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FAT32 v.

s NTFS
FAT32 and NTFS are file systems created for keeping track of files in the hard disk. A file system is a set of logical constructs that dictate how the space on a disk volume is to be utilized. NTFS is more robust and effective simply because of its advanced features and functionalities. FAT, in general, comprises of overly simplistic data structures, hence making operations more time consuming. The functionalities of NTFS are far more over-powering since it makes use of advanced data structures to improve reliability, disk space utilization and overall performance.

Comparisonchart

FAT32
Overall Performance: Both built-in security and recoverability are absent. File compression is not possible.

NTFS
There is built-in security and recoverability. File compression is one amongst several other features.

Size & Storage:

The Maximum volume size is Maximum volume size is 32GB for all OS and 2TB for 2TB. Nearly unlimited files some OS. 4194304 is the can be stored. maximum file volume. FAT12 (first version) NT3.1, NT 3.5, NT3.51 and followed by FAT16 and then NT4, NTFSV5.0, NTFSV5.1, FAT32. NTFSV5.2 and NTFSV6.0 FAT is a widely used computer file system architecture used not only on computer systems but also on most memory cards. FAT32 is the most recent one and supersedes its predecessors. File Allocation Table yes NTFS is the file system that Windows NT and its later versions including the recent Windows 7 uses for storing and retrieving files on hard disk.

Versions:

Function:

Stands for: support for network security: Introduced: cluster size:

New Technology File System yes

1977 8 kb cluster

July 1993 4 kb cluster

BIOS Beep Codes


When your computer won't boot and starts to beep, it's actually telling you it's having problems with the hardware or BIOS, however there are different types of motherboard with different beeping codes. I've compiled a list of beeping codes for your use:

HP and Compaq bios beep codes

Beeps 1 short beep and 1 long beep Memory problem

Meaning

2 short beeps and 1 long beep (repeats 5 times) Problems with the video card 3 short beeps and 1 long beep CPU configuration error, problems with the CPU

Beep codes for an AMI motherboard


Beeps 1 beep 2 beeps 3 beeps Meaning DRAM refresh failure. There is a problem in the system memory or the motherboard. Memory parity error. The parity circuit is not working properly. Base 64K RAM failure. There is a problem with the first 64K of system memory. System timer not operational. There is problem with the timer(s) that control functions on the motherboard. Processor failure. The system CPU has failed. Gate A20/keyboard controller failure. The keyboard IC controller has failed, preventing

4 beeps

5 beeps 6 beeps

gate A20 from switching the processor to protect mode. 7 beeps Virtual mode exception error. Video memory error. The BIOS cannot write to the frame buffer memory on the video card. ROM checksum error. The BIOS ROM chip on the motherboard is likely faulty. CMOS checksum error. Something on the motherboard is causing an error when trying to interact with the CMOS. Bad cache memory. An error in the level 2 cache memory.

8 beeps

9 beeps

10 beeps

11 beeps

1 long beep, 2 Failure in the video system. short 1 long beep, 3 A failure has been detected in memory above 64K. short 1 long beep, 8 Display test failure. short

Beep codes for a Phoenix motherboard


Beeps Meaning

Continuous beeping 1-1-1-3 1-1-2-1 1-1-2-3

A problem with the memory or video.

Faulty CPU/motherboard. Verify real mode. Faulty CPU/motherboard. Faulty motherboard or one of its components. Faulty motherboard or one of its components. Initialize chipset registers with initial POST values. Faulty motherboard or one of its components. Faulty motherboard or one of its components. Initialize CPU registers. Failure in the first 64K of memory.

1-1-3-1

1-1-3-2 1-1-3-3 1-1-3-2

1-1-3-3 1-1-3-4 1-1-4-1 1-1-4-3 1-2-1-1 1-2-1-2 1-2-1-3 1-2-2-1 1-2-2-3 1-2-3-1 1-2-3-3 1-2-4-1 1-3-1-1 1-3-1-3 1-3-2-1 1-3-3-1 1-3-3-3 1-3-4-1 1-3-4-3 1-4-1-3 1-4-2-4 1-4-3-1 2-1-4-1 1-4-3-2 1-4-3-3 1-4-4-1 1-4-4-2 2-1-1-1 Level 2 cache error. I/O port error. Power management error.

Faulty motherboard or one of its components.

Keyboard controller failure. BIOS ROM error. System timer error. DMA error. IRQ controller error. DRAM refresh error. A20 gate failure. Faulty motherboard or one of its components. Extended memory error.

Error in first 1MB of system memory.

CPU error.

BIOS ROM shadow error.

Level 2 cache error.

Faulty motherboard or one of its components.

2-1-1-3 2-1-2-1 2-1-2-3 2-1-2-4 2-1-3-2 2-1-3-1 2-1-3-3 2-1-1-3 2-1-2-1 2-1-2-3 2-1-2-4 2-1-4-3 2-2-1-1 2-2-1-3 2-2-2-1 2-2-2-3 2-2-3-1 2-2-4-1 2-3-1-1 2-3-3-3 2-3-2-1 2-3-2-3 2-3-3-1 2-3-4-1 2-3-4-3 2-3-4-1 2-3-4-3 2-4-1-1 2-4-1-3 2-4-2-1

IRQ failure.

BIOS ROM error.

I/O port failure.

Video system failure.

IRQ failure.

BIOS ROM error. I/O port failure.

Video card failure.

Keyboard controller failure.

IRQ error. Error in first 1MB of system memory.

Extended memory failure.

Faulty motherboard or one of its components.

Level 2 cache error.

Motherboard or video card failure.

Motherboard or video card failure.

Faulty motherboard or one of its components. RTC error.

2-4-2-3 2-4-4-1 3-1-1-1 3-1-1-3 3-1-2-1 3-1-2-3 3-1-3-1 3-1-3-3 3-1-4-1 3-2-1-1 3-2-1-2 3-2-1-3 3-2-2-1 3-2-2-3 3-2-3-1 3-2-4-1 3-2-4-3 3-3-1-1 3-3-1-3 3-3-3-3 3-3-3-3 3-3-4-1 3-3-4-3 3-4-1-1 3-4-1-3 3-4-2-1 3-4-2-3 3-4-3-1 3-4-4-1 3-4-4-4 4-1-1-1 4-2-1-1 4-2-1-3

Keyboard controller error. IRQ error.

I/O port error.

Faulty motherboard or one of its components.

Floppy drive or hard drive failure.

Faulty motherboard or one of its components. Keyboard controller error.

Faulty motherboard or one of its components.

IRQ error. RTC error. Key lock error. Faulty motherboard or one of its components.

Faulty motherboard or one of its components.

Floppy drive or hard drive failure. IRQ failure.

4-2-2-1 4-2-2-3 4-2-3-1 4-2-3-3 4-2-4-1 4-2-4-3 4-3-1-3 4-3-1-4 4-3-2-1 4-3-2-2 4-3-3-1 4-3-4-1 4-3-4-3 4-3-3-2 4-3-3-4 4-3-3-3 4-3-4-2 1-1-2 1-1-3 1-1-4

Faulty motherboard or one of its components.

Keyboard controller error.

Faulty motherboard or one of its components.

IRQ failure.

Floppy drive or hard drive failure.

Faulty CPU/motherboard. Faulty motherboard/CMOS read-write failure. Faulty BIOS/BIOS ROM checksum error. System timer not operational. There is a problem with the timer(s) that control functions on the motherboard.

1-2-1

1-2-2 1-2-3 1-3-1 1-3-2 1-3-3 1-3-4 1-4-1 1-4-2 1-4-3

Faulty motherboard/DMA failure.

Memory refresh failure.

Failure in the first 64K of memory.

Address line failure. Parity RAM failure. Timer failure.

1-4-4 2-_-_ 3-1-1 3-1-2 3-1-3 3-1-4 3-2-4 3-3-1 3-3-2 3-3-4 3-4-1 4-2-1 4-2-2 4-2-3 4-2-4 4-3-1 4-3-3 4-3-4 4-4-1 4-4-2 4-4-3

NMI port failure. Any combination of beeps after 2 indicates a failure in the first 64K of memory. Master DMA failure. Slave DMA failure.

Interrupt controller failure.

Keyboard controller failure.

CMOS error.

Video card failure. Video card failure. Timer failure. CMOS shutdown failure. Gate A20 failure. Unexpected interrupt in protected mode. RAM test failure. Timer failure. Time of day clock failure. Serial port failure. Parallel port failure. Math coprocessor.

Remember that this is a short list, it is not a complete list. Your motherboard also comes with a manual with the specific bios beep codes for that motherboard. Sometimes it's hard to determine your specific computer bios beep codes, and I've had to call sometimes the manufacturer to know for sure which bios beep codes fit my computer.

How to Check the Memory on a Computer with CMD

Instructions
1. o

1
Press the Windows logo and "R" keys simultaneously to display the "Run" dialog box.

2
In the "Run" box, type "cmd" in Windows 2000 or newer, or "command" in Windows ME or older. Press "Enter" or click "OK" to display the command prompt.

3
Type "MSINFO32" at the command prompt and press "Enter." A new window opens.

4
Examine the information shown in the window. In older versions of Windows, the amount of RAM installed is shown near the middle of the right pane of the window, e.g. "256MB RAM." In newer versions, the installed RAM is listed under the heading "Total Physical Memory," and the amount of RAM available is shown under the heading "Available Physical Memory."

5
Click the plus sign next to "Hardware Resources," then click "Memory," to check the hardware status of the memory installed in the computer. Each item on this screen should report "OK."

Tips & Warnings


The amount of memory installed can also be checked from a pure DOS prompt, if you need to boot the computer using a Windows 98 or ME boot disk. To do this, type the command "MEM" and press "Enter." This command also works from a Windows command prompt. However, "MEM" is not as accurate as "MSINFO32," because the "MEM" command can only be used to detect the first 64 MB of installed memory.