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Cooling Loau Calculation

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Cooling Load Calculation Cooling Load Calculation Cooling Load Calculation Cooling Load Calculation
Cooling Plant o5t ooctoogqoo ooo_ cooling load o oo5o _toc _oco c
cooling load software o ot_o_@oo qcoo oogoo5o_t_oco c Energy Audit
o o@o_tgqco_ Cooling Plant load o_ oo5o _to Heat Gain oc_oco_
o_o_q_to o to__ococ cooling load oco5o o` ooo5to Heat Gain o5to`oco_
(o) Outdoor air load (Heat transferred into room with outdoor air: ventilation, infiltration.)
(o) System lossesfgains
(o) External gains (Heat transferred from building envelop: wall, window, ceiling, floor...)
(o) !nternal gains(Heat release by equipment: lighting, computer.)
(c) Occupancy (Heat generated by occupants, also release moisture to the room)
(c) Zone load
(o) Peak simultaneous building or zone loads o _oco_
Outdoor air load Outdoor air load Outdoor air load Outdoor air load
Outdoor air temperature o_ indoor air temperature Oo _ocoo5o_o5c cooling plant
o oo_ oo5o _toctg oo5toooo5ctoooqggq. !ndoor Air Quality (!AQ)
oo5ctoqocgq. co_ o_o5cto5to_o5c oo5o _t o ooo oqtoct _ocooo
(Outdoor air)O_ootgqooo_ Outdoor air temperature o_ indoor air temperature
Oo_ocoo5o_o5c Outdoor air oot_octo_ Heat Gain o _ococo5 cooling load
o_too5to5go_ Oo_o5c O_ooto_ Outdoor air q_to5too5ooo@ cooling
load o_to5to5o_
System lossesfgains System lossesfgains System lossesfgains System lossesfgains
Fan oo5o5o O oo_ Heat o5to_o5c System Heat Gain _ocoo`o5o_ ooo5to_ Fan
o ooo blower o _oo _otoq5o ooq o oog o g oog cco ogooct _ocoo qco_
Duct octg supply air temperature o_ Duct _ocg oqt ooqOoq o oqoo5o_o5c
Cooling Loau Calculation
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o_t System Heat Gain _ocoo`o_ O System Heat Gain o5to ooo5c5oo ooqcoo5
Cooling Plant load o_ oqoqooo oo_
External gains External gains External gains External gains
oo5o_to oqg5(Location). ooa5og5oo(Orientation). o_oo5o O5to_
oc_to_tc5t(material). _o_octoo`oo5tooo(window to wall ratio). oooc O5to_
sun shade . walls . glazing . roofs ac floors o oo o@ External heat gains oqo tq_t
o5to_o5to_
!nternal gains !nternal gains !nternal gains !nternal gains
!nternal heat gain o5to_ o ogoo(Occupancy ac activity details) lighting oOo o_
heat gain ac o_o5too5 Equipment oOo oo5 heat gain o5to`oco_
Zone load Zone load Zone load Zone load
oo5o_toco oct_ Ooo5tc5. oqto5tc5 gqco_ o oo5 Ooo5t oqto5t o
o o@ o_o5too oo_octOo o(zone) o5t_oc oct_o5to5 o ooo_octo o o@ ocoo 5o_
Oooooto ooco _ocooooqco_ Set point ooqoo_ oqto5t5to to
ooco_ocooooqco_ External heat gain o o_ oqto5t5to to ooco_oc
ooooqco_(_oo5 OoocOoo ctg ogoooqog5cOtogoo5 oqto5t
5toto ooco_ocoo ooqc o_)
ooco _go_ heat gain o Zone load _ocooooo_
Peak simultaneous building loads Peak simultaneous building loads Peak simultaneous building loads Peak simultaneous building loads oooo oooo oooo oooo zone load zone load zone load zone load
ooco_octc_ peak load _ocoo`o_ oqo5 oo __ooo ogoo oqog5cOtogoo5o
(oqto5t) o peak load o_ oqtoo_o_ocqco_ oq5o oo oqog5c Otogoo5
o(oqto5t) o peak load o_ oqto_otoq__ocqco_ Oo_o5c o5totoo`ct_ot total load
o_ o_o_oq _ o5tot_oco_ (peak)o o gqoo_ peak simultaneous load
o o_too`o o_ sensible heat gain ac latent heat gain aco_toto O_c_ tc5tgqoo_
Design information required Design information required Design information required Design information required
Zones Zones Zones Zones
oo5t_ococtoct_oto_o5tO5t_octo_o5c ooco_octco oooo5ctoqc5 control ooqco_
(Oto_oc oocoac oco heat gain o5tc5o_o5t_oo_o`o_toc oco_octc control
o ooco_)
_o_octoo`oo5t. qgo5t o oooo5_oO5to_ architect's layout drawing o5to ooco_octco
oo oqtac oogoo o oooqco_ oocoo AHU oco t ooo o aco t
ooocootqco_ o ooo fan coil o5tc5o_tooocqco_
Cooling Loau Calculation
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Zone heat gains Zone heat gains Zone heat gains Zone heat gains
ooco_octco heat gain o o ooo gqo oo_ oo5t_ococt_o5tO5to_ internal wall o_
ooqoo_o_ oaco_o5tocgoc O wall __ocoo`o_ heat gain o o_t O_oogq
o oo_
Hourly cooling loads Hourly cooling loads Hourly cooling loads Hourly cooling loads
zone load o5to q5goo(an hourly basis) oo go_ ogooo`o c zone load oqtoto5to
o@ogto_oct_oc load profile o gqco_ O load profile o peak simultaneous load o
ggqco_
approximate peak time of loads o o_otoq5o o5totoo oco_octc o q5go ct
o oo gqo_t oo ooo oo@ peak time o_ 1+:00 hr ( oqto _q5g) _oco`o 13:00 hr
ac 15:00 hr og load ccootg_ocooo5o o_ peak time ac peak load o o oqoqc5
oo oo_oto5t_oco_o5ctoo oqco_ Computer Software o ot_o__otooo`o maximum
loads _ocoo`o_oqo ooooo qco_
_oo5 _oo5 _oo5 _oo5
East Zones ac West Zones. oaco go_ oo5o _tocoo qoq5_oco ogq_oco_
oocoo c fan coil unit o_o t ooocO5to_ East Zone g FCU oco tco cooling capacity o5
1.5 kW _oco_ West Zone g FCU oco tco cooling capacity o5 2.0 kW _oco_
oo5o_to total capacity o5 175 kW _oco_ primary cooling system _oc fan coil unit
5tot o capacity o 175 kW ac__oco5cooocgqoo ooo ooo_o5cooo5 fan
coil unit o5t5to to_ full capacity _oc o_o_co_too5ctoqo_oqogqcoo5o_o5c_oco_
ooco_octco c_ocoo`o_ cooling load o q5goo(hourly basis) oo5_oO5to_
east o ac west o oo c q5goo_ocoo`oo5 load o5tooo`ct_oct_oc oo5o _toc
_ocoo`o_ building load oggqco_ O oq5o peak simultaneous load ooqco_
_oo5oc peak simultaneous load o5 1+5 kW _oco_
ogooo`oc oo5o _t o peak simultaneous load Ocg5tc5o_ocqco_
oo5o_tocooc oqtoo`cto5tc5 ooo`cto5tc5gqcoo5o_o5c maximum simultaneous
load o o gq oo o5toto cooling loads o o ogqoo_
Cooling Loau Calculation
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References: References: References: References:
C!BSE Guide A, Environmental Design, 2006, !SBN 1 903287 66 9
Lawrence Race G, Pennycook K, Design Checks for HvAC - A Quality Control Framework for
Building Services Engineers - sheets 19-23, BG +f2007, BSR!A 2007, !SBN 978 086022 669 7
Cooling Loau Calculation
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Design Watch Points Design Watch Points Design Watch Points Design Watch Points
1. Solar gains ocoo_to5 oqooo@o_o5ctoo_ooo Occupancy rate ac
equipment oo_o_t oqoo o@o_o5ctooq_oo_ equipment o5to_
o o5to tooqo_oqoc oo oO5to standby mode _ocoqoo5o_o5c heat reject o o_oo_
ogt_otoo5oo o5 heat gain o5to oqacoo@oogqoo_
2. o_ oo5 computer programmes o5tqc software o o_ cooling load oo5oooo
oot_ot outdoor air load o O_octoo oo_octo_o_ooqc_ooo o_ oo5 software oo_
outdoor air load o O_octoo ooootqcoo5o_t ooo_ information
o5too oO_octoogqooo_
Cooling Load Cooling Load Cooling Load Cooling Load acooocoo5 acooocoo5 acooocoo5 acooocoo5 Rule of Thumb Rule of Thumb Rule of Thumb Rule of Thumb o5t o5t o5t o5t
People and Occupancy People and Occupancy People and Occupancy People and Occupancy
ACv oo ooo_o5t_o_oog5oc Cooling load o ogqoo Data o5tc5ooo_ o o
Data 5totogggqoo oco`ocg oqoooo_ O o_o5c ooo_ oq _
oggqcoo5 Data o5too ocoo5o_oqoqtooo5t (Estimation) _o_o ogoogo_ Rule of
Thumb o o_o5 oooo o oococ oo _o _ g oooO5too5. oooo o oOgoo5
oooooo o5t. o oooo5tac c_to_to5t_oco_ (Rule of Thumb rule based on
experience or practice rather than theory. )
Occupancy Occupancy Occupancy Occupancy
Comfort air conditioning system o5to o cooling load o ooc oqt oooo
oo5o_toc tg oo5to O oo_ Heat load o o_ocooqO_oogqooo_
oooo gqoo oo5o o5t. oqto ac oootco ogoooogqoo_
ogooo oo architect o o5 qtcootoqoqtootqco_ oo@
o ogo oogooo5 cooling load oo gqoo oooo5 occupancy rate o
_ootoctgo5(floor area) o ooqco_ oqto_tc5tooo @ gqco_oogo oo_
o_o5cto oqo_ O o_o5c occupancy rate o oqto_tc5tac _ootoctgo5(floor
area)oooc Rule of Thumb _ocoqoqto qco_
oqto_tc5to5t oqto_tc5to5t oqto_tc5to5t oqto_tc5to5t
General 80-150 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Private 100-150 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Conference, eeting Rooms 20-50 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Banks, Court Houses, unicipal Buildings, Town Halls 50-150 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Police Stations, Fire Stations, Post Offices 100-500 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Precision anufacturing 100-300 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Computer Rooms 80-150 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Restaurants 15-50 Sq.Ft.fPerson
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Kitchens 50-150 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Cocktail Lounges, Bars, Taverns, Clubhouses, Nightclubs 15-50 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Hospital Patient Rooms, Nursing Home Patient Rooms 80-150 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Hospital General Areas 50-150 Sq.Ft.fPerson
edicalfDental Centers, Clinics, and Offices 50-150 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Residential 200-600 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Apartments (Eff., 1 Room, 2 Room) 100-+00 Sq.Ft.fPerson
otel and Hotel Public Spaces 100-200 Sq.Ft.fPerson
otel and Hotel Guest Rooms, Dormitories 100-200 Sq.Ft.fPerson
School Classrooms 20-30 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Dining Halls, Lunch Rooms, Cafeterias, Luncheonettes 10-50 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Libraries, useums 30-100 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Retail, Department Stores 15-75 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Drug, Shoe, Dress, ewelry, Beauty, Barber and Other Shops 15-50 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Supermarkets 50-100 Sq.Ft.fPerson
alls, Shopping Centers 50-100 Sq.Ft.fPerson
ails 50-300 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Auditoriums, Theaters 5-20 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Churches 5-20 Sq.Ft.fPerson
Bowling Alleys 2-6 PeoplefLane
Lighting Lighting Lighting Lighting
Comfort air conditioning _ococ. industrial air conditioning _ococ octog5cggq
ot_o_O5too5 otot.otoo5ct(Lighting)o5to Ooo5o_ Heat load o o_ocooqO_oogq
o oo_ oo@ cooling load oo gqoo o ooo5 Lighting Heat load ogooo5
_ootoctgo5(floor area) oooc o ooqco_ oqto_tc5tooo @ Lighting Heat load
oo5o_ o_o5ctooqo O o_o5c Lighting Heat load o oqto_tc5tac _ootoctgo5
(floor area) oooc Rule of Thumb _ocoqoqtoqco_
oqt oqt oqt oqto_tc5to5t o_tc5to5t o_tc5to5t o_tc5to5t
Offices, Commercial - General 1.5-3.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
Offices, Commercial - Private 2.0-5.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
Conference, eeting Rooms 2.0-6.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
Banks, Court Houses, unicipal Buildings, Town Halls 2.0-5.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
Police Stations, Fire Stations, Post Offices 2.0-3.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
Precision anufacturing 3.0-10.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
Computer Rooms 1.5-5.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
Restaurants 1.5-3.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
Kitchens 1.5-2.5 WattsfSq.Ft.
Cocktail Lounges, Bars, Taverns, Clubhouses, Nightclubs 1.5-2.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
Cooling Loau Calculation
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Hospital Patient Rooms, Nursing Home Patient Rooms 1.0-2.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
Hospital General Areas 1.5-2.5 WattsfSq.Ft.
edicalfDental Centers, Clinics, and Offices 1.5-2.5 WattsfSq.Ft.
Residential 1.0-+.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
Apartments (Eff., 1 Room, 2 Room) 1.0-+.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
otel and Hotel Public Spaces 1.0-3.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
otel and Hotel Guest Rooms, Dormitories 1.0-3.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
School Classrooms 2.0-6.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
Dining Halls, Lunch Rooms, Cafeterias, Luncheonettes 1.5-2.5 WattsfSq.Ft.
Libraries, useums 1.0-3.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
Retail, Department Stores 2.0-6.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
Drug, Shoe, Dress, ewelry, Beauty, Barber, and Other Shops 1.0-3.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
Supermarkets 1.0-3.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
alls, Shopping Centers 1.0-2.5 WattsfSq.Ft.
ails 1.0-2.5 WattsfSq.Ft.
Auditoriums, Theaters 1.0-3.0 WattsfSq.Ft. (g)
Churches 1.0-3.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
Bowling Alleys 1.0-2.5 WattsfSq.Ft.
Notes:
1. The lighting values for most energy conscious construction will be the lower values.
2. Actual lighting layouts should be used for calculating lighting loads whenever available.
g. co ooo oot_o_O5too5ot o o5o ooto5t(theatrical lighting)o5too`oc o`
AppliancefEquipment AppliancefEquipment AppliancefEquipment AppliancefEquipment
A. Total AppliancefEquipment Heat Gain: 0.5-5.0 WattsfSq.Ft.
B. Computer equipment loads for office spaces range between 0.5 WattfSq.Ft. and 2.5
WattsfSq.Ft. (recommend 1.5 WattsfSq.Ft.).
!f actual computer equipment loads are available, they should be used in lieu of values
listed here.
Computer Rooms, Data Centers, and !nternet Host Facilities Computer Rooms, Data Centers, and !nternet Host Facilities Computer Rooms, Data Centers, and !nternet Host Facilities Computer Rooms, Data Centers, and !nternet Host Facilities
2.0-300 WattsfSq.Ft.
Telecommunication Rooms Telecommunication Rooms Telecommunication Rooms Telecommunication Rooms
50.0-120 WattsfSq.Ft.
Electrical Equipment Heat Gain Electrical Equipment Heat Gain Electrical Equipment Heat Gain Electrical Equipment Heat Gain
A. Transformers goc5tooo @ Ooo5o_ o(Heat load) o5tooo5_oO5to_
electrical load 1 KvA o Oo o5o_ o(Heat load) o Watts _ocoo5_oO5to_
1. 150 KvA and Smaller 50 WattsfKvA
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2. 151-500 KvA 30 WattsfKvA
3. 501-1000 KvA 25 WattsfKvA
+. 1001-2500 KvA 20 WattsfKvA
5. Larger than 2500 KvA 15 WattsfKvA
B. Switchgear goc5to oo@ Oo o5o_ o(Heat load) o5to Watts _oc
oo5_oO5to_
1. Low voltage Breaker 0-+0 Amps 10 Watts
2. Low voltage Breaker 50-100 Amps 20 Watts
3. Low voltage Breaker 225 Amps 60 Watts
+. Low voltage Breaker +00 Amps 100 Watts
5. Low voltage Breaker 600 Amps 130 Watts
6. Low voltage Breaker 800 Amps 170 Watts
7. Low voltage Breaker 1,600 Amps +60 Watts
8. Low voltage Breaker 2,000 Amps 600 Watts
9. Low voltage Breaker 3,000 Amps 1,100 Watts
10. Low voltage Breaker +,000 Amps 1,500 Watts
11. edium voltage BreakerfSwitch 600 Amps 1,000 Watts
12. edium voltage BreakerfSwitch 1,200 Amps 1,500 Watts
13. edium voltage BreakerfSwitch 2,000 Amps 2,000 Watts
1+. edium voltage BreakerfSwitch 2,500 Amps 2,500 Watts
C. Panel boards:
1. 2 Watts per circuit (circuit o cto o 2 Watts _oco_)
D. otor Control Centers
1. 500 Watts per sectioneach section is approximately 20 wide 20 deep 8+high.
20 oo 20 g_ 8+ _oc goo5 otor Control Centers oo 500 Watts
_oco_
E. Starters:
1. Low voltage Starters Size 00 50 Watts
2. Low voltage Starters Size 0 50 Watts
3. Low voltage Starters Size 1 50 Watts
+. Low voltage Starters Size 2 100 Watts
5. Low voltage Starters Size 3 130 Watts
6. Low voltage Starters Size + 200 Watts
7. Low voltage Starters Size 5 300 Watts
8. Low voltage Starters Size 6 650 Watts
9. edium voltage Starters Size 200 Amp +00 Watts
10. edium voltage Starters Size +00 Amp 1,300 Watts
11. edium voltage Starters Size 700 Amp 1,700 Watts
Cooling Loau Calculation
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F. variable Frequency Drives:
2 to 6 percent of the KvA rating
G. iscellaneous Equipment:
1. Bus Duct 0.015 WattsfFtfAmp
2. Capacitors 2 WattsfKvAR
Notes:
o) electrical equipment heat gain oqo to5to_ O oooo(manufacturer) o
o o@o_o5toogoo5o_o5c O oooo(manufacturer) ooo5_oO5too5 heat dissipation
oqo too5ot_o_oco_
_) electrical equipment o5tO5tg5oqt _ overheating ooq 95F o 10+F
octO qtO5tqcgq ooocooOooo5cto5c(ventilation)_o_ooO5too go_ ooq 90F
Ooqo o_ electrical equipment o5too Air Con ootoo go_ ooo5o_t equipment
o5toqco_ ooq electrical engineer o5tOogooooo oco_
g) electrical room o ventilation oo _ocooo (outside air) o ot_o_o c electrical
room ooqo_ _ocot_oco ooqoo 10F o 15F o5 _ococ_o_o_ _oo5 oao`_
_ocoooqo_ 100F _oco c electrical room ooqo_ 100F Ooooocg
) oo@ electrical room 5t ootoooqto air con oo o o_o_@ ventilation oooc.
electrical room ooqo_ ootoqt ooqOo 10F o 15F o5 _ococ_o_o_
otor Heat Gain otor Heat Gain otor Heat Gain otor Heat Gain
A. otors Only(oo5o5o oo5_oco_) oo5ctogo_ oq. oqo5 co_ooo`:
1. otors 0 to 2 Hp 190 WattsfHp
2. otors 3-20 Hp 110 WattsfHp
3. otors 25-200 Hp 75 WattsfHp
+. otors 250 Hp and Larger 60 WattsfHp
o5o ocoo5_oO5too5oo5to_ oo5o5acoo5ctogo_ cooc_to o_
oqtocooctocgoc O ogo_ooo5. oo5o5ocoo_to5 oqtoco
octo cgoc Oo go_ooo5 ac oo5ctogo_ co oc_to_ oqtoco
octo cgoc Oogo_ooo5 o ooo5_oO5to_
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B. otors and Driven Equipment are shown in the following table: B. otors and Driven Equipment are shown in the following table: B. otors and Driven Equipment are shown in the following table: B. otors and Driven Equipment are shown in the following table:
_o5too5ooq5gqooo5t _o5too5ooq5gqooo5t _o5too5ooq5gqooo5t _o5too5ooq5gqooo5t
o) equipment loads o5to oo oog5oc Actual equipment layouts and information
o o5o t_o_oco_
o) ovie projectors, slide projectors, overhead projectors ac o5to equipment o5to
Oo oo5 Heat load o O_oogqoooo` ooo_o5cooo5 O equipment o5t
ot_o_oqoqo c octog5cggqOqtO5too5oto5t (lights)oooO5too5o_o5c_oco_
o5too55t_oc lighting load o_ O equipment o5to heat load Oooo5t_oo_
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o) equipment loads o oo oog5oc coffee pots, microwave ovens, refrigerators, food
warmers o5to heat oO_octoooo gq ooo_
o) owner, architect, engineer, or consultant o Oo Kitchen, laboratory, hospital, computer
room, and process equipment oo ooooo5to oo5cto ot_o_gq ooo_
ooo_o5cooo5 O equipment o5to_ o_tc5t ac o ooo5cooo __ooo5o_t
oOo a_qto5tc5o_o5to_
Cooling Load Factors Cooling Load Factors Cooling Load Factors Cooling Load Factors
Diversity Factors Diversity Factors Diversity Factors Diversity Factors
Diversity factor o o_o5 - oo5t. lighting o5t ac equipment o5t o _ocot load o
oco_octco oo _ot total load _ocoo`ctoo_ o oo5 O oc_octcoo O5too5 _ocot
load o5to_ 5totoc_o_cqo ocoqo_to_ocoo`qcoo Ooo total loads ac actual usage
o_o5tooo_ Diversity factor _oco_ Diversity factor o_ oo5o _to_tc5t ac
occupancy o oo`o c oo_@o_o5to_ o5o ocoo5_oO5to_ Diversity factor o_
gt_oco t_o_o_ oo5o _t(office buildings)ac o5to oo5o _to5t oo
_oco_
A. RoomfSpace Peak Loads: A. RoomfSpace Peak Loads: A. RoomfSpace Peak Loads: A. RoomfSpace Peak Loads:
1. People 1.0 x Calc. Load
2. Lights 1.0 x Calc. Load
3. Equipment 1.0 x Calc. Load
Calc. Load may have diversity factor calculated with individual pieces of equipment or as a
group or not at all.
B. FloorfZone Block Loads: B. FloorfZone Block Loads: B. FloorfZone Block Loads: B. FloorfZone Block Loads:
1. People 0.90 x Sum of Peak RoomfSpace People Loads
2. Lights 0.95 x Sum of Peak RoomfSpace Lighting Loads
3. Equipment 0.90 x Sum of Peak RoomfSpace Equipment Loads
+. FloorfZone Total Loads 0.90 x Sum of Peak RoomfSpace Total Loads
C. Building Block Loads: C. Building Block Loads: C. Building Block Loads: C. Building Block Loads:
1. People 0.75 x Sum of Peak RoomfSpace People Loads
2. Lighting 0.95 x Sum of Peak RoomfSpace Lighting Loads
3. Equipment 0.75 x Sum of Peak RoomfSpace Equipment Loads
+. Building Total Load 0.85 x Sum of Peak RoomfSpace Total Loads
Safety Factors Safety Factors Safety Factors Safety Factors
A. RoomfSpace Peak Loads 1.1 x Calc. Load
B. FloorfZone Loads (Sum of Peak) 1.0 x Calc. Load
C. FloorfZone Loads (Block) 1.1 x Calc. Load
D. Building Loads (Sum of Peak) 1.0 x Calc. Load
E. Building Loads (Block) 1.1 x Calc. load
F. ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1989 10 aximum Safety Factor
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Cooling Load Factors Cooling Load Factors Cooling Load Factors Cooling Load Factors
A. Lighting Load Factors:
1. Fluorescent Lights 1.25 x Bulb Watts
2. !ncandescent Lights 1.00 x Bulb Watts
3. H!D Lighting 1.25 x Bulb Watts
B. Return Air Plenum (RAP) Factors: B. Return Air Plenum (RAP) Factors: B. Return Air Plenum (RAP) Factors: B. Return Air Plenum (RAP) Factors:
1. Heat of Lights to Space with RAP 0.76 x Lighting Load
2. Heat of Lights to RAP 0.2+ x Lighting Load
3. Heat of Roof to space with RAP 0.30 x Roof Load
+. Heat of Roof to RAP 0.70 x Roof Load
C. Ducted Exhaust or Return Air (DERA) Factors: C. Ducted Exhaust or Return Air (DERA) Factors: C. Ducted Exhaust or Return Air (DERA) Factors: C. Ducted Exhaust or Return Air (DERA) Factors:
1. Heat of Lights to Space with DERA 1.00 x Lighting Load
2. Heat of Roof to Space with DERA 1.00 x Roof Load
D. Other Cooling Load Factors (CLF) are in accordance with ASHRAE Recommendations: D. Other Cooling Load Factors (CLF) are in accordance with ASHRAE Recommendations: D. Other Cooling Load Factors (CLF) are in accordance with ASHRAE Recommendations: D. Other Cooling Load Factors (CLF) are in accordance with ASHRAE Recommendations:
CLF x Other Loads
ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1989 ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1989 ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1989 ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1989
A. Pick-Up Loads 10 aximum System Capacity Allowance for orning Cool Down Cycles
B. Safety Factor 10 aximum
Offices, Commercial Offices, Commercial Offices, Commercial Offices, Commercial
A. General:
1. Total Heat 300-+00 Sq.Ft.fTon (Range 230-520)
2. Total Heat 30-+0 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 23-52)
3. Room Sens. Heat 25-28 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 19-37)
+. SHR 0.75-0.93
5. Perimeter Spaces 1.0-3.0 CFfSq.Ft.
6. !nterior Spaces 0.5-1.5 CFfSq.Ft.
7. Building Block CF 1.0-1.5 CFfSq.Ft.
8. Air Change Rate +-10 ACfHr.
B. Large, Perimeter:
1. Total Heat 225-275 Sq.Ft.fTon
2. Total Heat +3-53 BtuhfSq.Ft.
C. Large, !nterior:
1. Total Heat 300-350 Sq.Ft.fTon
2. Total Heat 3+-+0 BtuhfSq.Ft.
D. Small:
Cooling Loau Calculation
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1. Total Heat 325-375 Sq.Ft.fTon
2. Total Heat 32-37 BtuhfSq.Ft.
Banks, Court Houses, unicipal Buildings, Town Halls
A. Total Heat 200-250 Sq.Ft.fTon (Range 160-3+0)
B. Total Heat +8-60 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 35-75)
C. Room Sens. Heat 28-38 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 21-+8)
D. SHR 0.75-0.90
E. Air Change Rate +-10 ACfHr.
Police Stations, Fire Stations, Post Offices
A. Total Heat 250-350 Sq.Ft.fTon (Range 200-+00)
B. Total Heat 3+-+8 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 30-60)
C. Room Sens. Heat 2 5-35 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 20-+0)
D. SHR 0.75-0.90
Precision anufacturing
A. Total Heat 50-300 Sq.Ft.fTon
B. Total Heat +0-2+0 BtuhfSq.Ft.
C. Room Sens. Heat 32-228 BtuhfSq.Ft.
D. SHR 0.80-0.95
E. Air Change Rate 10-50 ACfHr.
Computer Rooms
A. Total Heat 50-150 Sq.Ft.fTon
B. Total Heat 80-2+0 BtuhfSq.Ft.
C. Room Sens. Heat 6+-228 BtuhfSq.Ft.
D. SHR 0.80-0.95
E. Air Flow 2.0-+.0 CFfSq.Ft.
F. Air Change Rate 15-20 ACfHr.
Restaurants
A. Total Heat 100-250 Sq.Ft.fTon (Range 75-300)
B. Total Heat +8-120 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range +0-155)
C. Room Sens. Heat 21-62 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 20-80)
D. SHR 0.65-0.80
E. Air Flow 1.5-+.0 CFfSq.Ft.
F. Air Change Rate 8-12 ACfHr.
Kitchens (Depends Primarily on Kitchen Equipment)
A. Total Heat 150-350 Sq.Ft.fTon (At 85F. Space)
B. Total Heat 3+-80 BtuhfSq.Ft. (At 85F. Space)
C. Room Sens. Heat 20-56 BtuhfSq.Ft. (At 85F. Space)
D. SHR 0.60-0.70
Cooling Loau Calculation
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E. Air Flow 1.5-2.5 CFfSq.Ft.
F. Air Change Rate 12-15 ACfHr.
Cocktail Lounges, Bars, Taverns, Clubhouses, Nightclubs
A. Total Heat 150-200 Sq.Ft.fTon (Range 75-300)
B. Total Heat 60-80 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range +0-155)
C. Room Sens. Heat 27-+0 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 20-80)
D. SHR 0.65-0.80
E. Spaces 1.5-+.0 CFfSq.Ft.
F. Air Change Rate 15-20 ACfHr. (Cocktail Lounges, Bars,
Taverns, Clubhouses)
G. Air Change Rate 20-30 ACfHr. (Night Clubs)
Hospital Patient Rooms, Nursing Home Patient Rooms
A. Total Heat 250-300 Sq.Ft.fTon (Range 200-+00)
B. Total Heat +0-+8 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 30-60)
C. Room Sens. Heat 32-+6 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 25-50)
D. SHR 0.75-0.85
Buildings wf100 OA Systems (i.e., Laboratories, Hospitals)
A. Total Heat 100-300 Sq.Ft.fTon
B. Total Heat +0-120 BtuhfSq.Ft.
edicalfDental Centers, Clinics, and Offices
A. Total Heat 250-300 Sq.Ft.fTon (Range 200-+00)
B. Total Heat +0-+8 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 30-60)
C. Room Sens. Heat 32-+6 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 25-50)
D. SHR 0.75-0.85
Residential
A. Total Heat 500-700 Sq.Ft.fTon
B. Total Heat 17-2+ BtuhfSq.Ft.
C. Room Sens. Heat 12-20 BtuhfSq.Ft.
D. SHR 0.80-0.95
Apartments (Eff., 1 Room, 2 Room)
A. Total Heat 350-+50 Sq.Ft.fTon (Range 300-500)
B. Total Heat 27-3+ BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 2+-+0)
C. Room Sens. Heat 22-30 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 20-35)
D. SHR 0.80-0.95
otel and Hotel Public Spaces
A. Total Heat 250-300 Sq.Ft.fTon (Range 160-375)
B. Total Heat +0-+8 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 32-7+)
C. Room Sens. Heat 32-+6 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 25-60)
D. SHR 0.75-0.90
Cooling Loau Calculation
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otel and Hotel Guest Rooms, Dormitories
A. Total Heat +00-500 Sq.Ft.fTon (Range 300-600)
B. Total Heat 2+-30 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 20-+0)
C. Room Sens. Heat 20-25 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 15-35)
D. SHR 0.80-0.95
School Classrooms
A. Total Heat 225-275 Sq.Ft.fTon (Range 150-350)
B. Total Heat +3-53 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 35-80)
C. Room Sens. Heat 25-+2 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 20-65)
D. SHR 0.65-0.80
E. Air Change Rate +-12 ACfHr.
Dining Halls, Lunch Rooms, Cafeterias, Luncheonettes
A. Total Heat 100-250 Sq.Ft.fTon (Range 75-300)
B. Total Heat +8-120 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range +0-155)
C. Room Sens. Heat 21-62 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 20-80)
D. SHR 0.65-0.80
E. Spaces 1.5-+.0 CFfSq.Ft.
F. Air Change Rate 12-15 ACfHr.
Libraries, useums
A. Total Heat 250-350 Sq.Ft.fTon (Range 160-+00)
B. Total Heat 3+-+8 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 30-75)
C. Room Sens. Heat 22-32 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 20-50)
D. SHR 0.80-0.90
E. Air Change Rate 8-12 ACfHr.
Retail, Department Stores
A. Total Heat 200-300 Sq.Ft.fTon (Range 200-500)
B. Total Heat +0-60 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 2+-60)
C. Room Sens. Heat 32-+3 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 16-+3)
D. SHR 0.65-0.90
E. Air Change Rate 6-10 ACfHr.
Drug, Shoe, Dress, ewelry, Beauty, Barber, and Other Shops
A. Total Heat 175-225 Sq.Ft.fTon (Range 100-350)
B. Total Heat 53-69 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 35-115)
C. Room Sens. Heat 23-5+ BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 15-90)
D. SHR 0.65-0.90
Supermarkets
A. Total Heat 250-350 Sq.Ft.fTon (Range 150-+00)
B. Total Heat 3+-+8 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 30-80)
C. Room Sens. Heat 25-+0 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 22-67)
Cooling Loau Calculation
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D. SHR 0.65-0.85
E. Air Change Rate +-10 ACfHr.
alls, Shopping Centers
A. Total Heat 150-350 Sq.Ft.fTon (Range 150-+00)
B. Total Heat 3+-80 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 30-80)
C. Room Sens. Heat 25-67 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 22-67)
D. SHR 0.65-0.85
E. Air Change Rate 6-10 ACfHr.
ails
A. Total Heat 350-+50 Sq.Ft.fTon (Range 300-500)
B. Total Heat 27-3+ BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 2+-+0)
C. Room Sens. Heat 22-30 BtuhfSq.Ft. (Range 20-35)
D. SHR 0.80-0.95
Auditoriums, Theaters
A. Total Heat 0.05-0.07 TonsfSeat
B. Total Heat 600-8+0 BtuhfSeat
C. Room Sens. Heat 325-385 BtuhfSeat
D. SHR 0.65-0.75
E. Air Flow 15-30 CFfSeat
Churches
A. Total Heat 0.0+-0.06 TonsfSeat
B. Total Heat +80-720 BtuhfSeat
C. Room Sens. Heat 260-330 BtuhfSeat
D. SHR 0.65-0.75
E. Air Flow 15-30 CFfSeat
F. Air Change Rate 8-15 ACfHr.
Bowling Alleys
A. Total Heat 1.5-2.5 TonsfAlley
B. Total Heat 18,000-30,000 BtuhfAlley
C. Air Change Rate 10-15 ACfHr.
All Spaces
A. Total Heat 300-500 CFfTon 20F. T
B. Total Heat +00 CFfTon 20 20F. T
C. Perimeter Spaces 1.0-3.0 CFfSq.Ft.
D. !nterior Spaces 0.5-1.5 CFfSq.Ft.
E. Building Block CF 1.0-1.5 CFfSq.Ft.
F. Air Change Rate + ACfHr. inimum
Cooling Loau Calculation
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Total heat oqo to5to c ventilation o o`O_o ctooooO5to_ (Total heat includes
ventilation.) . Room sensible heat oqto to5toc ventilation oo`oco` (Room sensible heat does
not include ventilation.)
Cooling Load Calculation Procedure Cooling Load Calculation Procedure Cooling Load Calculation Procedure Cooling Load Calculation Procedure
A. building characteristics ooqcgqo5oo`oo ooo5tgoo`
1. aterials
2. Size
3. Color
+. Shape
5. Location
6. Orientation, N, S, E, W, NE, SE, SW, NW, etc.
7. Externalf!nternal shading
8. Occupancy type and time of day
B. outdoor design weather conditions o ogtooo`
1. Temperature
2. Wind direction and speed
3. Conditions in selecting outdoor design weather conditions:
a. Type of structure, heavy, medium or light
b. !s structure insulated
c. !s structure exposed to high wind
d. !nfiltration or ventilation load
e. Amount of glass
f. Time of building occupancy
g. Type of building occupancy
h. Length of reduced indoor temperature
i. What is daily temperature range, minimumfmaximum
j. Are there significant variations from ASHRAE weather data
k. What type of heating devices will be used
l. Expected cost of fuel
+. Outdoor design conditions ooooq5gqooo_ code o5t oct outdoor
design conditions o ogtoo o`
C. oqtoctoqg5o ctoo ocoo5oo5.oooo5 indoor design ooq (temperature)
ooooo`
D. un-conditioned spaces o ooqooqoqt (o) ooooo`
E. walls, roof, windows, doors, partitions, co_oo U-values o o oo` go o`
F. walls, windows, floors, doors, partitions, co_ o o go5o5to ooo` go o`
Cooling Loau Calculation
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G. Heat gains for all walls, windows, floors, doors, partitions, skylights, co_oo heat gains
o5toooo`
H. Compute solar heat gains for all walls, windows, floors, doors, partitions, skylights, etc.
!. space temperature and humidity o oo_ocgqooo_ oo5o _to5t oo
!nfiltration heat gains o O_oogqoo
. ventilation heat gain o oo o`
K. lights, people, and equipment o o heat gains (internal heat gains o o_too`o_) o
oo o`
L. Oooc o o_otooo5 G, H, !, , ac K o o heat gains 5toto oo`cto`
O. actual cooling load o ooo o industry ooooO5too5q_to5t (accepted methods)
_oco ogq actual cooling load requirements.
-End-