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Efficiency Audit, Internal Audit

& Management Audit


Efficiency Audit
An efficiency audit provides both policy makers and management with the auditor’s opinion on
the efficiency and economy of the conduct of a particular program or activity of Council. The
parameters of the audit will be determined by the nature of the program or activity being audited.
The efficiency audit is quite different to the audit of the annual financial statements in that the
information gathered and examined will be related only to the program or activity being audited
and goes beyond relevant financial data. The primary interest in an efficiency is resource use,
rather than program or activity effectiveness. It is a thorough, rigorous and independent audit of
the acquisition and use of resources in a Council program or activity. The audit should provide
both policy makers and management with an opinion on the efficiency and economy of the
program or activity under review so as to ensure that the policy outcome sought is being
achieved. In particular it will provide guidance on whether the delivery of the service is
providing an outcome commensurate with the resources a Council has committed. The audit may
include recommendations for future action and
identify issues that may require further investigation or consideration. An efficiency and
economy audit is not, and is not intended to be, a means by which the separate but
complementary roles of the administration and the elected body become confused. Some of the
key questions that may be explored during an efficiency and economy audit might be:

 Have alternative means of service provision been considered?

 Are sound and valid procurement procedures in place and being followed?

 Is the Council employing the appropriate amount of resources at the appropriate


time to ensure efficiency?

 Are property resources being adequately maintained and protected?

 Is there no (or minimal) duplication of work or unnecessary wasted effort?


 Have optimum resource levels been adequately identified?

 Are internal measures of efficiency and economy valid and appropriate?

Efficiency and economy audits should be undertaken by the Council’s auditor or an independent,
suitably qualified person. The person identified to undertake the examination, and to produce the
report, must do so without undue influence from any individual Council Member or the Chief
Executive Officer or other staff of the Council. When commissioning the audit, the auditor
should be advised of the program area and required to develop an understanding of the policy
that drives the program and once fully understood, adopt the appropriate audit procedure.

Efficiency audit refers to an examination of a program, function, operation or the management


systems and procedures of an organization to assess whether the entity is achieving economy,
efficiency and effectiveness in the employment of available resources. The examination is
objective and systematic, generally using structured and professionally adopted methodologies.

In most countries, efficiency audits of governmental activities are carried out by the external
audit bodies at federal or state level. Many of these audit bodies have established guides for
conducting efficiency audits which explain how efficiency audits are planned, conducted and its
results reported.

INTOSAI, the international association of Supreme Audit Institutions, has published generally
accepted principles of efficiency auditing in its implementation guidelines. In the United States,
the standard for government performance audits is the Generally Accepted Government Auditing
Standards (GAGAS), often referred to as the "yellow book", maintained by the federal
Government Accountability Office (GAO). Similarly, the European Court of Auditors (ECA) has
developed a "efficiency audit manual" for its audits of the sound financial management of the
European Commission and the programmes funded through the EU budget.
Efficiency audits may also be conducted by Internal Auditors who are employees of the entity
being audited. However, some national governments require agencies, departments and branches
to periodically retain outside auditors to conduct them.

The scope of efficiency audits may include the detection of fraud, waste and abuse, although
often these are not included in the scope. Prior to engaging in a efficiency audit, the auditor must
have a scope and plan defined which will be used to guide the audit process.

Internal Audit

What is internal auditing?

“Internal auditing is an independent, objective assurance and consulting activity designed to


add value and improve an organisation’s operations. It helps an organization accomplish its
objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approach to evaluate and improve the
effectiveness of risk management, control and governance processes.”

Internal Auditor can make:

 an objective assessment of operations and share ideas for best practices.


 provide guidance for improving controls, processes and procedures, performance, and
risk management.

Thus, internal audit activity can play an important role and support the board and management in
fulfilling an essential component of their governance mechanisms. The internal auditor furnishes
analysis, appraisals, recommendations, counsel and information concerning the activities
reviewed. The internal auditor can suggest ways for reducing costs, enhancing revenues, and
improving profits.

A Partnership...
It is worth remembering that internal audit works in partnership with management and provides
the board, the audit committee and executive management assurance that risks are held at bay
and the organization’s corporate governance is strong and effective. They work in the same team
and want the organisation to be and remain successful.
Purpose of Internal Auditing

It’s the responsibility of the Board to ensure that risks are managed and controlled. This task is
delegated to the executive management which

 Determines the risk appetite of the organisation


 Establishes the risk management framework
 Identifies potential threats and assesses risks
 Decides on response to risks like implementation of control
 Monitors and coordinates the risk management processes and the outcomes,
 Provides assurance on the effectiveness of risk management processes

This assurance from the management is fundamental. There is a need for additional assurance
from a different source. Internal audit can be the key source providing objective assurance that
all the significant risks have been identified, risk management process is working effectively
and efficiently, risks are being reported and controls are effective. As part of this work, the
internal audit activity will provide advice, coaching and facilitation services to assist executive
management in carrying out their responsibilities.

Scope of Internal Auditing

The external auditors have to express an opinion on accuracy and fairness of financial
information. The scope of internal audit is much wider than statutory/external audit. It should
ideally cover all the organisation’s activities. They include:
 Financial audit –accuracy, completeness and fairness of financial statements
 Operational audit- effectiveness and efficiency of operations
 Safeguarding of assets
 Review of projects
 Management audit
 Fraud detection- developing fraud exposures for every audit and detecting red flags
 Review of effectiveness of internal control
 Compliance with laws, regulations, policies and procedures
 Preservation of ethical culture – monitor the ethical climate and report on red flags that
may compromise ethics
 Providing advise on reducing waste or inefficiency

Types of Internal Audit

Internal Audit can be classified into following types

 Financial Audit
 Operational Audit
 Grant Audit
 Project Audit
 Information System Audit
 Compliance Audit
 Investigative Audit
 Due Diligence
Management Audit

A management audit is defined as “an examination of the conditions and a diagnosis of


deficiencies with recommendations for correcting them.”

As per John C. Burton, “in a management audit, the auditor will see the management is
getting information relevant to the decisions and actions which it must take. This will require a
much more intensive analysis of information needs and the efficiency of the existing system in
meeting them. The auditor will not have to decide whether management is making the right
strategic and operative decisions but rather whether the management has available to it and is
using the relevant information and techniques necessary to evaluate the various alternatives that
exist.”

Objectives of Management Audit

The following are the objectives of Management Audit

 To critically analyze and evaluate management performance.


 To detect and overcome existing management deficiencies and resulting operational
problems.
 To evaluate methods and processes used by the management to accomplish its
organizational objectives.
 It helps to determine the effectiveness of the management in PODC the organizations
activities.
 It helps to ascertain the appropriateness of the managements decision for achieving the
organizational objectiveness

Types of Management Audit

The following are the type of Management Audits

 Complete Management Audit


 Compliance Management Audit
 Program Management Audit
 Functional Management Audit
 Efficiency Management Audit
 Propriety Audit

Complete Management Audit

 Complete management audit evaluates the firm’s current activities and measures the gaps
between its existing policies and the objectives, and its actual activities.

 Complete management audit is however, not designed to punish the inefficient or


reprimand people who make honest mistakes.

Compliance Management Audit


 Auditors are asked to identify the gaps between the company’s existing policies and
objectives, and its actual practice. However, in this case, the auditors do not make any
recommendations for improvements.

 They simply present their observations to the top management. The top management
consults to personnel to decide whether, what, or how corrective action should be taken.

Program Management Audit

 Program management audit is similar to complete management audit and compliance


management audit; the only difference is being the fact that it focuses on a specific
program.

 Program management audit is designed to appraise performance within a specified


program and it doesn’t disturb other operations of the firm.

Functional Management Audit

 Functional management measures the difference between the actual performance of an


organization and its objectives, with emphasis on a particular function.

Efficiency Audit

Efficiency audit is conducted to ensure that money is so utilized as to generate handsome returns.
The objectives of efficiency audit are:

 To invest the capital in areas that generates optimum returns.


 To plan and invest judiciously in various functions.

Propriety Audit

Propriety audit is conducted to examine the effect of the management’s decisions and actions on
the society and the public. While conducting the audit, the auditor examines all transactions of
the company to find out whether any of the transactions has negatively affected public interests.

Organizing the Management Audit

The following steps should be taken for organizing the Management Audit

 Devising the statement of policy


 Allocation of personnel
 Staff Training Program
 Time and other aspects
 Frequency