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03. Steady 1D Heat Conduction

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ONE-DIMENSIONAL STEADY STATE CONDUCTION Conduction in a Single Layer Plane Wall Assume:

(1) Steady state (2) One-dimensional & =0 [W/m3] (3) Q

zdr

L k

0

& Q q xx

x

Fig. 3.1

1

Find:

(1) Temperature distribution (2) Heat transfer rate

Starting point: The heat conduction equation for 3-D

T T T T & ) + ( ) + Q = c ( ) + ( zdr x x y y z z t

(3.1) becomes for 1D d dT ( )=0 dx dx

(3.1)

(3.2)

Assume: Constant

d 2T dx

2

=0

(3.3)

2

(3.3) is valid for all problems described by rectangular coordinates, subject to the four above assumptions.

General Solution

Integrate (3.3)

dT =C 1 dx

Integrate again

T = C1 x + C 2

(3.4)

from B.C.

3

Apply solution (3.4) to special cases (different B.C.)

Objective:

(1) Determine the temperature distribution T(x) & (2) Determine the heat transfer rate Q x (3) Construct the thermal circuit

surfaces

Boundary conditions:

L k

T ( x)

Ts 2

L L Ak S

T (0) = Ts1 T ( L) = Ts 2

(3.5) (3.6)

Ts1 0

cd

x

RRcd= =

Ts1

Q

Fig. 3.2

q& x

Ts 2

T = C1 x + C 2

(3.4)

(3.7)

T q &x = S x

x

& Q

(1.5)

T & Q = S x x

Differentiate (3.7) and substitute into (3.8)

(3.8)

& = Q

x

S (T - T )

s1 s2

L

Ts1 0

cd

(3.8a)

L k

T ( x)

Ts 2

L L Ak S

(Ts1 - Ts2 ) & = Q x L S

(3.8b)

x

RRcd= =

Ts1

Q

Fig. 3.2

q& x

Ts 2

x

7

L R = cd S

(3.8b) becomes (Ts1 - Ts2 ) & = Q x R

cd

(3.9)

Ts1

L k

T ( x)

Ts 2

L L Ak S

(3.10)

0

cd

x

RRcd= =

x

Ts1

Q

Fig. 3.2

q& x

Ts 2

Rcd electric resistance

8

The Heat Equations and Boundary Conditions

Heat must go through all layers with no change (unless heat is generated e.g. 1000W must get through all layers):

Or using conduction resistance: Ts2 Ts1 Ts3 Ts2 Ts4 Ts3T1 & Qx = = = Ts1 L1 L2 L3 1 S 2 S 3 S And summing up the resistances and exchanging temp. differences

0

L1

k 1

L2 k2

L3

Ts 2

k3

Ts 3

Ts4

&x = Q

Ts1 Ts 4 Ts1 Ts 4 = R1 + R2 + R3 L1 + L2 + L3 1S 2 S 3 S

T1

1 1 Ah S1

L L 1 S 1 Ak

1

Ts1 Qx x Ts 2

Fig. 3.5

q &

L 1 LL2 1 L3 Ah 33 S S 4 Ak2 S Ak 2 2 T

Ts 3

Ts 4

10

T & Q = x R

(3.11)

T 1

L1

across all resistances

T s 1

k 1

L2 k2 2

Ts 3

L3

Ts 2

k3

Ts 4

T 4

T 1

1 1 Ah S 1

L L 1 S 1 Ak

1

Ts1

q &x Q

L LL2 1 1 L3 Ah 3 S S 2 Ak 2 S Ak 4 3 2 T 4

Ts 2

Fig. 3.5

Ts 3

Ts 4

Determining temperature at any point, for example at the point 2, apply equation for heat transfer rate for appropriate layer Ts1 Ts 2 & Qx = L1 1 S

11

The Heat Conduction Equation

Assume: (1) Constant T (2) Steady state: =0 t (3) 1-D: = =0 z & =0 (4) No energy generation: Q zdr

0

r2 r r1

Fig. 3 .6

12

d dT (r )=0 dr dr

General solution

(3.12)

T(r) = C1 ln r + C2

(3.13)

(1) Determine temperature distribution - profile Specified temperatures at both surfaces B.C.

r1

r

r2

T

Ts1

s2

Fig.13 3 .7

& : Apply (2) Determine the radial heat transfer rate Q r Fourier's law

dT & Q = .S(r) r dr

For a cylinder of length L the area S(r) is (3.15)

S(r) = 2 rL

Differentiate (3.14) dT Ts1 Ts 2 1 = dr ln( r1 / r2 ) r

(3.16)

(3.17)

14

&r = Q

(3.18)

(3) Thermal circuit: Define the thermal resistance for radial conduction, Rcd Rcd = ln ( r r )

2 1

2 L

(3.19)

r1

0

r2

T

Ts1

s2

Ts1

Rcd

&rr q Q

Fig. 3.7

Ts 2

& = Q r

(3.20)

15

Heat is transferred from inside to outside the tube Which profile is correct? 1 or 2?

&r Q

Superheated steam

16

r3

r4 k3

3

Assume: (1) One-dimensional (2) Steady state (3) Constant conductivity (4) No heat generation (5) Perfect interface contact

r2 k2 r1 k11 2 T1 h1

T 4 h 4

T1

& Q q r r

Rcv1

T 4

Fig . 3.10

17

Rcd1 = Rcd2 =

Rcd3 =

ln(r /r )

2 1 1

2 L ln(r /r )

3 2 2

2 L

ln(r4 /r3 ) 2 3 L

& r= Q

(3.21) 18

contact (see Figure)

the contact resistance Rct

T

Tct

Fouriers law:

&x = Q T R1 + Rct + R2

Operational temperature

x

Fig. 3.11

Surface temperature

19

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