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DIRECTIONAL DRILLING
The well bore is deliberately deviated from the vertical
along a predetermined course to a target reservoir
OBJECTIVES:
Multi wells from Single Structure
and/or location
Shoreline drilling
Fault control
Inaccessible location
Stratigraphic traps (Salt dome)
Relief well control
Sidetracking off the
obstruction (fish)
Deviate well course to more
promising target (s)
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Type I Type II Type III
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DIRECTIONAL DRILLING TOOLS
JETTING BIT
1. One nozzle is fully blanked (big Boy), the rest
are plugged or restricted
2. Orient the blank nozzle to designed direction
3. Jetting the formation with hydraulic and with
none rotating pipe
4. Once the deviated hole pattern have been
formed, rotating pipe to make a new hole
5. Repeat the jetting/rotating sequence until
inclination is achieved
6. Good for soft and unconsolidated formations
7. Good for anti-collision purpose
Steps
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WHIPSTOCK
1. Run Whipstock to the KOP depth
2. Drill and deviate rat hole
3. Pull out the Whipstock
4. Drill with hole reamer, hole opener and/or
drill bit to make the new hole
5. Whipstock still applicable in present day
for cutting window in Casing and
sidetracking purposes
DIRECTIONAL DRILLING TOOLS
Steps
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DOWNHOLE MOTOR WITH BENT SUB
BENT SUB was used in early
Stage when Down hole Motor
had first been introduced.
It was presently an obsolete
tool in directional drilling due
to the limitation of rotating the
pipe combine with an advanced
Technology on down hole Motors
of which extensively high efficiency
and more steerable friendly.
DIRECTIONAL DRILLING TOOLS
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DOWNHOLE MOTOR (STEERABLE)
DIRECTIONAL DRILLING TOOLS
BENT HOUSING(SUB) FIXED ON THE BODY
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Flow
Rotation
DownholeTurbodrill
Turbine motors are used both for directional drilling and straight-hole drilling.
A turbine-type motor
Driven by the drilling fluid
- like the PDM
Multi-stage blade-type
stator and rotor sections
A thrust bearing section
A drive shaft
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Top Sub
Turbine Section
Bearing Section
Stator/Rotor-
One Stage
Rotor (Rotating)
Stator (Stationary)
Turbine Section
Typical
turbine
design.
PDC or Diamond Bit
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DownholeTurbodrill
Number of rotor/stator sections
may vary from ~25 to 250
Stator remains stationary - its
main function is to deflect the
mud to the rotor blades
The rotor blades are connected
to the drive shaft, which is
connected to the bit
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DOWNHOLE MOTOR (STEERABLE)
DIRECTIONAL DRILLING TOOLS
MAIN COMPONENTS (Top to Bottom)
Top Stabilizer (optional)
Bypass Vale
Flexible Bent Sub (optional)
Rotor/Stator Housing (power sub)
Flexible Bent Sub (Standard)
U-joint Housing
Bearing Assembly Housing (outside
Body is Near Bit Stabilizer)
Bit Box
MWD
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DOWNHOLE MOTOR (STEERABLE)
DIRECTIONAL DRILLING TOOLS
INSIDE
OUTSIDE
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Building
Hole Angle
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Holding
Hole Angle
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MONITORING
DIRECTIONAL DRILLING
PRESENT TECHNOLOGY
FOR ROTARY ASSY.
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MONITORING
DIRECTIONAL DRILLING
LATEST TECHNOLGY
FOR DIRECTIONAL DRILLING
An advanced BHA that steers itself
During continuous drill string.
Electronic control 3-pad Stabilizer on
the sleeve which is programmed well
Path controlling.
More smooth in well bore than drill
with Motor.
Product Propaganda
Auto Trak - Baker Hughes
Power Drive Schlumberger
Geo-Pilot Sperry Sun, Halliburton
ROTARY STEERABLE SYSTEM
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MONITORING
DIRECTIONAL DRILLING
LATEST TECHNOLGY
FOR DIRECTIONAL DRILLING
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Tool Face Angle
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Inclination Angle
u, o, I
Direction Angle
|, c, A
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N18E
N55W
S20W
S23E
Azimuth
Angle
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Directional Drilling Measurements
The trajectory of a wellbore is
determined by the measurement of:
inclination q, a, I
direction f, e, A
measured depth DMD, DL, L
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Directional Drilling Measurements
A tool-face measurement is
required to orient:
A whipstock
The large nozzle on a jetting bit
A bent sub or bent housing
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Directional Drilling Measurements
Tools available
Single-shot magnetic or gyroscopic
Multi-shot magnetic or gyroscopic
Magnetometers, accelerometers,
MWD tools
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Survey Methods
Single-Shot
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Multishot
Survey Methods
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Steering Tools
Survey Methods
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Steering Tools:
When a mud motor with a bent sub is
used, it may be more economical to
run a steering tool than to
continuously run magnetic single
shot surveys.
An instrument probe is lowered by a
wireline unit and is seated in the
mule-shoe orienting sleeve.
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Steering Tools - contd
The wireline can be passed through a
circulating head mounted on the
drillpipe. Every 90 ft the tool is
retrieved so another stand of pipe may
be added.
Alternatively, a side entry sub may be
used for the wire. A stuffing box that
prevents fluid leakage is built into the
side of the sub.
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Steering Tools - contd
With this setup, several hundred ft. of
hole can be drilled without pulling the
tool.
Electronic means are used to measure
direction and inclination.
Direction is measured with
magnetometers that measure the
earths magnetic field in the X,Y, and Z
planes.
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Tool-face indicator
located on the drill floor
Drift
Azimuth
Hole Direction
Tool
Face
R
90
o
L
90
o
180
o
32.7
o
114
o
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Steering Tools - contd
Most steering tools continuously
sense
inclination
direction
tool-face angle
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Steering Tools - contd
The steering tool takes the guess-work
out of correcting the tool-face angle for
reverse torque.
A steering tool is one of the most
economical means of making a trajectory
change when a mud motor and bent sub
are used for drilling, especially when rig
costs are high.
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MWD
(Measurement While Drilling)
While drilling it is possible to transmit to
the surface downhole information on:
inclination temperature
direction weight on bit
tool-face angle torque on bit
gamma ray sonic velocity
resistivity
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MWD - contd
Inclination, direction, and tool-face angle are
of particular interest in directional drilling. A
lower cost MWD tool can be used if only
directional drilling information is required.
Information is typically transmitted through
the mud column by:
+ ve or - ve pressure pulses, or
pressure pulse modulation
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Recorder
Bypass
Valve and
Sensor
Package
Rig
Floor
Display
Terminal
Computer
Mud Pump
Typical MWD system
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Basic types of mud pulsers
~ 3-5 minutes per update
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Basic types of mud pulsers
~ 3-5 minutes per update
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Basic types of mud pulsers
Mud Siren - 0s and 1s
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In the BUILD
Section
Ax = r (1 - cos I)
Ay = r sin I
AL = r I
rad
deg
I r
180
= L

t
A
BUR *
000 , 18
r
t
=
Ax
Ay
I
I
r
r
AL
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4 2 1 3 1
x r r and x r < + <
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4 2 1 3 1
x r r and x r > + <
3D Wells
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I, A, AMD
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* The actual well path hardly ever coincides with the planned
trajectory
* Important: Hit target within specified radius
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CLOSURE
LEAD ANGLE
(HORIZONTAL) DEPARTURE
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Average Angle
Balanced Tangential
Minimum Curvature
Radius of Curvature
Tangential
Wellbore Surveying Methods
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The table below gives data from a directional survey.
Survey Point Measured Depth Inclination Azimuth
along the wellbore Angle Angle
ft I, deg A, deg
A 3,000 0 20
B 3,200 6 6
C 3,600 14 20
D 4,000 24 80
Based on known coordinates for point C well calculate the coordinates of point D using the
above information.
Example - Wellbore Survey Calculations
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Example - Wellbore Survey Calculations
Point C has coordinates:
x = 1,000 (ft) positive towards the east
y = 1,000 (ft) positive towards the north
z = 3,500 (ft) TVD, positive downwards
Az
E (x)
N (y)
C
D
Az
N
D
C
Ay
Ax
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Example - Wellbore Survey Calculations+
I. Calculate the x, y, and z coordinates
of points D using:
(i) The Average Angle method
(ii) The Balanced Tangential method
(iii) The Minimum Curvature method
(iv) The Radius of Curvature method
(v) The Tangential method
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Find the coordinates of point D using
the Average Angle Method
At point C, x = 1,000 ft
y = 1,000 ft
z = 3,500 ft


80 A 24 I
20 A 14 I
D D
C C
= =
= =
ft 400 MD D, to C from depth Measured = A
The Average Angle Method
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80 A 24
20 A 14 I
ft 400 MD D, to C from depth
D
C C
= =
= =
= A
D
I
Measured
Az
E (x)
N (y)
C
D
Az
N
D
C
Ay
Ax
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The Average Angle Method
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This method utilizes the average
of I1 and I2 as an inclination,
the average of A1 and A2 as a
direction, and assumes the
entire survey interval (DMD)
to be tangent to the average
angle.
2
I I
I
2 1
AVG
+
=
2
A A
A
2 1
AVG
+
=
AVG AVG
A sin I sin MD East A = A
AVG
I cos MD Vert A = A
AVG AVG
A cos I sin MD North A = A
The Average Angle Method
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The Average Angle Method
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AVG
I cos 400 Vert = A

cos19 400 z = A
AVG AVG
A cos I sin MD North A = A
ft 84 y = A

50 cos sin19 400 y = A
ft 378 z = A
The Average Angle Method
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At Point D,
x = 1,000 + 100 = 1,100 ft
y = 1,000 + 84 = 1,084 ft
z = 3,500 + 378 = 3,878 ft
The Average Angle Method
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The Balanced Tangential Method
This method treats half the measured
distance (DMD/2) as being tangent to
I1 and A1 and the remainder of the
measured distance (DMD/2) as being
tangent to I2 and A2.
| |
2 2 1 1
A sin I sin A sin I sin
2
MD
East - + -
A
= A
| |
2 2 1 1
A cos I sin A cos I sin
2
MD
North - + -
A
= A
| |
1 2
I cos I cos
2
MD
Vert +
A
= A
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The Balanced Tangential Method
( )
D D C C
A sin I sin A sin I sin
2
MD
East +
A
= A
o o o o
80 sin 24 sin 20 sin 14 sin
2
400
+ =
ft x 97 = A
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The Balanced Tangential Method
( )
D D C C
A cos I sin A cos I sin
2
MD
North +
A
= A
o o o o
80 cos 24 sin 20 cos 14 sin
2
400
+ =
ft y 60 = A
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The Balanced Tangential Method
( )
C D
I cos I cos
2
MD
Vert +
A
= A
o o
14 cos 24 cos
2
400
+ =
ft z 377 = A
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The Balanced Tangential Method
At Point D,
x = 1,000 + 97 = 1,097 ft
y = 1,000 + 60 = 1,060 ft
z = 3,500 + 377 = 3,877 ft
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Minimum Curvature Method
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This method smooths the two straight-line segments of the
Balanced Tangential Method using the Ratio Factor RF.
(DL= | and must be in radians)
| | RF A cos I sin A cos I sin
2
MD
North
2 2 1 1
- - + -
A
= A
| | RF A sin I sin A sin I sin
2
MD
East
2 2 1 1
- - + -
A
= A
| | RF I cos I cos
2
MD
Vert
2 1
- +
A
= A
2
tan
2 |
|
= RF
Minimum Curvature Method
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) 20 80 cos( 1 24 sin 14 sin 14 24 cos
o 0 0 o o o
=
( ) ( ) ) A A cos( 1 I sin I sin I I cos cos
C D D C C D
= |
cos | = 0.9356
| = 20.67
o
= 0.3608 radians
The Dogleg Angle, |, is given by:
Minimum Curvature Method
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Minimum Curvature Method
The Ratio Factor,
2
tan
2 |
|
= RF
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
67 . 20
tan
3608 . 0
2
RF
o
0110 . 1 RF =
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Minimum Curvature Method
( ) RF A sin I sin A sin I sin
2
MD
East
D D C C
+
A
= A
0110 . 1 80 sin 24 sin 20 sin 14 sin
2
400
o o o o
+ =
ft x 98 = A
ft 98 011 . 1 * 66 . 96 = =
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Minimum Curvature Method
( ) RF A cos I sin A cos I sin
2
MD
North
D D C C
+
A
= A
ft y 60 = A
ft 60 011 . 1 * 59 . 59 = =
0110 . 1 80 cos 24 sin 20 cos 14 sin
2
400
o o o o
+ =
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Minimum Curvature Method
RF I cos I cos
2
MD
Vert
C D
+
A
= A
0110 . 1 14 cos 24 cos
2
400
o o
+ =
ft z 381 = A
ft 381 0110 . 1 * 77 . 376 = =
80
Minimum Curvature Method
At Point D,
x = 1,000 + 98 = 1,098 ft
y = 1,000 + 60 = 1,060 ft
z = 3,500 + 381 = 3,881 ft
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The Radius of Curvature Method
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
C D C D
D C D C
180
A A I I
A cos A cos I cos I cos MD
East
|
.
|

\
|
t
A
= A
( ) ( )
2
o o o o
180
20 80 14 24
80 cos 20 cos 24 cos 14 cos 400
|
.
|

\
|
t

=
ft 5 9 x = A
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The Radius of Curvature Method
2
C D C D
C D D C
180
) A A ( ) I I (
) A sin A (sin ) I cos I (cos MD
North
|
.
|

\
|
t
A
= A
2
180
) 20 80 )( 14 24 (
) 20 sin 80 )(sin 24 cos 400(cos14

|
.
|

\
|
t

=

ft 80 y = A
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The Radius of Curvature Method
|
.
|

\
|
t
A
= A
180
I I
) I sin I (sin MD
Vert
C D
C D
ft 78 3 z = A
|
.
|

\
|
t

=
180
14 24
) 14 sin 24 (sin 400
o o
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The Radius of Curvature Method
At Point D,
x = 1,000 + 95 = 1,095 ft
y = 1,000 + 80 = 1,080 ft
z = 3,500 + 378 = 3,878 ft
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The Tangential Method
ft 400 MD D, to C from depth Measured = A


80 A 24 I
20 A 14 I
D D
C C
= =
= =

80 sin sin24 400 =
D D
A sin I sin MD East A = A
ft 160 x = A
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The Tangential Method

24 cos 400 =
ft 365 z = A
ft 28 = Ay
o o
80 cos 24 sin 400 =
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The Tangential Method
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Summary of Results (to the nearest ft)
x y z
Average Angle 1,100 1,084 3,878
Balanced Tangential 1,097 1,060 3,877
Minimum Curvature 1,098 1,060 3,881
Radius of Curvature 1,095 1,080 3,878
Tangential Method 1,160 1,028 3,865
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Question
Plan a build and hold trajectory where the
kick-off depth is at 2000, and the
target bulls-eye is 5500 from the
surface location at a TVD of 8100. Use
a build-up rate of 2 deg/100. Your plan
should include maximum inclination
angle, measured depth to the end of the
build and to the target depth and
horizontal departure to the end of the
build.

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