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FuzzySystems

Ranganath Muthu
Professor, EEE
SSN College of Engineering

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1. Fuzzy Systems -
Overview
 Fuzzy Systems
 Fuzzy Logic
 A Little History
 Fuzzy Sets
 Fuzzy Sets Operations
 Fuzzy Rules
 Fuzzy Applications
 Fuzzy Logic Control
 References

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1.1Fuzzy Systems
 Based on Human Thought Processes

 Systems that use objective and subjective


knowledge of a problem

 Objective knowledge – mathematical models

 Subjective knowledge – linguistic information

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1.2 FuzzyLogic
Fuzzy logic provides a method to formalize
reasoning when dealing with vague terms.

Traditional computing requires finite precision


which
is not always possible in real world scenarios.
Not
every decision is either true or false,
or as with
Boolean logic either 0 or 1.

Fuzzy logic allows for membership


functions, or degrees of truthfulness
and falsehoods. Or as with Boolean logic,
not only 0 and 1 but all the numbers that fall
in between.

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1.3A little History
 The idea behindfuzzy logic dates back to
Plato, who recognized the logic system
of true and false, and also an undetermined
area – the uncertain.
 In the 1960’s Lotfi A. Zadeh Ph.D.,
University of
California, Berkeley, published an
obscure paper
on fuzzy sets that allowed for approximate
information and uncertainty when generating
complex solutions; a process that
previously did
not exist.
 Fuzzy Logic has been aroundsince the mid 60’s
but was not readily accepted until the
80’s and
90’s. Although now prevalent throughout much
of
the world, China, Japan and Korea were the
early
adopters.
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1.4 Fuzzy Set
 Classical (“crisp”) sets:
 Membership in a set is all or nothing
 Membership function cS: Universe → {0, 1}
 cS(x) = 1 iff x ∈ S
range of real
numbers
 Fuzzy sets:
Membership in a set is a
degree

 membership function cS: Universe → [0, 1]


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Linguistic
Characterizations
of
Degree of Membership
 Consider the set of “hot” days in
Chennai in
2007.
 Was July 17 “hot”? It might have been
called one of:
 “very hot”
 “sort of hot”
 “not hot”
 The answer depends on the observer,
time, etc.
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Sounds similar to
probability,
but
isn’t

 Probability deals with uncertainty,


likelihood

 Fuzzy logic deals with ambiguity,


vagueness
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Fuzzy Sets
Sets with fuzzy boundaries

A = Set of tall people


Crisp set A Fuzzy set A
1.0 1.0
.9
.5 Membership
function

5’10’’ Heights 5’10’’ 6’2’’ Heights

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December 200
2008 Fuzzy Syste
Systems - ISC W orksh
rkshop 9
1.5Fuzzy-Set
Operations
expressed using membership
functions
1
A B

0
Fuzzy OR (union) Fuzzy AND (intersection)

cA U B(x) = max(cA (x), cB(x)) cA ∩ B(x) = min(cA (x), cB(x))


1 1
AUB
A∩B
0 0
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Fuzzy Complement
(nottheonly possible
model)
cA’(x) = 1 - cA(x).

1 A’

A
0
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Fuzzy Anomaly?
The intersection of a set with its complement
is not necessarily empty.

cA’(x) = 1 - cA(x).
1 A A’

A ∩ A’

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1.6Fuzzy Rules
 “If our distance to the car in front is small, and the
distance
is decreasing slowly, then decelerate quite hard”
 Fuzzy variables in blue

 Fuzzy sets in red

 Conditions are on membership in fuzzy sets

 Actions place an output variable (decelerate) in a


fuzzy set (the quite hard deceleration set)

 We have a certain belief in the truth of the condition,


and hence a certain strength of desire for the
outcome

 Multiple rules may match to some degree, so we


require a means to arbitrate and choose a particular
goal - defuzzification
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1.7 General Fuzzified
Applications

 Quality Assurance

 Error Diagnostics

 Control Theory

 Pattern Recognition

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Specific Fuzzified
Applications
 Otis Elevators  Cranes

 Vacuum Cleaners  Electric Razors

 Hair Dryers
 Camcorders
 Air Control in Soft Drink
Production  Television Sets

 Noise Detection on  Showers


Compact
Disks
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Expert Fuzzified Systems
 Medical Diagnosis

 Legal

 Stock Analysi
Market s
 Mineral Prospecting

 Weather Forecasting

 Economics

 Politics

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1.8Fuzzy Control
System
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1.9References
 Nguyen, H. T. and Walker, E. A. , A First
Course
in Fuzzy Logic, CRC Press, 1999.
 Jerry M.M. and Mendel J,
Uncertain Rule-Based Fuzzy Logic
Systems : Introduction and
New Directions, Pearson Education,
2000.
 Ross T.J., Fuzzy Logic with Engineering
Applications, McGraw-Hill International, 1997.
 Kartalopoulos, S.V.,
Understanding Neural
Networks and Fuzzy Logic, IEEE Press,
New York, 1996.

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