challenges encountered in achieving specified results, proposed annual outputs, and progress towards achieving results. The MWP and the AWPs will be developed in country by the implementing partner and in cooperation with USAID/Kenya and the GOK. 8. Procurement Plan As noted in ADS 220. 3.2.3, Project Design, Monitoring, Evaluation, and Designation of Responsibilities, and within direct government-to-government assistance, federal procurement policy now favors output/performance-based bilateral mechanisms whenever practical and possible. The PRIMR experience has shown that there are uncertainties, specifically in the approval process of early grade reading teaching and learning materials developed for scale up within a reforming and devolved system of government. In addition, given the 2009 corruption scandal involving the MoE and existing financial control issues that remain unresolved, EDY recommends the use of a costreimbursement/cost-plus-award-fee contract. The procurement will be via full and open competition. To support potential partnerships, USAID would permit KEGRP to field grants under contract. 9. USAID Forward The support provided by USAID/Kenya for education development activities has been provided mostly through US-based partners. It has become increasingly evident that there is currently no local organization that has the capacity to implement literacy development activities at similar scale to those of US organizations. As a result, one of the primary objectives of this award is to build the capacity of the GOK to implement literacy development activities in the future. USAID/Kenya envisions that after 3.5 years of implementation, pending any changes to USAIDs Global Education Strategy, USAID/Kenya may exercise the option to implement transition to implementing KEGRP activities via G2G mechanisms. 10. USAID/Kenya Management KEGRP will have a COR from the EDY office. The COR will be assisted by a Project Management Team (PMT), which may include personnel from other USAID/Kenya offices to ensure a whole of government approach. The COR will assist the overall coordination and collaboration of the implementing partner with other EDY service delivery partners at the regional level and with national level programs. USAID/Kenya envisions a stronger national GOK and private sector engagement around national education issues via the implementation of these programs. 11. Secondary Analysis and Results Tracking (SART) USAID will utilize external evaluators for baseline, mid-term, and final evaluations. However, KEGRP implementers should also be aware that USAID/Washington has launched a support mechanism to

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assist the Agency effectively track and report on progress towards its Education Strategy goals. Secondary Analysis and Results Tracking (SART) is designed to manage secondary and third-party data, to analyze and synthesize data to inform target and threshold setting process at country level, and to make goal-related data available to USAID and its partners. To this end, KEGRP will provide datasets and codebooks that include data on student learning outcomes. Implementing partners will be responsible, in collaboration with USAID, for obtaining country-level memoranda of understanding that allow for the sharing of the datasets and other data with USAID, as well as public access to the data through the partner organization, where possible. For Goal 1, both the full datasets and pared-down datasets will be required. Full datasets will include all variables in the original datasets, along with any new variables created for analytical purposes. The pared-down datasets will include data on basic student characteristics, where available (age, sex); community characteristics (urban/rural, for instance); language of assessment; and reading skill assessment data (such as words correct per minute and other elements of the assessment). In addition, implementing partners will provide codebooks and other background information sufficient to make clear what variables measure, how variables were used in primary data analysis (for instance, how the proportion of students reading at grade level was calculated), and what acceptable values are for each variable. For Goal 3, any and all primary data from surveys, mapping exercises, and other data collection activities and instruments (surveys, questionnaires, and the like) will be provided to USAID, accompanied by a codebook or other guide explaining variable names, methodological approach, and so on. In addition, KEGRP will provide copies of lesson plans, evaluation plans, and other key relevant documents that are critical to advancing the knowledge base for meeting the goals of the Education Strategy. Within four months of the completion of data collection, KEGRP will deliver to USAID the complete, cleaned datasets and other materials referenced above. Datasets will be delivered through email, a drop box system, or another mechanism to be specified by USAID. All prerequisites to providing the complete, cleaned datasets must be completed by the implementing partner prior to the provision of the dataset to USAID, such as review and approval by missions and host-country governments, as appropriate. In addition, KEGRP will submit materials to the Development Experience Clearinghouse in accordance with the requirements of specific contract and cooperative agreements. C.11. Analytical and Sustainability Considerations Gender USAID/Kenya education projects strive to promote gender parity and equity at every level of learning; the EGR programs are no exception. The programs aim to create equitable education and training opportunities for girls and boys and male and female educators while addressing other disparities. At the primary school level, Kenya has almost attained gender parity in terms of enrolments at the national level (51:49 for boys and girls, respectively, in 2009). Of the 2.7 million children in Standards 1 and 2 (the targeted classes for KEGRP), the Gross Enrolment Rate (GER) for boys exceeded 112.8 percent while girls represented an encouraging 107.2 percent; however, the gender gap is one that requires attention, one that is more prevalent in marginalized areas of Kenya, including the Coast and North Eastern provinces, and in the informal urban settlements within the big cities/towns. USAID/Kenya targets its projects in these regions to include deliberate efforts to improve the enrollment, retention, and performance of marginalized girls and boys as/where applicable; KEGRP will extend these efforts. At the teacher and school administrator levels, deliberate efforts will be made to achieve a 1:1 participation rate, though challenges remain to meet the gender parity targets given the unbalanced staffing

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composition of these groups. The PMT will carefully monitor and put in place measures to address gender equity requirements early on, particularly if identified-gaps in the data indicate unequal achievement distributions within any population(s). Inclusive Development USAID/Kenya support to the education sector includes deliberate efforts to improve the participation of persons with disabilities, estimated at 10% of the Kenyan student population. Persons with disabilities are among the most marginalized groups regarding access to education and skills training in Kenya. As in other cultures, disabled persons in Kenya are viewed with an air of regret and misfortune and, as a result, are often hidden from public view. For the few that make it to school, the unit cost per person with disabilities (PWD) is disproportionately high compared to other students. Schools and caregivers alike note the challenge in providing a quality, equitable curriculum to PWD. USAID/Kenya has supported several efforts to improve the implementation of the MOE education policies for students with disabilities. As one example, USAID/Kenya has supported the MOE in their training of over 1,300 college tutors in integrated special needs education programming, the result of which is a highly regarded sign language teaching handbook. USAID also supported the MOE in endorsing sign language as an examinable subject at the primary school level and, in November 2011, KCPE candidates with hearing disabilities had, for the first time in Kenya, the option to sit for a signed version of the standardized examination. More recently, EMACK renovated 12 schools to a more disability-friendly design. EGR programs will operate in these schools without exception and, like other USAID/Kenya projects, will look for ways to further the inclusive development agenda. To this end, programs will collaborate with KICD and KISE to ensure that disability-appropriate teaching and learning materials are available. EGR programs will also make deliberate efforts to include PWDs and/or those who provide services to PWD populations in the planning and design phases.

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