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Answers for the case study 1) He should not have to accept any of the invitations because Conflict of interest

is a direct or mutually exclusive clash between the interests of organization and the private or personal interest of a public procurement officer ,therefore, in this case Munir was invited by the competitors based on his personal interest. In addition, article 34.4(d) of the directives provides Not to accept an invitation, which is likely to influence his action or decision in relation to his duty; however, he may accept invitation which does not involve travel or an invitation in which the inviter has no business relation with the Public Body. Therefore, Munir should have to refuse all invitations received. The ethical problem here is according to article 32 (a) of the Proclamation 649/2009 Any candidate or supplier shall have to refrain from any act contravening the process of public procurement and property disposal and with an intention to influence the decision or action of the head or staff member of the public body or persuade the public body to change its established practice of procurement and property disposal, not to give directly or indirectly gifts of any kind in the form of inducement, not to promise to give gifts, not to offer employment opportunity or anything of monetary value or service. Therefore, the ethical problem is first arising from the representatives of the competing firms. However, Munir should have to disclose to the appropriate body an intended or perpetrated act of corruption of which he is aware, and not to be complicit in such an act. 2) No because as the committee are on the course of bid evaluation he should not have to accept any telephone calls especially from the competitors. As we have seen prior to the submission of the bid that Munir receives a number of invitations from the bidders to convince him to corrupt, therefore, he should not have to respond for the call received from the representatives of firm E. Furthermore, unless Munir is not accepting the invitations as well as if he doesnt respond to the phone calls he can be a member of the bid evaluation committee because as a procurement officer he should be a member.

3) Yes, he should have to withdraw from the responsibility of the procurement process because according to the directives of article 34.1 which says Where an employee or a person in a position of responsibility involved directly in public procurement realizes that the decision he makes in respect of any procurement proceedings conflicts with the interest of himself or his family, he shall notify this in writing to the appropriate authority of the Public Body and withdraw from that particular procurement process. Therefore, in the context of procurement, a public procurement officer should: Declare with immediate effect any potential conflict of interest. Not use information obtained for professional reasons for personal profit. Disclose and dispose the financial interest involved. Not participate in any conflicting procurement process. Excuse or withdraw from any procurement process where the procurement officer may have a conflicting interest.