You are on page 1of 27

Chapter 8

Roads: Materials and construction

GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN

TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 SCOPE AND NATURE OF THIS CHAPTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 DESIGN PHILOSOPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Provision and ability to pay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Appropriate standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Environmental impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Risk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 THE PAVEMENT DESIGN PROCESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Level of service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Stormwater accommodation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Economic considerations and design strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 STRUCTURE OF THIS CHAPTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 THE COMPONENTS OF THE DESIGN PROCESS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 SERVICE OBJECTIVE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 COMPILING A STREET PROFILE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Street categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Street function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Level of service (LOS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Street standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 The street as public open space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 DESIGN STRATEGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Paved streets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Selection of analysis period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Structural design period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 DESIGN TRAFFIC AND BEARING CAPACITY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Paved streets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Unpaved streets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Description of major material types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15

Roads: Materials and construction

Chapter 8

GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN

PAVEMENT TYPES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Behaviour of different pavement types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 ENVIRONMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Topography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Climate and structural design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Climate and subgrade California Bearing Ratio (CBR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Material depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Delineation of subgrade areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Design CBR of subgrade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 STRUCTURAL DESIGN METHODS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Design methods for paved streets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Design methods for unpaved streets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Surface drainage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Subsurface drainage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Compaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Subgrade below material depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Street levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Service trenches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Pavement cross-section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Considerations for concrete pavements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Kerbs and channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Edging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Accessibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 COST ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Present worth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Construction costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Maintenance costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Real discount rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Salvage value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
ii

Chapter 8

Roads: Materials and construction

GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN

Optimisation of life-cycle costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 DISCUSSION ON THE DESIGN PROCEDURES FOR DIFFERENT STREET TYPES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 PAVED ARTERIAL AND ACCESS STREETS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 The design process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 PAVED BASIC ACCESS STREETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Structural design of paved basic access streets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 UNPAVED ARTERIAL AND ACCESS STREETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Street category . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 Design strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 Design of imported layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 UNPAVED BASIC ACCESS STREETS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 TERTIARY WAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 Design of tertiary ways (standard cross-sections) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Staged construction and upgrading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 Construction approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 DESIGNING FOR LABOUR-BASED CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 MAINTENANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 MAINTENANCE OF BASIC ACCESS STREETS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Labour and mechanisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 Environmental maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 MAINTENANCE OF TERTIARY WAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

iii

Roads: Materials and construction

Chapter 8

GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN

APPENDIX A:

THE CATALOGUE OF PAVEMENT DESIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Notes regarding the use of the catalogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 RECOMMENDED READING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

APPENDIX B:

EXAMPLES OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN BY THE CATALOGUE METHOD. . . . . . . . . . 71 A. EXAMPLE OF THE STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF A CATEGORY UB STREET . . . . 71 SERVICE OBJECTIVE, STREET CHARACTERISTICS AND STREET PROFILE . . . . 71 Design strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Structural design and pavement type selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Possible pavement structures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Practical considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Cost analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Discount rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Salvage value and road-user costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Present worth of costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 B. EXAMPLE OF THE STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF A CATEGORY UD STREET . . . . 77 SERVICE OBJECTIVE, STREET CHARACTERISTICS AND STREET PROFILE . . . . 77 Street category. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Estimate design traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Structural design and pavement type selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Subgrade CBR and selected layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Possible pavement structures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Cost analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

APPENDIX C:

MATERIAL TYPES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Materials for paved basic access streets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Material problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Materials for unsealed streets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Earth streets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Gravel wearing courses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Stabilised earth streets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Dust palliatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

RECOMMENDED READING

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

iv

Chapter 8

Roads: Materials and construction

GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN

LIST OF TABLES
Table 8.1 Table 8.2 Table 8.3 Table 8.4 Table 8.5 Table 8.6 Table 8.7 Table 8.8 Table 8.9 Typical street characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Levels of service (LOS) of streets or drainage and combined facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Categorisation of street standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Structural design periods for various street categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Classification of pavements and traffic for structural design purposes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 80 kN single-axle equivalency factors, derived from F= (p/80)
4,2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12

Determination of E80s per commercial vehicle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Traffic growth factor (g) for calculation of future or initial traffic from present traffic . . . . . . . .13 Traffic growth factor (fy) for calculation of cumulative traffic over prediction period from initial (daily) traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Design factors for the distribution of traffic and equivalent traffic among lanes and shoulders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Material depths to be used for determining the design CBR of the subgrades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Subgrade CBR groups used for structural design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Scour velocities for various materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Compaction requirements for the construction of pavement layers (and reinstatement of pavement layers) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Suggested typical ranges of period of service (without rejuvenators) of various surfacing types in the different street categories and base types (if used as specified in the catalogue) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Typical future maintenance for cost analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Suggested pavement types for different road categories and traffic classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Possible condition at end of structural design period for various street categories and pavement types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Preparation of subgrade and required selected layers for the different subgrade design CBRs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Examples of staged construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Summary of employment potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 Relative contribution of main activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 Potential of pavement layers for labour-intensive construction methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 Typical activities suited to ABEs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 Street maintenance categories and limited examples of maintenance activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 Suitability of mechanical equipment and labour for maintenance activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58

Table 8.10

Table 8.11 Table 8.12 Table 8.13 Table 8.14

Table 8.15

Table 8.16 Table 8.17 Table 8.18

Table 8.19

Table 8.20 Table 8.21 Table 8.22 Table 8.23 Table 8.24 Table 8.25 Table 8.26

Roads: Materials and construction

Chapter 8

GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 8.1 Figure 8.2 Figure 8.3 Figure 8.4 Figure 8.5 Figure 8.6 Figure 8.7 Figure 8.8 Figure 8.9 Figure 8.10 Figure 8.11 Street pavement design flow diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Illustration of design periods and alternative design strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 General pavement behaviour characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Macro-climatic regions of southern africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Typical basic access street cross-sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Tertiary ways: ditches and drains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Tertiary ways: drift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Tertiary ways: dish drains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Typical grass block and vegetation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Illustrative pavement cross-section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Degree of structural distress to be expected at the time of rehabilitation for different structural design periods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Typical cost versus level of service curve values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Structural design flow diagram (mainly for category UA and UB streets) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Simplified design flow diagram for residential streets (category UC and UD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Ranges of terminal rut depth conditions for different street categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Pavement design curves for basic access streets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Design curves for the passability of unpaved roads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 Flow diagram of design process for basic access streets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 Tertiary ways: cross-sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 Labour-intensive tertiary ways: cross-sections, cuttings and embankments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 Simple drags for maintenance of tertiary ways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57

Figure 8.12 Figure 8.13 Figure 8.14 Figure 8.15 Figure 8.16 Figure 8.17 Figure 8.18 Figure 8.19 Figure 8.20 Figure 8.21

vi

Chapter 8

Roads: Materials and construction

GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN

INTRODUCTION
This chapter focuses on the philosophy of residential street design, with particular emphasis on the need for a shift from a previous approach of risk elimination to an approach of risk management; the need for layout planning and drainage design to be considered before the structural design of the street is addressed; the relative importance of the street and the level of service expected by the users and provided by various road types; the structural design of street pavements;

appropriate standards and environmental impact will influence the structural design process. These issues cannot be quantified numerically in the design process but should rather determine the mindset of the designer. The designer must therefore exercise his own judgement during the design process, taking into consideration the above issues and the risk associated with his design decisions.

Provision and ability to pay


Street upgrading and maintenance in residential areas is traditionally funded from rates levied and collected by the local authority. The level of service provided will need to take into account this source of funding and an appropriate level should be found which will be affordable to the ratepayers.

Appropriate standards
approaches to construction that include conventional methods, labour-intensive methods and approaches that allow small contractors to participate; practical guidelines for the maintenance of streets; the comparison of proposed pavement designs on a life-cycle cost basis; and references to other guidelines for additional information. In the past, similar guideline documents have focused on the more highly developed component of South Africa with an emphasis on standards appropriate to high levels of car ownership and high traffic volumes. Standards have also been very conservative, with the use of low-risk pavements with concomitant high construction cost. A shift in emphasis has occurred and service provision to the whole spectrum of development levels now needs to be considered. Due to the differing traffic volumes that may be expected at different levels of development and the need to move towards risk management, standards appropriate to particular applications must be considered. It should be noted that appropriate standards does not necessarily imply relaxed standards.

SCOPE AND NATURE OF THIS CHAPTER


The chapter covers issues ranging from general design philosophy to detailed methods for the structural design of street pavements. The overall design philosophy, design approach and design procedures presented in this chapter are applicable to urban streets in South Africa, and may be used for similar applications in the sub-region.

Environmental impact
Roads (and transport routes in general), by their nature, can be environmentally intrusive. It is important, therefore, to construct them so that their impact on the environment is as small as possible. Comparatively little work, other than certain specific environmental impact assessments, has been conducted on the impact of roads and the associated traffic on the environment. It is therefore considered important that, before any new roads are constructed, or existing roads are rehabilitated or upgraded, the relevant authorities determine the impact on both the biophysical and the socio-economic environments. In Africa, most funding agencies will not consider the granting of loans for road development and upgrading until a thorough investigation has been concluded. A number of impacts associated with the construction, maintenance and use of roads have been identified and are summarised below. The list is not exhaustive but appraises most of the major socioeconomic and biophysical considerations, and includes impacts on the:
1

DESIGN PHILOSOPHY
By nature, structural design of street pavements tends to be prescriptive owing to the restrictions imposed by geology, topography, design traffic and materials. The use of catalogues in the past (even though intended as design examples) has perhaps also given rise to the view that these options are set. In order to make this section of the guidelines more facilitative than prescriptive, engineering options - together with the implications of choosing an option - are presented. The structural design of the pavements in an urban environment cannot be done in isolation. Funding mechanisms, the ability to execute maintenance when required, the ability of the end users to pay,

Roads: Materials and construction

Chapter 8

GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN

physical characteristics surroundings; ecological characteristics surroundings;

of

the

site

and

of

the

site

and

current and potential land use and landscape character; cultural resources; socio-economic characteristics of the affected public; adjacent and associated infrastructure services; social and community services and facilities; the nature and level of present and future environmental pollution; and health and safety.

maintenance and construction is addressed in the section on life-cycle costs. The document allows for risk management by stating the risk involved in using alternative designs. This is achieved by qualitative statements regarding the risk and a list of riskmanagement approaches that can be used to manage higher risk structures. The greater the relaxation in specification, the greater the risk. In order to manage this and control consequences, only one parameter should be relaxed at any one time. For example, if the drainage is inherently poor and cannot be cost-effectively rectified, no attempt at reducing material quality or pavement thickness should be considered. Risk must be related to road usage. Higher risk can be accommodated on lower-usage roads, while the inverse is true for main routes and arterials.

THE PAVEMENT DESIGN PROCESS


The aim of structural design is to produce a structurally balanced pavement which, at minimum present worth of cost, will carry the traffic for the structural design period in the prevailing environment, at an acceptable service level without major structural distress. If necessary, the pavement should be capable of being strengthened by various rehabilitation measures to carry the traffic over the full analysis period. This aim is achieved by protecting the subgrade through the provision of pavement layers. However, issues such as level of service, stormwater accommodation, traffic, pavement materials, subgrade soils, environmental conditions, construction details and economics are all part of the process. It is important to attend to layout planning and drainage design before the structural design of the street is addressed, as these will lend better definition to the role of the street in the larger development, and also affect the final structural design of the pavement.

Risk
In order to provide street infrastructure in residential environments where there invariably are budget limitations, urban authorities need to adopt a philosophy of risk management. Where a local authority is responsible for the costs of construction and maintenance, the philosophy of structural design must move towards an approach that balances construction and maintenance costs by sensible risktaking and risk management. This document, therefore, allows for the current need for risk management and has moved away from previous approaches of designing out risk by using high-cost street pavements. There will, of course, be areas where high construction costs are borne by the property developer or purchaser who demands a higher standard of street than might be economically justifiable. In such a case the benefit of lower future maintenance costs is passed on to the local authority and free-market conditions will determine the ultimate standard of construction. There are currently certain streets built at low cost with associated high risk, and this document recognises this fact. In informal settlements there may be unknown and unclassified street systems, and arterial routes may be gravelled. A risk has therefore been assumed on these informal streets, which may have been taken over by a local authority. It is also possible that an authority could build a street structure at some risk and let traffic and time show the problem areas. In order to address the issue of risk associated with the use of a particular pavement type in a particular street category, the link between structural design,
2

Level of service
The level of service of streets is expressed as a combined function of the pavement and stormwater drainage elements. A chosen level of service has to be achieved at the lowest possible life-cycle cost.

Stormwater accommodation
The importance of topography on the structural design and functional use of streets is clearly reflected in the drainage and maintenance requirements of streets in general. Macro-drainage is relevant to this discussion. Streets that cross contours at an angle, or even perpendicularly, pose the most drainage

Chapter 8

Roads: Materials and construction

GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN

problems. In such cases function rather than structure may require that a street be paved or provided with erosion protection. It is therefore important that requirements described in the chapters on layout planning (Chapter 7) and stormwater management (Chapter 6) be met before one embarks on the structural design.

Upgrading and staged construction


Two concepts that need to be considered as part of the life-cycle strategy of a street during design, are staged construction and upgrading. Although it is difficult to exactly define and completely separate these concepts, some characteristics may be more typical of one than of the other. The aim of staged construction is to spread the financial load from the initial construction period to some stage later during the life cycle of the facility. On the other hand, upgrading will normally take place when the demands on an existing facility far exceed the level of service the facility can provide. The influence of doubling the contractors establishment costs needs to be evaluated carefully when staged construction is considered.

Unpaved streets
In rolling and mountainous terrain there may be steep gradients which result in the erosion of gravel streets and, in particular, erosion of their drainage facilities, with direct implications for their safety and functional use. A longitudinal street gradient of 5% is an average value above which erosion problems may occur on unpaved streets, and slopes steeper than this would warrant additional attention. Gravels in the upper range of the suggested plasticity index (PI) could effectively reduce erosion, but local conditions should be considered in the detailed evaluation.

STRUCTURE OF THIS CHAPTER


The flow diagram in Figure 8.1 outlines the pavement design process. The components may not all be clear at this stage, but will be discussed in detail in the following sections. This discussion will be done in two parts: the components of the process will be discussed in general; and a detailed discussion on the design process for each of the five branches in the diagram will follow.

Piped systems vs surface systems


The use of the road surface - or of surface channels - to accommodate the minor stormwater flows can be more appropriate than the use of piped systems in certain instances, provided safety is not compromised. Areas under development and areas where verges are not grassed can give rise to high silt loads in the stormwater flows, which can rapidly block piped systems. The dumping of refuse and other debris into stormwater inlets and manholes is a common occurrence in some residential areas and this will also lead to blockages. In areas where regular maintenance of piped systems does not take place, surface systems are probably more appropriate.

Economic considerations and design strategy Life-cycle costs


Providing a traffic circulation network to a residential area involves both construction (capital) and maintenance (operating) costs. For a local authority which is responsible for these functions, the costs of both construction and maintenance must be minimised to provide a service at the lowest total outlay. The total life-cycle cost of a road should include the vehicle operating costs, but these can be disproportionally high and are often neglected. In this case only the agency cost is evaluated.

Roads: Materials and construction

Chapter 8

Chapter 8

Pavement Design
Service objective
Layout plan Current and future function Traffic

Compiling a street profile Characteristics of streets Basic access streets Tertialy ways

Arterial and access streets

Yes Low risk

Funds available to pave?

No Higher risk

Street category Description and function Importance Level of service Vehicle traffic Design bearing capacity Paved/unpaved Pedestrian traffic
Yes Pave for reasons other than bearing capacity No Paved basic access streets

Paved arterial and access streets


Unpaved arterial and access streets

Unpaved basic access streets Materials

Street category Street category Design strategy Yes Dust palliative adequate? Materials Environment Design imported layers Structural design Pavement type selection Design method No

Design strategy

Design bearing capacity

Yes

In-situ material acceptable?

No

Materials

GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN

Figure 8.1: Street pavement design flow diagram


In-situ material wearing course Construction and maintenance

Environment

Structural design Pavement type selection Design method

Design imported layers Standard cross-sections Erosion protection

Practical considerations

Roads: Materials and construction

Economic analysis

GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN

THE COMPONENTS OF THE DESIGN PROCESS SERVICE OBJECTIVE


Before the designer starts in earnest with the actual pavement design of a particular street, he must consider the background against which to design and the objective of providing the facility. This does not need to be considered in great detail at this early stage of the design, but it will guide the direction of the design process. Factors that need to be considered include the layout and drainage plan, the current and future functions of the street and the anticipated traffic. The layout and stormwater drainage plan should be well defined at this stage, which also defines the function of the street to some extent. Detailed calculations on design traffic will be done at a later stage in the design, and only an estimate of the number of vehicles is required at this stage.

COMPILING A STREET PROFILE


The shaded area in Figure 8.1 highlights the major decision-making part of the design process. A decision has to be made at this stage on selecting an appropriate street profile, which will determine the design procedure to adopt. A number of characteristics define the profile of the street. These include the street category, the description and function of the street, the importance of the street, the level of service of the facility (street and drainage combined), vehicle traffic, design bearing capacity, street standard (paved/unpaved) and even the pedestrian traffic expected.

Street categories
Typical street characteristics are listed in Table 8.1. For the purpose of this document, four different street categories, namely UA, UB, UC and UD, are considered. These categories range from very important arterial

Table 8.1:

Typical street characteristics


UA ARTERIAL STREETS UB UC ACCESS STREETS Lower-order mixed pedestrian and vehicle route Moderate to low LOS Low LOS >75 <75 <5 heavy vehicles <0.3 x 106 E80s per lane Pedestrian and vehicle access route UD

STREET CATEGORY

Description and function

Vehicles only

Higher-order mixed pedestrian and vehicle route

Level of service (LOS) Traffic (vehicles per day) Traffic (no. of E80s)* (a) If street carries construction traffic (b) If street does not carry construction traffic Standard

High LOS >600

Moderate LOS <600 (paved) <350 (unpaved)

1-50 x 106 E80s per lane

0,3-3 x 106 E80s per lane

1-50 x 106 E80s per lane

0,03-3 x 106 E80s per lane

<0,3 x 106 E80s per lane

Most likely paved

Paved/unpaved

Most likely unpaved, or paved for reasons other than traffic

Paved for reasons other than traffic

Pedestrian traffic

None

Very little, controlled

High, controlled

High, uncontrolled

* E80s: Equivalent 80kN single axle loads

Roads: Materials and construction

Chapter 8

GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN

streets with a very high volume of traffic, to less important lightly trafficked residential streets.

paved standard, if funds are available. Unpaved arterial streets: Although unpaved arterial streets exist in many areas, it is almost impossible to justify them on an economic or social basis. The cost of maintaining them is excessive and the frequency of maintenance necessary to retain a riding quality of any acceptability results in safety hazards. In addition, the user costs, in comparison with a paved street, are extremely high. All attempts should be made to upgrade unpaved arterials carrying bus and heavy goods vehicles to a suitable, relatively low-risk, paved standard as rapidly as possible, whilst arterials carrying mostly light goods vehicles can afford slightly higher-risk pavements. Although undesirable, financial constraints may prevent an authority being able to pave all arterial streets in a network. The street network should then be prioritised on an economic basis to identify candidate streets for upgrading. The optimum use of available materials is thus necessary to reduce the undesirable properties as far as possible.

Street function Arterial streets


Arterial streets are the major routes providing mobility between and within residential, recreational, commercial and industrial areas. The traffic volumes on these streets will be high and the streets will generally carry significant numbers of buses and other heavy vehicles.

Access streets
Access streets include all residential streets below the level of urban bus routes. Their primary function is access to residential erven and they will thus carry few heavy vehicles. Depending on the level of development and affluence of the area, traffic may be so light that the primary structural design objectives may relate more to minimising damage from erosion than to supporting the traffic. Access streets may be further divided into access streets with traffic levels of more than 75 vehicles per day and those with less than 75 vehicles per day, of which less than 5 are heavy vehicles. Basic access streets would generally be found in developing areas where vehicle ownership is low.

Access streets
A distinction is made between access streets (>75 vehicles per day) and basic access streets (<75 vehicles per day). Access streets carrying more than 75 vehicles per day require a more robust design than those carrying lighter traffic volumes (basic access streets). Paved access streets: It may be economically justified to pave access streets at levels of 75 vehicles per day and above. The aspirations of residents and street users may also influence the decision. Unpaved access streets: Access streets with relatively light traffic can justifiably be left unpaved. If the street is to have an unsealed pavement it is essential that the best quality material available locally is used (blending and/or processing should be considered where necessary to improve the materials), and some method of dust palliation could be considered.

Level of service (LOS)


The level of service that a user expects from a street is related to the function of the street, to the general standard of the facility and partly to the volume of traffic carried. For example, the user will expect a better riding quality on a dual-carriageway arterial street than on a minor residential street. Irrespective of this, the user will generally expect the highest possible standard. Streets in a residential area function at different levels of service (LOS). The LOS values are determined by the functional use of the street, the level of construction and the drainage provision. In Table 8.2 the description of each type of street and its drainage is given, with the associated LOS values. In the matrix the combined LOS value is given. The final LOS value is determined mostly by the LOS of the drainage.

Basic access streets


Basic access streets are defined as access streets in the early stages of development, and are designed and constructed subject to constraints imposed by the administrative authority owing to limited budgets or other circumstances. The objective is to maximise the performance of such streets within these constraints. Designs for such urban residential streets with low traffic volumes (up to 75 vehicles per day of which

Street standards Arterial streets


Paved arterial streets: The heavy traffic carried by arterial streets will generally justify their being built to a traditional
6

Chapter 8

Roads: Materials and construction

GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN

Table 8.2: Levels of service (LOS) of streets or drainage and combined facilities
LOS STREET CATEGORY Street LOS DRAINAGE LOS Description 4&5 Pipe system, kerbs, gutter and surfaced street Lined channel on shoulder or on street 3 2 Unlined channel on shoulder or on street 1 Unsurfaced street with provision of drainage with sheet flow UA 5 Primary streets (bus routes) with a designed structure and surfacing, or 3 UB 5 Gravel District and/or local distributors (bus routes) with a designed structure and surfacing, or 3 Gravel

5 3

4 2 3 2

5 3

UC

Residential access collectors with a designed light structure and surfacing, or

4 3 3

3 2 2 3 2 2

2 1 1 2 1 1

3 1 UD 5

Gravel, or In situ Access and basic access streets with surfacing on light structure, or

4 3 3

3 1

Gravel, or In situ

up to five are heavy vehicles) make maximum use of in situ material and require realistic material standards. Paved basic access streets: Factors determining the acceptable performance of such light-structure streets are

drainage (surface and subsurface); material quality; construction control; control of overloading; and maintenance.

The philosophy of basic access streets is to concentrate on the engineering impact of


7

Roads: Materials and construction

Chapter 8

GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN

drainage, material quality and construction control, to achieve more realistic minimum standards for the circumstances described earlier. Although cost comparisons are not dealt with separately, the principle is that cost-saving is maximised. Unpaved basic access streets: These are the lowest quality basic access streets acceptable. Although undesirable from the point of view of dust generation, the production of mud when wet, and the need for constant maintenance, financial constraints may preclude the use of higher quality streets for the very low traffic typical of these streets. The optimum use of available materials is thus necessary to reduce the undesirable performance properties as far as possible. Earth basic access streets are considered a viable option only if the in situ material is of a quality that will support vehicles even in a soaked condition. One of the major problems with earth streets is that they initially form tracks, and, if bladed, a street that is lower than the surrounding terrain results, with significant drainage problems.

design for tertiary ways during layout planning as these form the basic links between dwellings. In a formal design this facility can enhance the design principles applicable to the higher order of streets.

Summary of street standards


The street standards that would generally be considered for application to particular street categories are summarised in Table 8.3.

The street as public open space


In the lower street categories (access collector and, particularly, basic access streets) the street functions are less the preserve of the motor vehicle and more the preserve of the pedestrian and resident. This is particularly true of developing areas, where the incidence of traffic is likely to be low. This may be recognised by the provision of a smooth surface. Streets may also function as firebreaks in areas of high housing density - a possible justification for retaining wide street reserves in some instances.

DESIGN STRATEGY
Tertiary ways Paved streets
Unpaved basic access streets may evolve from informal access routes, which are referred to as tertiary ways in this document. In developing areas an infrastructure of narrow ways which carry no or few vehicles exists. These non-trafficked tertiary ways are mostly informal and unserviced, but in older developing areas they are formalised (upgraded) by the provision of surfacings, drainage or even services like water and electricity. In an informal residential development no layout planning for tertiary ways is done. The existence of these ways is dictated by pedestrians needs to follow the shortest possible route. It is advisable to The design strategy could influence the total cost of a pavement structure. Normally, a design strategy is applicable only to paved Category UA and UB streets. For unpaved streets, or paved Category UC and UD streets, the design periods are fixed. The analysis period (see Figure 8.2) is a convenient planning period during which complete reconstruction of the pavement is undesirable. The structural design period, on the other hand, is defined as the period for which it is predicted with a high degree of confidence that no structural maintenance will be required. In order to fulfil the design objective of selecting the optimum pavement in terms of present worth of cost,

Table 8.3:

Categorisation of street standards


ACCESS STREETS (UC AND UD) Access streets (>75 vehicles per day) Paved access streets Unpaved access streets Paved basic access streets Gravel basic access streets Earth basic access streets Tertiary ways Unpaved basic access streets Basic access streets (<75 day; <5 heavy)

ARTERIAL STREETS (UA AND UB) Paved collector/ dis-tributor streets (bus routes) Unpaved collector/ distributor streets (bus routes)

Chapter 8

Roads: Materials and construction

GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN

it is necessary to consider how the pavement is expected to perform over the entire analysis period. The manner in which a design strategy can be presented is demonstrated schematically in Figure 8.2, which shows the generalised trends of riding quality decreasing with time, and traffic for two different pavement structures, namely: Design 1, which requires resealing to maintain the surface in a good condition, and later some structural rehabilitation such as an overlay (Figure 8.2 (a)); and Design 2, which is structurally adequate for the whole of the analysis period and requires only three
Constructed riding quality

resealings (Figure 8.2 (b)). It is important to note that any design procedure can only estimate the timing and nature of the maintenance measures needed. Naturally, such estimates are only approximations, but they provide a valuable guide for a design strategy. The actual maintenance should be determined by a proper maintenance procedure. The accuracy of the prediction could be improved by having a feedback system.

Selection of analysis period

Surface treatment

Riding quality (psi)

* see note

Structural rehabilitation Analysis period (20-30 yrs)

** see note

2
Structural design period (10-20 yrs)

0 Time (a) Design 1

Constructed riding quality

Surface treatment

3 Riding quality (psi)

* see note

Terminal riding quality

Structural design period (15-30 yrs) Analysis period (20-30 yrs)

Time (b) Design 2


Design 2 requires three resurfacings and no strengthening during the analysis period.

* If surfacing is not maintained and if water-susceptible materials are used in the pavement ** Structural rehabilitation usually occurs at a later stage

Figure 8.2: Illustration of design periods and alternative design strategies


9

Roads: Materials and construction

Chapter 8

GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN

The analysis period is a realistic cost period. There may be a difference between the analysis period and the total period over which a facility will be used. The analysis period is often related to the geometric life. If the street alignment is fixed, a period of 30 years should be used. In the case of a short geometric life in a changing traffic situation, a shorter analysis period should be used.

a lack of short-term funds; and a lack of confidence in design assumptions, especially the design traffic.

Structural design periods may range from 10 to 25 years. Normally a period of 20 years will be used (Table 8.4). Category UC streets For category UC streets (residential streets) a fixed structural design period of 20 years is recommended (Table 8.4). Category UD streets The traffic volume is so limited that no structural design period is applicable.

Structural design period Selection of structural design period


Table 8.4 gives a summary of suggested structural design periods for different road categories. Category UA streets

Table 8.4:

Structural design periods for various street categories


STRUCTURAL DESIGN PERIOD* (YEARS) RANGE RECOMMENDED 20 20 20

STREET CATEGORY

DESIGN TRAFFIC AND BEARING CAPACITY


Paved streets
Real life traffic consists of vehicles spanning a range of axle loadings. The composition of the traffic on one street will differ from that on another because of the differences in street category and function. The unique traffic spectrum on a particular street will be the design traffic for that street. Pavements are, however, designed for a number of standard 80 kN axles (SA standard axles). The total number of standard axles that a pavement structure will be able to carry over its design life is referred to as the bearing capacity of the pavement. The design bearing capacity of a pavement is therefore considered to be constant for a particular pavement structure (ignoring environmental effects). It is customary to design pavements for a bearing capacity interval rather than a specific value. These intervals are referred to as pavement classes and Table 8.5 summarises pavement design classes based on pavement bearing capacity. This is done because of the large variation associated with real pavement performance and the associated difficulty in predicting pavement life. Although the bearing capacity of a pavement is considered to be constant, different traffic spectrums will have different damaging effects on the pavement due to the different axle-load compositions of the traffic spectrums. The cumulative damaging effect of all individual axle loads is expressed as the number of equivalent 80 kN single-axle loads (ESA, equivalent standard axles, or E80s). This is the number of 80 kN single-axle loads which would cause the same damage to the pavement as the actual spectrum of axle loads.

UA UB UC

15-25 10-25 10-30

* The analysis period for category UA and UB streets is 30 years. Category UA streets For Category UA streets, the structural design period should be reasonably long because it is usually not politically acceptable for street authorities to carry out heavy rehabilitation on recently constructed pavements; street user costs are high and the cost of the disruption of traffic will probably cancel out any pavement cost savings that result from the choice of short structural design periods; and the street alignment is normally fixed.

Category UB streets For Category UB streets, the structural design period may vary, depending on the circumstances. Long structural design periods (20 years) will be selected when circumstances are the same as for Category UA streets. Factors that encourage the selection of short structural design periods are a short geometric life for a facility in a changing traffic situation;

10

Chapter 8

Roads: Materials and construction

GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN

Table 8.5:

Classification of pavements and traffic for structural design purposes


BEARING TYPICAL TRAFFIC VOLUMES AND TYPE OF TRAFFIC APPROXIMATE VEHICLES PER DAY PER LANE DESCRIPTION

PAVEMENT CLASS

CAPACITY (MILLION 80 kN AXLES/LANE)

ES0,003 ES0,01 ES0,03 ES0,1 ES 0,3 ES1 ES3 ES10 ES30 ES100

< 0,003 0,003 - 0,01 0,01 - 0,03 0,03 - 0,1 0,1 - 0.3 0,3 - 1 1-3 3 - 10 10 - 30 30 - 100 75 - 220 220 - 700 >700 > 700 > 2 200 > 6 500 < 75

Very lightly trafficked streets, very few heavy vehicles. These roads include the transition from gravel to paved roads.

Lightly trafficked street, mainly cars and light delivery vehicles, very few heavy vehicles. Medium volume, few heavy vehicles. High volume and/or many heavy vehicles. Very high volume of traffic and/or a high proportion of fully laden heavy vehicles

For structural design, an estimate of the cumulative equivalent traffic per lane over the structural design period is required. The cumulative equivalent traffic must then fall into the pavement class for which the street is designed. The cumulative equivalent traffic can be determined in two different ways: by estimation from tabulated traffic classes; and through detailed computation from initial and mean daily traffic axle loads, growth rates and lane-distribution factors.

Computation of equivalent traffic The detailed computation of the cumulative equivalent traffic involves the load equivalency of traffic; surveys of traffic conditions; projecting the traffic data over the structural design period; and estimating the lane distribution.

The estimation of the cumulative equivalent traffic over the structural design period from tabulated values is recommended, unless more specific information is available. A detailed computation of the cumulative equivalent traffic would be applicable only when the design traffic loading is bound to be higher than 0,2 x 106 E80s. The designer should consider whether construction traffic is to be carried by the pavement. For Category UC and UD streets, detailed computations of traffic are normally not necessary. However, a calculation is necessary to determine an appropriate traffic loading. For certain lightly trafficked streets, a change in the service level may be considered because of anticipated lower vehicle speeds. In these cases a lower street category should be selected (acceptance of higher risk) rather than changing the designs in the catalogue.

Load equivalency of traffic: The number of E80s is termed the equivalent traffic. The load-equivalency factor relates the number of repetitions of a given axle load to the equivalent number of E80s. This equivalency factor is a function of pavement composition, material types, definition of terminal conditions and street rideability. Table 8.6 gives average equivalency factors based on: F = (P/80)n (8.1)

where n F P = 4,2 = load equivalency factor = axle load in kN.

11

Roads: Materials and construction

Chapter 8

GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN

Pavements that are sensitive to overloading, such as shallow-structured pavements with thin cemented bases, may have n values of more than 4,2 whereas less sensitive, deep-structured pavements may have n values of less than 4,2. The designer can carry out a sensitivity analysis over the spectrum of axle loads with n values ranging from 2 to 6. This may be especially useful in the case of abnormal axle-load spectra. The equivalent traffic can be determined by multiplying the number of axle loads (tj) in each load group in the entire load spectrum by the relevant equivalency factor (Fj), determined from Table 8.6. By summation the equivalent daily traffic is E = tj.Fj (8.2)

Projection of the traffic data over the structural design period Projection to initial design year: The present average daily equivalent traffic (daily E80s) can be projected to the initial design year by multiplying by a growth factor determined from the growth rate: gx = where g = growth factor (1 + 0,01.i)x (8.3)

Table 8.7:

Determination of E80s per commercial vehicle


NUMBER OF E80s/ COMMERCIAL VEHICLES

Surveys of traffic conditions (Jordaan 1986; Haupt 1980; NITRR 1978). LOADING OF COMMERCIAL The present average daily traffic is the amount of daily traffic in a single direction, averaged over the present year. This traffic can be estimated from traffic surveys carried out at some time before the initial year. Such a survey may include static weighing of sample of vehicles; dynamic weighing of all axles for a sample period (e.g. a traffic axle-weight classifier (TAWC) survey); or estimation procedure based on visual observation (Table 8.7 can be used to assist in this.) VEHICLES (OR TYPE OF ROAD)

Mostly unladen (Category UC, residential and collector streets), 50% unladen, 50% laden (Category UA or UB, arterial roads and bus routes) >70% laden (Category UA or UB, main arterials or major industrial routes) Fully laden bus

0,6

1,7

2,6

3,0

Table 8.6:

80 kN single-axle equivalency factors, derived from F = (p/80)4,2


80 kN EQUIVALENCY FACTOR, F 0 0,004 0,019 0.062 0,150 0,320 0,590 1,000 1,600 2,400 3,600 SINGLE AXLE LOAD, P(kN) 115 - 124 125 - 134 135 - 144 145 - 154 155 - 164 165 - 174 175 - 184 185 - 194 195 - 204 >205 80 kN AXLE EQUIVALENCY FACTOR, F 5,1 7,0 9,4 12,0 16,0 20,0 26,0 32,0 39,0 50,0

SINGLE AXLE LOAD, P*(kN) <15 15 - 24 25 - 34 35 - 44 45 - 54 55 - 64 65 - 74 75 - 84 85 - 94 95 - 104 105 - 114

*Single-axle load with dual wheels


12

Chapter 8

Roads: Materials and construction

GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN

i x

= =

growth rate (%) time between determination of axle load data and opening of streets in years.

fy =

365 (1+0,01.i) [(1+0,01.i)y-1] (0,01.i)

(8.6)

(y = structural design period). The cumulative growth factor (fy) is given in Table 8.9. Estimating the lane distribution of traffic On multi-lane roads, the traffic will be distributed among the lanes. Note that the distribution of total traffic and equivalent traffic will not be the same. The distribution will also change along the length of street, depending on geometric factors such as climbing or turning lanes. Suggested design factors for total traffic (B) and equivalent traffic (Be) are given in Table 8.10. As far as possible, these factors incorporate the change in lane distribution over the geometric life of a facility. The factors should be regarded as maxima and decreases may be justified. The design cumulative equivalent traffic The design cumulative equivalent traffic may be calculated by multiplying the equivalent traffic by a lane distribution factor (Be): Ne = ( tj.Fj).gx.fy.Be (8.7)

The traffic growth factor (g) is given in Table 8.8. Computation of cumulative equivalent traffic: The cumulative equivalent traffic (total E80s) over the structural design period may be calculated from the equivalent traffic in the initial design year and the growth rate for the design period. Where possible, the growth rate should be based on specific information. More than one growth rate may apply over the design period. There may also be a difference between the growth rates for total and equivalent traffic. These rates will normally vary between 2% and 10%, and a value of 6% is recommended. The daily equivalent traffic in the initial year is given by Einitial = E. gx (8.4)

The cumulative equivalent traffic may be calculated from Ne - Einitial.fy where fy = cumulative growth factor, based on (8.5)

where tj.Fj = gx = equivalent daily traffic at time of survey growth factor to initial year (x = period from traffic survey to initial design year)

Table 8.8:

Traffic growth factor (g) for calculation of future or initial traffic from present traffic
*g FOR TRAFFIC INCREASE, i (% PER ANNUM) 2 1,02 1,04 1,06 1,08 1,10 1,13 1,15 1,17 1,20 1,22 3 1,03 1,06 1,09 1,13 1,16 1,19 1,23 1,27 1,30 1,34 4 1,04 1,08 1,12 1,17 1,22 1,27 1,32 1,37 1,42 1,48 5 1,05 1,10 1,16 1,22 1,28 1,34 1,41 1,48 1,55 1,63 6 1,06 1,12 1,19 1,26 1,34 1,42 1,50 1,59 1,69 1,79 7 1,07 1,14 1,23 1,31 1,40 1,50 1,61 1,72 1,84 1,97 8 1,08 1,17 1,26 1,36 1,47 1,59 1,71 1,85 2,00 2,16 9 1,09 1,19 1,30 1,41 1,54 1,68 1,83 1,99 2,17 2,37 10 1,10 1,21 1,33 1,46 1,61 1,77 1,95 2,14 2,36 2,59

TIME BETWEEN DETERMINATION OF AXLE LOAD DATA AND OPENING OF ROAD, x (YEARS) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 *g = (1 + 0,01.i)x

13

Roads: Materials and construction

Chapter 8

GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN

Table 8.9:

Traffic growth factor (fy) for calculation of cumulative traffic over prediction period from initial (daily) traffic
COMPOUND GROWTH RATE, i (% PER ANNUM) * 2 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 11 15 18 22 534 937 348 767 195 631 076 530 993 465 947 438 939 450 971 503 045 924 103 612 487 1 2 2 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 8 8 9 10 11 15 21 27 36 4 611 056 517 998 497 017 557 119 703 311 943 600 284 995 734 503 303 808 289 858 071 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 5 6 8 7 9 9 10 11 13 14 21 30 43 59 6 8 776 312 891 517 192 922 710 561 480 473 545 703 953 304 762 338 039 818 656 927 120 10 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 39 66 108 177 12 14 2 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 11 13 15 18 21 24 28 32 37 75 148 288 588 047 750 551 464 506 693 046 588 347 352 637 242 212 598 458 859 875 676 459 595 416 16 2 2 3 4 6 7 9 10 13 15 18 21 25 30 35 41 48 105 224 474 999 145 911 081 832 029 417 027 895 061 575 490 872 795 346 625 748 851 517 533 509 544 1 18 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 15 18 21 26 31 37 44 53 63 147 340 782 793 20 351 259 349 657 226 109 369 081 336 241 927 551 299 397 115 776 769 727 664 373 609

PREDICTION PERIOD, Y (YEARS) 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 25 30 35 40

692 1 180 2 698 2 247 3 829 4 445 4 099 5 792 6 526 7 130 8 305 9 005 10 932 11 915 13 957 14 061 16 232 18 227 28 587 44 114 67 877 102

863 1 953 451 2 597 097 3 317 809 4 124 591 5 028 452 6 040 398 7 173 440 8 443 585 9 865 845 11 458 231 13 242 756 15 239 433 17 477 278 19 983 308 22 790 540 25 934 995 29 455 486 54 506 044 98 656 816 176 464 700 313 586

246 2 081 3 066 4 229 5 601 7 220 9 130 11 384 14 044 17 183 21 887 25 257 31 414 38 500 46 680 56 154 67 152 81 559 206 661 517 431 1 291 095 3 216

* based on fy = 365 (1 + 0,01.i)[(1 + 0,01.i)y - 1]/(0,01.i)

Table 8.10: Design factors for the distribution of traffic and equivalent traffic among lanes and shoulders
TOTAL NUMBER OF TRAFFIC LANES DESIGN DISTRIBUTION FACTOR, Be OR B SURFACED SLOW SHOULDER SURFACED FAST SHOULDER**

LANE 1*

LANE 2

LANE 3

(a) Equivalent traffic (E80s) Factor Be 2 4 6 100 95 70 100 95 70 30 60 25 30 25

(b) Traffic (total axles or evu***) Factor B 2 4 6 100 70 30 100 70 30 50 50 40 50 40

* Lane 1 is the outer or slow lane ** For multi-lane roads *** evu = equivalent vehicle unit; one commercial vehicle = 3 evu design factors for the distribution of traffic and equivalent traffic among lanes and shoulders.

14

Chapter 8

Roads: Materials and construction

GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN

fy

= cumulative growth factor over structural design period (y = structural design period) lane distribution factor for equivalent traffic.

Granular materials and soils (G1 to G10)


These materials show stress-dependent behaviour, and under repeated stresses deformation can occur through shear and/or densification. A G1 is a densely-graded, unweathered, crushedstone material compacted to 86 - 88% of apparent density. A faulty grading may be adjusted only by adding crusher sand or other stone fractions obtained from the crushing of the parent rock. G2 and G3 may be a blend of crushed stone with other fine aggregate to adjust the grading. If the fine aggregate is obtained from a source other than the parent rock, its use must be approved by the purchaser, and the supplier must furnish the purchaser with the ull particulars regarding the exact amount and nature of such fine aggregate. G4 to G10 materials range from high-quality natural gravels used in pavement layers (CBR 25-80) to lower-quality materials used in selected layers (CBR 3-15). In unpaved streets natural gravel materials of quality G5 to G7 are recommended for the wearing course. The recommended plasticity index limits for G4 or G5 will not apply if the material is used as a gravel wearing course. Maximum particle size limits also have to be reduced for use as a gravel wearing course.

Be =

To check the geometric capacity of the street, the total daily traffic towards the end of the structural design period can be calculated from n = (initial total daily traffic).gx ( 8.8)

with gx as previously defined. When projecting traffic over the structural design period, the designer should take into account the possibility of capacity (HRB 1985) conditions being reached, which would result in no further growth in traffic for that particular lane.

Unpaved streets
For the design of unpaved streets only the average daily traffic is required as performance is mostly a function of the total traffic, with the light : heavy split being of minor importance. This is the result of the traffic-induced deformation of properly designed unpaved streets being restricted to the upper portion of the gravel surfacing. Problems in this area are rectified during routine surface maintenance - that is, grading and spot regravelling, or by regravelling of the road.

Asphalt hot-mix materials (BC to TS)


Asphalt hot-mix materials are visco-elastic and under repeated stresses they may either crack or deform or both. Normally a continuously graded bitumen hot-mix (BC) will have a higher stability and lower fatigue life than a semi-gap-graded (BS) material. Tar hot-mixes (TC, TS) will normally have lower fatigue lives than the equivalent bitumen hot-mixes. Usually the stability of a tar mix is the same as or higher than that of the equivalent bitumen mix. Tar mixes have seldom been used in South Africa due to low durability.

MATERIALS
The selection of materials for pavement design is based on a combination of availability, economic factors and previous experience. These factors have to be evaluated during the design in order to select the materials best suited to the conditions. The recommended design procedure mostly uses the standard material specification defined in Technical Recommendation for Highways Guidelines for road construction materials (NITRR 1984). Only abbreviated specifications are given and TRH14 should be consulted for more details. The materials are classified into various categories according to their fundamental behaviour, and into different classes according to their strength characteristics.

Bituminous cold-mix materials


Natural gravel or recycled material may be treated with emulsion (ETM) or foamed bitumen (FTM) to increase the stiffness and strength, after an initial curing period (SABITA 1993; Csanyi 1960). The residual binder content for foam- and emulsiontreated material is normally below 5% by mass. A distinction is made between emulsion stabilisation (GEMS) with residual binder contents between 1,5 and 5% by mass and emulsion modification (ETBs) with residual binder contents between 0,6 and 1,5% by mass. Foamed bitumen and emulsion treatment may be used on new construction projects to treat the
15

Description of major material types


This subsection describes the broad material types and their main characteristics. The behaviour of the different pavement types consisting of combinations of these materials is described in the following section.

Roads: Materials and construction

Chapter 8

GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN

locally available material, enabling the use of this material in the pavement base layer or on rehabilitation projects by treating the existing base material. Emulsion-treated material may be mixed on site by conventional construction equipment, deep-milling machines or plant. The emulsiontreated material should however, be placed and compacted immediately. Foam-treated material may be mixed in a plant or on site by using deepmilling machines, and may be stockpiled for periods up to three months (KZN 1997). A further advantage of using these materials on rehabilitation projects is that the streets may be opened to traffic very soon after construction. The unsurfaced base layer may even be exposed to traffic for limited periods of time without material loss.

considered, especially in wet regions.

Paving blocks (S-A, S-B)


The use of interlocking concrete paving blocks (S-A) is limited to low-speed (<50 km/h) streets or terminal areas. Blocks with good interlocking shapes should be used. The use of clay bricks as paving blocks (S-B) should be limited to Category UC and UD streets. The durability of clay bricks is expected to be poorer than that of concrete paving blocks.

Cast in-situ blocks


A South African developed patented welded plastic geocell has been successfully used in pavements for local access streets, and results in a flexible portland cement concrete pavement. These cells form a square with a side length of 150mm. After tensioning the plastic, which acts as a formwork, alternative methods of placing portland cement concrete can be used. The one is to provide premixed or ready-mix concrete. A more suitable labour-intensive method is to place the coarse aggregate in the cells and then apply compaction, and a cement grout is used to fill the voids. The process is a cement-grouted variant of the wellknown waterbound macadam. The plastic cells limit the amount of shrinkage of blocks formed in situ. By first placing the coarse aggregate, only 40% of the volume of the slab, which is the typical void ratio in a single-sized aggregate, has to be mixed and handled (Visser 1994; Visser and Hall 1999).

Portland cement concrete (PCC)


Concrete is an elastic, brittle material possessing low tensile strength and it may thus crack under excessive repeated flexure. In this document only one concrete strength is considered.

Cemented materials (C1 to C4)


As with concrete, cemented materials are elastic, possess low tensile strength and may crack under repeated flexure. These materials also crack because of shrinkage and drying. By applying an upper limit to the strength specification, wide shrinkage cracks can be avoided. Because of the excessive shrinkage cracking of C1 materials, they are not generally used. A C2 material will be used when a non-pumping erosion-resistant layer is required (as for the subbase under a concrete pavement) C3 and C4 materials can be used as replacements for granular layers in bases and subbases. They can be treated with cement, lime, slagment, lime/flyash mixtures or various combinations of pozzalanic binders, depending on the properties of the natural materials.

PAVEMENT TYPES
For paved roads there are five major pavement types, namely granular, bituminous, concrete and cementedbase pavements and pavements with paving blocks. Unpaved roads constitute a separate pavement type.

Behaviour of different pavement types Paved streets


The behaviour of a pavement and the type of distress that will become the most critical vary with the type of pavement. The behaviour of these different pavement types will determine the type of maintenance normally required and may also influence the selection of the pavement type. A brief description of the typical behaviour of each pavement type is given below. Untreated granular-based pavements This type of pavement comprises a thin bituminous surfacing, a base of untreated gravel or crushed

Surfacing (AG to AO; S1 to S8)


The surfacings range from high-quality asphalt surfacings to surface treatments, surface maintenance measures such as rejuvenators, and diluted emulsion treatments.

Macadams (WM to PM)


These traditional, high-quality, but also labourintensive, pavement materials can be used in the place of GI to G4 materials. However, specific knowledge of construction techniques is required. These materials are less affected by water than the usual granular materials and their use should be
16

Chapter 8

Roads: Materials and construction

GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN

stone, a granular or cemented subbase and a subgrade of various soils or gravels. The mode of distress in a pavement with an untreated subbase is usually deformation, arising from shear or densification in the untreated materials. The deformation may manifest itself as rutting or as longitudinal roughness eventually leading to cracking. This is illustrated in Figure 8.3(a). In pavements with cemented sub-bases, the subbase improves the load-carrying capacity of the pavement, but at some stage the subbase will crack under traffic. The cracking may propagate until the layer eventually exhibits properties similar to those of a natural granular material. It is unlikely that cracking will reflect to the surface, and there is likely to be little rutting or longitudinal deformation until after the subbase has cracked extensively. However, if the subbase exhibits large shrinkage or thermal cracks, they may reflect to the surface. Recent work has shown that the post-cracked phase of a cement-treated subbase under granular and bituminous bases adds substantially to the useful life of the pavement. Deflection measurements at various depths within the pavement have indicated that the initial effective modulus of this material is high - 3 000 to 5 000 MPa as shown in Figure 8.3(c). This relatively rigid subbase generally fatigues under traffic, or in some cases even under construction traffic, and assumes a lower effective modulus (800 to 1 000 MPa). This change in modulus does not normally result in a marked increase in deformation, but the resilient deflection and radius of curvature do change, as shown in Figure 8.3(d). In the mechanistic design (Freeme, Maree and Viljoen 1982) these phases have been termed the pre-cracked and post-cracked phases. The design accommodates the changes in modulus of the subbase and, although the safety factor in the base will be reduced, it will still be well within acceptable limits. The eventual modulus of the cemented subbases will depend on the quality of the material originally stabilised, the cementing agent, the effectiveness of the mixing process, the absolute density achieved, the durability of the stabilisation and the degree of cracking. The ingress of moisture can affect the modulus in the post-cracked phase significantly. In some cases the layer may behave like a good-quality granular material with a modulus of 200 to 500 MPa, but in other cases the modulus may be between 50 and 200 MPa. This change is shown diagrammatically in Figure 8.3(c). The result is that the modulus of the cemented

subbase assumes very low values and this causes fatigue and high shear stresses in the base. Generally, surface cracking will occur and, with the ingress of water, there may be pumping from the subbase. For high-quality, heavily trafficked pavements it is necessary to avoid materials that will eventually deteriorate to a very low modulus. Many of these lower-class materials have, however, proved to be adequate for lower classes of traffic. The surfacing may crack owing either to hardening of the binder as it ages or to load-associated fatigue cracking. The strength of granular materials is often susceptible to water, and excessive deformation may occur when water enters through surface cracks. The watersusceptibility of a material depends on factors such as grading, the PI of the fines, and density. Waterbound macadams are less susceptible to water than crushed-stone bases and are therefore preferred in wet regions. Bituminous pavements These pavements have a bituminous layer more than 80 mm thick. They can be subdivided into two major groups, namely bitumen- and tar-base pavements: Bitumen-base pavements: In bitumen-base pavements both deformation and fatigue cracking are possible. Two types of subbase are recommended, namely either an untreated granular subbase or a weakly stabilised cemented subbase. Rutting may originate in either the bituminous or the untreated layers, or in both. This is illustrated in Figure 8.3(b). If the subbase is cemented there is a probability that shrinkage or thermal cracking will reflect through the base to the surfacing, especially if the bituminous layer is less than 150 mm thick or if the subbase is excessively stabilised. Maintenance usually consists of a surface treatment to provide better skid resistance and to seal small cracks, an asphalt overlay in cases where riding quality needs to be restored and when it is necessary to prolong the fatigue life of the base, or recycling of the base when further overlays are no longer adequate. Tar-base pavements: The fatigue life of a tar premix is well below that of most asphalt hot-mix materials. Only weakly cemented subbases are used. The main distress appears to be cracking of the cemented subbase, followed by fatigue of the tar base. Maintenance for tar bases is the same as for bituminous bases.

17

Roads: Materials and construction

Chapter 8

GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN

Riding quality Rut depth

Riding quality Rut depth

Cracking

Cracking

Time and traffic (a) Granular base

Time and traffic (b) Bituminous base

Effective modulus (Mpa)

Pre5 000 cracked phase 4 000

Post-cracked phase

Influence of water

Precracked phase

Post-cracked phase Curvature

Influence of water Deflection

3 000 1 000 500 Poor-quality material Traffic (c) Cemented-subbase modulus behaviour Traffic (d) Cemented-subbase indicators Good-quality material

Deformation

Riding-quality

Riding-quality

Cracking Cracking Rut depth Time and traffic (e) Concrete pavement Time and traffic (f) Cemented base

Figure 8.3: General pavement behaviour characteristics Bituminous cold-mix based pavements Although the binders in emulsion and foamtreated materials are viscous, the material is stiff and brittle much like a cement-treated material after curing. The initial field stiffness values of these materials may vary between 800 and 2 000 Mpa, depending on the binder content and parent material quality. These values will gradually decrease with increasing traffic loading to values typical for granular materials between 150 and 500
18

MPa. Early indications are that this reduction is caused by the breakdown (effective fatigue) of the bonded layer into particle sizes smaller than the thickness of the layer (Theyse 1997). Field performance of pavements with emulsionand foam- treated base layers indicates that they are not as sensitive to overloading as a pavement with a cement- treated base, and do not pump fines from the subbase.

Chapter 8

Roads: Materials and construction

GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN

Concrete pavements In concrete pavements, most of the traffic loading is carried by the concrete slab and little stress is transferred to the subgrade. The cemented subbase provides a uniform foundation and limits pumping of subbase and subgrade fines. Through the use of tied shoulders, most of the distress stemming from the edge of the pavement can be eliminated and slab thickness can also be reduced. Distress of the pavement usually appears first as spalling near the joints, and then may progress to cracking in the wheel paths. Once distress becomes evident, deterioration is usually rapid. See Figure 8.3(e). Maintenance consists of patching, joint repair, crack repair, under-sealing, grinding, or thin concrete or bituminous overlays. In cases of severe distress, thick concrete, bituminous or granular overlays will be used, or the concrete may be recycled. Cemented-base pavements In these pavements, most of the traffic stresses are absorbed by the cemented layers and a little by the subgrade. It is likely that some block cracking will be evident very early in the life of the cemented bases; this is caused by the mechanism of drying shrinkage and by thermal stresses in the cemented layers. Traffic-induced cracking will cause the blocks to break up into smaller ones. These cracks propagate through the surfacing. The ingress of water through the surface cracks may cause the blocks to rock under traffic, resulting in the pumping of fines from the lower layers. Rutting or roughness will generally be low up to this stage but is likely to accelerate as the extent of the cracking increases. See Figure 8.3(f). Pavements consisting of cemented bases on granular subbases are very sensitive to overloading and to ingress of moisture through the cracks. When both the base and the subbase are cemented, the pavement will be less sensitive to overloading and moisture. The latter type of pavement is generally used. The shrinkage cracks that form early in the life of the pavement may be rehabilitated by sealing. Once traffic-load-associated cracking has become extensive, rehabilitation involves either the reprocessing of the base, or the application of a substantial bituminous or granular overlay. Paving blocks Many types of interlocking and non-interlocking segmental blocks are used in a wide variety of applications, which range from footpaths to

driveways to heavily loaded industrial stacking and servicing yards. The use of segmental block pavements is a relatively recent phenomenon in South Africa. The popularity of these blocks is increasing due to a number of factors: the blocks are manufactured from local materials; they can either provide a labour-intensive operation or can be manufactured and laid by machine; they are aesthetically acceptable in a wide rage of applications; and they are versatile as they have some of the advantages of both flexible and concrete pavements.

In current practice a small plate vibrator is used to bed the blocks into a sand bedding of approximately 20 mm and to compact jointing sand between individual blocks. The selection of the right type of sand for these purposes is important, since a non-plastic material serves best as bedding while some plastic content is required to fill the joints. Properly laid block pavements are adequately waterproofed and ingress of large quantities of water into foundations does not occur. The procedures for the structural design of segmental block pavements are presented in UTG2 Structural design of segmental block pavements in southern Africa (NITRR 1984) and are applicable to both industrial and street uses. Segmental blocks are manufactured with vertical square side faces. Those that interlock are shaped so as to allow them to fit jigsaw fashion into a paved area. They can be made of pressed concrete, fired-clay brick or any other material. The current recommended minimum strength for structural use is given as a wet compressive strength of not less than 25 MPa. Block pavements require the paved area to be contained either by kerbs or by other means of stopping lateral spread of the block. This is a requirement for both interlocking and noninterlocking shapes. Lateral movements are induced by trafficking and these movements cause breaks in the jointing sand. The associated opening-up of the block pavement makes it more susceptible to the ingress of surface water. In heavily loaded areas interlocking shapes have advantages over non-interlocking shapes, especially if vehicles with a slewing action are involved.

19

Roads: Materials and construction

Chapter 8

GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND DESIGN

Experience has shown that joints should be 2 to 5 mm wide. Geometric design should follow practices for other pavements. Variable street widths, curves and junctions do not present problems in practice, since the blocks are small and can easily be cut and placed to suit the geometry of the pavement. In practice, the minimum cross-fall for block pavements should be one per cent. For wide areas of industrial paving, special care should be taken to ensure that the cross-fall of the surface is adequate. Cambered cross-sections are also satisfactory. The joints between the blocks seal better with time due to the action of weathering and the addition of street detritus to the joints, thereby improving the total strength of the block pavement. One per cent falls (minimum) to the surface of block pavements allow water to drain across the pavement, reducing ingress by absorption through the joints, and eliminate ponding. The joints between the blocks on steep gradients may form the drainage paths for rainwater. In such cases the pattern of the blocks is an important consideration. Experience has shown that a herringbone pattern is best for use on steep gradients and for industrial paving. An advantage of the blocks is that they can be reused. They can be lifted if repairs have to be carried out to failed areas of subbase or if services have to be installed and can be relaid afterwards. As far as the design of segmental block pavements is concerned, this re-use of the blocks has no disadvantages. Little maintenance work is required with segmental block paving. Maintenance involves the treatment of weeds and the correcting of surface levels if the initial construction had been poor. The correction of surface levels is done by removing the area of blocks affected, levelling the subbase, compacting the subbase (often with hand hammers) and replacing the blocks. Segmental paving provides an exciting addition to the pavement construction methods possible in southern Africa.

ENVIRONMENT
The environment is characterised by topography, the climatic conditions (moisture and temperature) under which the street will function, and the underlying subgrade conditions. Environmental factors must be taken into account in the design of pavement structures.

Topography
Topography is dealt with in Chapter 6: Stormwater Management. The importance of its influence on the structural design and functional use of streets is clearly reflected in the drainage and maintenance requirements of streets in general. Macro drainage is relevant to this discussion. In rolling and mountainous terrain there may be steep gradients which result in the erosion of gravel streets and, in particular, erosion of their drainage facilities, with direct implications for their safety and functional use. Streets that cross contours at an angle, or even perpendicularly, pose the most drainage problems. In such cases functional rather than structural requirements may demand that a street be paved or protected from erosion. It is therefore important that requirements described in the chapters on Layout Planning and Stormwater Management be met before one embarks on the structural design.

Unpaved streets
Streets with high longitudinal gradients are more likely to occur in mountainous areas or even hilly terrain. A 6% longitudinal street gradient is an average value above which erosion problems may occur, and slopes steeper than this would warrant additional attention. The upper range of suggested PI could effectively counteract erosion, but may result in unacceptable slipperiness on steep slopes. Local conditions should be considered in the detailed evaluation.

Climate and structural design


The climate will largely determine the rate of weathering of natural rock and its products, the durability of weathered natural street-building materials and - depending on drainage conditions the stability of untreated materials in the pavement. The climate may also influence the equilibrium moisture content within the pavement layers. The designer should always consider climatic conditions and avoid using materials that are excessively watersusceptible or temperature-sensitive in adverse conditions. It is also possible to accommodate climatic conditions by either adjusting California Bearing Ratio (CBR) values or by weighting the equivalent traffic (not both).

Unpaved streets
The most common causes of poor performance of gravel streets are slipperiness and potholing when wet, and excessive dust and ravelling when dry. The formation of corrugations is normally the result of inadequate compaction or low cohesion combined with traffic. Frequent maintenance (e.g. grading, watering and the addition of material) is therefore necessary.

20

Chapter 8

Roads: Materials and construction