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3.

ONE-DIMENSIONAL STEADY STATE CONDUCTION Conduction in a Single Layer Plane Wall Assume:
(1) Steady state (2) One-dimensional & =0 [W/m3] (3) Q
zdr

L k
0

& Q q xx

x
Fig. 3.1
1

Find:
(1) Temperature distribution (2) Heat transfer rate

The Heat Conduction Equation


Starting point: The heat conduction equation for 3-D

T T T T & ) + ( ) + Q = c ( ) + ( zdr x x y y z z t
(3.1) becomes for 1D d dT ( )=0 dx dx

(3.1)

(3.2)

Assume: Constant
d 2T dx
2

=0

(3.3)
2

(3.3) is valid for all problems described by rectangular coordinates, subject to the four above assumptions.

General Solution
Integrate (3.3)

dT =C 1 dx
Integrate again

T = C1 x + C 2

(3.4)

C1 and C2 are constants of integration determined


from B.C.

Temperature distribution is linear


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Application to Special Cases


Apply solution (3.4) to special cases (different B.C.)

Objective:
(1) Determine the temperature distribution T(x) & (2) Determine the heat transfer rate Q x (3) Construct the thermal circuit

Case (i): Specified temperatures at both


surfaces
Boundary conditions:
L k
T ( x)
Ts 2
L L Ak S

T (0) = Ts1 T ( L) = Ts 2

(3.5) (3.6)

Ts1 0
cd

x
RRcd= =

(1) Determine C1, C2 and T(x):


Ts1

Solution is given by (3.4)

Q
Fig. 3.2

q& x

Ts 2

T = C1 x + C 2

(3.4)

Applying B.C., general solution becomes: Linear profile

x T ( x ) = Ts1 + (Ts 2 Ts1 ) L

(3.7)

(2) Determine q x : Apply Fourier's law (1.5)

T q &x = S x
x

& Q

(1.5)

T & Q = S x x
Differentiate (3.7) and substitute into (3.8)

(3.8)

& = Q
x

S (T - T )
s1 s2

L
Ts1 0
cd

(3.8a)
L k
T ( x)
Ts 2
L L Ak S

(3) Thermal circuit. Rewrite (3.8a):


(Ts1 - Ts2 ) & = Q x L S

(3.8b)
x
RRcd= =

Define: Thermal resistance due to conduction, Rcd

Ts1

Q
Fig. 3.2

q& x

Ts 2

x
7

L R = cd S
(3.8b) becomes (Ts1 - Ts2 ) & = Q x R
cd

(3.9)
Ts1

L k
T ( x)
Ts 2
L L Ak S

(3.10)

0
cd

x
RRcd= =

Analogy with Ohm's law for electric circuits: & current Q


x

Ts1

Q
Fig. 3.2

q& x

Ts 2

(Ts1 Ts 2 ) voltage drop


Rcd electric resistance
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Conduction in a Multi-layer Plane Wall


The Heat Equations and Boundary Conditions

Heat must go through all layers with no change (unless heat is generated e.g. 1000W must get through all layers):

Ts2 Ts1 Ts3 Ts2 Ts4 Ts3 & Qx = 1 S = 2 S = 3 S L3 L1 L2


Or using conduction resistance: Ts2 Ts1 Ts3 Ts2 Ts4 Ts3T1 & Qx = = = Ts1 L1 L2 L3 1 S 2 S 3 S And summing up the resistances and exchanging temp. differences
0

L1

k 1

L2 k2

L3

Ts 2

k3

Ts 3

Ts4

&x = Q

Ts1 Ts 4 Ts1 Ts 4 = R1 + R2 + R3 L1 + L2 + L3 1S 2 S 3 S

T1

1 1 Ah S1

L L 1 S 1 Ak
1

Ts1 Qx x Ts 2
Fig. 3.5

q &

L 1 LL2 1 L3 Ah 33 S S 4 Ak2 S Ak 2 2 T
Ts 3
Ts 4
10

T & Q = x R

(3.11)
T 1

L1

T = overall temperature difference


across all resistances

T s 1

k 1

L2 k2 2
Ts 3

L3

Ts 2

k3

Ts 4

T 4

R = sum of all resistances

T 1

1 1 Ah S 1

L L 1 S 1 Ak
1

Ts1

q &x Q

L LL2 1 1 L3 Ah 3 S S 2 Ak 2 S Ak 4 3 2 T 4
Ts 2
Fig. 3.5

Ts 3

Ts 4

Determining temperature at any point, for example at the point 2, apply equation for heat transfer rate for appropriate layer Ts1 Ts 2 & Qx = L1 1 S

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Radial Conduction in a Single Layer Cylindrical Wall


The Heat Conduction Equation
Assume: (1) Constant T (2) Steady state: =0 t (3) 1-D: = =0 z & =0 (4) No energy generation: Q zdr
0

r2 r r1

Fig. 3 .6

12

Simplified Heat equation in cylindrical coordinates:

d dT (r )=0 dr dr
General solution

(3.12)

T(r) = C1 ln r + C2

(3.13)

(1) Determine temperature distribution - profile Specified temperatures at both surfaces B.C.
r1
r

r2
T

T(r1) = Ts1 T(r2) = Ts 2

Ts1
s2

Fig.13 3 .7

Ts1 Ts 2 T (r ) = ln ( r/r2 ) + Ts 2 (3.14) ln ( r1/r2 ) Logarithmic profile

& : Apply (2) Determine the radial heat transfer rate Q r Fourier's law
dT & Q = .S(r) r dr
For a cylinder of length L the area S(r) is (3.15)

S(r) = 2 rL
Differentiate (3.14) dT Ts1 Ts 2 1 = dr ln( r1 / r2 ) r

(3.16)

(3.17)
14

&r = Q

Ts1 Ts2 (1/2 L)ln(r2 /r1 )

(3.18)

(3) Thermal circuit: Define the thermal resistance for radial conduction, Rcd Rcd = ln ( r r )
2 1

2 L

(3.19)

r1
0

r2
T

Ts1
s2

(3.19) into (3.18)


Ts1

Rcd

&rr q Q
Fig. 3.7

Ts 2

& = Q r

Ts1 Ts2 Rcd

(3.20)
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Heat is transferred from inside to outside the tube Which profile is correct? 1 or 2?

&r Q
Superheated steam

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Radial Conduction in a Multi-layer Cylindrical Wall


r3

r4 k3
3

Assume: (1) One-dimensional (2) Steady state (3) Constant conductivity (4) No heat generation (5) Perfect interface contact

r2 k2 r1 k11 2 T1 h1

T 4 h 4

Ts1 Ts2 Ts3 Ts4

T1

& Q q r r
Rcv1

Rcd 1 Rcd 2 Rcd 3 Rcv 4

T 4

Fig . 3.10

Three conduction resistances:


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Rcd1 = Rcd2 =
Rcd3 =

ln(r /r )
2 1 1

2 L ln(r /r )
3 2 2

2 L
ln(r4 /r3 ) 2 3 L

Heat transfer rate: Ohm analogy

& r= Q

T s1 T s4 ln(r2 /r1 ) ln(r3 /r2 ) ln(r4 /r3 ) + + 2 1 L 2 2 L 2 3 L


(3.21) 18

Contact Resistance Perfect interface contact vs. actual


contact (see Figure)

Gaps act as a resistance to heat flow The temperature drop depends on


the contact resistance Rct
T
Tct

Rct is determined experimentally


Fouriers law:
&x = Q T R1 + Rct + R2
Operational temperature

x
Fig. 3.11

Surface temperature

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