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3.

Lamps & Control Gear

BCA Academy (GMP) Programme Module: Efficient Eco-lighting systems (indoor & Outdoor)
BCA-GMP-Sesh-2009

Important lamp families


Lamps Incandescent
Halogen GLS incandescent Mercury

Gas-Discharge Gas Discharge


Sodium Metal Halide

Low Pr =

TL CFL

High Pr =

Low Pr = SOX High Pr = SON

Mercury

High Pr = HPI MHN MHW MHD CDM

+ Light Emitting Diode =LED

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GLS lamp*
Glass Shell Clear , frosted or opal finish Protects the filament Fill Gas Reduces the evaporation rate of tungsten Inert (Argon and Nitrogen) Filament Tungsten , light emitter 2700 K Lamp Cap - brass or aluminium

* General Lighting Service

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Halogen lamp

Cool Beam Precise angles UV protection with glass D bl Double-ended d d 230V Single ended 12V Single-ended

Warm Colour Appearance, 3000- 3200K Excellent Colour rendition , Ra (= CRI) =100 Life 2000-5000 hrs
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The Halogen principle


Fill Gas : Halogen additive ( methylene bromide) Quartz Glass used to withstand high temperature Reduces filament evaporation rate and thus increases life No bulb blackening. Less lumen depreciation

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GLS - Halogen spectrum

Relativ ve spectral intensity

Wavelength (nm)

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FLUORESCENT LAMPS

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Straight Fluorescent lamps

T12 T8 T5

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Evolution of Fluorescent lamps


40W
=T8

36W 28W 18-36W 5-11W 8-26W

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The fluorescent lamp operation


visible radiation ultraviolet radiation

fluorescent mercury electro electrod fluorescent mercury electrode ns e powder atom electrons

powder

atom

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Fluorescence

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TLD Super 80 Colors


Lamp type TLD 36W / 827 TLD 36W / 830 TLD 36W / 840 TLD 36W / 850 TLD 36W / 865 TLD 36W / 54 Cool Daylight Output 3200 lm 3200 lm 3350 lm 3200 lm 3200 lm 2500 lm Color Temp 2700K 3000K 4000K 5000K 6500K 6500K
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CRI >80 >80 >80 >80 >80 72

TLD (Colour 54) = 6500K CRI = 72. Red part is weak !

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Tri-phosphor tubes (Colour 80 & 90) can produce different Shades of white light from Warm to Cool, with different mix of the 3 primary colours and with high CRI !

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Spectrum Colour 840 CRI > 80


Relative spectral intensity

Wavelength (nm)
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Spectrum Colour 940 CRI > 90


Relativ ve spectral intensity

Wavelength (nm)
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Electro Magnetic (EM) components

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EM ballast circuit
System configuration
Live Ballast helps to start & provide stable lamp current

Capacitor corrects power factor

Neutral

Starter provides starting voltage

Electromagnetic

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EM ballast circuit

Bi-metallic contacts

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Electronic (EL) ballast circuit

Live

Live

Neutral

Neutral

Electronic (EL)

Electromagnetic (EM)

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TL Efficacy Vs Frequency
( (%) ) 110
108 106 104 102 100 1 2 3 5 10 20 30 50 100 f (KHz)

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EL ballast miniaturization

TL8 gear Typical cross-section 39x28mm

TL5 gear Typical cross-section 30x28mm

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EL ballast - Advantages

Hard argument Soft arguments

1. saves money 2. comfort & health 3. flexibility

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Ballast loss
Lamp type TL = T12 = 40W TLD = T8 = 36W TLD = T8 = 32W TL5 = T5 = 28W Ballast type Electro Magnetic Electro Magnetic Electronic Electronic Ballast loss 9W 9W 4W 3W

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Lamp power + ballast loss = Total load


Lamp TL 40W TLD 36W TLD 36W TL5 28W Ballast type EM EM EL EL Lamp power 40W 36W Ballast Total loss power 9W 49W 9W 4W 3W 45W 36W 31W

32W
28W

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Saves money
EM= ElectroMagnetic
energy costs relatively high compared to HF additional costs for PF capacitor > air conditioning costs because of heat generation normal lamp life relatively high lumen depreciation

EL= Electronic
TLD 36W operates at 32W energy savings up to 25% compared to conventional no additional cost for PF capacitor Air conditioning costs reduced because of less heat radiation (25% less) 50% longer lamp life, life less maintenance costs lower lumen depreciation

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Comfort & health


Electromagnetic
Starting blips disturbing lamp flicker no dimming possible annoying humming possible not controlled end of life of lamps

Electronic
Smooth rapid start flicker free dimming possible silent reliable lamp switch off

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Lamp with anode-ring & Minimum Mercury


Capsule technology allows Just 3-5 mg of Mercury !

Anode Ring reduces endblackening and helps better lumen maintenance lumen-maintenance

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End blackening with & without Anode Rings

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Lamp life

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Lamp life time: how is it measured? 50% failure on 3 hour switching cycle

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Lamp Life

Manufacturers Published life is the 50% survival life !


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TL 5 technology
Miniaturisation Diameter 16 mm Shorter length
More precise optical

control
Shallow Luminaires can fit into any metric

system t ceiling ili

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Compact Fluorescent Lamps

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CFL Non Integrated Type. Ballast has to be


external (Electro Magnetic or Electronic)

PL-S

PL-C

PL-T

PL-L
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CFL Integrated Type. Ballast is internal


(Electronic)

CFL 20W CFL 15W CFL 11W

= = =

GLS 100W GLS 75W GLS 60W


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High Intensity Discharge (HID) lamps

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Components of a HID lamp

b lb bulb discharge tube metals & starting gas electrodes

PCA Ceramic for Sodium

Quartz for Mercury & Metal Halide


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Operation of a gas discharge


discharge tube

Electromagnetic radiation
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HPL Mercury Lamp

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High Pressure Mercury Lamp


Spectral intensity distribution

Relative e spectral intensity

Wavelength (nm)
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High-bay Application

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Metal Halide Lamp


Metal Halide Additives with y Mercury Improves Colour Properties Mercury regulates the arc voltage and heat

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Metal Halide Lamp


Spectral intensity distribution

Relativ ve spectral intensity

Wavelength (nm)
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Metal Halide in Sports

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Metal Halide in Industrial High Bay

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High Pr Sodium: SON and SON-T


SON Plus Lamps - up to 150lm/W SON Comfort - Ra = 65 - Tc = 2200K Standard SON - up to 130 lm/W SON-H - 220W and 350W Most efficient SON lamp with high reliability,lowest cost of ownership, retrofit on all HPS systems Golden white SON lamp with good colour rendering and acceptable efficacy for city beautification Efficient SON lamp with low cost of ownership SON-H lamp directly retrofits on existing Mercury ballast, giving high cost savings on energy

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High Pressure Sodium Lamp


Spectral intensity distribution

Relative e spectral intensity

Wavelength (nm)
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Sodium in Street Lighting

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Sodium for floodlighting

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Ceramic Discharge Metal halide (CDM) Lamp


Metal Halide technology
white light & high efficacy

PCA* Ceramic technology


colour stability & long long, reliable life

CDM
Ceramic Discharge Metal Halide

* PCA: Poly Crystalline Alumina, already used and proven in High Pressure Sodium lamps

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CDM Lamp High beam intensities, high light output High efficiency Choice in 3000-4200K Long life Colour stability High Hi h CRI UV-block Best substitute for halogen !
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The CDM Family


CDM-R PAR20/30L CDM-T -TC

CDM-TD CDM-TT

CDM-TP

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CDM Lamp

PCA Electrode

Metallic compounds

Sealing glass

Niobium feedthrough

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Stable colour over life


Colour temperature towards blue-green

Conventional metal halide lamps

Colour temperatu ure (K)

Colour temperature towards red

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Ceramic Discharge Metal halide Lamp


Spectral Intensity Distribution
Relative spectral intensity y

Wavelength (nm)
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Low Pressure Sodium Lamp


Efficient lamps with very long life.

Standard SOX - 35..180W - up to 176 lm/W SOX -E - 18..131W - up to t 200 l lm/W /W SOX-HF - 35-55-66W - up to 170 lm/W

Most efficient light source for road lighting in foggy climates Compared to SOX, SOX- E has reduced heat losses and hence hi h efficacy higher ffi SOX(-E) lamps wired with High Frequency electronic ballast

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Low Pressure Sodium Lamp


Spectral Intensity Distribution
Relat tive spectral intensity y

Wavelength (nm)
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SOX in Tunnel lighting

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Control gear for discharge lamps

consists of :

- Ballast - Ignitor - Capacitor

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Ballast for HID Lamps


System configuration
Live Ballast provides stable lamp current

Capacitor corrects power factor

Neutral

Ignitor provides ignition voltage

Electromagnetic

Ballast for HID lamps


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HID lamps run-up behaviour


Lamp Performance during starting period
160 140 120 100

Ila

80 60 40 20 0 0 1 2 3 4

W la

Vla Lm

time (In min)


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QL Induction lamp family

85 W 165 W 55 W

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Induction principle
H Ip Is

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Induction lamp
Metal vapour atom Visible light Fluorescent powder Is

Discharge Principle

UV

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Induction lamp
Power coupler Discharge bulb

HF generator

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Lifetime

Incandescent lamp Conventional discharge lamp 4,000 hrs 1,000 20,000 hrs

Induction lamp 60,000 hrs

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Light Emitting Diode (LED)

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LED packages

Conventional LED (5mm)


0,5-2 Lumen 25-100 mW

High Flux Power Chip LED


10-50 lumen 625-1200 mW

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LED flux enhancements


5mm LED
Gold Wire Bond Epoxy Dome Lens LED Chip Anode Lead Plastic Lens

High-Flux PC LED
LED Chip Body Cathode Lead

Reflector Cup

Cathode Lead

Anode Lead

Slug

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High-Power Chip LED Package

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How to make white Light

Red Peak Blue Peak Green Peak Phosphor Emission Combined Spectrum Blue LED Spectrum

470

525 590 630

(nm)

470

525 590 630

(nm)

By mixing Red, Green and Blue (RGB) sources any colour light, including White, can be made

Blue emission is converted to yellow by the phosphor coating over the chip and reflector cup. The mixture of blue and yellow light appears white

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