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An English Translation of Edition Schott 3638

Schule fur die

Barock Laute
von F.J Giesbert

This document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

Introduction
ontrary to the recorder, which has become extremely popular again after having been almost completely forgotten, the lute never completely vanished from the scene of music, especially from home use. The memories of the Queen of Instruments, loved by our ancestors above all, whose perfect forms appeared again and again on old paintings, reproduced by artists, who expressed their delight about the sweetness and magic of the sound of the lute. There were many attempts to revive the music which touches us from these paintings for our libraries have great holdings of lute music.

However, all attempts to revive the lute playing had to fail because two factors of decisive importance were overlooked: the instrument itself and the notation. he lute has been handed down to us, however, it has undergone changes which made it far different from the original instrument it was. These changes exist mainly because over the times the lute had to fulfill different functions and sound ideals. The same evolution visible in the steps from the tender-stringed CLAVICHORD over the piano to the ironclad grand pianos also changed the original tenderstringed double course lute into the modern single course instruments with thick tightly stretched strings, strings which sometimes have changed from gut to metal (steel) strings. Just as it is impossible to create the magic of old clavichord music on a modern grand piano or to play a sonata for recorder on a modern flute, it is also impossible to express the beauty of old lute music on a modern lute: always something will be lost: the sensuous sound of the tone imagined by the composer.

hen the instrument was assimilated to the new sound ideals the old way of notation was also dropped: the tablature used over 400 years in the entire lute playing world. The ancestors soon realized that the regular notation on a staff with five lines our modern way of notation was ill suited to a fingerboard instrument, where the same note could be played on several different strings and in many different positions and whose tuning and stringing often had to vary in order to serve certain purposes. Tablature was invented to help the student and player to enable him to master and play a piece of music with the least difficulties in the shortest possible time. What was more efficient than to notate the fingerings the player had to execute during the progress of a certain piece? What easier than to indicate different strums and attacks with certain symbols? Hardly had the tablature been developed and it began to influence the actual creation and form of music. Soon a unique lute style evolved which could no longer be written down in the regular mutation, without changing even technically easy pieces into extremely difficult monstrosities on paper.

f we intend to rediscover the treasure of lute music we will only be able to do this if we again build our instruments true to the ways of our ancestors, if we string them the original way and if we play the music the way it was originally written to be played. To give help and instruction for this process is the purpose of this school.

A Translation: Page 2 Schule fur die Barock laute


This document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

Introduction - continued
he exact drawing of a baroque lute provides complete information about construction, wood types and measurements of the instrument as well as the string gauges and the frets. The drawing is based on the lute, built by Sixt Rauchwolf in 1577 for Jakob Fugger, which I own. After comparison to masterpieces by Tiefenbrucker, Frey, Maler and other masters we found almost total agreement of all measurements and wood types. The lute was modified in 1705 by Wenger in Augsburg. He replaced the angled tuning box (head piece) with a double theorbo tuning box so that the stringing could be increased to 13 courses without changing the neck. The neck measures 8 cm at the saddle and 10 cm at the body.

hat is taught here is lute playing the way the old artist played. We pay meticulous attention to all rules and instructions they left us. The course of instructions follows the manner of an old lute teacher would have used to instruct his pupils. After introductory technical exercises we begin with easy suites and then the grade of difficulty of the selected pieces slowly increases. In between we have discussion of technical and harmony problems, chord diagrams on the fingerboard and rules of fingering and plucking techniques.

W
A

ll historical pieces offered in this book are reproduced unchanged and true to the original. The 80 solo pieces have been augmented by 59 exercises which deal with technical aspects of fingering and attacks.

May this work help to regain the lute its old position in our musical life, F.J Giesbert

A Translation: Page 3 Schule fur die Barock laute


This document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

l First Level
Content Tuning: Holding the lute Explanation of tablature Right hand/ Attack techniques Positioning Supporting finger . Indicating attack . . finger .. . Rules for attack Symb. For attack | Simultaneous attack Left hand/ Fingering techniques Positioning Thumb position Naming the fingers Fingering rule 1 18 Exercises No Pieces Folktunes The Ducks The Poor Man Open the Door At the Head of My Rival The Wheat Cutter Parthie in F 1. Pasterella 2. Menuett I 3. Menuett II 4. Menuett/Air 5. Gigue Parthie in d 1. Entre 2. Menuett 3. Menuett 4. Variatio Suite in C 1. March 2. Minuette 3. Minuette 4. Gigue 6 7 8 9 10 I. Thumb attack 1. Diatonic walking Upwards 1 Downwards 2 2. Jumps/skips 4 Down 4 Up 5 Both directions 5 II. Attack with index and middle finger 1. Neighboring strings simultaneously 12 Following another 13 Mixed 14 2. Distant course Simultaneously 15 Following another 15 III. Attack with 3 fingers 1. Broken 25 Accented ring finger Accented index finger 2. Simultaneously Following bass note Together with bass note IV. Simultaneous attack with bass 1. Melody 18 2. Chords 25 27

17 22 23 24 26

16

28 29 30 31

( ) Barring with the


1. finger 17 19 34 Chord theory Reading chords Chord letters Moving chord forms Chord fingerings 27 27 32 36

Pulling off

l Hammering on/double 24

32 34 35 37

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This document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

Page 1

The instrument can also be built in form of a THEORBO, with 7 courses on the fingerboard, which must be 8 cm wide at the saddle and 10 cm wide at the body, in addition it should have 5 freely vibrating courses with a MENSUR of 95 cm. The numbers next to the frets determine the string gauge. The two lowest bass strings can be mounted on a separate rider.

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Tuning of the Lute The first problem the lute presents is tuning it. Let us look at the grouping of the strings: they seem to fall into three groups, 2 singe strings, 3 pairs of strings made up of 2 equally gauged strings respectively and finally 8 string pairs containing one thick and one thin string. The later are the 6 BASS COURSES containing one bass string and one OKTAVESTRING the first two groups form the 5 PLAY-COURSES. A PLAYCOURSE therefore can be either a single string or a pair of equally gauged strings. The lute is tuned as follows: (notes) The upper 6 courses are tuned to a d-minor chord, the following BASSCOURSES descend step-wise the d-minor scale down to the KONTRA A. The highest course is equal to the lowest note on an ALTO RECORDER f thus still below a. The a can be reached by fingering the uppermost course on the e-fret. To be sure, a course can be strummed empty, that is, without being fingered on the fingerboard or it can be shortened by a fret by pushing it down on the fingerboard. These different possibilities are put in order with the help of the alphabet: The empty course is designated a, fingering the first fret b, the second fret c, the third fret d, etc. Each fret shortens the string by half a step. The TABLATURE, which is written lute music, does not designate the note but the fingering the player must execute in order to produce the desired tone. This is done very simply in the following manner: each of the 6 upper courses which can be fingered, the other lower courses can not be comfortably reached by the hand, is represented by a line, we thus have a system of 6 lines, of which the uppermost designates the highest course of the lute. On each of these lines is marked, what is to be done with the respective course, whether it should be strummed empty or fingered on a certain fret. If nothing at all is marked, the course is not to be played at all. With a few examples, we can make everything clear:

_______

This means the highest course should be fingered on the e fret and strummed by the right hand, the rest of the strings should not be played at all. This means the third course should be played empty while the others remain silent. This means the second course should be fingered on the d fret while the others remain silent.

A Translation: Page 5 Schule fur die Barock laute


This document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

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Let us now take up the lute and attempt to tune it. We site down and hold the lute in the same fashion as the lutist does in the picture by van Dyke: we cross our legs, left over right, then we rest the right lower arm about in the middle between elbow and wrist on the top of the lute, which is at about a 90 degree angle, the correct resting position for the forearm is indicated on the drawing. Then we rest the little finger slightly on the top of the lute, next to the highest string and close to the bridge. This position too is indicated on the drawing. The weight of the lower arm resting on the top which can be felt as a slight pressure on the left thigh is quite adequate to balance the lute and to inhibit any lowering of the neck, thus the left hand can move freely on the fingerboard. The support of the little finger does not affect the lute but the strumming (plucking) hand. In order to tune our lute to a, we tune the e-fret to a tuning fork or the a of the piano.* (If we intend to go easy on the strings we may tune the lute a whole step lower by using the g-fret.) The next practical instruction is as follows (diagram). We are to finger the e-fret of the highest course and play it and tune the empty third course to this note, since this string cannot be tightened to the same degree as the highest, we tune it an octave lower. The next instructions are the following: (diagram) We are to pluck the empty highest course and tune to this note the second course which is fingered at the d-fret. Furthermore: (diagram). Play the highest course empty and tune to this note the empty fourth course, then play the empty second course and tune to it the empty fifth course, finally the same procedure for the third and sixth course. Again we sum up the tuning procedure for the upper six courses in this diagram (diagram). Each singe tuning process is separated from the next one by a barline. The first shown letter is to be played first, the following letter is then to be tuned to the note produced first. In tuning the sixth course, the thin OCTAVE STRING is tuned in unison with the empty third course while the heavier bass string is tuned an octave lower. We follow exactly the same procedure when tuning the bass courses, the tuning instructions for which are as follows: (diagram). We notice that the bass courses are not indicated in a uniform way, but according to groups in different manners. This happens in order to keep the tablature system simple, to avoid confusion through too many lines. The letters for the seventh course are indicated below the lines, the eighth course is marked by a slanted line above the letters, the ninth course has two slanted lines and the tenth has three. After this the slanted lines are no longer used, instead the respective digits 4, 5, 6 are used for the remaining three bass courses. Thus if we play, beginning with the lowest bass course, one course after another going up the following tablature diagram originates: (diagram) Already this first attempt to pluck the empty courses of the new tuned lute presents a new problem: Which fingers of the right hand should be used to pluck which course? Is the choice open or are there rules? There is a rule, as follows.

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A Translation: Page 6 Schule fur die Barock laute


This document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

Page 9

The upper four courses are played with the middle finger, all others are played with the thumb. If any other finger than the one prescribed by the rule is supposed to be used, there is a special sign indicating the finger under the letter. The signs are as follows: | Thumb Index finger Middle finger Ring finger Therefore the thumb, being responsible for its nine courses must be trained to become most efficient and exact in switching from string to string, to be able to execute skips over long and short distances quickly. Some practical exercises will be of great help. It is most important that the little finger remains always in the exact same position so that the thumb can get used to the various distances in relation to this fixed point. Only thus can the thumb gain the necessary exactness and security. We lay the thumb on the bass string of the bass course 4, touching the string not with the tip but the side of the thumb, we hold the other fingers so that the hand lies slightly arched over the strings. After applying a slight pressure with the thumb, the course skips away from under it and the thumb comes to rest on the bass string of the next course. During this process we perceive in quick succession first the tone of the bass string and then the tone of the octave string. Another quick pressure sounds the notes of the next bass course and lets the thumb fall on the next bass course. In this manner we guide the thumb toward the seventh course: (diagram of exercise) At the beginning of the tablature the beat is indicated. Above the first note we see a quarter note which indicates that all notes are to follow one another at the distance of a quarter note. If this distance is to be changed, another sign will indicate this. The whole note above the note of the second measure therefore means that the next note may only follow, after the time of one whole measure has passed. The three dots at the end of the exercise indicate that the piece is to be repeated.

A Translation: Page 7 Schule fur die Barock laute


This document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

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As long as the thumb moves stepwise from one string to the next, going upward, a slight pressure is enough to move it to the next highest course. However, if one wants to descend stepwise from one string to another, the thumb must perform each time a little skip, in order to descend from the course on which it rests after having played it to the next lower course. The playing of the seventh course takes the thumb to the sixth course, in order to play the eight course from this position it must lift itself over the seventh course toward the eighth course. Exercise 2: Exercise 3: Exercise 4: notes Exercise 5: Exercise 6: 7: Exercise in the described direction Both directions united in one exercise Stepwise upward, larger skips downward, changing duration of the Constant duration of the notes, jumps up and down After the pre-exercises we can now attempt some Simple Folk tunes

The symbol for rests is played by resting the thumb on the last played course. Since this symbol indicates rhythm as well as an action to be performed by the right hand, it is written half into the tablature system and half above it. Page 11 Exercises 8-9 are more folk tunes, 10 is a melody that incorporates all the bass courses. 11 is a jump exercise for the thumb. Once the thumb feels fairly secure we can pay attention to the other fingers, the index finger and the middle finger, the ring finger is for now left out, since it is only used for chords. When a finger plucks a course the hand opens slightly and turns a little bit so that we can look into it when playing. The middle finger bends a bit more than the index finger when plucking a course so that both fingers touch the respective string in the same place. The index finger must be held almost stretched straight so that the thumb can pluck under it into the hollow hand. Neither finger attack the string with fingertip but with the lower edge of the fingertip. Exercise in plucking two courses next to one another: The ball of the middle finger rests on the fingernail of the index finger. Since the rule designates the middle finger to play the upper four courses, the playing with the index finger is indicated by a dot below the letter. Exercise 12: (diagram) Next we play the strings one after the other and pay attention that the attack is done from the side of the fingertip without touching the neighbor strings. Courses are treated like single strings, except that the attack must bring both strings of a course into vibration. Exercise 13 (diagram) Now we combine both ways in Exercise 14 (diagram). If we now can master the singe and broken attack of two courses which are not neighbors but separated by course in between, we are familiar with the main problems of the right hand.

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A Translation: Page 8 Schule fur die Barock laute


This document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

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Exercise 15 (diagram) The left hand is used to shorten then strings. This done in the following manner, by arching the fingers slightly and pushing the string down upon the fingerboard (shortly behind the respective fret so that the string is allowed to vibrate freely up to that fret). The thumb rests under the neck about opposite to the middle of the hand, the thumb is slightly stretched toward the tuning box and touches the neck only with its top part. The hand is hollow and nowhere touches the neck, neither should the fingers touch the neck. Numbers indicate which finger of the left hand is to be used: 1, index finger 2, middle finger 3, ring finger 4, little finger No number is used to indicate the thumb since it is never used to finger or pluck any string. For the duration of this school numbers are always used to indicate the fingers of the left hand (1.=first, 2.=second, 3.=third, 4.=fourth), while the fingers of the right hand are always called by name (index finger, middle finger, ring finger, little finger). First of all we do some fingering exercises with the left hand to orientate us on the first five frets of the fingerboard. The letters used in the tablature have changed slightly compared to the letters used in print, due to the limited space and because letters can never touch each other, especially when several letters on top of each other signify a chord. DIAGRAM of letters used in tablature (bottom) compared to letters used in regular print (top). Lets do some easy fingering exercises, always using the fingers indicated by the numbers. Exercise 16 (diagram) The two neighboring c can also be fingered with one finger (barring) across both strings. In this case the first finger pushed down the second string with the fingertip and then is lowered sideways upon the first string until it is pressed down onto the fret. The first two joints of the finger are totally straight so that they lie flat on the fingerboard. The symbol used to indicate barring is ( ). This bar fingering is held for as long as the parenthesis last. (diagram)

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After these preparations we can attempt to master a little suite. The first piece the Pasterella is not very difficult since we already practiced all the necessary fingerings. What was before an unbroken chord must now be played as an arpeggio, the left hand still fingers chords and each chord is held until a new chord is indicated.

A Translation: Page 9 Schule fur die Barock laute


This document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

Fingering Rule:

It is a common rule that a finger remains as long on the fret is has fingered until it is necessary to change. In the following piece all measures except 6, 10, and 24 are made up of only one chord. This chord is fingered at the beginning of the measure and held throughout the complete measure. At the beginning of the next measure the fingering changes to a new chord. 1.) Pasterella in F-major (Exercise 17) In the measures 6, 10, and 24 we see a vertical line between two letters. This is a connecting line used between two very distant letters. It demands the plucking of a bass course and a PLAY COURSE at the same time. In order to become well versed in this manner of plucking, we use the following exercise on the empty strings (Here the pressure resulting from the attack of the thumb is used at the moment of attack for the attack of the finger. The attack of the thumb is much more a slight pressure than a plucking, since contrary to the fingers the attack does not come from above: the thumb does already rest on the string. Thus the attack of the thumb takes just a little bit more time than the attack of a finger, therefore the thumb must start just a little bit earlier if the attack is to come at the same time with the attack of the finger ). Exercise 18 (diagram) In the following Menuett we have opportunity to apply the procedure just learned. We also see a new symbol, an arch under two letters. This arch means that the second connected letter is to be pulled off by the left hand. The most simple form of this PULLING OFF is from the b or e fret to the empty string. Here only the first note is plucked by the right hand while the second, attached note is produced by the finger of the left hand. As the finger leaves the fret, it pushes the course a bit to the side thus putting it into vibration, the string may not be plucked by the finger. However, one may push*single strings, the two upper ones, somewhat further to the side thus producing stronger vibrations than with pairs of strings. It is desirable to produce a beautiful clear tone. We practice the PULLING OFF on the following example Exercise 19: (diagram) One can PULL-OFF not only onto an empty string but also onto another fret (diagram). One fingers the e-fret and the c-fret at the same time, thus pressing down the first and fourth finger at the same time, then one plucks the e with the right hand and then pulls off the fourth finger. The following fingering rules exist: Whole steps (two frets) are fingered with the first and fourth finger, half steps are fingered either with the first and third or the second and forth fingers (ONE fret). A short exercise may help us to remember: Exercise 20 (diagram) A quickly executed PULL-OFF has the effect of a gracenote from above. The sign for this gracenote * is an apostrophe () following the letter. PULL-OFF as gracenotes are fingered with the same fingering as those written out, they are simply played faster. Only the upper letter is plucked and the lower (notated)

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* pull ?

Page 16 Page 16 *appagiet

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This document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

letter is pulled off. If one such quick PULL-OFF () coincides with a bass note, the PULL-OFF happens at the same time the bass note is attacked. The pulled off note (the main note) is then heard shortly after the bass note: Exercise 21 (diagram) * Dave: as far as I can tell, (since I dont know the English term for PULLOF) the note that I (in literal translation of the text) refer to as the pulled off note is the one which is not plucked by the right hand The following Menuett requires the gracenotes we practices as well as the simultaneous plucking of bass- and play course. At first we execute the gracenotes fairly slowly in order to make them stand out clearly. Since it is the rule that the fingers of the left hand remain in the same position as long as possible, the d-fret fingered in the upbeat is held until in the fifth measure, the efret replaces it. Exercise 22: Second Menuett (diagram) In the next piece we practice the gracenote on the lowest playing course and the SOUNDING ATTACK (SOUNDING STRUM?) of the low playing courses: Page 17 Exercise 23: Third Menuett (diagram) The opposite of the PULL-OFF is the Hammering of a note, which we will encounter in the following piece and which is indicated by an arch in front of the letter. The most simple form of HAMMERING is hammering from an empty string onto a fret: (diagram) First the empty string is plucked with the right hand, then shortly after the finger of the left hand hammers down onto the indicated fret. This hammering action must be strong enough to product a clearly audible note. A quickly executed HAMMERING has the effect of a gracenote from below. As the PULLOFF before, so can the HAMMERING be played from any note (fret). The rule is as follows: the gracenote from below is always played from the next lowest note of the scale. This may involve either a full- or a half step, thus the gracenote can be played from the next or second next letter below. For example, HAMMERING ON can be done from the c-fret to the e-fret as well, as from the dfret to the e-fret. This depends on the key the piece is written in. In most cases the fret in question has already been fingered before so that there can be no doubt, which fret is the correct one. In the fourteenth measure of the following piece the second finger is already in position on the letter c which had been fingered in the preceding measure. To perform the HAMMERING ON we hold this fret, pluck the string with the right hand and then hammer the left finger quickly thereafter onto the d-fret: (diagram). In exceptional cases, when the HAMMERING ON is supposed to occur from a note foreign to the respective sale, the required fret will be indicated beforehand: (diagram)

A Translation: Page 11 Schule fur die Barock laute


This document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

If the HAMMERING ON occurs simultaneously with a bass note, as in our example, the right hand plucks both strings at the same time and immediately after that, the left hand executes the HAMMERING ON (diagram) Page 18 Exercise 24: Menuet en Air (diagram) During a Gigue the thumb occasionally leaves the bass strings and jumps up to the third treble string (Spielcher) in order to pluck the higher C (diagram). The thumb does not move close to the strings but performs an arch. This technique of jumping with the thumb will be described in detail later. After playing a treble course (Spielcher) the thumb does not fall upon the next string but is held floating above the just-plucked string so that he can move on right away to the next string he has to play. For the first time we encounter here a chord of three letters on top of each other: (diagram). The tablature tells us to use the ring finger for the uppermost string. The lowest string is played by the index finger and the middle string, where no finger is indicated, is played with the middle finger. We first practice the attack with three fingers (and thumb) on empty strings. First we play each note of the chord by itself, then we play 3 strings, and finally all four strings. Page 19 Exercise 25 (diagram) Now we will be able to do the Gigue. 5th piece Gigue (diagram 26) tablature according to the original. Exercise 27 (diagram) The attack with the ring finger must be practiced some more. Let us attempt the following chord sequence (27). Note: in order to give the student a better understanding of the harmony structure, chord exercises are accompanied by chord letters which have become standard in guitar playing. The letters indicate the bass notes. Capital letters indicate a major triad, small letters indicate a minor triad. While the bass note indicated by letter is the same as that in the tablature indicated bass string the triad which goes along with it must be fingered on the treble strings. The basic chord contains root, third and fifth, in numbers 5 If a chord is to be played which is not in root position numbers above the letter indicate the required intervals. The numbers are used according to the rules of figured bass so that the students become well acquainted with this form of abbreviated notation which every lute player used to know by heart. Playing the chords wont work too well at first, to get a really smooth, even sound from the attack we first must break up the chords and emphasize the single notes. Thus we play exercise 27 in four different ways. 1, With the accent on the ring finger; 2. Accent on the index finger; 3. Bass note followed by plucking the chord; 4. Quick change. 3 1

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A Translation: Page 12 Schule fur die Barock laute


This document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

Then we repeat the complete chords as in 27 and are glad that it works already a lot better. From this first suite we gained a certain advantage for our lute playing, namely the ability to read letters which follow one another as chords and to finger them accordingly. That was a rather simple thing to do with these pieces since most of the chords were broken the same way. It becomes more difficult in the first piece, the entre of the next suite. This suite is from the same source. Here the first three letters belong together and the following four letters belong together, in the fourth measure the first four notes belong together (diagram) However, in the beginning it is not necessary to know the structure. The ability to associate the letters one reads in the tablature with the chords they belong to is acquired with constant practice. Just remember that the fingers of the left hand hold the fret which they finger as long as possible, then after paying close attention to the tablature the chord fingerings will become apparent. Page 21 Parthie in d minor 1. Entre (28) from the lute book of the Princess of Wrttemberg, around 1740. The following menuett introduces us to higher positions on the fingerboard, twice we encounter h, the 7th fret. Here are the letters for fret 6 through 13 2. Menuett (29) Page 22 In the following menuet we want to pay attention to leave the fingers on the fingered frets to emphasize the cord effect as it was intended. In the fourth measure of the following menuett we find the broken A major chord, we find this chord also in the fourth measure of the variation. 3. Menuet (30) 4. Variation (31) We could play these two suites without retuning any of the bass strings because they were written in parallel keys; i.e. keys which have the same key signature (in this case, F major and d minor). If we change keys, the free vibrating bass strings must be tuned to the new scale. To be able to play the following suite in C major we have to retune bass string 5, which in the F major scale was tuned to b-flat, to b. We know how to do this already from the general tuning instructions. We find instructions before the beginning of the first piece of the next suite (diagram). This means that we are supposed to finger the C fret of the sixth string and tune the bass string 5 to this note.

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This document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

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Suite in C major: 1. March, German around 1740 (32) In the measures 16 and 18 of this piece two chord fingerings resulted from leaving the left hand fingers on the frets. We should memorize these chords well, their fingering can be used in different positions to produce other chords (diagram) . The first chord is the G major chord, played two frets lower we have the F major chord (diagram) and further: E major (diagram) This fingering can also be used to barre (33), In the same manner we can move the other chord fingering. The new following menuet is an example for the movement of the bass which we first encountered in introductory exercise (4): The skipping over one bass string: The thumb, after plucking bass string 4 does not fall upon ///a, but glides across this string without playing it and thus reaches //a which will be plucked, etc. In measure 9 we encounter an unusual sign: two letters above each other connected with the next pair by arches (diagram). This is the Deppeleinfall (double hammering on). We right away face both forms, one originating on an empty string (measure 11). The execution of the first version is pretty easy. As indicated by the parenthesis the two c are to be fingered by barring them with the first finger. Thus we strum with the right hand the two empty strings and then hammer the first finger of the left hand on to the c-fret of the two strings (diagram). The execution of the figure in measure 9 is more difficult (diagram). First we barre the c-fret of the three upper strings with the first finger of the left hand, then we strum with the right hand and then, with the with the index finger of the left hand remaining in position, its fourth finger hammers down on e and its second finger hammers down on d. Both fingers have to hammer down simultaneously. The movement of these two fingers may initially be inhibited by the index finger which is barring the three strings, however with diligent practice this should not remain a problem. 2. Menuet (34) In the very singing second menuet we should give special attention to producing a nice singing tone with the right hand. The left hand has no special assignments. By now we are completely used to keeping the left hand fingers in place until they have to be moved, this is very important for measures 13-17 and 25-29. The dots in measure 25 indicate that measures 25-32 are to be repeated (Note: Dave, I think he is not talking about the second but the third minuette which follows) 3 Menuette (25) In this piece we encountered a new fingering for the C major chord, namely the fingering in measure one. By moving this fingering we have chords for other keys (diagram, p27, top)

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This time not the octave of the bass note but the fifth of the bass note occupies the highest string. Thus we differentiate between OCTAVE-FORM and FIFTHFORM. Let us memorize: Chord fingerings; (36). This diagram shows the two forms for the indicated chords.

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This document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

Octavgriff = OCTAVE-form Quintgriff = FIFTH-form The Gigue is an excellent exercise for the jumping with the thumb. We can only achieve perfect aim if the supporting little finger always rests in exactly the same place. So let us concentrate on never changing the position of the little finger as we are playing. Do not press the finger onto the top, just rest the fingertip lightly. If the thumb has to cover any larger distance it does not slide across the strings in-between, but is lifted over them. Look for example at the skip over two octaves in measure 2: at the beginning of the measure the thumb rests on bass string 4, a slight pressure moves the thumb to string ///a, from there the thumb describes and arch which brings it to the third treble string. The further the distance to be covered, the higher the arch of the thumb must be; the shorter the distance, the lower the arch of the thumb. Plucking of treble strings with the thumb is not done, as in the case of bass strings, by applying pressure to the string and letting the thumb fall upon the next string. Instead, the thumb attacks the string from above with a sideways plucking motion. We use, of course, the inside of the thumb. The thumb does not touch any neighboring string but is lifted immediately after the attack and held suspended above the string. Note: this rule, namely that the thumb, when playing a treble string does not fall upon the next string, does not apply to the lowest treble string, the 5 string, which is commonly treated like a bass string. Page 28 4. Gigue (37) In the third measure of the above gigue we find the last major chord fingering, which we have been missing so far, here the third of the chord is fingered on the highest treble string. This form is the THIRD-Form (Terzgriff) (diagram) Now we can complete our chord system G Major Octave=Third=Fifth (38) (Diagram) For F major we move all frets up one from E major, for B major we move one fret down from C major. In a similar way we can deduct the fingering of other chords by looking at them as lowered or raised notes of one of the above-mentioned chords. D Major Third=Fifth=Octave C Major Fifth=Octave=Third

Page 29

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ll Second Level
Content Attack techniques RH* Running technique 39 Rule for attack Breaking 54 Moving hand up 61 (changing timbre by moving place of attack) Brushing Slowly (melodic) 62 Faster (chords) 66 Deadening of string (rests) 65 With attack fingering With flat hand Exercises Alternating attack No Pieces 39 Parthie in C 1. Menuett/Trio 45 Crossing over to other 2. Pasterelle 47 strings, runs 40 3. Menuett 48 Walking in octaves: 4. Gigue 52 on the upper 6 strings 49 Passepied @ Gigue 54 lower strings 50 both lower and upper 51 Suite in D 1. Entre 60 Attack exercise in G 56 2. Gavotte 61 1. closed index and 3. Paisane 64 middle finger 4. Menuet 66 2. emphasizing upper 5. Capriccio 67 voice 3. accented ring finger Count Gaisruck, 4. unaccented ring finger Menuet 68 5. clear attack with three fingers March and Menuette in D 69/70 Changing timbre by moving chord position 71 Johann Seb Bach Air 74 Attack exercise in b-minor Quick brushing across 73 2-3 middle strings Scale studies F-major 42 d-minor 43 C-major 44 G-major 53 D-major 59 b-minor 72

# X

~ ~

Fingering techniques LH Stretching In runs 41 While pulling off 69 Vibrato 46 Trills 48 Accurate aim on the fingerboard 55 Pulling off at hammering on connected 60 Mordent 60 Chord table 57 Chord theory Chord sequence G 56 Chord sequence D 56 (identical chords in various positions) Chord sequence in b (h-moll)
* RH = Right hand; LH = Left Hand

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Page 33

Quote by Lesage de Riche Last it is to be noted /that one must handle the lute tenderly / and not roughly / for otherwise it will lose its grace / and lute playing becomes more like sandpapering than music. The observant student will have noticed maybe to his aggravation that the two attacking fingers of the right hand constantly alternate even when playing notes that are located on the same string. This alternating attack is indeed extremely important for playing evenly balanced runs. The rule is that in runs the accented note is always played with the middle finger, the unaccented one always with the index finger. It does not matter whether the run is played on a single string or hurries across several strings. Crossing strings does not invalidate the standing rule. A clean and even, flowing run technique can only be achieved with diligent constant practice, while strictly following the indicated fingering. A few preparatory exercises are designed to help us in this task

Runs Rule

Ex 39 Alternating Attack

Exercise (39) Alternating attack (diagram) In case things dont work out right away leave out the bass and rest the thumb on a bass string. Only when the attacking fingers feel secure play the exercise with the bass. The next exercise helps us to gain agility in crossing strings: Exercise (40) Crossing strings (diagram)

Ex 40 Crossing Strings Page 34

This third exercise unites the fingering hand and the plucking hand in the manner that the plucking hand executes the very simple alternate attack on one string and the fingering hand stretches in order to finger the indicated frets according to the fingering instructions. Exercise (41) Stretching the left hand (diagram) Identical exercise on the 4th and 5th treble course (Spielcher) Exercise (diagram)

Ex 41 Stretching

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Page 35

After these introductory exercises the following runs in F-major, d-minor, and Cmajor will present little or no problems. For playing runs the following rule goes: the fingers remain on the frets only as long as that does not hinder the balance and evenness of the run: the finger stays down on the fret if another fret on the same string, a fret higher up the string, is fingered; the finger is lifted if the following letter is on a different string. Only if we follow this rule exactly will the run sound smooth and even:

Scale study Ex 42 Exercise (42) Scale study in F-major (diagram) Ex 43 Exercise (43) Scale study in d-minor (diagram) Ex 44 Exercise (44) Scale study in C-major (diagram) A small suite will reward us for our efforts: the low position in which it moves is well known to us after the run exercises: Page 36 Ex 45 Suite Exercise (45) Parthie in C from the lute book of the Princess Luise of Wrttemberg around 1740 1. Menuet Alternativement Trio

Page 37 # Vibrato

We will encounter a new symbol in the 10th measure of the following Pasterelle. It is a cross, similar to the one used for raising a note in the regular notation (#). Like all symbols for ornamentation or embellishing it appears behind the letter it belongs to and indicates Vibrato. The Vibrato is produced on the lute in the same manner as on a string instrument. While finger sits firmly on the fret it is forced by a continuous swinging movement of the hand, to bow forward and backward in the direction of the string. This movement slightly influences the pitch of the note and gives it more life and expression. The movement of the hand must originate from the wrist and is not to involve the arm, it must be swift and relaxed. The less pressure the finger exerts upon the string, thus the string is pressed less upon the fingerboard, the more we can influence the tone. Vibrate is easiest with the third finger (diagram) it is more difficult with the second finger (diagram) A good Vibrato with the first or fourth finger is only possible, when the hand is very relaxed and loose (diagram). The Vibrato effect can also be extended to two fingers, even whole chords, thus giving the music much more soul: Exercise (46) (diagram) In the Pasterelle we want to attempt, to accent the melody in the upper voice with a smooth, full attack of the right hand

Ex 46 Vibrato

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Page 38 Ex 47 X Trills

2. Pasterelle (fingering for the left hand according to the original) Falling in (Verschlag, hammering on) may be repeated several times, thus creating a trill effect. A trill is indicated by a cross X behind the letter and commonly constitutes a doubling of the hammering on (Verschlag) from above. However, the player is free to extend the duration of the trill, if the piece allows to do so. Then the trill should begin slowly and become faster and faster. In the measures 4, 12, and 14 of the following pieces let us attempt the doubling of the hammering on (Verschlag) in the following manner: after pulling off the finger the first time, we at once hammer it upon the fret on which it rested before, then pull it off again, without plucking the string with the right hand: Diagrams: for trills in measures 12, 4, 14 When barring with the first finger at the beginning of the piece, keep the hand as high above the fingerboard, as possible so that the fingers have room to move. 3. Menuet (48) (fingering for the left hand according to the original)

48

Page 39 Octave runs Ex 49 Ex 50 The Gigue introduces in the measures 14/15 and the repetitions octave runs and broken chords with the use of the ring finger. The latter should pose no difficulties, since we practiced them in 27/II in the same manner. Octave runs are very simple on the lute, since the strings, which are an octave apart, are always fingered on the same fret. (Diagram) 49 Octave runs The low position is more difficult (diagram) 50 Page 40 Ex 51 Ex 52 Page 41

Diagram (51) Now we play on the entire fingerboard 4. Gigue (52) (up to measure 22 the fingering is according to the original) Now we change the key to G-major and thus have to tune the f-bass string to fsharp. The instruction goes as follows (diagram) finger the b on the 4th treble string and tune the bass string to this note. Now we can play the G-major scale to familiarize ourselves with the position of the notes Exercise (53)

53

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Page 42

The lively Passepied contains in measure 29 a new symbol (diagram) . This diagonal line between two letters position on top of each other demands a breaking of the attack, an even breaking according to the rhythm of the piece. Thus the 29th measure is played in the following manner (diagram)

54

Passepied (54) German around 1710 Note to measure 28: Execution of the repeat dots: first play through the second part. Then begin again at the dots in measure 24 and play through to the end. Then repeat the ending again from the dots in measure 28. In exactly the same manner the second part is played again.

Page 43 55 Page 44

Gigue (55) Remember to repeat the ending from the dots The last two pieces move us into the higher positions on the fingerboard. In order to be able to hit each of the 9 frets immediately and accurately it is necessary to divide the fingerboard in a clear manner: In the middle of the neck is the f-fret; i.e., the area in which the f-fret is fingered; two frets higher the h-fret; again two frets higher the k-fret, the last fret which is wound around the neck. Then we have to remember the n-fret as the middle of the string, the octave. From these frets as points of orientation we can easily find the others, which are in-between the ones mentioned. If we hold the lute during playing in always the same manner and position soon the left hand will get used to the various positions required by various frets so that it will soon be able to hit the main frets f and h without trouble and soon all the others too. Before we leave the key of G-major, let us take a look at all the chords familiar to this key and their positions on the fingerboard. Let us use the here indicated chord row as an exercise for the right hand

Accuracy Aim

Ex 56

Diagram (56) chords related to G-major G, D, e, b, C, D, G, D7, G We practice this pieces in the following manner: I. II. III. IV. V. VI. Attack with closed (?) index and middle finger (diagram Emphasizing of the upper voice, soft accompaniment (diagram) Jumping (skipping) exercise for the thumb (diagram) Accented ring finger (diagram) Unaccented ring finger (diagram) Clear attack with three fingers (diagram)

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Page 45

In the second part of this exercise we encountered two minor chords: the fifth form (Quintgriff) for e-minor and the octave form (Oktavgriff) for b-minor. Let us include these two chords in their respective place in our fingering table (34). Since we have used B-flat major in this table, for easier organization, and not Bmajor, we have to read the b-minor Octave form a fret lower. (diagram) The only missing fingering for the Third Form (Terzgriff) for minor chords is a barre chord across the upper three strings for d-minor, e-minor, g-minor (diagrams). With the help of these three minor chord forms we can now easily supplement the still missing chords of our chord table: Octave Form b-minor; moved up a fret turns to e-minor; moved two frets up turns into d-minor; two frets lower than bminor it is a-minor; two more frets down and it is g-minor: (diagrams) We use the same system with the Fifth Form and will then have a complete table of all minor and major chords with all their inversions:

Chord table 57 Exercise (57) chord fingering table G (g) Octave=Third=Fifth form Page 46 D (d) Third=Fifth=Octave form C Fifth=Octave=Third form

By retuning another bass string we now prepare the lute for another key (diagram). This means that the C string no longer is to be tuned to the d-fret of the 6th string but instead to the e-fret. We therefore have to tune it up a half step to C-sharp. Now we can play in the keys with two sharps, D-major and b-minor (diagram 58). Now a small scale study (diagram 59) In the first piece of the following suite we get to know a new form of embellishment: Connecting Hammering on and Pulling off. Measure 5 requires (diagram) In order to be able to tie theses three letters together I at once put the second finger upon the d-fret and simultaneously the fourth finger upon the e-fret. After plucking the string with the right hand I first of all pull off the fourth finger and hammer it again upon the e-fret. In other words, the second finger always remains upon the d-fret (diagram for measures 19 and 20) If this figure is executed very swiftly it produces what we call a mordent. The symbol for the mordent is If we use the mordent in our example the following picture results: (diagram) We will return to the mordent later and will study it in detail in several pieces.

Ex 58 Ex 59

Mordent

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Page 47 Ex 60

Exercise (60) Suite in D-major 1. Entree in D#, from the lute book of the Princess Luise of Wrttemberg around 1740. Note: Play through the first part without heeding the Fermata in the last measure. Incorporate into this last measure (of the first part) the upbeat for the beginning and repeat. Play this repetition only through to the Fermata, second beat in the last measure. Hold the Fermata until it is time for the second part. Play through the second part and repeat from the dots in measure 13, then play the second part again with the same repetition. If we are playing a short repetition at the end of a piece, we can emphasize it by moving the right hand and the supporting little finger closer to the Rosette and by attacking the strings close to the lower edge of the Rosette. Thus the tone will be sweeter and more soulful. While moving the hand up the supporting finger glides very relaxed from its old position to the new position, always parallel to the highest string. The following piece gives us opportunity to practice the change of position with the right hand: 2. Gavotte (61) Usually the attacking fingers of the right hand are not allowed to touch the next string after they have plucked one string. But there are cases when the index and middle finger are to be treated in the same manner as the thumb, thus falling upon the next string after attacking a string. Thus we produce a sort of brushing effect of two notes which are positioned on two neighboring strings. This brushing effect is indicated by a diagonal line (left to right) under the letters. This brushing (Streifen) effect is done especially by the index finger which is then held completely stretched out: Exercise 62 (diagram) The following figure is most common: Exercise 63 (diagram). The next piece requires various brushings (Streifer) from the second string to the third string 3. Paisane (64) continues on page 50 The brushing (Streifer) can be executed so quickly that it gives the impression of an attack on two strings. We encounter this case in the measures 4, 12, 16 and 34 of the following Menuet. Here we have either a three-voiced chord which is to be played by only two fingers (diagram) or an unaccented note following an accented note (Nachschlag). We encounter the following symbol: the dot under the first letter, which is to be played with the index finger; and a diagonal line, this time in front of the two letters to be brushed (Streifen). In order to gain the effect of a chord sound, let the notes follow each other in the following manner (diagram). The notes must follow each other so quickly, that the impression of hearing a chord exists.

Page 48

Ex 61 Brushing

Page 49 Ex 62 Ex 63

Ex 64 Page 50

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rests

Ex 65 Page 51

For the first time we encounter the symbol for a rest in measure 28 and 30. That means that for the duration of this symbol no string should sound. We produce a rest by muting the notes plucked last at the necessary time. We mute notes and chords by resting the fingers used to pluck the notes back on the string, as if we wanted to pluck the chord again. Exercise 65 (diagram) rests We gain a more effective muting effect if we use the entire right hand to stop the vibration of the strings by laying it flat across all strings. Thus all strings, those which have not been plucked at all too, are prevented from vibrating. The execution of this rest is more difficult for we do not want to lose the support of the little finger while putting the hand flat across. Lets try to play the exercise in this manner. The rest with the use of the entire hand must be used to mute chords of 4 and more notes! The last piece of the suite is a very good exercise for thumb plucking on treble strings. We have to pay attention to what was discussed earlier, namely that the thumb does not fall upon the next string when it plays treble strings. Like the other fingers it is lifted immediately after the attack and stays above the string it just played (see 37). The only exception to this rule is the 5th treble string, the lowest treble string, which is treated like a bass string. The final repetition in this piece sounds better if we emphasize it by moving the pace of attack closer to the Rosette. 5. Capriccio (67) We find a great number of Hammering On (Einfall) are written into the Menuet by the Count of Gaisruck. This piece, which goes up to the m-fret, also uses Vibrato (#).

Page 52

Ex 67

Page 53 Ex 68

Menuet (68) by Count Gaisruck around 1720 The execution of Hammering On or Pulling Off is decidedly more difficult if not all fingers are free but some are fixed to a certain fret. The easiest of these cases is when besides the two fingers used to Pull Off a third finger is needed to hold down a fret. We encounter this case in measure 2 and 8 of the following march (diagram)

Page 54 Ex 69

Ex 70 Page 55

March and Menuett: German around 1750 March (69) The following Menuett gives us the opportunity to practice a slow brushing (Streifer) Menuett (70) Finally we want to study the chords of this key. All chords formed on the upper three strings can be played on the 2nd, 3rd and 4th string with the same voicing but with a different, darker timbre. The fact that one can play the same note on

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Ex 71

several strings in different positions was one of the main reasons for preserving the system of tablature. A short example shall enlighten us: Exercise (Diagram 71)Chords D, G, A, D in various positions. Let us practice the exercise in 6 different ways: I. Accented thumb (diagram) II. Unaccented thumb (diagram) III. Changing fingers in the chord (diagram) IV. Syncopation effect through strong thumb attack (diagram) V. Brushing (Streifer) (diagram) VI. Fast Brushing (Schnelle Streifer) )diagram By moving this exercise up 1, 2, 3 or 4 frets respectively, the player can transcribe the exercise into the keys of E-flat, E-major, F-major and F-sharp.

Page 56 Ex 72

A short scale study takes us to the parallel minor of D-major, b-minor (72) Brushing (Streifer) can also be played across several strings as we see in the next piece (diagram). The diagonal line in front of the letters demands brushing (Streifer) across c-b-a. If you played this slowly you would hear the notes in the following manner (diagram). However, execution of this figure must be so swift that the attacks almost seem to flow together in one attack. Thus the impression of a chord is created. The next piece also uses the slow brushing (Streifer). In terms of fingering technique the key of b-minor differs essentially from the key of D-major. Now we cannot play the sequence of e-fret c-fret any longer just with the fourth and first finger since frequently a b-fret will follow the c-fret (diagram). In order to be able to play this fingering the fingers need to be stretched. The player is forced by the prescribed fingering to assume the technically best position with his fingers: to stretch the fingers apart to an extent that they do not touch each others. The fingers should be totally independent from each other and not be influenced by each others movement. They should not even touch when they sit next to each other on the same fret. Let us practice the quick brushing (Schneller Streifer) within a chord a bit more, for it is of utmost importance. First across two, then three strings Exercise (73) Then we conclude the second part of our study with this beautiful, majestic Air. Though it has been handed down to use anonymously, it could only have been composed by J.S. Bach. Air (74) Possibly by Johann Sebastian Bach?

Ex 73

Ex 74

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lll Third Level


Content
Attack Techniques Right Hand Hammering on upon three letters Two fold pulling off Continuous trill Brushing of chord

Exercises

No.

Pieces
Aria: Lusinghiere min gaunaste Hagen Minuett 75 76

78 79 80

Double pulling off Attack exercise a-minor86 1. Index finger brushes both middle courses 2. bass with followup chord brushing 3. Simultaneous bass attack index finger brushing 3 strings Run exercise a-minor 87 1. Thumb attack 2. Alternate stroke with middle/index finger 3. Alternate stroke with thumb/index finger Muting exercise02 Separate attack of two strings of a course 103 Scale study a-minor 87

Brushing with Middle finger 80 Back of hand moves down to change timbre (echo effect) 81 Fingering Technique Left Hand 4 types of barring 82 1. Small/Empty bass 2. Small/Fingered bass 3. Large/Across 6 courses 4. Large/At times upper strings left empty Slur 82 Double pulling off Neighboring course Distant courses Double trill Hammering on with 4th finger/free hand Tight trill (Pralltriller) Hammering on/Pulling off connected Written out 83

Th A Arne 1. When Fanny blooming fair 77 2. How sweet are the flowers 78 JB Hagen Aria 79 Courante Echo Rondeau Suite a-minor 1. Allemande 2. Courante 3. Gavotte 4. Aria and Alternativement 5. Bouree 6. Gigue Suite 1. Cappricce (a) 2. La Tournee (d) 3. Menuet (f) 4. Menuet (c) Count Bergen Menuet 80 81 82

88 89 90 92 93 94

85 99 100

95 96 97 98

~ //

Symbol

99 100 102

Muting Separate attack of Two strings of course Thumb attack across two courses Chord theory: Chord row a-minor

101

Cappricce Menuet WL v. Radolt Allemande Vienna chimes (by Count Losy?)

103 104

104 105

86

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Page 61

Lute is an art / if one does it well / who does not want to learn it right / should not even try it. ~Petrus Fabritius Lutebook 1603 So far throughout the exercises in this book the bass notes were of less importance than the busy Descant. In most cases the bass was limited to repeatedly played roots. Now in the following pieces we want to learn to combine a melodic bass line with a melodic line in the upper voice. We tune back to Gmajor. Aria Lusinghiero min gaunaste (75) from the Augsburg lutebook of the 18th century. In the menuett of the Bayreuth Lutist Joachim Bernhard von Hagen we find, besides many Hammering on and Pulling off, three letters, connected by an arch. In the next to last measure of each part the following figure occurs (diagram) This signifies a Hammering on on three letters. Here two letters hammer upon the string, one after the other. After plucking the empty string the second finger hammers upon the c-fret and then the fourth finger hammers upon the d-fret while the second finger remains in position. We encounter the same figure in the following song by the Englishman Arne. Menuett (76) by Joachim Bernhard Hagen around 1750 When Fanny Blooming Fair (77) by Thomas Augustin Arne 1710-1778 Similar to the Hammering on to three letters is the double pulling off (Beiderlei Abzug) which we find in these two pieces as well (diagram). The first and fourth finger are put upon the indicated frets simultaneously and after the string is plucked first the fourth and then the first finger are pulled off. We will practice this figure also with the other fingers (diagram) How sweet are the flowers (78) by Thomas Augustin Arne. Vivace. Hammering on can be done from the empty string upon any fret, Pulling off can be done from any fret to the empty string (diagram) In the Aria by Hagen we find the Hammering on (Einfall) upon e-fret and f-fret as well as Pulling off (Abzug) from e-fret to the empty string.

Ex 75

Page 62

Ex 76 Ex 77 Page 63

Ex 78 Page 64

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Continuous Trills xx If the cross symbol for a trill is repeated after the letter the trill is supposed to be continued. We find an example in the next piece at the end of the first part. This aria also for the first time takes advantage of the possibility to indicate the neighboring note (Vorschlags-note) for the Hammering on by giving the auxiliary letter for this not by putting it behind the bow indicating hammering on as a small letter. Aria (79) by Joachim Bernhard Hagen around 1750 Repeat from the row of dots which is marked with an R for repeat. We just had to play a trill running on through two beats, the now following Courante extends the trill for five beats. The short diagonal line between letters on top of one another we already know as the symbol for breaking the chord. This must be done as mentioned before in the rhythm of the piece. Thus we have to play this measure in the following manner (diagram) The two final measures introduce a new form of brushing (Streifer) (diagram). This way of playing a chord was much used in the 17th century and is played as a fast brushing (Schneller Streifer), executed by the index finger alone, which is indicated by the dot under the highest letter and the diagonal line running downward in front of the three letters. For the first time we encounter brushing with the middle finger in the following measure (diagram). A diagonal line in front of the two letters, neither of them showing a dot, marks this brushing (Streifer). The addition of the Hammering on makes this figure especially difficult since not the letter f but the preceding d-fret must be used for the brushing. The figure has to be played in the following manner (diagram) Courante (80) German lutebook 1722 In pieces we played before we have already used the moving of the hand in order to change the timbre of our notes. We changed the timbre by attacking the string at a different place and thus accented repetitions. When we did this, we moved the hand far enough toward the fingerboard that it would attack the string above the rosette. Thus the note would sound softer, mellower but also not as clear. If we now move the right hand the opposite direction, toward the bridge, the notes lose their softness and mellowness and sound harsh and brittle, dry. It is exactly this sound which is perfectly suited for producing a kind of echo effect. The following piece with the title Echo gives us the opportunity to practice this right hand move. During the repeat which is required after every two measures we move the right hand back, until the little finger does not support the hand

Ex 79

Page 65

Ex 80 Page 66

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Ex 81

above but below the bridge. If we simultaneously weaken the power of the attack by right and left hand, thus playing softer, the echo effect will be perfect. Echo (81) German lutebook of 1722 There are four kinds of barring fingerings with the first finger which we practice in the following Rondeau. They are the following: 1. Small barr with the index finger across the three highest treble strings with the bass being plucked empty (diagram) 2. Small barr across the highest treble strings with fingered bass (diagram) 3. Big barr across six strings (diagram)

Page 67 4. Big barr during which the highest strings are at times left empty while the index finger holds down the fret in the bass (diagram) with the four letters connected by a wavy line we encounter for the first time the slur (Schleifer) which here is composed of double pulling off and hammering on (Doppelabzug und Einfall). A slur may, as we know, contain as many connected pulling off and hammering on figures as desired and may continue across several courses. The slur is indicated through the wavy line under the letters which is composed of the arches for pulling off and hammering on. Only the first letter is plucked with the right hand, all other letters are played only with the left hand (diagram) Rondeau (82) German lutebook of 1722 The second middlepart of this rondeau gave us a short look at the key of e-minor which will be dealt with later because it is very difficult to finger. In the Aria by Kleinknecht which follows under (84) we find the double pulling off (Doppelter Abzug), that is the simultaneous pulling off of two letters written below one another (diagram). The execution of this pulling off figure is not all that easy because the string in between the two cannot be touched. So let us first practice the two following figures (diagram) and only then the pulling off figure which occurs here in the piece (diagram). The double pulling off figure cannot only be played upon two empty strings but also down to two other letters (diagram). In doing this one puts down all four fingers at the same time and after the right hand attack pulls off the fourth and third finger simultaneously while the first and second finger remain down on the strings. Let us retune (diagram) and collect all the various (3) double pulling off figures in one exercise (Ex 83 diagram) At the beginning of the preceding piece we were instructed to retune the bass string /a. Thus we have tuned the f-sharp back to f. Thus the empty bass strings produce the c-major scale (diagram). Thus we can now play in the keys of Cmajor and a-minor. The now following Aria shows us the already known diagonally ascending line not under but before the letters. In this case the notes are not to be broken up in the rhythm of the piece, they are to be attacked shortly

Ex 82

Page 68

Ex 83

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following another from the lowest to the highest (like and arpeggio) so that the chord becomes quite obvious to the ear. Page 69 Aria (84) by Kleinknecht around 1750 In the following Andante we find the double pulling off figure and the double trill (diagram). The trill is played as a double antecedent (Vorschlag) thus being in practice a repetition of the pulling off figure. The execution looks like this in tablature (diagram. . In this case the mordent is We already know the symbol for the mordent: to be executed in the following manner: Measure 7 (diagram); Measure 2 (diagram) Page 70 Andante (85) from Lutebook of Augsburg 18th century Before we attempt to study a Suite in a-minor, let us first look around a little in that key: First of all, we memorize the various positions of the most frequentlyused triads in that key by playing some chord exercises: Page 71 Ex 86 (diagram) using this chord row we practice the brushing attack in the three following ways: 1. The index finger brushes the two middle strings (diagram) 2. Bass with following chord which is brushed by the index finger across three courses (diagram 3. Simultaneous bass attack and brushing with the index finger across three courses (diagram) Then we play a scale study with four different attack possibilities: Exercise 87 (diagram) 1. Attack with the thumb 2. Alternate stroke with middle and index finger 3. Alternate stroke with thumb and index finger 4. Two-fold alternate stroke with thumb-index finger and middle-index finger. The now following Suite in a-minor serves predominantly the development of a good technique for playing runs with the alternate stroke using middle- and index finger. Page 72 Suite in a-minor (88) German around 1730 1. Allemande 2. 3. 4. Courante (89) Gavott (90) Aria (91)

Ex 87

Page 73 Page 74 Page 75

Alternativement (92) Repeat Aria !

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This document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

Note : usually the movements in A-major require returning (diagram). However, in this case we do not require this in order to not disrupt the flow of the Alternativement between the first and second piece. Page 76 5. 6. Bouree (93) Gigue (94)

Page 77

If one does without the bass strings 5 and 6 one can play in several keys without retuning the bass strings. The 11 course lute was mainly used in the 17th century but lute masters write this convenient instrument into the 18th century. The following Suite unites the keys of a-minor (Capprice), d-minor (La Tournee), Fmajor (Menuett I) and C-major (Menuett II). These pieces use almost all the symbols we have encountered so far. Suite: German Lutebook of 1722 1. Capprice (95) a-minor 2. La Tournee (96) d-minor 3. Menuett (97) F-major 4. Menuett (98) C-major Hammering on with the fourth finger from the free hand is used in the next piece. Exercising this form of hammering on is well suited to give the fourth finger the mobility and strength needed for fluent playing: Menuet (99) F-major by Count Bergen around 1720 The next pieces are in d-minor, they do not indicate that we have to tune any string differently, thus the Lute is supposed to be tuned in the basic tuning for the key. Since our bass string 5 is still tuned to b we have to retune it (diagram). The combination of hammering on and pulling off, a written out trill is practiced in the following Capprice: Capprice (100) German Lutebook of 1722

Page 78 Page 79 Page 80

Page 81

If one, after attacking a note, lets the next plucking finger of the right hand fall quickly on the same string, the sound of the note will be cut off abruptly. For this cutting off of a note there is a special symbol // , two diagonal lines behind the letter. Let us practice it in several different ways: On a single string (diagram) Attack with index finger (diagram) On a course (diagram) Cutting off with the middle finger (diagram) Attack with the middle finger, quickly cut off with the index finger (101) (diagram)

A Translation: Page 30 Schule fur die Barock laute


This document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

The symbol may appear after accented or unaccented notes. The most common use of this sign is its use for the separation of two of the same notes In this manner we encounter the symbol used in the next piece Ex 102 Page 82 Menuet (102) German Lutebook of 1722 In the work of a Vienna master we encounter a further enrichment of the attack. We see capital and small letters which are joined with an arched line: This tells us to pluck at first only the bass string of the bass course and then later we pluck only the octave string. This split up of the bass course appears in the heyday of lute music in the second half of the 17th century. Commonly the masters make only sparing use of the peculiar sound effect, it appears usually only in slow movements. The movement presented in this book is an exception for the accumulation of this figure and thus presents an excellent opportunity to practice this figure. After the pressure of the attack the thumb does not land upon the next course but on the octave string of the same course. The amount of pressure (force of attack) need not be lessened. To the contrary, the single string demands a stronger attack than a course, thus we move the place of the attack closer to the bridge: Ex 103 Exercise 103 (diagram) A vertical line in front of two bass strings on top of each other points to the attack with the thumb. Even without the line those two courses would have to be plucked with the thumb, the line only emphasizes the thumb attack which must be so swift, that both courses melt into one. Page 83 Ex 104 Page 84 Ex 105

a//a.

Allemande (104) by Wenzel Ludwig Edler von Radolt, 1701

We conclude Part Three with the Chimes of Vienna, attributed to the famous bohemian Count Losy. This Gigue demands extreme mobility of all fingers of the right hand and the left hand upon the treble strings. Exercise 105 Carillon Des Cloches de Vienne German Lutebook of 1722

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This document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

lV Fourth Level
Content
Attack technique Right Hand Pulling off neighboring course 106 Brushing through 106 Counter stroke 120

Exercises

No.

Pieces
B-flat Major Minuett Menuet Minuet Menuett Aria Rondeau Cappricce en Gavotte Suite c-minor 1. Allemande 2. Courante 3. Aria 4. Gavotte Johann S Bach Suite g-minor 1. Prelude 2. Allemande 3. Courante 4. Sarabande 5. Gavott I 6. Gavott II 7. Gigue 106 110 111 112 116 117 119

Reverse stroke 121 with thumb with index finger Fingering Technique Left Hand Barring with 4th finger across 4 courses/bass empty 127 4th finger across 4 courses with fingered bass 129 Tight trill (Pralltrill) 133 Long mordent 133 Changing fingers on a fret without interrupting the note133 Chord theory Figured basses B-flat major E-flat major c-minor g-minor Scale studies B-flat major E-flat major c-minor g-minor

Run exercise B-flat major 107 Attack exercise B-flat major108 1. Two fingers/middle note followup 2. Faster moving 3. Brushing 4. Follow up with brushing index finger Transposing exercise 109 Missing high frets and empty strings 113 1. As sound effect 2. To avoid position change Run exercise E-flat major 118 Attack Exercise E-flat major122 1. Brushing and reverse brushing 2. Tremolo 3. Reverse brushing with attack 4. Arpeggio/brushing and reverse brushing 5. Brushing through 6. Counterstroke Run exercise c-minor Attack exercise c-minor 123 126

127 128 129 130

108 122 126 132

133 134 135 136 137 138 139

107 118 123 131

Thumb attack on treble strings 2. Large skips with thumb 3. Finger change within chord 4. Repetition of highest note 5. Outmost mobility of thumb Run exercise g-minor Attack exercise g-minor Counter-melody with: 1. Index finger 2. Ring finger 3. Middle finger 131 132

A Translation: Page 32 Schule fur die Barock laute


This document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

Page 87

Luteplaying, you noble art/ you bring joy to the heart/ and favor to the player ~Melchoir Newsidler in German Lutebook of 1574 After our circle through the keys with sharps we have arrived at our point of origin and now we will turn our attention toward the keys with flats. Meanwhile we have encountered all manners of the left hand and all means of plucking with the right hand as well. From now on, new symbols will be soon be clear as more extensions of already familiar things. In the following piece we get to know a special way of pulling off (diagram). Here not the string being played is pulled off, but the neighboring string is pulled off. After the first pulling off the e is held according to the rule and following the attack of the next f the e is pulled off upon the A of the empty string. The correct way of writing this out in tablature would be the following way (diagram). This way, however, is never used for it is too difficult to read. In the second part of the piece we encounter a chord which shows only the symbol for the thumb (diagram). This is the sign for brushing with the thumb: the thumb brushes one after another, like an arpeggio, all strings except the highest which is plucked by the middle finger toward the thumb. Doing this, the thumb treats the treble strings exactly like bass strings, that means, the thumb comes to rest on the next string after plucking one string. The opposite of brushing across all strings with the thumb is the brushing with the index finger which we encounter here right in the first measure and with which we are already familiar (diagram). While the first chord is plucked with the help of the ring finger, the second chord is to be accented through fast brushing with the index finger: Menuett (106) German, about 1740 After retuning the E course, as required at the beginning of the last piece, we are now in the keys with two flats, B-flat major and g-minor. In order to get acquainted a bit more with these keys we play a little scale study in the key of Bflat major. Exercise 107 (diagram) Then we do a chord exercise which we also use as a plucking exercise by following the instructions about breaking the chords in various ways. In addition to the sequence of chords the bass is indicated in notation with the numbers of the figured bass also provided. What the lute is playing is nothing more than the actual execution of the figured bass. Exercise 108 (diagram) Variations of 108 1. With two fingers, plucking the middle letter after the other two 2. Faster moving 3. Brushing 4. Follow up attack with the brushing index finger A Translation: Page 33 Schule fur die Barock laute

Ex 106 Page 88

Ex 107

Ex 108

This document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

Page 89 Ex 109

Exercise 109 the same as 108 but played on lower strings looks like this (diagram) The whole thing can easily be transposed into another key. If one, for example, moves all frets which are fingered down one fret, one is playing in A-major; if one plays two frets lower, one is in A-flat major; three frets lower in G-major (diagrams for all three examples) The other keys we can reach by moving version 108 up B-major (H-dur) (diagram) C-major (diagram) It is advisable that the student works this exercise in all the major keys, in C-, D-, E-, F-, G-, and A-major.

Page 90 Ex 110 Ex 111

Menuet (110) German, about 1740 Minuet (111) German, about 1740 The next piece again uses the quick muting, indicated by this symbol: //

Page 91 Ex 112

Menuet (112) German, about 1740 On the lute we produce a peculiar and delightful effect by mixing high (treble?) frets and empty strings in diatonic runs: C-major: (113 diagram) F-major (114 diagram) B-flat major (115 diagram) During these runs the hand never has to move out of its position. The first finger either rests upon the f fret or hovers above it. Mixing high frets and empty strings thus also aids us in staying in one position, a means employed in the next piece as seen as the melody moves into a high position:

Page 92 Ex 116 Page 93

Aria (116) Aria continued And now a Rondo in B-flat major

Page 94 Ex 117

Rondo Ex B (117) Lute book of the Princess Luise von Wrttemberg, about 1740 Note: repeat from beginning and play through up to fermata! After retuning the bass string 6 to a-flat we are in the keys of E-flat major and cminor; not always do pieces in these keys demand such returning. A Translation: Page 34 Schule fur die Barock laute

Page 95

This document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

Generally there is no rule that demands that bass strings are always to be tuned diatonical in the scale of the key the piece is in. If the tuning of a bass string differs from the basic tuning, this is to be indicated at the beginning of a piece- or at the beginning of the first piece of a suite. If there is no retuning indicated, the basic tuning remains, not only in F-major and d-minor but in other keys. An example for different tuning of the bass strings provides the occasional practice to tune the bass strings in the tonic major of the minor key. Thus the pieces is in g-minor and the bass strings are tuned to G-major. Since none of the following pieces demand a retuning of bass string 6 we leave the string the way it is tuned and do a study in the E-flat scale Exercise 118 (diagram)

Ex 118 Page 96 Ex 119

Capprice en Gavotte (119) The large arches at the end of the first and second part in the preceding pieces are the end arches commonly used in 18th century music. They indicate that one plays, in repeating, the last note under the arch instead of the first note and that one is to leave out all notes enclosed by the arch. In accordance with the repeat dots the second part should look like this: Measure 10-19/10-20, first beat/13, second beat, to 18/ then 20 right away. The final chord of this piece had the symbol for brushing with the index finger as well as the symbol for the attack with the thumb. Indeed both ways of attack are to be united in this chord. While the index finger brushes downward, the thumb plucks upward. This attack is called counterstroke (Gegenschlag). Such a counterstroke can be used with as many successive chords as desired. (diagram) The index finger has to brush over the thumb in order to reach the lowest string. All fingers can execute the attack with the fingernail instead of with the inside of the finger. However, this way of plucking was only sparingly used to produce some special effect. This attack is called the backstroke (Rckschlag). In order to indicate the backstroke, where the finger must attack the string in the opposite direction as up to now, the symbol for the finger is placed in front of the letter, the symbol for the thumb is placed above the letter. The line indicating brushing now runs from down-left to up-right. Let us practice the regular attack and backstroke with the thumb (diagram) By using both these strokes alternately one can produce a tremolo effect, a fast repetition of the same note or chord. The most natural and most easy accomplished way of the backstroke is the brushing back with the index finger which is indicated by a dot in front of the lowest of several letters written above each other. With the lowest letter the index finger begins the brushing

Ex 120

Ex 121

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This document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

Page 96

back with the fingernail and brushes all following notes up to the end of the diagonal line: across 2 strings (diagram) across 3 strings (diagram) across 4 strings (diagram) The brushing back ends with the end of the diagonal line (diagram). During the last example the index finger quickly brushes across three strings while at the same moment the middle finger plucks toward it. We use all these various ways of attack in a chord exercise:

Page 97 Ex 122

Exercise 122 (diagram) Figured bass (diagram) Execution Exercise 122 1. Brushing and brushing back 2. Tremolo, brushing back and forth with the index finger 3. Brushing back index finger, at the same time plucking with the middle finger 4. Arpeggio, brushing and brushing back 5. Brushing through with thumb, highest string middle finger 6. Counter-stroke, thumb and index finger

Page 98 Ex 123 Ex 124 Ex 125 Ex 126 Page 99

A short scale study brings us to the key of c-minor (diagram Same study with pulling off and hammering on Figured bass for the same study (diagram) Three voices for the same figured bass (diagram) Full chord fingering for the same figured bass (diagram) Again we break the chords in a new manner: 1. Attack with thumb on treble strings, no bass (diagram) 2. Large skips with the thumb (diagram) 3. Changing fingers within the chord (diagram) 4. Repeating highest note 5. Outmost mobility of the thumb Following these preparatory exercises we attempt to study a Suite in c-minor. The Allemande introduces a new type of barre fingering: barring with the fourth finger. This form of the barre fingering is sometimes applied to treble strings. The fourth finger is stretched out completely straight and held at its root in a 90degree angle to the hand. In this manner it can cover 2, 3 or even more strings comfortably (diagram) and as it is used twice in the Allemande (diagram) The following Courante makes use of the same fingering only this time the notes are dissolved in a different manner (diagram)

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Page 100 Ex 127

Suite c-minor (127) 1. Allemande, German about 1730 Note : the last two measures have been supplemented 2. Courante (128) Barring with the fourth finger becomes more difficult when the first finger has to work simultaneously as is the case in the following ARIA (diagram). In this case all fingers of the hand are stretched out and held at a right angle to the hand.

Ex 128 Page 101

Page 102 Ex 129

3. Aria (129) Earlier we noted that a barre fingering may be interrupted shortly on one string in order to pluck an empty string. The following Gavotte gives an example that such partial interruption may occur several times in a row (diagram) The b fret fingered with the first finger is to be held throughout the entire measure and lifted only at the end of the big parenthesis. Meanwhile the first finger is lifted on the a enough so that these empty strings can be played inbetween: 4. Gavott (130) Now we change to the parallel key of B-flat major and first of all pay a scale study in g-minor (diagram)

Page 103

Ex 130

Ex 131

Page 104 Ex 132

Then an exercise with following figured bass (diagram) 1. Execution: a. accented index finger (counter-melody) (132a) b. In higher position without the first string (132b) c. The fingerings played under (a) transposed upon the 3 courses tuned an octave lower (132c) 2. Execution: a. accented ring finger (counter melody) )132, 2a) b. an octave lower, slow brushing (132, 2b) c. Again the chord row played under (a) transposed upon the lower strings

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Page 105

3. Execution a. Accented middle finger (counter melody) (132, 3a) b. The same on lower strings (132, 3b) c. An octave higher than (a) (132, 3c) The student should transpose the exercises 1a, 1c, 2b, 3a into the higher keys aflat minor, a-minor, b-flat minor, b-minor, c-sharp minor, and d-minor; then transpose the exercises 1b, 2a, 2c, 3b, and 3c into the lower keys f-sharp minor, f-minor, e-minor, and e-flat minor. The bass is to be played on the empty strings and, if necessary, single notes are played in the lower or higher octave. Finally we summarize everything we have learned in this method in the g-minor suite by Bach. Among the many symbols we encounter in this work only two are unknown to us as of now: The long mordent and the tight trill (Pralltriller) The execution of these two symbols should not be difficult. We already practiced the pralltriller in its written out version in Exercise 100. This trill is played in the following manner: one plucks the indicated fret and holds it, then hammers on the next higher note and immediately pulls off to the original fret (two diagrams). The long mordent is simply a doubling of the common mordent (diagram). The mordent usually is produced with the help of the lower minor second, playing the lute we thus use the neighboring lower fret to play the mordent (two diagram) Another new challenge for the left hand is the finger change on one and the same fret, which is requested several times: (four diagrams, Courante, Sarabande, Gavotte I, Gigue). This finger change must be made undetectable, the plucked and held note must not be affected in any way:

Suite g-minor by Johann Sebastian Bach 1. Prelude (133) turn Page 108-109 Continued Page 110 2. Allemande (134) 3. Courante (135) Page 111 Page 112 4. Sarabande (136) 5. Gavotte I (137) Page 113 6. Gavotte II (138) Gavotte en Rendaux Repeat Gavotte I Page 114 7. Gigue

Page 107 Ex 133

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This document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

Appendix Symbols: Right Hand


Symbol
(diagrams)

Example
(diagrams)

Meaning Index finger Middle finger Ring finger Thumb Simultaneous attack: Simultaneous attack of two letters written above each other Breaking: even breaking up within the rhythm of a piece Back of hand moved upwards: change of timbre through change of place of attack Brushing with index finger Slowly: melodic Faster: with chord attack Muting the strings for rests With the plucking finger With the flat hand

No of Exercise 1

Part

18 54 61 62 63 65 80 81 101 103 104 106 120 IV III II

(diagrams)

(diagrams)

(diagrams)

(diagrams)

Brushing with middle finger (fast) Back of hand moved downwards: change of timbre through change of place of attack Muting strings With index finger With middle finger Separate attack of the two strings of a course Thumb stroke across two courses

(diagrams)

(diagrams)

Brushing through Counterstroke: simultaneous brushing through with thumb and counterstroke with index finger Reverse stroke With thumb Index finger reverse brushing Tremolo

121

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This document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

Appendix Symbols: Left Hand


Symbol
(diagrams)

Example
(diagrams)

Meaning Index finger Ring finger Middle finger Little finger Barring: laying the first finger across the strings enclosed by the parenthesis for duration of parenthesis Pulling off: Written out: tie Symbol: appoggiatura from above Hammering on: written out: tie Symbol: from below Double hammering on

No of Exercise

Part

19 24 24 34 46 48 60 76 78 79 83 100 106 133 IV III II

(diagrams)

(diagrams)

Vibrato Trill Pulling off and Hammering on connected Written out: tie Symbol: mordent

(diagrams)

(diagrams)

Hammering on upon three letters: tie Twofold Pulling off: tie Continuous trill Double pulling off Hammering on and Pulling off connected Written out: tie Symbol: Pralltriller (tight trill)

(diagrams)

(diagrams)

Pulling off of a neighboring course: Long mordent

A Translation: Page 40 Schule fur die Barock laute


This document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

An English Translation of Edition Schott 3638

die Schule fur

Barock Laute

von F.J Giesbert


2009 v1.1 To suggest translation improvements, please post a comment or send a message to Dale Young at the lute site http://lutegroup.ning.com so that he can update Dave Phillips gift of this translation.

A Translation: Page 41 Schule fur die Barock laute


This document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.