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Chapter 1a - Hebrew Alphabet

twenty-three consonants
Letter Name Pronunciation Transliteration
x Alef silent <
: Bet b as in boy b
: Gimel g as in God g
: Dalet d as in day d
r He h as in hay h
Waw w as in way w
t Zayin z as in Zion z
r et ch as in Bach
c Tet t as in toy 2
Yod y as in yes y
: Kaf k as in king k
: Lamed l as in lion l
: Mem m as in mother m
: Nun n as in now n
c Samek s as in sin s
v Ayin silent >
: Pe p as in pastor p
x Tsade ts as in boots
; Qof k as in king q
~ Resh r as in run r
c Sin s as in sin
c Shin sh as in ship
r Taw t as in toy t
Chapter 1b - Hebrew Alphabet
five final forms
Five Hebrew letters have final forms. When one of these
letters occurs at the end of a word, it is written differently
than when it appears at the beginning or in the middle of
a word. The changing of a letters form, however, does not
change its pronunciation or transliteration.
Regular Final Example Translit. Translation
Form Form
: ~: drk road, way
: c cv >m nation, people
: ; ;;t zqn old man, elder
: c: ksp money, silver
x ; ;~x <r earth, land
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
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Chapter 1c - Hebrew Alphabet
six begadkephat consonants
Six consonants have two possible pronunciations and are known as
begadkephat consonants. To distinguish between the two pronunciations, a
dot called Daghesh Lene was inserted into the consonant. The presence of
Daghesh Lene indicates a hard pronunciation and its absence denotes a soft
pronunciation.
Begadkephat Pronunciation Transliteration
Letter
a b as in boy b
: v as in vine
: g as in God g
: gh as in aghast
: d as in day d
: dh as in the %
: k as in king k
: ch as in Bach
s p as in pastor p
: ph as in alphabet
r t as in toy t
r th as in thin
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
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Chapter 1d - Hebrew Alphabet
easily confused letters
Hebrew consonants that look alike
1. : (Bet) : (Kaf)
2. : (Gimel) : (Nun)
3. r (He) r (et) r (Taw)
4. c (Sin) c (Shin)
5. c (final Mem) c (Samek)
6. : (Dalet) ~ (Resh)
7. x (Tsade) v (Ayin)
8. (Waw) t (Zayin)
9. (Waw) ; (final Nun)
10. (final Kaf) ; (final Nun)
Hebrew consonants that sound alike
1. c (Tet) r (Taw with Daghesh Lene)
2. ; (Qof) : (Kaf with Daghesh Lene)
3. c (Samek) c (Sin)
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
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Chapter 1e - Hebrew Alphabet
modern pronunciation
The pronunciation of modern Hebrew differs in a number
of ways from ancient pronunciation. With the three
begadkephat consonants listed below, the forms without
Daghesh Lene are pronounced like the forms with
Daghesh Lene in modern Hebrew.
Traditional Modern
Consonant Pronunciation Pronunciation
gh as in aghast g as in God
dh as in the d as in day
th as in thin t as in toy
w as in way v as in vine
Basics of Biblical Hebrew

Chapter 2a - Hebrew Vowels


vowels with consonants
Deuteronomy 6:5
no vowel pointing
::: ::: r:x rr rx r:rx
:_:: :_:: _r:_x r_r rx _ r:r_x
with vowel pointing
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
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Chapter 2f - Hebrew Vowels


summary vowel chart
a e i o u
Short _ _ _
Pathach Seghol Hireq Qamets Qibbuts
Hatuf
Changeable _
Long Qamets Tsere Holem
Unchangeable _ /_
Long Qamets Tsere Yod/ Hireq Holem Shureq
Yod Seghol Yod Yod Waw
Reduced _ _ _
Hateph Hateph Hateph
Pathach Seghol Qamets
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt

Chapter 2g - Hebrew Vowels


shewa

This vowel symbol is called Shewa.


It is not listed in the vowel charts because it is not like any
other vowel. It does not belong to any phonetic class.
There are two types of Shewa in Hebrew:
Silent Shewa and Vocal Shewa.
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt

Chapter 2h - Hebrew Vowels


daghesh forte
:
This pointing symbol is called Daghesh Forte.
It looks exactly like the Daghesh Lene but it is used to
double the consonant in which it occurs. For example, the
Hebrew word c:_cr (the heavens) has a Daghesh Forte in
the Shin (c). It should be rendered, therefore, with two
Shins (cc), hamayim. The Daghesh Forte can occur in
any consonant except the gutturals (x, v, r, r) and ~.
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 2i - Hebrew Vowels
defective writing
Full Defective
Writing Writing
a a Holem Waw to Holem
Example ~_:c ~_:c rams horn
a a Shureq to Qibbuts
Example v:: v:: why?
a a Hireq Yod to Hireq
Example :_: :_: David
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 3a - Syllabification
two rules
1. Every syllable must begin with one consonant
and have only one vowel. The following
example has two syllables, each beginning
with a consonant and each having only one
vowel.
| d-r
2. There are only two types of syllables: open and
closed. Open syllables end with a vowel and
closed syllables end with a consonant. In
the above example, (d), is open because
it ends in a vowel and (r), is closed
because it ends in a consonant.
|
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt

Closed
Syllable
Open
Syllable
Chapter 3b - Syllabification
hebrew accent
Most Hebrew words are accented or stressed
on the last syllable. Some are not. The stress
in words not accented on the last syllable
will be indicated by an accent mark
over the stressed syllable as
in the following example.
.
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt

Chapter 3c - Syllabification
syllable classification
syllables may be classified according to
their proximity to the accent
||
syllables may be classified without
reference to accent
||
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt

tonic pretonic propretonic


ultima penultima antepenultima
Chapter 4a - Hebrew Nouns
inflectional endings
4.2 Endings on Masculine and Feminine Nouns.
Masculine Feminine
Singular cc horse r_r law
Plural c cc horses r~r laws
Dual c.cc two horses c.r_r two laws
4.4 Summary of Noun Endings.
Masculine Feminine
Singular endingless r_ :/r:/r_:
Plural c : r
Dual c.: c.r_~/ c.:
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
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Chapter 4b- Hebrew Nouns
exceptions to rules
1. Endingless Feminine Nouns. Not all endingless nouns
are masculine singular. In a few instances, feminine
singular nouns are also endingless as in ;._x (land), ~v
(city) and ;_:._x (stone).
2. Exception to Normal Pluralization. Some singular
nouns of one gender take the plural endings of the other
gender. For example, the masculine singular noun :_x
(father) takes the feminine plural ending r as in r:_x.
3. Special Dual Nouns. There are three special Hebrew
words that are always dual in form but normally singular
in translation: c.:_c (heaven, heavens), c.~x: (Egypt)
and c.: (water).
4. Irregular Stem Change. Some Hebrew nouns will alter
their actual (consonantal) stem when they add their
plural endings. For example, the plural of c (day) is
c:_ (days), the plural of cx (man) is cc_:_x (men) and
the plural of r_cx (woman) is cc_: (women).
5. Defective Spelling of r. Occasionally, the feminine
plural ending r will be spelled r (with Holem rather
than Holem Waw). For example, the plural of r_:v
(congregation) may appear either as r:v or r:v. The
shorter spelling is called Ldefective spellingM and the
longer spelling is called Lfull spelling.M
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 4c - Hebrew Nouns
patterns of noun pluralization
1. Pluralization with No Change
~c song c~c songs
c:_r dream r::_r dreams
2. Pluralization with Propretonic Reduction
~_:_: word c~_:: words
;_:_v cloud c:_:_v clouds
3. Pluralization of Segholate Nouns
_:_ .: king c:_:: kings
~_: .c book c~_:c books
4. Pluralization of Geminate Nouns
cv people c :v peoples
;r statute c;_r
5. Irregular Pluralization
;a son c:_a sons
cx man c c_:_x men
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 5a - Introduction
chapter summary
1. DEFINITE ARTICLE
Basic form
Translation the
2. CONJUNCTION WAW
Basic form
Translation and
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt

Chapter 5b - Introduction
distributional significance
Total Verses 23,213
Total Words 471,096
Article 24,058
5.1%
1.04 per verse
Conjunction 50,524
10.7%
2.2 per verse
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt

Chapter 5c - Definite Article


basic form
In Hebrew, a noun is made definite
by prefixing the definite article which consists of r plus a
Daghesh Forte in the first consonant of the noun.
r : : + . _:r = _:_ . _:
Definite Article
_ :._ :r
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
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Chapter 5d - Definite Article
basic form: top 10 examples
1. _:._:
2. c
3. c .:_c
4. x:_:
5. rat:
6. c_
7. c);
8. c;_:
9. r)_c
10. c .:
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 5e - Definite Article
with begadkephat consonants
When adding the definite article to words
with an initial begadkephat consonant,
the Daghesh Lene is replaced by a Daghesh Forte.
Indefinite Noun Definite Noun
r.a a house r .:r the house
_ .: a road _ .:r the road
~a: a warrior ~a :r the warrior
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 5f - Definite Article
with guttural consonants
Compensatory Lengthening
With initial x, ~ and v, the guttural rejects the Dagesh
Forte and Pathach lengthens to Qamets.
cx a man cx_r the man
Virtual Doubling
With initial r or r, the guttural rejects the Daghesh Forte
but the Pathach does not lengthen to Qamets.
:_:r a palace :_:rr the palace
Irregular Seghol
Before unnaccented _v, _r or _r (_r may also be accented), the definite article
appears with the Seghol vowel and without the Daghesh Forte.
c_:_r a wise man c_:_r_r the wise man
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
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Chapter 5g - Definite Article
with initial and :
Words that begin with or : usually give up
the Daghesh Forte that is associated
with the definite article.
c)_: boys c)_:r the boys
c::~: spies c::~:r the spies
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 5h - Definite Article
alternate forms: top examples
rs:::a ~/v/x r/r :/
1. ;r: ~v r_:r c)_:
2. ~_:_: cx rx_cr c~_r
3. r.a cr:_x :_:r c::~:
4. : r_:v :_:r cr_c:
5. _c>_: cx~ ~r cc;::
;_:_v ~x_r
~_:_v ;:_r
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 5i - Definite Article
summary of forms
Basic Form :r _ :._ :r
Begadkephat :r r .:r
Gutturals ~/v/x _r cx_r
Gutturals r/r r :_:rr
Gutturals _v/_r/_r _r ;_:_v_r
Miscellaneous :/ r c)_:r
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 5j - Conjunction
basic form
Before most consonants
the conjunction will appear as
Waw with Vocal Shewa
:_:._v and a servant
r_cx and a woman
r_cx_r and the woman
cx and a man
cx_r and the man
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 5k - Conjunction
basic form: top 10 examples
1. cx
2. cc
3. :x_c
4. ~r>
5. ;~_rx
6. ;>
7. :_r_t
8. r_cx
9. ::
10. ::_:
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 5l - Conjunction
spelled with shureq
Before :, : or : it is spelled with Shureq
_:._: + _:_ .: and a king
rvs + rv: and Pharaoh
Before Vocal Shewa it is spelled with Shureq
c~_:c + c~_:c and books
:x:c + :x:c and Samuel
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 5m - Conjunction
with short vowels and qamets
Before Hateph vowels it is spelled with
the corresponding short vowel
cc_:_x + cc_:_x and men
r_:_x + r_:_x and truth
Before some monosyllabic words or words with
initial accent it may be spelled with Qamets
;xx + ;xx_ and sheep
c_r._: + c_r._:_ and bread
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 5n - Conjunction
alternate forms: examples
:/:/: Vocal Shewa Hateph Vowels Monosyllabic/
Initial Accent
1. ra ~xc cc_:_x c)_:
2. r:_a :: c)_:_v c~_r
3. _:._: c_:) r:_x c::~:
4. c_sc: c:_:c c:_x cr_c:
5. s :_:: r_:_x cc;::
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 5o - Conjunction
summary of forms
Basic Form cx_r
Before :/:/: _:_ .:
Before Vocal Shewa c~_:c
Before Hateph Vowels / cc_:_x
Before Monosyllabic _ ;xx_
Initinal Accent
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 6a - Prepositions
three types
Independent Prepositions
These prepositions stand alone.
_:_ .:r ::: before the king
;v_r rr.r under the tree
Maqqef Prepositions
These prepositions are joined to their objects by Maqqef.
:_:rr":_x to the temple
;_ .x_r";: from the land
Inseparable Prepositions
These prepositions are prefixed directly to their objects.
r)_ca in a field
_:._:: like a king
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 6b - Prepositions
three inseparable prepositions
in, by, with (15,559)
to, for (20,320)
like, as, according to (3,053)
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt

Chapter 6c - Prepositions
spelling inseparable prepositions
Before most consonants: Shewa
r)_ca in a field
~v>:: for a young man
Before Hateph vowels: corresponding short vowel
cc_:_x: like men
r_:_x_a in truth
Before consonants with Vocal Shewa: Hireq
cx::: for prophets
r~:: for a covenant
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
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Chapter 6d - Prepositions
inseparable prepositions
with the definite article
The vowel and Daghesh Forte of the definite article is
retained but the consonant of the preposition replaces the
r of the definite article.
r_ :_ cr the field r_ :_ ca in the field
_ :._ :r the king _ :._ :: like the king
cx_r the fire c x_a in the fire
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Chapter 6e - Prepositions
the preposition ;:
The preposition ;: occurs both as a Maqqef preposition
and as an inseparable preposition.
Maqqef Preposition
_:._:!;: from a king
Inseparable Preposition
_:._:!;: _ :_. :: (assimilated :)
r.a!;: r.:: (assimilated :)
cx!;: cx: (compensatory lengthening)
;._x_r!;: ;._x_r: (compensatory lengthening)
;r!;: ;r: (virtual doubling)
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Chapter 6f - Prepositions
definite direct object marker
In Hebrew prose, definite direct objects
are usually marked with !r_x/rx.
c.:_cr rx cr:_x x__a
_:_ .:: ~_:.cr!r_x x:_:r ;r_:
;_r_:r!r_x :_: :r_x
c_v_: _r~r!r_x _:_ .:r ;r_:
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Chapter 7a - Hebrew Adjectives
inflection (form)
Inflected Adjective
Masculine Feminine
Singular :c r_:c
Plural c:c r:c
Inflectional Endings
Masculine Feminine
Singular r_ :
Plural c : r
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Chapter 7b - Hebrew Adjectives
the use of adjectives
1. Attributive Use. Directly modifies a noun and agrees
with that noun in gender, number and definiteness.
:c cx good man or a good man
:cr cx_r the good man
2. Predicative Use. Asserts something about the noun
and agrees with that noun in gender and number, but
not definiteness. A predicate adjective will never take
the definite article.
:c cx_r The man is good.
r_cx_r r_:c The woman is good.
3. Substantival Use. Adjectives may be used
independently as nouns with no noun for the adjective
to modify.
c_:_r_r the wise man.
r:cr the good women
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Chapter 7c - Hebrew Adjectives
the directional ending
In Hebrew, a special ending may be added to a
word in order to express the idea of motion toward
someone or something. This special ending is the
directional ending r_ :(it is always unaccented).
r.a house r_r.ar to the house
~v city r _ ~.v_r toward the city
c.:_c heaven r_:.:_cr heavenward
c.~x: Egypt r_:.~x: to Egypt
c_c there r_:._c to there
c_ sea r_:>_ toward the sea
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Chapter 7d - Hebrew Adjectives
basic patterns of inflection
1. Inflection with No Change
:c r_:c
c :c r:c
2. Inflection with Propretonic Reduction
::_: r_:::
c::: r:::
3. Inflection of Adjectives Ending in r_:
r_c_; r_c_;
c c_; rc_;
4. Inflection of Geminate Adjectives
:~ r_:~
c:~ r:~
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Chapter 8a - Hebrew Pronouns
independent personal pronouns
Singular Plural
1 com ::_x, :_x I :r>:_x we
2 masc r_rx you crx you
2 fem rx you r_:.rx you
3 masc xr he/it r_:.r, cr they
3 fem xr, xr she/it r_:.r, ;r they
Notes
1. The independent personal pronoun is labelled
independent because it stands alone and is not
prefixed or suffixed to another word.
2. Independent personal pronouns are subjective,
meaning they are used as the subject of a verb, never
as the object of the verb.
3. Independent personal pronouns may also appear as
the subject of a verbless clause. For this reason, they
are sometimes called subject pronouns.
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Chapter 8b - Hebrew Pronouns
independent personal pronouns
The following examples illustrate how independent
personal pronouns are used with other nouns or adjectives
in a predicative relationship. The pronoun may precede
or follow the noun or adjective. A form of the verb to be
is required in translation.
r_r :_x I am Yahweh (the Lord).
;)x x:_: xr He is a righteous prophet.
:c _:._: r_rx You (2ms) are a good king.
:r>:_x crx We are brothers
r_:_:_r r_cx xr She is a wise woman.
r_:::r ~v_a crx You (2mp) are in the great city.
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Chapter 8c - Hebrew Pronouns
demonstratives
Singular Plural
Masc rt this r_:.x these
Fem rxt this r_:.x these
Masc xr that r_:.r, cr those
Fem xr that r_:.r, ;r those
Notes
1. They may be used either as adjectives (this man,
those women) or as pronouns (this is the man, those
are the women).
2. The masculine and feminine singular forms, xr and
xr, are identical to the third person masculine and
feminine independent personal pronouns.
3. The demonstrative r_:.x (these) is both masculine and
feminine plural. Remember that the designation for
this phenomenon is common, meaning not inflected
for gender.
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Chapter 8d - Hebrew Pronouns
demonstratives
Hebrew demonstratives may be used
either as adjectives or as pronouns.
Demonstrative Adjectives
follow the noun and agree in gender, number and definiteness.
r:r cx_r this man
rx:r r_cx_r this woman
r_:.x_r c:cr cc_:_x_r these good men
r_:.x_r r:cr cc_:r these good women
Demonstrative Pronouns
precede the noun and agree in gender and number but not definiteness.
cx_r xr That is the man.
r_cx_r xr That is the woman.
c:cr cc_:_x_r r_:.x These are the good men.
r:cr cc_:r r_:.r Those are the good women.
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Chapter 8e - Hebrew Pronouns
the relative pronoun
~c_x
(who, which, that)
The form of this word does not change in order to indicate
the gender or number of its antecedent. It may appear
with or without Maqqef. When functioning as a relative
pronoun introducing a relative clause, it immediately
follows the noun it is modifying.
;_:r!ra ~c_x ;v_r the tree that (is) in the middle
of the garden
c .:_cr rr.r!~c_x c~_r_r the mountains that (are) under
the heavens
crra ~c_x _:._:r the king whom you chose
r_r r:a ~c_x :_: David, who (is) in the house of
the Lord
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Chapter 8f - Hebrew Pronouns
interrogative pronouns
: Who?
r_: What?
Interrogative pronouns are used to ask a question. These
pronouns do not inflect and can appear with or without
the Maqqef. The vocalization of r_: may change slightly
(r: or r_:). When spelled r:, a Daghesh Forte will usually
appear in the first consonant of the following word.
:c!r: What (is) his name?
_r.c_v!r_: What have you done?
r:r c:_rr r_: What (is) this dream?
r_rx!: Who (are) you?
r:r cx_r!: Who (is) this man?
r_:.x_r cc_:_x_r : Who (are) these men?
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Chapter 8g - Hebrew Pronouns
the interrogative particle
_r
The interrogative particle is prefixed to the first word of
the sentence. Compare the following examples. The first
example is a statement. The second example is a question
because the interrogative particle has been prefixed to the
first word of the sentence.
x:_:r!r_x _:_ .:r r:_c The king sent the prophet.
x:_:r!r_x _:_ .:r r:_c_r Did the king send the prophet?
The Spelling of the Particle
1. _r before most consonants as in the above example
2. r before gutturals or any consonant with Shewa
3. _r before gutturals with Qamets
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Chapter 9a - Pronominal Suffixes
grammar summary
Pronominal suffixes are pronouns that can be either
possessive (his, her, our) or objective (him, her, us).
These possessive and objective pronouns appear as
suffixes on nouns, prepositions and the definite direct
object marker.
When appearing on nouns, they are possessive as in
his book or her wisdom. When appearing on
prepositions or the definite direct object marker, they
are objective as in to them, for them, or them.
All pronominal suffixes have person, gender and
number.
There are two sets of pronominal suffixes: Type 1 and
Type 2. Both types have the same possessive and
objective translation values.
With few exceptions, Type 1 suffixes occur with
singular nouns and Type 2 suffixes occur with plural
nouns.
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Chapter 9b - Pronominal Suffixes


summary paradigm
Type 1 Type 1 Type 2 Translation
Suffixes Alternate Suffixes
1cs : my/me
2ms ._ your/you
2fs . your/you
3ms r _ his/him
3fs a_ : _r _r._ her/her
1cp : : . our/us
2mp c_: c_: your/you
2fp ;_: ;_: your/you
3mp c_r c_ : c_r their/them
3fp ;_r ;_ : ;_r their/them
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Chapter 9c - Pronominal Suffixes
on masculine nouns
Type 1 Suffixes Type 2 Suffixes
Noun ms Noun mp
1cs cc my horse cc my horses
2ms cc your horse _ .cc your horses
2fs cc your horse .cc your horses
3ms cc his horse _cc his horses
3fs a_cc her horse _r_ .cc her horses
1cp : .cc our horse : .cc our horses
2mp c_:cc your horse c_:cc your horses
2fp ;_:cc your horse ;_:cc your horses
3mp c_cc their horse c_rcc their horses
3fp ;_cc their horse ;_rcc their horses
Note: When pronominal suffixes are added to masculine
plural nouns, the masculine plural ending (ct) is
dropped. With the absence of this ending, a masculine
noun is recognizable as plural only by the use of Type 2
pronominal suffixes.
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Chapter 9d - Pronominal Suffixes
on feminine nouns
Type 1 Suffixes Type 2 Suffixes
Noun fs Noun fp
1cs r_r my law r~r my laws
2ms r,~r your law .r~r your laws
2fs r_r your law .r~r your laws
3ms r_r his law _r~r his laws
3fs a_r_r her law _r_ .r~r her laws
1cp : .r_r our law :.r~r our laws
2mp c_:r~r your law c_:r~r your laws
2fp ;_:r~r your law ;_:r~r your laws
3mp c_r_r their law c_rr~r their laws
3fp ;_r_r their law ;_rr~r their laws
Note: When a feminine singular noun ending in r_ :(as
in r_r) receives a pronominal suffix, the r is replaced
by r (r_r becomes r_r ).
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Chapter 9e - Pronominal Suffixes
on monosyllabic nouns
Type 1 Suffixes Type 2 Suffixes
Noun ms Noun mp
1cs r_x my brother rx my brothers
2ms .r_x your brother _ .rx your brothers
2fs .r_x your brother .rx your brothers
3ms r_x his brother _r_x his brothers
3fs _r .r_x her brother _r._rx her brothers
1cp : .r_x our brother : .rx our brothers
2mp c_:r_x your brother c_:r_x your brothers
2fp ;_:r_x your brother ;_:r_x your brothers
3mp c_rr_x their brother c_rr_x their brothers
3fp ;_rr_x their brother ;_rr_x their brothers
Note: Certain singular monosyllabic nouns add to
their stem before a pronominal suffix. The addition of
this to singular nouns with Type 1 suffixes may cause
them to be confused with plural nouns having Type 2
suffixes. The singular noun paradigm has Hireq Yod
(.r_x, your brother). The plural noun paradigm varies
its vowel but it is never Hireq Yod (_ .rx, your brothers).
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Chapter 9f - Pronominal Suffixes
on prepositions
Type 1 Suffixes Type 2 Suffixes
1cs : to me :_v on me
2ms : to you _ .:_v on you
2fs _: to you .:_v on you
3ms : to him _:_v on him
3fs a_: to her _r._:_v on her
1cp :_ .: to us :.:_v on us
2mp c_:_: to you c_::_v on you
2fp ;_:_: to you ;_::_v on you
3mp c_r_: to them c_r:_v on them
3fp ;_r_: to them ;_r:_v on them
Note: The prepositions : (to, for), a (in, on), cv (with)
and rx (with) all take Type 1 suffixes. Prepositions that
take Type 2 suffixes include: :v (on, upon), :_x (to, for),
rr .r (under) and _rx (after).
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Chapter 9g - Pronominal Suffixes
on : and ;:
: ;:
1cs :.:_: like me :_ .:: from me
2ms .:_: like you :: from you
2fs :_: like you :: from you
3ms r.:_: like him :_ .:: from him
3fs _r.:_: like her r_:._:: from her
1cp :.:_: like us :._:: from us
2mp c_:_: like you c_:: from you
2fp ;_:_: like you ;_:: from you
3mp c_r_: like them c_r: from them
3fp ;_r_: like them ;_r: from them
Note: With the preposition :, forms with singular and
1cp suffixes exhibit a longer, alternate spelling of the
preposition (.:_:). With the preposition ;:, forms with
singular and 1cp suffixes also exhibit a longer, alternate
spelling of the preposition.
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Chapter 9h - Pronominal Suffixes
on !r_x/rx
Object Marker Preposition
1cs rx me rx with me
2ms rx you rx with you
2fs _rx you _rx with you
3ms rx him rx with him
3fs a_rx her a_rx with her
1cp :_ .rx us :_ .rx with us
2mp c_:r_x you c_:rx with you
2fp ;_:r_x you ;_:rx with you
3mp c_rx them c_rx with them
3fp ;_rx them ;_rx with them
Note: The object marker is distinguished by a Holem
vowel over the initial consonant (rx). It is Seghol in the
2mp and 2fp forms (c_:r_x). The preposition is distin-
guished by Hireq under the initial consonant and Daghesh
Forte in the r (rx).
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Chapter 9i - Pronominal Suffixes
on cv and cv
cv cv
1cs :v with me :v my people
2ms :v with you :v your people
2fs _:v with you :v your people
3ms :v with him :v his people
3fs a_:v with her a_:v her people
1cp :._:v with us : .:v our people
2mp c_:_:v with you c_::v your people
2fp ;_:_:v with you ;_::v your people
3mp c_:v with them c_:v their people
3fp ;_:v with them ;_:v their people
Note: The preposition has Hireq (:v, with me) and
the noun has Pathach (:v, my people). Both words take
a Daghesh Forte in the : when pronominal suffixes are
added.
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Chapter 10a - Construct Chain
construct and absolute
The first of the two nouns in the construct chain
is called the construct noun and is said to be in the
construct state. The second of the two nouns is
called the absolute noun and is said to be in the
absolute state. The absolute form of a noun is also
its lexical form.
_:._:r :_:._v
Absolute Noun Construct Noun
the servant of the king
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Chapter 10b - Construct Chain
with attributive adjectives
When an adjective modifies either the construct or
absolute noun, it must follow the entire chain. It must
agree with the noun it modifies in gender, number and
definiteness.
:cr ;_.x_r _:._:
the good king of the land
r_:cr ;_.x_r _:._:
the king of the good land
:cr _:_.:r ~:)
the word of the good king
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Chapter 10c - Construct Chain
with demonstrative adjectives
Just like attributive adjectives,
demonstrative adjectives must also
follow the construct chain.
r_:.x_r x:_:r :)
these words of the prophet
r:r x:_:r :)
the words of this prophet
r:r :cr x:_:r :)
the words of this good prophet
r:r x:_:r ~:)
the word of this prophet or
this word of the prophet
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Chapter 10d - Construct Chain
vowel reduction (spelling)
A construct noun surrenders its
primary accent and
a. Qamets (and sometimes Tsere) changes to Pathach
in a final closed syllable.
c_sc: judgement csc: judgement of
rat: altar rat: altar of
b. Qamets or Tsere changes to Vocal Shewa in an open,
unaccented syllable.
c:_c peace c:c peace of
c;_: place c;: place of
c. Both rules a and b may apply to the formation of a
noun in the construct state.
~_:_: word ~:: word of
:_:: heart ::: heart of
d. Monosyllabic nouns with changeable long vowels
reduce to the corresponding short vowel.
;a son ;_a son of
:: all :_: all of
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Chapter 10e - Construct Chain
masculine plural and dual
The masculine plural c: and dual c.: endings
change to : (Tsere-Yod) in the construct state and
then the rules of vowel reduction apply.
cr:_x God r:_x God of
c:_a sons :a sons of
c>:v two eyes :v (two) eyes of
c~_: : words ~:: words of
In the last example, both propretonic reduction
and Rule of Shewa apply.
c~_:) : : : :
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Chapter 10f - Construct Chain
feminine singular
Feminine singular nouns ending in r_ : change
this ending to r: in the construct state and
then the rules of vowel reduction apply.
r_r law r ~r law of
r_::: queen r::: queen of
r_:_c year r:c year of
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Chapter 10g - Construct Chain
feminine plural
Feminine plural nouns ending in r retain this plural
ending and then the rules of vowel
reduction will apply.
r:_:::kingdoms r:::: kingdoms of
r:c names r:c names of
r:_c fields r:c fields of
r:_a blessings r:a blessings of
In the last example, both propretonic reduction
and Rule of Shewa apply.
r:_a r:a r:a
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Chapter 10h - Construct Chain
miscellaneous nouns (a)
Certain singular monosyllabic nouns add Hireq Yod
to their stem in the construct state. Do not to confuse
this Hireq Yod with the 1cs pronominal
suffix (:_x my father).
:_x father :_x father of
r_x brother r_x brother of
The diphthong .: as in r.a (house) changes to
Tsere Yod in the construct state.
r .a house ra house of
;.v spring ;v spring of
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Chapter 10i - Construct Chain
miscellaneous nouns (b)
The singular absolute of Segholate nouns is identical
to its singular construct form. The plural construct
form follows the pattern of ::: (kings of).
_:._: king _:._: king of
:_:._v servant :_:._v servant of
c:_:: kings ::: kings of
c)_:_v servants ):v servants of
Nouns ending in r_ (with Seghol) have a singular
construct form ending in r (with Tsere).
r)_c field r:c field of
r:_r: camp r:_r: camp of
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Chapter 11a - Numbers
cardinals:1-10
Masculine Feminine
Absolute Construct Absolute Construct
One :_r_x :rx rrx rrx
Two c>:c :c c .rc rc
Three c:_c c:c r_c:c rc.:c
Four vax vax r_v_ax rv.ax
Five c:_r c:_r r_c:_r rc.:_r
Six cc cc r_cc rc.c
Seven v:.c v:c r_v:c rv:c
Eight r::c r::c r_::c r::c
Nine vc.r vcr r_vcr rvcr
Ten ~c._v ~c._v r__c_v r.c_v
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Chapter 11b - Numbers
cardinals:11-19
With Masculine With Feminine
Nouns Nouns
Eleven ~_c_v :rx rc_v rrx
~_c_v rcv rc_v rcv
Twelve ~_c_v :c rc_v rc
~_c_v c:c rc_v crc
Thirteen ~_c_v r_c:c rc_v c:c
Fourteen ~_c_v r_v_ax rc_v vax
Fifteen ~_c_v r_c:_r rc_v c:_r
Sixteen ~_c_v r_cc rc_v cc
Seventeen ~_c_v r_v:c rc_v v:c
Eighteen ~_c_v r_::c rc_v r::c
Nineteen ~_c_v r_vcr rc_v vcr
r_:_c rc_v c:c thirteen years (1 Kgs 7:1)
c ~_c_v r_v_ax fourteen days (Ex 12:6)
:_c ~_c_v r_c:_r fifteen shekels (Lev 27:7)
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Chapter 11c - Numbers
cardinals:20-99
Twenty c~c_v
Thirty cc:c
Forty cv_ax
Fifty cc:_r
Sixty ccc
Seventy cv:c
Eighty c::c
Ninety cvcr
rrx c~c_v twenty-one (2 Kgs 24:18)
r_v:c cv:c seventy-seven (Gen 4:24)
vcr_ cvcr ninety-nine (Gen 17:24)
cc:c c:c thirty-two (Num 31:40)
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Chapter 11d - Numbers
cardinals:100+
One Hundred r_x:
Two Hundred c.rx_:
Three Hundred rx: c:c
One Thousand _:_ .x
Two Thousand c.s:x
Three Thousand c:_:_x rc:c
Ten Thousand r_:_:
Twenty Thousand c .ra~
Thirty Thousand ra~ c:c
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Chapter 11e - Numbers
ordinal numbers
Masculine Feminine
First ;cx~ r_:cx~
Second :c r:c
Third c:c rc:c
Fourth v: rv:
Fifth c:_r rc:_r
Sixth cc rcc
Seventh v:c rv:c
Eighth ::c r::c
Ninth vcr rvcr
Tenth ~c_v r~c_v
;cx~_r ca on the first day (Lev 23:7)
v:cr ca on the seventh day (Gen 2:2)
cv_ax_r r:ca in the fortieth year (1 Chr 26:31)
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Chapter 12a - Intro to Verbs
verbal stems: names
English Hebrew Spelling
Spelling Spelling Diagnostics
Qal :; unaugmented
Niphal :v:: : prefix; Pathach stem vowel
Piel :vs Hireq-Tsere vowel pattern
Pual :v_s Qibbuts-Pathach vowel pattern
Hiphil :v:r r prefix; Hireq Yod stem vowel
Hophal :v:_r _r prefix; Pathach stem vowel
Hithpael :vsrr rr prefix; Tsere stem vowel
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Chapter 12b - Intro to Verbs
verbal stems: meaning
Qal Simple/Active. Qal verbs are active in voice, though a few
passive forms do exist. The Qal stem also exhibits the
simple or unnuanced type of action.
Niphal Simple/Passive or Reflexive. The Niphal stem is used to
express simple action with either a passive or reflexive
voice. In other words, whatever a verb means in the Qal
stem, it becomes passive or reflexive in the Niphal stem.
Piel Intensive/Active. The Piel stem is sometimes used to
express an intensive type of action with an active voice. In
other words, the simple action of the Qal stem will take
on some type of intensive nuance in the Piel stem.
Pual Intensive/Passive. The Pual is the passive form of the
Piel. The Pual stem, therefore, is used to express an
intensive type of action with a passive voice.
Hiphil Causative/Active. The Hiphil stem is used to express
causative action with an active voice. For example, the verb
:_: means he was king or he reigned in the Qal stem.
The Hiphil form, however, is ::r and means he caused
to reign or he made (someone) king.
Hophal Causative/Passive. The Hophal is the passive form of the
Hiphil. The Hophal stem, therefore, is used to express
causative action with a passive voice. For example, the
Hiphil verb ::r means he made (someone) king. The
Hophal form is ::_r and it is translated he was made
king.
Hithpael Intensive/Reflexive. The Hithpael stem is used to express
an intensive type of action with a reflexive (or sometimes
passive) voice. For example, the verb x_:_r means he hid
in the Qal stem. The Hithpael form is xarrr and it means
he hid himself.
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Chapter 12c - Intro to Verbs
summary: stem meaning and translation
Simple Intensive Causative
Action Action Action
Active Voice Qal Piel Hiphil
Passive Voice Niphal Pual Hophal
Reflexive Voice Niphal Hithpael
Form Translation
Qal v:_c he heard
Niphal v:c: he was heard
Piel ~ac he smashed into pieces
Pual ~ac he was smashed into pieces
Hiphil ::r he made king
Hophal ::_r he was made king
Hithpael xarrr he hid himself
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Chapter 12d - Intro to Verbs
verbal conjugations
Perfect Completed Action. The Perfect aspect denotes completed
action, whether in the past, present or future.
Imperfect Incomplete Action. The Imperfect aspect denotes
incomplete action, whether in the past, present or future.
Imperative 2nd Person Command. The Imperative conjugation is
used primarily to express direct commands, demanding
immediate action from the one being addressed.
Cohortative 1st Person Volitional. The Cohortative is used to express
a wish, request or command. It may also be used to
express purpose (in order to) or result (resulting in).
Jussive 3rd Person Volitional. The Jussive conjugation is also
used to express some type of mild command or strong
wish.
Infinitive Verbal Noun. The Infinitive Construct can function much
like an English Infinitive, usually translated with the
preposition to plus a verb as in to study or to learn.
Infinitive Verbal Noun. The Hebrew Infinitive Absolute has no real
English counterpart. It may be used in conjunction with
other verbs to emphasize or intensify the verbal action. It
may also be used in the place of an Imperative to express
a command.
Participle Verbal Adjective. Verbally, the Participle expresses some
type of verbal action such as studying or learning.
Adjectivally, it is used much like a Hebrew adjective:
attributively, predicatively or substantively.
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt

Construct
Absolute
Root
:c;
Qal Stem
Hithpael
:c;rr :c;_r
Hiphil
:c;r
Hophal Pual
:c
Piel
:c;
Niphal
:c;:
:c_;
Chapter 12e - Intro to Verbs
roots, stems & conjugations
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
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Perfect
Imperfect
Imperative
Cohortative
Jussive
Inf Construct
Inf Absolute
Participle
Verbal Conjugations
Derived Stems
Chapter 12f - Intro to Verbs
weak verb classification
Class Example Description
I-Guttural ::_ v guttural in first root position
II-Guttural : x_: guttural in second root position
III-r/v r~_a r or v in third root position
III-x x_x_: x in third root position
III-r r_:_a r in third root position
I- :c_ in first root position
I-: ::_ : : in first root position
Doubly Weak r_ :_v I-Guttural and III-r (for one example)
Biconsonantal c_; only two root consonants
Geminate ::_c identical second and third consonants
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Chapter 12g - Intro to Verbs
verbal sentence word order
Normal word order for a verbal sentence is
verb-subject-object.
;_x_r rx c:_cr rx cr:_x x__a
God created the heavens and the earth.
Gen 1:1
It is not uncommon for the direct object to stand
at the beginning of a Hebrew sentence
for the purpose of emphasis.
x_r _r:_x r_r"r_x
Yahweh your God you shall fear.
Deut 10:20
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verb subject object object
verb object
Chapter 13a - Qal Perfect: Strong
introduction
The Qal Stem
Qal verbs are active in voice with the simple or unnuanced type of
action. The simple action of the Qal stem is further divided into
transitive, intransitive and stative.
1. Transitive. Transitive verbs may take a direct object. In the example
the prophet wrote the book, the word book is the direct object of
the verb wrote because it receives the verbal action.
2. Intransitive. Intransitive verbs cannot take a direct object. In the
example the king perished in the battle, the verb perished cannot
take a direct object. Other examples of intransitive verbs include to
live, to die and to fast.
3. Stative. Stative verbs are used to describe a state of being. In the
example, the priest is old, the verbal construction is old describes
the state or condition of the subject (the priest). In English, a stative
(or state-of-being) idea is expressed with a form of the verb to be
(is) and an adjective (old). In Hebrew, a stative idea is expressed
through various verbs themselves, such as ::_: (to be heavy) and ;c_;
(to be small). Most stative verbs are considered to be intransitive
because they cannot take a direct object.
The Perfect Conjugation
The Perfect conjugation is used to express a completed action or state of
being. It must be emphasized that the Hebrew Perfect does not have
tense (time of action) apart from context and issues of syntax. Rather,
it signifies aspect (type of action). The Perfect aspect designates a
verbal action with its conclusion envisioned in the mind of the speaker
or writer. To state it differently, the Perfect aspect denotes completed
action, whether in the past, present or future.
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Chapter 13b - Qal Perfect: Strong
qal perfect paradigm
Sufformative Perfect Translation
3ms :c_; he killed
3fs r_ : r_ :c,; she killed
2ms _r: _r:.c_; you killed
2fs r: r:c_; you killed
1cs r: r:.c_; I killed
3cp : :c,; they killed
2mp cr: cr:c; you killed
2fp ;r: ;r:c; you killed
1cp :: ::.c_; we killed
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Chapter 13c - Qal Perfect: Strong
other strong verbs
:c_ ~:_t :r_: ~:_c ;:_;
to dwell to remember to write to keep to gather
3ms :c_ ~:_t :r_: ~:_c ;:_;
3fs r_ :c< r_ ~:<t r_ :r<: r_ ~:,c r_ x:,;
2ms _r: .c_ _r.:_t _r:.r_: _r.:_c _rx.:_;
2fs r:c_ r:_t r:r_: r:_c rx:_;
1cs r: .c_ r.:_t r:.r_: r .:_c rx.:_;
3cp :c< ~:<t :r<: ~:,c x:,;
2mp cr :c cr:t cr:r: cr:c crx:;
2fp ;r :c ;r:t ;r :r: ;r:c ;rx:;
1cp : : .c_ : .:_t : :.r_: : .:_c : x.:_;
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Chapter 13d - Qal Perfect: Strong
verbal roots ending in r and :
When a verbal root ending in r receives a sufformative
beginning with r, the two identical consonants become
one consonant with a Daghesh Forte (rr r). Five of the
Perfect sufformatives begin with r.
_rr.~_: _ r.~_: 2ms you cut
rr~_: r~_: 2fs you cut
rr.~_: r.~_: 1cs I cut
crr~: c_ r~: 2mp you cut
;rr~: ;_ r~: 2fp you cut
When a verbal root ending in : receives a Perfect
sufformative beginning with :, the two identical consonants
become one consonant with Daghesh Forte (:: :). The
only sufformative that begins with : is the 1cp (:). The
final : of a verbal root may also assimilate into suffirmatives
ending in r (r: r).
::.:_c : .:_c 1cp we dwell
r:.r_: r.r_: 1cp we dwell
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Chapter 13e - Qal Perfect: Strong
stative verbs
Stative verbs are classified by their stem vowel. The stem
vowel is the vowel that is associated with the second root consonant.
In transitive strong verb paradigms, the stem vowel is
Pathach as in :c_;, ~:_c and ~:_t. With stative verbs, the
stem vowel is variable.
Pathach-Stative Tsere-Stative Holem-Stative
::_: to be great ::_:to be heavy ;c_; to be small
c:_r to be wise ;;_t to be old ::_ to be able
Pathach- Tsere- Holem-
Stative Stative Stative
3ms :)_: ::_: ;c_;
3fs r_:)<: r_::<: r_:c,;
2ms _r:.)_: _r).:_: _r:.c_;
2fs r:)_: r):_: r:c_;
1cs r:.)_: r) .:_: r:.c_;
3cp :)<: ::<: :c,;
2mp cr:): cr):: cr:_c;
2fp ;r:): ;r):: ;r:_c;
1cp ::.)_: :) .:_: :.c_;
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Chapter 13f - Qal Perfect: Strong
parsing
The parsing of Perfect verbs involves the identification
of the verbal stem, conjugation, person, gender, number
and verbal root. When parsing, give the appropriate
information in the proper order as the following
examples illustrate (translation is not a required part
of parsing information).
r.:_t Qal Perfect 1cs ~:_t I remembered
r .:_c Qal Perfect 2fs ~:_c you observed
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Chapter 13g - Qal Perfect: Strong
the negative particle x:
Perfect (and Imperfect) verbs are negated with the
particle x:, usually translated not. It may also be
spelled x:. The negative particle is always placed
immediately before the verb.
r~rr!r_x cr:c x:
You did not observe the laws.
r~ar!r_x _r.:_t x:
You did not remember the covenant.
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Chapter 13h - Qal Perfect: Strong
the particle r:r
The word r:r (also as ;r and !;_r) is commonly translated behold.
It can stand alone or take Type 1 pronominal suffixes.
1cs ::r/:>:r 1cp ::r/:>:r
2ms :r 2mp c_::r
2fs _:r 2fp
3ms :r 3mp c_:r
1. The particle r:r may be used to add emphasis.
r_c_v ~c_x!:_:!r_x cr:_x x r:r ! :x: :c
And God saw all that he had made, and
behold, (it was) very good (Gen 1:31).
2. The particle r:r may be used to indicate the immediate presence of
someone or something.
r:r _:v ::_x
And behold, I am with you (Gen 28:15).
3. The particle r:r may be used to introduce a fact or situation upon
which a subsequent statement is based.
:x_c!:_:!:_x :x:c ~_:x r:r c_::;: rv:_c
_:_: c_::_v ::x_ : cr:_x!~c_x :::
And Samuel said to all of Israel, Behold, I have
listened to all that you have said to me and (therefore)
I have caused a king to reign over you (1 Sam 12:1).
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
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Chapter 14a - Qal Perfect: Weak
I-Guttural, II-Guttural and III-r/v
I-Guttural II-Guttural III-r/v Strong
3ms ::_v ~r_a v:_c :c_;
3fs r):<v r__r<a r_v:,c r_:c,;
2ms _r).:_v _r .r_a _rv.:_c _r:.c_;
2fs r):_v rr_a rv.:_c r:c_;
1cs r).:_v r.r_a rv.:_c r:.c_;
3cp ::<v ~_r<a v:,c :c,;
2mp cr):_v crra crv:c cr:c;
2fp ;r):_v ;rra ;rv:c ;r:c;
1cp :).:_v : .r_a :v.:_c ::.c_;
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Chapter 14b - Qal Perfect: Weak
III-x
III-x Strong
3ms x_x_: :c_;
3fs r_xx,: r_:c,;
2ms _rx._x_: _r:.c_;
2fs rx_x_: r:c_;
1cs rx._x_: r:.c_;
3cp xx,: :c,;
2mp crx_x: cr:c;
2fp ;rx_x: ;r:c;
1cp :x._x_: ::.c_;
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Chapter 14c - Qal Perfect: Weak
III-r
III-r Strong
3ms r_:_a :c_;
3fs r_r:<a r_:c,;
2ms _r.:_a _r:.c_;
2fs r:_a r:c_;
1cs r.:_a r:.c_;
3cp :_a :c,;
2mp cr:a cr:c;
2fp ;r:a ;r:c;
1cp :.:_a ::.c_;
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Chapter 14d - Qal Perfect: Weak
doubly weak verbs
III-r/ III-r/ Strong
II-Gutt I-Gutt Verb
3ms r_x_ r_:_v :c_;
3fs r_r_x_ r_r:,v r_:c,;
2ms _r.x_ _r.:_v _r:.c_;
2fs rx_ r:_v r:c_;
1cs r.x_ r.:_v r:.c_;
3cp x_ :_v :c,;
2mp crx cr:_v cr:c;
2fp ;rx ;r:_v ;r:c;
1cp :.x_ :.:_v ::.c_;
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Chapter 14e - Qal Perfect: Weak
geminate verbs
Geminate Geminate Geminate Strong
Strong Weak 1 Weak 2 Verb
3ms ::_c ~~_x cr :c_;
3fs r_::,c r_,x r_ :.r r_:c,;
2ms _r.:c _r.~_x _r. :r _r:.c_;
2fs r:c r~_x r :r r:c_;
1cs r.:c r.~_x r. :r r:.c_;
3cp ::,c ~,x : .r :c,;
2mp cr:c cr~_x cr :r cr:c;
2fp ;r:c ;r~_x ;r :r ;r:c;
1cp :.:c :.~_x :. :r ::.c_;
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Chapter 14f - Qal Perfect: Weak
biconsonantal verbs
Strong
Strong Strong Weak Verb
3ms c_; c_c x_a :c_;
3fs r_:_ .; r_:._c r_x_ .a r_:c,;
2ms _r:.; _r:.c _rx_ .a _r:.c_;
2fs r:; r:c rx_a r:c_;
1cs r:.; r: .c rx._a r:.c_;
3cp :_ .; :._c x._a :c,;
2mp cr:; cr:c crxa cr:c;
2fp ;r:; ;r:c ;rxa ;r:c;
1cp ::.; :: .c :x._a ::.c_;
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Chapter 14g - Qal Perfect: Weak
advanced information: ;r_: and r__r
;r_: r__r Strong
to give to be Verb
3ms ;r_: r__r :c_;
3fs r_:r<: r_ r<r r_:c,;
2ms _ r.r_: _r>_r _r:.c_;
2fs r.r_: r_r r:c_;
1cs r.r_: r>_r r:.c_;
3cp :r<: _r :c,;
2mp c_ rr: cr_r cr:c;
2fp ;_ rr: ;r_r ;r:c;
1cp : .r_: :>_r ::.c_;
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Chapter 14h - Qal Perfect: Weak
advanced information: x_ and r:
x_ r: Strong
to be afraid to die Verb
3ms x_ r: :c_;
3fs r_x< r_r.: r_:c,;
2ms _rx._ r_r.: _r:.c_;
2fs rx._ r: r:c_;
1cs rx._ r.: r:.c_;
3cp x< r.: :c,;
2mp crx cr: cr:c;
2fp ;rx ;r: ;r:c;
1cp :x._ :r.: ::.c_;
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Chapter 15a - Qal Imperfect: Strong
master paradigm
Suffor- Imperfect Prefor- Translation
mative Paradigm mative
3ms :c; he will kill
3fs :c;r r she will kill
2ms :c;r r you (ms) will kill
2fs : :c;r r you (fs) will kill
1cs :c;_x _x I will kill
3mp :c; they (mp) will kill
3fp r_: r_::.c;r r they (fp) will kill
2mp :c;r r you (mp) will kill
2fp r_: r_::.c;r r you (fp) will kill
1cp :c;: : we will kill
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Chapter 15b - Qal Imperfect: Strong
other imperfect strong verbs
~:_t :r_: ~:_c ;:_;
to remember to write to keep to gather
3ms ~:t :r: ~:c ;a;
3fs ~:tr :r:r ~:cr ;a;r
2ms ~:tr :r:r ~:cr ;a;r
2fs ~:tr :r:r ~:cr xa;r
1cs ~:t_x :r:_x ~:c_x ;a;_x
3mp ~:t :r: ~:c xa;
3fp r_: .:tr r_:: .r:r r_: .:cr r_:x .a;r
2mp ~:tr :r:r ~:cr xa;r
2fp r_: .:tr r_:: .r:r r_: .:cr r_:x .a;r
1cp ~:t: :r:: ~:c: ;a;:
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Chapter 15c - Qal Imperfect: Strong
stative verbs
With the Imperfect inflection of stative verbs,
the stem vowel is Pathach regardless
of the stem vowel in the Perfect.
Perfect Imperfect
Pathach-Stative :)_: :::
Tsere-Stative ::_: :a:
Holem-Stative ;c_; ;c;
:)_: ::_: ;c_;
Pathach- Tsere- Holem-
Stative Stative Stative
3ms :): :a: ;c;
3fs :):r :a:r ;c;r
2ms :):r :a:r ;c;r
2fs :):r )a:r :c;r
1cs :):_x :a:_x ;c;_x
3mp :): :a: :c;
3fp r_:: .::r r_:) .a:r r_: .c;r
2mp :):r :a:r :c;r
2fp r_:: .::r r_:) .a:r r_: .c;r
1cp :):: :a:: ;c;:
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
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Chapter 15d - Qal Imperfect: Strong
parsing
When asked to parse Qal Imperfect verbs, you will be
required to identify the verbal stem, conjugation,
person, gender, number and verbal root. When parsing,
give the required information in the proper order as
the following examples illustrate (translation is not a
required part of the parsing information).
v:c Qal Imperfect 3mp v:_c they will hear
:: Qal Imperfect 3ms :_: he will reign
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Chapter 15e - Qal Imperfect: Strong
negative particles x: and :x
The Imperfect can be negated with x:. This
negative particle is always placed immediately
before the verb. It can simply negate the verb or
it may be used with the Imperfect for an absolute
or permanent prohibition.
r_xr x:
you shall not kill (Ex 20:13)
_x:r x:
you shall not commit adultery (Ex 20:14)
The Imperfact can also be negated with :x (with
Maqqef ":x). This negative particle is used with
the Imperfect to express an immediate, specific
and non-durative prohibition.
x_r":x
Do not fear! (Gen 15:1)
c_:x:: :)":_x v:cr":x
Do not listen to the words of your prophets! (Jer 27:14)
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Chapter 16a - Qal Imperfect: Weak
II-guttural/III-/
II-Guttural III-/ Strong
3ms ~r: r:c :c;
3fs ~r:r r:cr :c;r
2ms ~r:r r:cr :c;r
2fs ~_r:r r:cr :c;r
1cs ~r:_x r:c_x :c;_x
3mp ~_r: r:c :c;
3fp r_:.r:r r_:r.:cr r_:: .c;r
2mp ~_r:r r:cr :c;r
2fp r_:.r:r r_:r.:cr r_:: .c;r
1cp ~r:: r:c: :c;:
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Chapter 16b - Qal Imperfect: Weak
III-
III- Strong
3ms x_x: :c;
3fs x_x:r :c;r
2ms x_x:r :c;r
2fs xx:r :c;r
1cs x_x:_x :c;_x
3mp xx: :c;
3fp r_:x_.x:r r_:: .c;r
2mp xx:r :c;r
2fp r_:x_.x:r r_:: .c;r
1cp x_x:: :c;:
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
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Chapter 16c - Qal Imperfect: Weak
III-
III- Strong
3ms r_:: :c;
3fs r_::r :c;r
2ms r_::r :c;r
2fs ::r :c;r
1cs r_::_x :c;_x
3mp :: :c;
3fp r_:._::r r_:: .c;r
2mp ::r :c;r
2fp r_:._::r r_:: .c;r
1cp r_::: :c;:
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Chapter 16d - Qal Imperfect: Weak
I-guttural
I-Guttural I-Guttural
Type 1 Type 2 Strong
3ms ;t_r_ ::_v :c;
3fs ;t_rr ::_vr :c;r
2ms ;t_rr ::_vr :c;r
2fs ;t_rr ):vr :c;r
1cs ;t_r_x ::_v_x :c;_x
3mp ;t_r ::v :c;
3fp r_:;>t_rr r_:) .:_vr r_:: .c;r
2mp ;t_rr ::vr :c;r
2fp r_:;>t_rr r_:) .:_vr r_:: .c;r
1cp ;t_r: ::_v: :c;:
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Chapter 16e - Qal Imperfect: Weak
I-
I- I-
Type 1 Type 2 Strong
3ms ~c_x_ ~:x :c;
3fs ~c_xr ~:xr :c;r
2ms ~c_xr ~:xr :c;r
2fs ~cxr ~:xr :c;r
1cs ~c_x_x ~:x :c;_x
3mp ~cx ~:x :c;
3fp r_: .c_xr r_: .:xr r_:: .c;r
2mp ~cxr ~:xr :c;r
2fp r_: .c_xr r_: .:xr r_:: .c;r
1cp ~c_x: ~:x: :c;:
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
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Chapter 16f - Qal Imperfect: Weak
biconsonantal classification
Qal Perfect 3ms Qal Imperfect 3ms Lexical Entry
- Class c he arose c;_ he will arise c; to arise
:- Class c_c he placed cc_ he will place cc to place
- Class x_a he entered x:_ he will enter xa to enter
Chapter 16g - Qal Imperfect: Weak
biconsonantal paradigms
Class : Class Class
c; cc xa Strong
3ms c;_ cc_ x:_ :c;
3fs c;_r cc_r x:_r :c;r
2ms c;_r cc_r x:_r :c;r
2fs :.;_r : .c_r x.:_r :c;r
1cs c;_x cc_x x:_x :c;_x
3mp :.;_ :.c_ x.:_ :c;
3fp r_:._:;r r_:_ .:cr r_:x.:_r r_:: .c;r
2mp :.;_r :.c_r x.:_r :c;r
2fp r_:._:;r r_:_ .:cr r_:x.:_r r_:: .c;r
1cp c;_: cc_: x:_: :c;:
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Chapter 16h - Qal Imperfect: Weak
I-
Type 1 :_r Type 2 Strong
3ms :c : c ~ :c;
3fs :cr :r c~r :c;r
2ms :cr :r c~r :c;r
2fs :cr ::r cr :c;r
1cs :cx :x c~x :c;_x
3mp : c : : c :c;
3fp r_::.cr r_::.:r r_:c.~r r_:: .c;r
2mp :cr ::r cr :c;r
2fp r_::.cr r_::.:r r_:c.~r r_:: .c;r
1cp : c: :: c~: :c;:
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Chapter 16i - Qal Imperfect: Weak
I-
Type 1 Type 2 Doubly Weak Strong
3ms : : vc :r: :c;
3fs : :r vcr :r:r :c;r
2ms : :r vcr :r:r :c;r
2fs : :r vcr :_r:r :c;r
1cs : :_x vc_x :r:_x :c;_x
3mp : : vc :_r: :c;
3fp r_::. :r r_:v.cr r_::.r:r r_:: .c;r
2mp : :r vcr :_r:r :c;r
2fp r_::. :r r_:v.cr r_::.r:r r_:: .c;r
1cp : :: vc: :r:: :c;:
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Chapter 16j - Qal Imperfect: Weak
summary
II-Gutt III-r/v III-x III-r
3ms ~r: r:c x_x: r_::
3fs ~r:r r:cr x_x:r r_::r
2ms ~r:r r:cr x_x:r r_::r
2fs ~_r:r r:cr xx:r ::r
1cs ~r:_x r:c_x x_x:_x r_::_x
3mp ~_r: r:c xx: ::
3fp r_:.r:r r_:r.:cr r_:x_.x:r r_:>_::r
2mp ~_r:r r:cr xx:r ::r
2fp r_:.r:r r_:r.:cr r_:x_.x:r r_:>_::r
1cp ~r:: r:c: x_x:: r_:::
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 17a - Waw Conversive
introduction
Converted verbal forms are
used primarily to denote
sequences of consecutive
actions, either in the past,
present or future.
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt

Chapter 17b - Waw Conversive


basic form with imperfect
Qal Imperfect without Qal Imperfect with
Waw Conversive Waw Conversive
~:c ~:c
he will observe and he observed
~:t ~:t
he will remember and he remembered
Imperfect with
Waw Conversive
:c ;
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Chapter 17c - Waw Conversive
imperfect strong verb paradigm
Imperfect with Waw Conversive
3ms :c ; and he killed
3fs :c; r and she killed
2ms :c; r and you killed
2fs : c ; r and you killed
1cs :c;_x_ and I killed
3mp :c ; and they killed
3fp r_:: .c ; r and they killed
2mp :c ; r and you killed
2fp r_:: .c ; r and you killed
1cp :c ;: and we killed
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
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Chapter 17d - Waw Conversive
waw conversive and regular waw
Qal Imperfect with Qal Imperfect with
Waw Conversive Regular Waw
3ms :c ; :c; and he will kill
3fs :c ; r :c;r and she will kill
2ms :c ; r :c;r and you will kill
2fs :c ; r :c;r and you will kill
1cs :c;_x_ :c;_x and I will kill
3mp :c ; :c; and they will kill
3fp r_:: .c ; r r_::.c;r and they will kill
2mp :c ; r :c;r and you will kill
2fp r_:: .c ; r r_::.c;r and you will kill
1cp :c ;: :c;: and we will kill
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Chapter 17e - Waw Conversive
use of converted imperfect
1. A past tense narrative sequence may begin with a Perfect
verb followed by any number of converted Imperfect
verbs.
c_:_x_r v)_ rcx r_r"r_x ~rr :_:r ;;"r_x
And Adam knew Eve his wife, and then she
conceived, and then she bore Cain (Gen 4:1).
2. A past tense narrative sequence may begin with the
temporal modifier r followed by Imperfect verbs with
Waw Conversive.
r c_r_:x r: _rx _: :a ;_rx"r_x cr:_x
And after the death of Abraham
God blessed Isaac his son (Gen 25:11).
3. A past tense narrative sequence may begin with the
converted Imperfect itself.
x_; rc:":_x ~a) :v: :_rx: _:x r_r
And he called to Moses and Yahweh spoke to him
from the tent of meeting (Lev 1:1).
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Chapter 17f - Waw Conversive
changes in spelling
With I-x verbs like ~:_x and some I- verbs (including
:_r), the stem vowel changes to Seghol.
~:x he will say ~_:x> and he said
:c he will dwell :c> and he dwelt
: he will go _:> and he went
Biconsonantal and III-r verbs are shortened in
converted Imperfect forms without a sufformative
(except the 1cs). With Biconsonantal verbs, the medial
vowel letter is lost. With III-r verbs, the final r drops
off.
c;_ he will rise up c_;>_ and he rose up
cc_ he will set cc>_ and he set
r:: he will build ;_:> and he built
r_:: he will reveal ::> and he revealed
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
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Chapter 17g - Waw Conversive
basic form with perfect
Qal Perfect without Qal Perfect with
Waw Conversive Waw Conversive
~:_c ~:_c
he observed and he will observe
~:_t ~:_t
he remembered and he will remember
Perfect with
Waw Conversive
:c_;
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Chapter 17h - Waw Conversive
perfect strong verb paradigm
Perfect with Waw Conversive
3ms :c_; and he will kill
3fs r_:c,; and she will kill
2ms ._r:c and you will kill
2fs r:c and you will kill
1cs .r:c and I will kill
3cp :c,; and they will kill
2mp cr:c; and you will kill
2fp ;r:c; and you will kill
1cp ::c and we will kill
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Chapter 17i - Waw Conversive
use of converted perfect
1. The future tense narrative sequence may begin with an
Imperfect verb followed by any number of converted
Perfect verbs.
c:_ rcc ::_vr _rc_v r:x::":_:
Six days you will labor and (you will) do
all your work (Deut 5:13).
2. The temporal modifier r__r may mark the beginning of
a future tense narrative sequence.
r__r xrr ca r:_c :x_c rc"r_x
And in that day I will break the
bow of Israel (Hos 1:5).
3. The converted Perfect will frequently follow an
Imperative verb and carry the full force of the initial
Imperative.
::_v r_r ra ~vca _rx__; ~_:_:r"r_x c_c
r:r _r:_x r_r"~:) v:c
Stand (Imperative) in the gate of Yahwehs house and
(you will) proclaim there this word and (you will) say,
Hear the word of Yahweh (Jer 7:2).
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Chapter 17j - Waw Conversive
parsing
The parsing of converted verbal forms is just like the parsing
of regular Perfect or Imperfect verbs except that you must
identify the presence of the Waw Conversive.
~:c Qal Imperfect 3ms ~:_c with Waw Conversive
~:_t Qal Perfect 3ms ~:_t with Waw Conversive
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Chapter 18a - Qal Imperative
introduction
Volitional Conjugations
The term volitional describes those
conjugations used, as a general rule,
to express some type of command,
wish or desire.
Imperative
2nd person volitional conjugation
Cohortative
1st person volitional conjugation
Jussive
3rd person volitional conjugation
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt

Chapter 18b - Qal Imperative


strong verb paradigm
Imperative Sufformative Translation
2ms :c; (you) kill!
2fs :c; : (you) kill!
2mp :c; : (you) kill!
2fp r_::.c; r_:: (you) kill!
Imperfect Subtract Imperative
Form Preformative Form
2ms :c;r :c;|r :c;
2fs :c;r :c;|r :c;
2mp :c;r :c;|r :c;
2fp r_:: .c;r r_:: .c;|r r_:: .c;
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Chapter 18c - Qal Imperative
lengthened 2ms imperative
Lexical Regular Lengthened
Form Imperative Imperative Translation
:c_; :c; r_:c_; you (2ms) kill!
~:_c ~:c r _ ~:_c you (2ms) observe!
c:_c c:c r_c:_c you (2ms) judge!
v:_c v:c r_v:c you (2ms) listen!
The vowel in the first syllable of a lengthened
Imperative like r_:c_; is Qamets Hatuf
It may also appear with Hireq as in r_v:c
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Chapter 18d - Qal Imperative
the particle x_:
Imperatives (along with the other volitional
conjugations) may be followed by the
particle x_: which can be translated as
please or simply left untranslated.
x_: ~:c
x_:"~_:c
observe! or
please observe!
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Chapter 18e - Qal Imperative
weak verbs: part 1
I-Guttural II-Guttural
2ms ;t_rr ;t_r ~r:r ~ra
2fs ;t_rr ;tr ~_r:r ~_ra
2mp ;t_rr ;tr ~_r:r ~_ra
2fp r_:;.t_rr r_:;.t_r r_: .r:r r_: .ra
I-x Type 1 I-x Type 2
2ms ~c_xr ~c_x ~:xr ~:_x
2fs ~cxr ~cx ~:xr ~:x
2mp ~cxr ~cx ~:xr ~:x
2fp r_: .c_xr r_:.c_x r_: .:xr r_: .:_x
III-r/v III-x
2ms r:cr r:c x_x:r x_x:
2fs r:cr r:c xx:r xx:
2mp r:cr r:c xx:r xx:
2fp r_:r .:cr r_:r.:c r_:x_ .x:r r_:x._x:
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Chapter 18f - Qal Imperative
weak verbs: part 2
III-r Geminate
2ms r::r r:a :c_r :c
2fs ::r :a a.c_r a.c
2mp ::r :a a .c_r a .c
2fp r_:>::r r_:>:a r_:_ .a_cr r_:: .c
I-: Type 1 I-: Type 2
2ms :sr ::: vcr vc
2fs :sr ::: vcr vc
2mp :sr ::: vcr vc
2fp r_::.sr r_::.:: r_:v .cr r_:v.c
I- Type 1 I- Type 2
2ms :cr :c c~r c~
2fs :cr :c cr c
2mp :cr :c cr c
2fp r_::.cr r_::.c r_:c.~r r_:c.~
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Chapter 18g - Qal Imperative
biconsonantal verbs
c; cc
2ms c;_r c; cc_r cc
2fs :.;_r :.; : .c_r : .c
2mp :.;_r :.; : .c_r : .c
2fp r_:._:;r r_::.; r_:_ .:cr
xa
2ms x:_r xa
2fs x.:_r x.a
2mp x.:_r x.a
2fp r_:x.:_r
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Chapter 18h - Qal Imperative
irregular/doubly weak verbs
;r_: (to give) r;_: (to take)
2ms ;rr ;r r;r r;
2fs :rr :r r;r r;
2mp :rr :r r;r r;
2fp r_:.rr r_: .r r_:r .;r r_:r.;
:_r (to walk) r__r (to be)
2ms :r : rrr r_r
2fs ::r :: rr
2mp ::r :: rr _r
2fp r_:: .:r r_:: .: r_:>rr
r_:_v (to go up) r_c_: (to extend)
2ms r_:_vr r:_v r_cr rc:
2fs :_vr :_v cr c:
2mp :_vr :_v cr c:
2fp r_:._:_vr r_:._:_v r_:._cr r_:._c:
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Chapter 18i - Qal Cohortative
the basics
The Cohortative occurs only in the first person,
singular and plural. It is constructed by adding
r_ : to a first person form of the Imperfect.
This final r_: is the diagnostic indicator of the
Cohortative conjugation.
Imperfect Cohortative
:c;_x + r_ : = r_ :c;_x
:c;: + r_ : = r_ :c;:
r_r r _ ~:c_x May I observe your law.
Let me observe your law.
r~: r_r:: Let us make (cut) a covenant.
May we make (cut) a covenant.
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Chapter 18j - Qal Jussive
the basics
The Jussive conjugation occurs primarily in
the third person, singular and plural. With
strong verbs, the form of the Jussive is the
same as its corresponding Imperfect form. For
example, :r: may be translated as either he
will write or let him write. The presence
of the particle x_: will suggest the Jussive
translation.
r_r!r_x _:_:r x_:!~_:t
Let the king remember Yahweh.
(2 Sam 14:11)
:: :a r_r csc
May Yahweh judge between me and between you.
(Gen 16:5)
):v: r_r r:c
May Yahweh forgive your servant .
(2 Kgs 5:18)
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Chapter 18k - Qal Jussive
short forms
Short jussive forms occur only in the singular
and only with selected types of weak verbs,
especially III-r weak verbs.
Perfect Imperfect Jussive (short)
r_:_a he built r:: he will build ;_:> let him build
r_c_v he made rc_v he will make cv> let him make
r_:_v he went up r_:_v he will go up :v> let him go up
r_x_ he saw r_x he will see x > let him see
r_r ra"r_x ;_:
And let him build the house of Yahweh (Ezra 1:3).
~x r cr:_x ~_:x
And God said, let there be light (Gen 1:3).
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Chapter 18l - Qal Jussive
and Cohortative
negation
Jussive and Cohortative verbs are negated with :x.
This construction expresses a negative wish or a mild-
er form of prohibition than that expressed by x:
plus the Imperfect. The particle x_: is sometimes at-
tached to :x with Maqqef (x_:!:x). In most instances,
you do not need to translate the particle x_:.
r_::x: x_:!:x
Do not let us perish.
(Jonah 1:14)
):va sx ~r!:x
Do not let your anger burn against your servant .
(Gen 44:18)
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Chapter 18m - Qal Imperative,
Cohortative and Jussive
verbal sequences
1. Multiple Imperative verbs may occur in succession.
Context will determine whether or not they are
related consequentially or sequentially.
:_x!r_x ~:; r:_v
Go up and bury your father (Gen 50:6).
2. An Imperative verb may be followed by a Perfect
verb with Waw Conversive. The Perfect verb may
carry the full force of the preceding Imperative.
):v!:_x _r:_x :
Go and say to my servant (2 Sam 7:5).
3. An Imperative may be followed by an Imperfect or
Cohortative, a construction that will create a purpose
or result clause. The Imperfect will be marked with
the conjunction and is translated as so that.
rr: c_c: :_:!~:c r_:_c!:
Go down there and buy grain for us from
there so that we might live (Gen 42:2).
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
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Chapter 19a
Pronominal Suffixes on Verbs
introduction
:._rx ~:c he will keep us
: ~:c he will keep us
rx c:_c he judged you
c_:c he judged you
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Chapter 19b
Pronominal Suffixes on Verbs
review: type 1 suffixes
Type 1 Type 1 Objective
Suffixes Alternate Translation
1cs : : me
2ms you
2fs you
3ms r him (it)
3fs a_ _r her (it)
1cp : us
2mp c_: you
2fp ;_: you
3mp c_r c them
3fp ;_r ; them
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Chapter 19c
Pronominal Suffixes on Verbs
on the qal perfect
Qal Perfect 3ms Translation
1cs :.:_c; he killed me
2ms :<c; he killed you
2fs :_c; he killed you
3ms :_c; he killed him (it)
3fs a_:_c; he killed her (it)
1cp :_.:_c; he killed us
2mp c_::<c; he killed you
2fp ;_::,c; he killed you
3mp c_:_c; he killed them
3fp ;_ :_c; he killed them
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Chapter 19d
Pronominal Suffixes on Verbs
spelling the qal perfect
Qal Perfect Qal Perfect
Without Suffixes Before Suffixes
3ms :c_; :_c;
3fs r:c,; r.:_c;
2ms _r:.c_; .r:c;
2fs r:c_; .r:c;
1cs r:.c_; .r:c;
3cp :c,; .:_c;
2mp cr:c;
2fp ;r:c;
1cp ::.c_; >::c;
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Chapter 19e
Pronominal Suffixes on Verbs
spelling the qal perfect: examples
r_xx,: (r.x_x:) + : :r.x_x: she (it) found us
_rv.)_ (.rv)) + rv) you knew him
r.r_: (.rr:) + _r _r.rr: I gave her (it)
::,c (_.:_:c) + : :._:_:c they surrounded me
:v.)_ (>:_v)) + c c:_v) we knew them
Chapter 19f
Pronominal Suffixes on Verbs
imperfect: nun-suffixes
Type 1 Nun-
Suffix Suffix Example Translation
2ms _._: __ .::: he will capture you
3ms /r :._: :_ .::: he will capture him
3fs a_ :/_r r_:._: r_:_ .::: he will capture her
Chapter 19g
Pronominal Suffixes on Verbs
spelling the qal imperfect
Qal Imperfect Qal Imperfect
Without Suffixes Before Suffixes
3ms :c; :c;
3fs :c;r :c;r
2ms :c;r :c;r
2fs :c;r :c;r
1cs :c;_x :c;_x
3mp :c; :c;
3fp r_:: .c;r
2mp :c;r :c;r
2fp r_:: .c;r
1cp :c;: :c;:
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Chapter 19h
Pronominal Suffixes on Verbs
spelling the qal imperfect: examples
~a; + r ra; and they buried him
~:c + _:c he will observe you
r:c + _r_:c he will send you
r_x + r_:._: r_:._x he will see her
;r + c c:r and he gave them
Chapter 19i
Pronominal Suffixes on Verbs
on imperatives
The suffixes used on the Imperative are the same as
those used on the Imperfect.
1. The Imperative 2ms form :c; is spelled :c_; (with
Qamets Hatuf) before a pronominal suffix.
~:c + c c:_c (You) observe them!
c:c + : :c:_c (You) judge me!
2. The Imperative 2fs (:c;) and 2mp (:c;), both
ending in a vowel, do not change.
c:r + c cc:r (You) seize them!
c) + : :c) (You) seek me!
3. Imperatives with a Pathach stem vowel (v:c)
lengthen Pathach to Qamets before pronominal
suffixes.
v:c + : :v_:c (You) hear me!
:x: + a_ a_ :_x: (You) redeem her (it)!
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Chapter 19j
Pronominal Suffixes on Verbs
parsing
When parsing verbs with pronominal suffixes, you
will need to identify the verb and the person,
gender and number of the suffix.
.rr: Qal Perfect 1cs ;r_: with 2ms suffix
:_ .::: Qal Imperfect 3ms ::_: with 3ms suffix
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
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x
Chapter 20a
Qal Infinitive Construct
basic form
The Infinitive Construct is not inflected for person,
gender or number. There is one basic form and,
therefore, no paradigm to memorize. The vowel
pattern is consistent for all strong verbs and even
for most weak verbs. Note that the basic form of
the Qal Infinitive Construct is identical to the Qal
Imperative 2ms ().
Infinitive Construct
Strong Verb

Basics of Biblical Hebrew


Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt

Chapter 20b
Qal Infinitive Construct
examples with weak verbs
Imperative Infinitive Infinitive
2ms Construct Translation
Strong ~:t ~:t to remember
I-Gutt :t_v :t_v to abandon
I-x ~:_x ~:_x to say
II-Gutt ~ra ~ra to choose
III-r r:c r :c to send
III-v v:c v :c to hear
III-x x_; x~; to call
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Chapter 20c
Qal Infinitive Construct
III- verbs: spelling
The Infinitive Construct form of III-r verbs ends
in r. Remember that Imperfect forms end in r_:
(except in those forms with sufformatives) and
that Imperative forms end in r:(2ms).
Summary of III-r Verbal Endings
Ending Example Translation
Imperfect r_ : r_:: he will build
Imperative r : r:a you (2ms) build!
Infinitive r r:a to build, building
Construct
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Chapter 20d
Qal Infinitive Construct
III- verbs: examples
Verbal Infinitive
Root Construct Translation
r_:_a r:a to build, building
r_:_a r:a to weep, weeping
r_:_v r:_v to go up, going up
r_:_v r:_v to answer, answering
r_c_v rc_v to do, doing
r___r r_r to be, being
r_x_ rx ~ to see, seeing
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Chapter 20e
Qal Infinitive Construct
I- verbs
Verbal Infinitive Alternate
Root Construct Form
with : with r
vc_: vc: rv.c
v:_: v:: rv.:
vc_: vc: rv.c
x_c_: xc: rxc (rxc)
c:_: rc.:
;r_: ;r: rr
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Chapter 20f
Qal Infinitive Construct
I- verbs
Verbal Infinitive
Root Construct
:c_ r_:_ .c
c~_ rc.
::_ r)_ .:
:~_ r).
v)_ rv.)
x_x_ rxx
:_r r_:_ .:
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Chapter 20g
Qal Infinitive Construct
biconsonantal verbs
Verbal Infinitive
Root Construct
:c :c
r: r:
xa xa
ca ca
;) ;)
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Chapter 20h
Qal Infinitive Construct
with suffixes and prefixes
The Infinitive Construct can take pronominal suf-
fixes that function as either the subject or object
of the verbal idea.
:c
his killing or killing him
The inseparable prepositions a, : and : may be
prefixed to the Infinitive Construct with a range
of uses and translation values.
~:t: ~:c:
in order to remember while observing
Both pronominal suffixes and prepositional pre-
fixes can occur with the Infinitive Construct.
v:_c:
when he hears/heard
Qal Infinitive Construct of v:_c with
preposition : and 3ms pronominal suffix.
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
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Chapter 20i
Qal Infinitive Construct
negation
The negative particles x: and :x are not used to
negate the Infinitive Construct. Rather, it is negat-
ed with r:a or r::: meaning not or in
order not.
:c; r:::
in order not to kill
or
not to kill
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
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Chapter 20j
Qal Infinitive Construct
five common uses
1. With : to express purpose, intention or result.
:: c_:_: r_r ;r_:"x: rv)_: c:v rx:
c:t_x v:c: r:r cr :v
or eyes to know But Yahweh has not given to you a heart
). Deut 29:3 [English 29:4] until this day ( to hear or ears to see
2. With : to denote an action about to take place (inceptive).
:a"r_x crc: r_:_:_x:r"r_x r;
And he took the knife (in order)
to slaughter his son (Gen 22:10).
3. With or without : as a verbal noun.
:c r:r: r_r:
It is good to praise Yahweh (Ps 92:2).
4. With or without : to explain, clarify or complement a preceding action
or statement (complementary).
_r:_x r_r rx:"r_x _r:_c r_:_:_: _:_)a
And you shall observe the commandments of Yahweh
). Deut 8:6 in his ways ( by walking your God
5. With a or : in a temporal clause with or without pronominal suffixes.
xrr ;_x_a :x_c ;:ca r
When (while) Israel dwelt in that land (Gen 35:22).
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
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Chapter 21a
Qal Infinitive Absolute
introduction
The Infinitive Absolute is not inflected for person,
gender or number and so there is only one form
to memorize. This form is easy to identify and
varies little with weak verbal roots.
Infinitive Absolute
Strong Verb

1. The vowel pattern of the strong verb also


occurs in most weak verb types.
2. Frequently, the Holem Waw stem vowel is
written defectively as Holem. ().
3. Unlike the Infinitive Construct, the Infinitive
Absolute does not occur with prepositional
prefixes or pronominal suffixes.
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt

Chapter 21b
Qal Infinitive Absolute
weak verbs
Qal Perfect Infinitive
3ms Absolute
I-Guttural :_r :_r
I-Guttural ~:_v ~:_v
I-x ::_x ::_x
II-Guttural :x_: :x_:
II-Guttural ~r_a ~r_a
III-r r:_c r:_c
III-v v:_c v:_c
III-x x_x_ xx_
I-: ::_: ::_:
I- v)_ v:_
Geminate ::_c ::_c
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Chapter 21c
Qal Infinitive Absolute
III- and biconsonantal verbs
Verbal Root Infinitive Absolute
r_c_v rc_v or c_v
r_r_c rr_c or r_c
r_x_ rx_ ~ or x_ ~
r__r r_r or _r
Verbal Root Infinitive Absolute
xa xa or xa
cc cc
c; c;
r: r:
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Chapter 21d
Qal Infinitive Absolute
parsing
The Infinitive Absolute form is not inflected for
person, gender or number. When parsing you
are required to identify only stem, conjugation
and lexical form.
:_r Qal Infinitive Absolute :_r
r: Qal Infinitive Absolute r:
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Chapter 21e
Qal Infinitive Absolute
usage
1. Emphatic. The Infinitive Absolute can precede or follow
a Perfect or Imperfect verbal form of the same root in
order to emphasize the verbal meaning.
r:_r r:
you (2ms) will certainly die (2 Kgs 1:16)
2. Imperatival. The Infinitive Absolute can stand by itself
and function as an Imperative.
r_acr c"r_x ~:_c
Observe the sabbath day! (Deut 5:12)
3. Contemporaneous Action. Two Infinitive Absolutes can
be used together with a Perfect or Imperfect verb to
express two verbal actions occurring simultaneously.
::_x :_r _:
(literally) and he walked, walking and eating;
(idiomatically) and he walked, eating as he went (Judg 14:9)
4. Complementary. The Infinitive Absolute can comple-
ment the main verb of a sentence and carry the temporal
value of that main verb.
r)v_r":_: c:_:_x_: rx c:_
All of the congregation shall stone him with stones (Num 15:35).
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Chapter 21f
Qal Infinitive Absolute
the particle
Hebrew can express the existence of someone or something by
using the particle c (!c) which translates either (there)
is or (there) are.
_:._: c
there is a king or a king is
r:r c;_:a r_r c ;:_x
Surely the Lord is in this place (Gen 28:16).
c may also be used to express possession when followed
by the preposition : (to).
r_;r :!c
Literally: There is to me hope.
Idiomatically: I have hope (Ruth 1:12).
r_x c_:_: c_r
Literally: Is there to you a brother?
Idiomatically: Do you have a brother? (Gen 43:7)
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Chapter 21g
Qal Infinitive Absolute
the particle
Hebrew may express the non-existence or absence of someone
or something by using the particle ;x (;.x) which translates
either (there) is not or (there) are not.
~aa c";x
Joseph was not in the cistern (Gen 37:29).
;_x_a cr:_x rv)";x
(And) there is no knowledge of God in the land (Hos 4:1).
;x can appear with pronominal suffixes as in :>:x (3ms
or 1cp) and c_:x (3mp) or it may be used to negate a
verbless clause or sentences with Participles used
predicatively.
r_r"r_x cx c_:x
They do not fear the Lord (2 Kgs 17:34).
cr:_x ;x a:a :_:_: ~:_x
(The) fool says in his heart, There is no God (Ps 53:2
[English 53:1]).
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Chapter 22a-Qal Participle
active strong verb paradigm
The Participle inflects like an adjective, with both
gender and number. It is not inflected for person.
The inflection of the Participle should look familiar.
Singular Plural
Masculine :c; c :c;
Feminine r_ :_ .c; r:c;
Feminine r_ :c;
Singular Plural
Masculine c :c;
Feminine r_ :_ .c; r:c;
Feminine r_ :c;
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Chapter 22b-Qal Participle
diagnostics
The Holem in the first syllable of all forms is diag-
nostic of the Qal active Participle. It may also be
written as Holem Waw (). The Holem will
not reduce (undergo propretonic reduction) with
the additional of inflectional endings. The Holem-
Tsere vowel pattern is distinctive of the masculine
singular Qal active Participle.
Qal Active Participle
Strong Verb

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Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt

Chapter 22c-Qal Participle


weak verbs: part 1
I-Guttural I-:
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Masc. ::v c):v ::: c:::
Fem. r)._:v r::v r_:._:: r:::
Fem. r_::v r_:::
I- Geminate
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Masc. :c c:c ::c c::c
Fem. r_:.c r:c r_:_ .:c r::c
Fem. r_:c r_::c
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Chapter 22d-Qal Participle
weak verbs: part 2
II-Guttural III-r/v
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Masc. ~ra c~_ra v:c cv:c
Fem. r_ .ra r~_ra rv.:c rv:c
Fem. r__ra r_v:c
III-x
Singular Plural
Masc. xx: cxx:
Fem. rx .x: rxx:
Fem. r_xx:
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Chapter 22e-Qal Participle
weak verbs: part 3
III-r Biconsonantal
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Masc. r:a c:a c c:
Fem. r_:a r:a r_: r:
Fem. r_:a
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Chapter 22f-Qal Participle
use of the qal active participle
Participles function just like adjectives.
1. Attributive Use. The Participle directly modifies a noun. The
modifying Participle will follow the noun and agree in gender,
number and definiteness.
;_x_a :cr c_v_r the people who dwell (who are
dwelling) in the land (Num
13:28)
r_::x cx _r:_x r_r Yahweh your God is a consuming
fire (Deut 4:24).
2. Predicative Use. The Participle asserts something about the noun
(with a form of the verb to be). The modifying Participle will
agree with the noun in gender and number but not definiteness.
cx_a ~va ~_r_r The mountain was burning with
fire (Deut 4:11).
::ra ::c :x:c And Samuel was lying down
in (the) temple (1 Sam 3:3).
3. Substantive Use. The Participle is used independently as a noun,
indicating the one who performs a certain action. It may function
as the subject or object of a verb; take a definite article; appear in a
construct chain; or take pronominal suffixes and prepositional
prefixes.
c::a r_:cr you who dwell in the gardens
(Song 8:13)
:x_c ~:c ;_c x: and the one who keeps Israel
will not sleep (Ps 121:4)
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Chapter 22g-Qal Participle
passive participle paradigm
The passive Participle inflects like an adjective,
with both gender and number. It is not inflected
for person.
Singular Plural
Masculine :c_; c :c;
Feminine r_ :c; r:c;
Singular Plural
Masculine c :c;
Feminine r_ :.c; r:c;
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Chapter 22h-Qal Participle
passive participle diagnostics
The diagnostic feature of the Qal passive Participle
is the Qamets-Shureq vowel pattern. It may also
be spelled defectively with Qibbuts as in .
Qal Passive Participle
Strong Verb

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Chapter 22i-Qal Participle


weak verbs
:t_v abandoned rr_s opened
x:_c hated v:_ known
:x_c asked vc_: planted
cr_c slaughtered ~~_x cursed
::_x eaten ;v_ advised
III-r
Singular Plural
Masculine :_a c:a
Feminine r_:a r:a
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Chapter 22j-Qal Participle
use of the qal passive participle
Participles function just like adjectives.
1. Attributive Use. The passive Participle follows the noun it modifies
and agrees in gender, number and definiteness.
~_:ca r_:r:r r~ar the covenant written in this book
r:r r_rr of the law (Deut 29:20)
r_:rr":_:"r_x ;_: (And) he (re)built all of the broken
r_x~sr wall (2 Chr 32:5).
2. Predicative Use. The passive Participle either precedes or follows
the noun it modifies and agrees in gender and number only (not
definiteness).
c_:v: r_r ~_a Blessed is Yahweh forever (Ps 89:53).
:_va r_:_:_x_r r_~_x Cursed is the ground because of you
(Gen 3:17).
3. Substantive Use. Passive Participles can be used independently as
nouns, indicating the one who performs a certain action. When
a Participle is used substantively, it behaves just like a noun.
::: ~:_v ;:_r_r And the one equipped (for battle)
r_r ;~_x will pass before the ark of Yahweh
(Josh 6:7).
:s c:~_r rrr And they will fall among the slain ones
(Isa 10:4).
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Chapter 22k-Qal Participle
parsing
Like a verb, the Participle has stem and voice.
Like an adjective, it is inflected for gender and
number. When parsing you will be required to
identify stem, conjugation (with voice), gender,
number and lexical form.
:c Qal Active Participle ms :c_
~_a Qal Passive Participle ms ~_a
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Chapter 23a-Sentence Syntax
normal word order
In Hebrew, normal word order for a verbal
sentence is verb-subject-object (vso)
r:!r_x cr:_x ~:t
(And) God remembered Noah (Gen 8:1).
c:_r c c:_r
(And) Joseph dreamed a dream (Gen 37:5).
:x_c!:_:!:_x rc: x_;
(And) Moses called to all Israel (Ex 24:16).
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v s o
v s o
v s o
Chapter 23b-Sentence Syntax
syntax of the verb
In the syntax of the verbal sentence, the verb is
normally at the beginning, in first position.
c_ c_x:!:v c)_r!_:_:
(And) a new king arose over Egypt (Ex 1:8).
rrc_a :_v_ c_:v cr:_x!:_c_r:
I trust in the steadfast love of God forever and ever
(Ps 52:10 [English 52:8]).
~c c)_r ~c r_r:
Sing to Yahweh a new song (Ps 96:1).
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Chapter 23c-Sentence Syntax
syntax of the verb
The verb may also be preceded by an adverb of time, an adverbial phrase,
r:r (behold), a temporal modifier (r or r__r), an expression that provides
context or circumstantial information, an independent personal pronoun
for emphasis or a negative particle.
r_rv cr:_x_r!:_:: r_r ::_:!: rv)_
Now I know that Yahweh is greater
than all gods (Ex 18:11).
r_:x_r c~_:)r ~rx c_:x!:_x r_r!~:) r__r
After these things, the word of Yahweh
came (was) to Abram (Gen 15:1).
r:r :_r_a :r:_x ::_:
And behold, our fathers have fallen
by the sword (2 Chr 29:9).
r r:r r_x :_:_r!:_x ;; c_ r)_ca c_rra
When they were in the field, Cain rose up against
Abel his brother and he killed him (Gen 4:8).
!:x ~cr :)!:_x c_:_: rc:r
Do not trust in deceptive words (Jer 7:4).
crx c:_r: r_:_::: :!rr
And you will be to me a kingdom
of priests (Ex 19:6).
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Chapter 23d-Sentence Syntax
syntax of the subject
In the syntax of the verbal sentence, the verb is
normally followed immediately by its subject if
one is specified.
~_:x c_r_:r r_cx_r":_x
The serpent said to the woman (Gen 3:4).
;:c r_r"::: :c ~r":v
The glory of Yahweh dwelt upon Mount Sinai
(Ex 24:16).
The verb may be preceded by its subject to
emphasize that subject, though there are other
reasons for this type of variation.
r_r :_v_ c_:v: ::
Yahweh will reign forever and ever (Ex 15:18).
rc: cr:_x_r":_x r_:_v
And Moses went up to God (Ex 19:3).
r: r_r :va ;r x_x_:
And Noah found favor in the
eyes of Yahweh (Gen 6:8).
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Chapter 23e-Sentence Syntax
syntax of the object
1. The indirect object is usually marked with the preposition
: (to, for) or !:_x (to, for) and may precede or follow the
direct object (if any).
r_r ;r_:!: rv)_ c_:_: ;_x_r!r_x
I know that Yahweh has given to you the land
(Josh 2:9).
2. A direct object (if any) will frequently stand after the
verb or its subject. It may precede or follow an indirect
object.
rx cr:_x x__a c:_cr rx ;_x_r
God created the heavens and
the earth (Gen 1:1).
3. The verb may be preceded by its object to emphasize
that object, though there are other reasons for this syntax.
!r_x r_r x_r _r:_x
Yahweh your God you shall fear (Deut 10:20).
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Chapter 23f-Sentence Syntax
conditional sentences
A conditional sentence consists of two clauses. The
first clause states the condition and is called the protasis
(if-clause). The second clause states the consequence
of the condition and is called the apodosis (then-
clause). The protasis will often begin with cx (if) but
it may also begin with :, ;r or ~c_x followed by a
Perfect, Imperfect or Participle.
;__a _r_:x ~_:x
cx :v ::r" r:_:_r
cx :x x: :v ::r x:"
Barak said to her, If you will go with me, then I will
go; but if you will not go with me, (then) I will not go
(Judg 4:8).
Condition (Protasis) Consequence (Apodosis)
if (cx) you will go then I will go
but if (cx) you will not go (then) I will not go
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Chapter 23g-Sentence Syntax
adverbs
Adverbs are generally divided into four categories:
adverbs of time (then, now), place (here, there), degree
(very, extremely) and manner (swiftly, gently).
1. Adverbs of Time.
r_rv (now)
r_rv r_rx cr:_x x": rv)_
Now I know that you fear God (Gen 22:12).
2. Adverbs of Place.
c_c (there)
cc_ c_c ~_x_ ~c_x c)_x_r"r_x
And he placed there the man whom he had
formed (Gen 2:8).
3. Adverbs of Degree.
::_r (continually)
:v ::_r r_r":_x
My eyes are continually on the Lord (Ps 25:15).
4. Adverbs of Manner.
cxrs (suddenly)
vcr c_r:_x x:_ cxrs
And Joshua came upon them suddenly
(Josh 10:9).
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Chapter 23h-Sentence Syntax
disjunctive waw
A disjunctive Waw is prefixed to a non-verbal form and is non-
sequential, that is, it introduces some kind of break or interruption in
the narrative. There are four basic uses.
1. Parenthetical. The disjunctive clause may interrupt the narrative
flow in order to provide some explanatory information.
c_r:a ;::r : c v:c : v)_ x: cr
Now they did not know that Joseph was understanding them
because there was an interpreter between them (Gen 42:23).
2. Circumstantial. The disjunctive clause may introduce or identify
circumstantial information that relates to the main action of the
narrative.
r:x:: rc_v: r_rar x:_ r:r cr: r
r_aa c_c rar c:x: cx ;x
(And) one day, he went into the house to do his work and none of
the household servants were there in the house (Gen 39:11).
3. Contrastive. The disjunctive Waw may introduce a contrastive idea
and is often translated as but.
r_r::":_x :_:_r":_x r_r vc
r_v_c x: r_r::":_x ;;":_x
The Lord looked favorably on Abel and his offering but on Cain
and his offering he did not look favorably (Gen 4:4b-5a).
4. Introductory. The disjunctive Waw may begin a new narrative or
introduce a new idea or theme within a narrative.
r)_cr rr ::: c~_v r__r c_r_:r
cr:_x r_r r_c_v ~c_x
Now the serpent was more crafty than any of the creatures that the
Lord God had made (Gen 3:1).
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Chapter 24a-Niphal Strong
perfect
Niphal Perfect
Strong Verb
:c;:
Qal Niphal Translation
3ms :c_; :c;: he was killed
3fs r_: c,; r_:c;: she was killed
2ms _r:.c_; _r:.c;: you were killed
2fs r:c r:c;: you were killed
1cs r:.c_; r:.c;: I was killed
3cp : c,; :c;: they were killed
2mp cr: c; cr:c;: you were killed
2fp ;r: c; ;r:c;: you were killed
1cp ::.c_; ::.c;: we were killed
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Chapter 24b-Niphal Strong
imperfect
Niphal Imperfect
Strong Verb
:c_;
Qal Niphal Translation
3ms :c; :c_; he will be killed
3fs :c;r :c_;r she will be killed
2ms :c;r :c_;r you will be killed
2fs :c;r :c,;r you will be killed
1cs :c;_x :c_;_x I will be killed
3mp :c; :c,; they will be killed
3fp r_:: .c;r r_:: .c_;r they will be killed
2mp :c;r :c,;r you will be killed
2fp r_:: .c;r r_:: .c_;r you will be killed
1cp :c;: :c_;: we will be killed
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Chapter 24c-Niphal Strong
imperative
Niphal Imperative
Strong Verb
:c_;r
Qal Niphal Translation
2ms :c; :c_;r be killed!
2fs :c; :c,;r be killed!
2mp :c; :c,;r be killed!
2fp r_:: .c; r_::.c_;r be killed!
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Chapter 24d-Niphal Strong
infinitive
Niphal Infinitive
Construct
:c_;r
Niphal Infinitive
Absolute
:c;:
:c_;r
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Chapter 24e-Niphal Strong
participle
Niphal Participle
Strong Verb
:_c;:
Qal Niphal Translation
ms :c; :_c;: being killed
fs r_:_ .c; r_:_ .c;: being killed
mp c:c; c:_c;: being killed
fp r:c; r:_c;: being killed
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Chapter 24f-Niphal Strong
conjugation summary
Perfect Imperfect Imperative Infinitive Infinitive Participle
Construct Absolute
:c;: :c_; :c_;r :c_;r :c;: :_c;:
:c_;r
:c;: :c :cr :cr :c;: :_c;:
r_:c;: :cr :c,;r :cr r_:_ .c;:
_r:.c;: :cr :c,;r c:_c;:
r:c;: :c,;r r_::.cr r:_c;:
r: .c;: :c_x
:c;: :c,;
cr:c;: r_:: .cr
;r:c;: :c,;r
::.c;: r_:: .cr
:c:
Chapter 25 - Niphal Diagnostics
at-a-glance
Perfect Imperfect Imperative Infinitive Infinitive Participle
Construct Absolute
Strong :c;: :c_; :c_;r :c_;r :c;: :_c;:
:c_;r
I-Gutt :t_v: :t_v :t_vr :t_vr :t_v: :_t_v_:
:t_vr
III-x x_x:: xx_ : xx_ :r xx_ :r xx:: x_x::
III-r r_::: r_:_: r:_:r r:_:r r ::: r_:::
_r>::: r:_:r
I-: : x: :x_: :x_:r :x_:r :x_:r :_ x:
:x:
I- :c: :c_ :c_r :c_r :_ c:
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Chapter 26a-Piel Strong
perfect
Piel Perfect
Strong Verb
: c;
Qal Piel Translation
3ms :c_; : c; he slaughtered
3fs r_: c,; r_: c; she slaughtered
2ms _r:.c_; _r: . c; you slaughtered
2fs r:c r: c; you slaughtered
1cs r:.c_; r: . c; I slaughtered
3cp : c,; : c; they slaughtered
2mp cr: c; cr: c; you slaughtered
2fp ;r: c; ;r: c; you slaughtered
1cp ::.c_; ::. c; we slaughtered
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Chapter 26b-Piel Strong
imperfect
Piel Imperfect
Strong Verb
: c;
Qal Piel Translation
3ms :c; : c; he will slaughter
3fs :c;r : c;r she will slaughter
2ms :c;r : c;r you will slaughter
2fs :c;r : c;r you will slaughter
1cs :c;_x : c;_x I will slaughter
3mp :c; : c; they will slaughter
3fp r_:: .c;r r_:: . c;r they will slaughter
2mp :c;r : c;r you will slaughter
2fp r_:: .c;r r_:: . c;r you will slaughter
1cp :c;: : c;: we will slaughter
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Chapter 26c-Piel Strong
imperative
Piel Imperative
Strong Verb
: c;
Qal Piel Translation
2ms :c;r : c; (you) slaughter!
2fs :c;r : c; (you) slaughter!
2mp :c;r : c; (you) slaughter!
2fp r_:: .c;r r_:: . c; (you) slaughter!
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Chapter 26d-Piel Strong
infinitive
Piel Infinitive
Construct

Piel Infinitive
Absolute

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Chapter 26e-Piel Strong


participle
Piel Participle
Strong Verb
: c;:
Qal Piel Translation
ms :c; : c;: slaughtering
fs r_:_ .c; r_ :_. c;: slaughtering
mp c:c; c : c;: slaughtering
fp r:c; r: c;: slaughtering
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Chapter 26f-Piel Strong
conjugation summary
Perfect Imperfect Imperative Infinitive Infinitive Participle
Construct Absolute
: c; : c; : c; : c; : c; : c;:
:c; :c; :c; :c; :c; :c;:
r_:c; :c;r :c; r_:_ .c;:
_r: .c; :c;r :c; c:c;:
r:c; :c;r r_:: .c; r:c;:
r: .c; :c;_x
:c; :c;
cr:c; r_:: .c;r
;r:c; :c;r
::.c; r_:: .c;r
:c;:
Chapter 27 - Piel Diagnostics
at-a-glance
Perfect Imperfect Imperative Infinitive Infinitive Participle
Construct Absolute
Strong : c; : c; : c; : c; : c; : c;:
III-r/v r :c r :c r :c r :c r :c r :c:
III-x x x: x x: x x: x x: x x: x x::
x x:
III-r
1
r_ :: r_ :: r :: r:: r :: r_ :::
_r.::
Geminate : :r : :r : :r : :r : :r : :r:
II-Gutt
2
cr: cr: cr: cr: cr: cr::
1
3ms only
2
virtual doubling
3
compensatory lengthening
II-Gutt
3
a _: _a _a _a _::
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Chapter 28a-Pual Strong
perfect
Pual Perfect
Strong Verb
: c_ ;
Qal Pual Translation
3ms :c; : c_ ; he slaughtered
3fs r_:c; r_: c_ ; she slaughtered
2ms _r: .c; _r: . c_ ; you slaughtered
2fs r:c; r: c_ ; you slaughtered
1cs r: .c; r: . c_ ; I slaughtered
3cp :c; : c_ ; they slaughtered
2mp cr:c; cr: c_ ; you slaughtered
2fp ;r:c; ;r: c_ ; you slaughtered
1cp ::.c; ::. c_ ; we slaughtered
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 28b-Pual Strong
imperfect
Pual Imperfect
Strong Verb
: c_ ;
Qal Pual Translation
3ms :c; : c_ ; he will slaughter
3fs :c;r : c_ ;r she will slaughter
2ms :c;r : c_ ;r you will slaughter
2fs :c;r : c_ ;r you will slaughter
1cs :c;_x : c_ ;_x I will slaughter
3mp :c; : c_ ; they will slaughter
3fp r_:: .c;r r_: :. c_ ;r they will slaughter
2mp :c;r : c_ ;r you will slaughter
2fp r_:: .c;r r_: :. c_ ;r you will slaughter
1cp :c;: : c_ ;: we will slaughter
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 28c-Pual Strong
participle
Pual Participle
Strong Verb
: c_ ;:
Qal Pual Translation
ms :c;: : c_ ;: slaughtering
fs r_:_ .c;: r_ :_. c_ ;: slaughtering
mp c:c;: c : c_ ;: slaughtering
fp r:c;: r: c_ ;: slaughtering
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 28d-Pual Strong
conjugation summary
Perfect Imperfect Participle
: c_; : c_; : c_;:
:c :c :_c:
r_:c :cr r_:._c:
_r:.c :cr c:_c:
r:c :cr r:_c:
r:.c :c_x
:c :c
cr:c r_::.cr
;r:c :cr
::.c r_::.cr
:c:
Chapter 29 - Pual Diagnostics
at-a-glance
Perfect Imperfect Participle
Strong : c_ ; : c_ ; :_ c_ ;:
III-x x_ x_: x_ x_: x_ x_::
III-r r_ :_: r_ :_: r_ :_::
_r.:_:
II-Gutt
1
cr_: cr_: c_r_::
II-Gutt
2
~a ~: _::
1
virtual doubling
2
compensatory lengthening
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 30a-Hiphil Strong
perfect
Hiphil Perfect
Strong Verb
:c;r or _r:.c;r
Qal Hiphil Translation
3ms :c_; : c;r he caused to kill
3fs r_: c,; r_:.c;r she caused to kill
2ms _r:.c_; _r:.c;r you caused to kill
2fs r:c r:c;r you caused to kill
1cs r:.c_; r:.c;r I caused to kill
3cp : c,; :.c;r they caused to kill
2mp cr: c; cr:c;r you caused to kill
2fp ;r: c; ;r:c;r you caused to kill
1cp ::.c_; ::.c;r we caused to kill
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 30b-Hiphil Strong
imperfect
Hiphil Imperfect
Strong Verb
:c ;
Qal Hiphil Translation
3ms :c; : c; he will cause to kill
3fs :c;r : c;r she will cause to kill
2ms :c;r : c;r you will cause to kill
2fs :c;r :.c;r you will cause to kill
1cs :c;_x : c;x I will cause to kill
3mp :c; :.c; they will cause to kill
3fp r_:: .c;r r_::.c;r they will cause to kill
2mp :c;r :.c;r you will cause to kill
2fp r_:: .c;r r_::.c;r you will cause to kill
1cp :c;: : c;: we will cause to kill
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 30c-Hiphil Strong
imperative
Hiphil Imperative
Strong Verb
:c;r or :.c;r
Qal Hiphil Translation
2ms :c; :c;r cause to kill!
2fs :c; :.c;r cause to kill!
2mp :c; :.c;r cause to kill!
2fp r_:: .c; r_::.c;r cause to kill!
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 30d-Hiphil Strong
infinitive
Hiphil Infinitive
Construct
:c;r
Hiphil Infinitive
Absolute
:c;r
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 30e-Hiphil Strong
participle
Hiphil Participle
Strong Verb
:c;:
Qal Hiphil Translation
ms :c; : c;: causing to kill
fs r_:_ .c; r_:.__c;: causing to kill
mp c:c; c:c;: causing to kill
fp r:c; r:c;: causing to kill
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 30f-Hiphil Strong
conjugation summary
Perfect Imperfect Imperative Infinitive Infinitive Participle
Construct Absolute
: c;r : c; :c;r : c;r :c;r : c;:
_r:.c;r :.c;r
:c;r :c; :c;r :c;r :c;r :c;:
r_: .c;r :c;r :.c;r r_:.__c;:
_r:.c;r :c;r :.c;r c:c;:
r:c;r :.c;r r_::.c;r r:c;:
r:.c;r :c;x
:.c;r :.c;
cr:c;r r_:: .c;r
;r:c;r :.c;r
::.c;r r_:: .c;r
:c;:
Chapter 31 - Hiphil Diagnostics
at-a-glance
Perfect Imperfect Imperative Infinitive Infinitive Participle
Construct Absolute
Strong :c;r :c; :c;r :c;r :c;r :c;:
_r:.c;r :.c;r
I-Gutt ::_v_r ::_v ::_vr ::_vr ::_vr ::_v:
_r).:_v_r ).:_vr
III-r/v r :cr r :c r:cr r :cr r:cr r :c:
_rr.:cr r.:cr
III-x x x:r x x: xx:r x x:r xx:r x x::
_rx.x:r x.x:r
III-r r_ ::r r_ :: r ::r r::r r ::r r_ :::
_r.::r
I-: : xr : x : xr : xr : xr : x:
_r:. xr :. xr
I- :cr :c :cr :cr :cr :c:
_r:.cr :.cr
Bicon c;r c;_ c;_r c;_r c;_r c;:
_r.:;_r :.;_r
Chapter 32a-Hophal Strong
perfect
Hophal Perfect
Strong Verb
:c;_r or :c;_r
Hophal Hophal
u-class o-class
3ms :c;_r :c;_r
3fs r_:c;_r r_:c;_r
2ms _r:.c;_r _r:.c;_r
2fs r:c;_r r:c;_r
1cs r:.c;_r r:.c;_r
3cp :c;_r :c;_r
2mp cr:c;_r cr:c;_r
2fp ;r:c;_r ;r:c;_r
1cp ::.c;_r ::.c;_r
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 32b-Hophal Strong
imperfect
Hophal Imperfect
Strong Verb
:c;_ or :c;_
Hophal Hophal
u-class o-class
3ms :c;_ :c;_
3fs :c;_r :c;_r
2ms :c;_r :c;_r
2fs :c;_r :c;_r
1cs :c;_x :c;_x
3mp :c;_ :c;_
3fp r_::.c;_r r_::.c;_r
2mp :c;_r :c;_r
2fp r_::.c;_r r_::.c;_r
1cp :c;_: :c;_:
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 32c-Hophal Strong
participle
Hophal Participle
Strong Verb
:_c;_: or :_c;_:
Hophal Hophal
u-class o-class
ms :_c;_: :_c;_:
fs r_:._c;_: r_:._c;_:
mp c:_c;_: c:_c;_:
fp r:_c;_: r:_c;_:
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 32d-Hophal Strong
conjugation summary
Perfect Imperfect Participle
u-class o-class u-class o-class u-class o-class
:c;_r :c;_r :c; :c;_ :_c;_: :_c;_:
:c;_r :c;_r :c; :c;_ :_c;_: :_c;_:
r_:c;_r r_:c;_r :c;r :c;_r r_:._c;_: r_:._c;_:
_r: .c;_r _r: .c;_r :c;r :c;_r c:_c;_: c:_c;_:
r:c;_r r:c;_r :c;r :c;_r r:_c;_: r:_c;_:
r: .c;_r r: .c;_r :c;_x :c;_x
:c;_r :c;_r :c; :c;_
cr:c;_r cr:c;_r r_::.c;r r_::.c;_r
;r:c;_r ;r:c;_r :c;r :c;_r
:: .c;_r :: .c;_r r_::.c;r r_::.c;_r
:c;: :c;_:
Chapter 33 - Hophal Diagnostics
at-a-glance
Perfect Imperfect Participle
Strong (u) :c;_r :c;_ :_c;_:
Strong (o) :c;_r :c;_ :_c;_:
I-Gutt ::_v_r ::_v_ :_:_v_:
III-r r_ ::_r r_ ::_ r_ ::_:
I-: :x_r :x_ :_x_:
I- :cr :c :_c:
Bicon c;r c; c_;:
Geminate :cr :c :_c:
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 33 - Hophal Diagnostics
at-a-glance
Perfect Imperfect Participle
Strong (u) :c;_r :c;_ :_c;_:
Strong (o) :c;_r :c;_ :_c;_:
I-Gutt ::_v_r ::_v_ :_:_v_:
III-r r_ ::_r r_ ::_ r_ ::_:
I-: :x_r :x_ :_x_:
I- :cr :c :_c:
Bicon c;r c; c_;:
Geminate :cr :c :_c:
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 34a-Hithpael Strong
perfect
Hithpael Perfect
Strong Verb
: c;rr
Qal Hithpael Translation
3ms :c_; : c;rr he killed himself
3fs r_: c,; r_ : c;rr she killed herself
2ms _r:.c_; _r :. c;rr you killed yourself
2fs r:c r : c;rr you killed yourself
1cs r:.c_; r :. c;rr I killed myself
3cp : c,; : c;rr they killed themselves
2mp cr: c; cr : c;rr you killed yourselves
2fp ;r: c; ;r : c;rr you killed yourselves
1cp ::.c_; : :. c;rr we killed ourselves
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 34b-Hithpael Strong
imperfect
Hithpael Imperfect
Strong Verb
: c;r
Qal Hithpael Translation
3ms :c; : c;r he will kill himself
3fs :c;r : c;rr she will kill herself
2ms :c;r : c;rr you will kill yourself
2fs :c;r : c;rr you will kill yourself
1cs :c;_x : c;r_x I will kill myself
3mp :c; : c;r they will kill themselves
3fp r_:: .c;r r_: :. c;rr they will kill themselves
2mp :c;r : c;rr you will kill yourselves
2fp r_:: .c;r r_: :. c;rr you will kill yourselves
1cp :c;: : c;r: we will kill ourselves
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 34c-Hithpael Strong
imperative
Hithpael Imperative
Strong Verb
: c;rr
Qal Hithpael Translation
2ms :c; : c;rr kill yourself!
2fs :c; : c;rr kill yourself!
2mp :c; : c;rr kill yourselves!
2fp r_:: .c; r_: :. c;rr kill yourselves!
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 34d-Hithpael Strong
infinitive
Hithpael Infinitive
Construct
: c;rr
Hithpael Infinitive
Absolute
: c;rr
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 34e-Hithpael Strong
participle
Hithpael Participle
Strong Verb
: c;r:
Qal Hithpael
ms :c; : c;r:
fs r_:_ .c; r_ :_. c;r:
mp c:c; c : c;r:
fp r:c; r: c;r:
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Chapter 34f-Hithpael Strong
conjugation summary
Perfect Imperfect Imperative Infinitive Infinitive Participle
Construct Absolute
: c;rr : c;r : c;rr : c;rr : c;rr : c;r:
:c;rr :c;r :c;rr :c;rr :c;rr :c;r:
r_:c;rr :c;rr :c;rr r_:_ .c;r:
_r:.c;rr :c;rr :c;rr c:c;r:
r:c;rr :c;rr r_:: .c;rr r:c;r:
r:.c;rr :c;r_x
:c;rr :c;r
cr:c;rr r_::.c;rr
;r:c;rr :c;rr
:: .c;rr r_::.c;rr
:c;r:
Chapter 35 - Hithpael Diagnostics
at-a-glance
Perfect Imperfect Imperative Infinitive Infinitive Participle
Construct Absolute
Strong : c;rr : c;r : c;rr : c;rr : c;rr : c;r:
Gemin : :srr : :sr : :srr : :srr : :srr : :sr:
III-r r_ ::rr r_ ::r r ::rr r::rr r_ ::r:
II-Gutt
1
c r:rr c r:r c r:rr c r:rr c r:r:
1
virtual doubling
2
compensatory lengthening
II-Gutt
2
_arr _ar _arr _arr _arr _ar:
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
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Strong Verb Diagnostics
at-a-glance
Perfect Imperfect Imperative Infinitive Infinitive Participle
Construct Absolute
Qal :c_; :c; :c; :c; :c_; :c;
Niphal :c ;: :c_; :c_;r :c_;r :c;: :_c ;:
:c_;r
Piel : c; : c; : c; : c; : c; : c;:
Pual : c_ ; : c_ ; :_ c_ ;:
Hiphil :c;r :c; :c;r :c;r :c;r :c;:
_r:.c;r :.c;r
Hophal :c;_r :c;_ :_c;_:
:c;_r :c;_ :_c ;_ :
Hithpael : c; rr : c; r : c; rr : c; rr : c; rr : c; r:
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Niphal Diagnostics
at-a-glance
Perfect Imperfect Imperative Infinitive Infinitive Participle
Construct Absolute
Strong :c;: :c_; :c_;r :c_;r :c;: :_c;:
:c_;r
I-Gutt :t_v: :t_v :t_vr :t_vr :t_v: :_t_v_:
:t_vr
III-x x_x:: xx_ : xx_ :r xx_ :r xx:: x_x::
III-r r_::: r_:_: r:_:r r:_:r r ::: r_:::
_r>::: r:_:r
I-: : x: :x_: :x_:r :x_:r :x_:r :_ x:
:x:
I- :c: :c_ :c_r :c_r :_ c:
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
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Piel Diagnostics
at-a-glance
Perfect Imperfect Imperative Infinitive Infinitive Participle
Construct Absolute
Strong : c; : c; : c; : c; : c; : c;:
III-r/v r :c r :c r :c r :c r :c r :c:
III-x x x: x x: x x: x x: x x: x x::
x x:
III-r
1
r_ :: r_ :: r :: r:: r :: r_ :::
_r.::
Geminate : :r : :r : :r : :r : :r : :r:
II-Gutt
2
cr: cr: cr: cr: cr: cr::
1
3ms only
2
virtual doubling
3
compensatory lengthening
II-Gutt
3
a _: _a _a _a _::
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
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Pual Diagnostics
at-a-glance
Perfect Imperfect Participle
Strong : c_ ; : c_ ; :_ c_ ;:
III-x x_ x_: x_ x_: x_ x_::
III-r r_ :_: r_ :_: r_ :_::
_r.:_:
II-Gutt
1
cr_: cr_: c_r_::
II-Gutt
2
~a ~: _::
1
virtual doubling
2
compensatory lengthening
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Hiphil Diagnostics
at-a-glance
Perfect Imperfect Imperative Infinitive Infinitive Participle
Construct Absolute
Strong :c;r :c; :c;r :c;r :c;r :c;:
_r:.c;r :.c;r
I-Gutt ::_v_r ::_v ::_vr ::_vr ::_vr ::_v:
_r).:_v_r ).:_vr
III-r/v r :cr r :c r:cr r :cr r:cr r :c:
_rr.:cr r.:cr
III-x x x:r x x: xx:r x x:r xx:r x x::
_rx.x:r x.x:r
III-r r_ ::r r_ :: r ::r r::r r ::r r_ :::
_r.::r
I-: : xr : x : xr : xr : xr : x:
_r:. xr :. xr
I- :cr :c :cr :cr :cr :c:
_r:.cr :.cr
Bicon c;r c;_ c;_r c;_r c;_r c;:
_r.:;_r :.;_r
Hophal Diagnostics
at-a-glance
Perfect Imperfect Participle
Strong (u) :c;_r :c;_ :_c;_:
Strong (o) :c;_r :c;_ :_c;_:
I-Gutt ::_v_r ::_v_ :_:_v_:
III-r r_ ::_r r_ ::_ r_ ::_:
I-: :x_r :x_ :_x_:
I- :cr :c :_c:
Bicon c;r c; c_;:
Geminate :cr :c :_c:
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Hithpael Diagnostics
at-a-glance
Perfect Imperfect Imperative Infinitive Infinitive Participle
Construct Absolute
Strong : c;rr : c;r : c;rr : c;rr : c;rr : c;r:
Gemin : :srr : :sr : :srr : :srr : :srr : :sr:
III-r r_ ::rr r_ ::r r ::rr r::rr r_ ::r:
II-Gutt
1
c r:rr c r:r c r:rr c r:rr c r:r:
1
virtual doubling
2
compensatory lengthening
II-Gutt
2
_arr _ar _arr _arr _arr _ar:
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Summary of Endings on III-r Verbs
Qal and Derived Stems
Ending Qal Niphal Piel Pual Hiphil Hophal Hithpael
Perfect r_ : r_:_a r_::: r_ :: r_ :: r_ ::r r_ ::_r r_ ::rr
Imperfect r_ : r_:: r_:_a r_ :: r_ :: r_ :: r_ ::_ r_ ::r
Imperative r : r:a r:_ar r :: r ::r r ::rr
Inf Construct r r:a r:_ar r:: r::r r::rr
Participle r_ : r_:a r_::: r_ ::: r_ ::: r_ ::: r_ ::_: r_ ::r:
Basics of Biblical Hebrew
Gary D. Pratico and Miles V. Van Pelt
x
Strong Verbs
Qal Niphal Piel Pual Hiphil Hophal (1) Hophal (2) Hithpael
Perfect 3ms :c_; :c;: :c; :c :c;r :c;_r :c;_r :c;rr
3fs , r_:c;: r_:c; r_:c r_ : .c;r r_:c;_r r_:c;_r r_:c;rr
2ms _ r :.c _ r :.c;: _ r :.c; _ r :.c _ r :.c;r _ r :.c;_r _ r :.c;_r _ r :.c;rr
2fs r:c r:c;: r:c; r:c r:c;r r:c;_r r:c;_r r:c;rr
1cs r :.c r :.c;: r :.c; r :.c r :.c;r r :.c;_r r :.c;_r r :.c;rr
3cp , :c;: :c; :c :.c;r :c;_r :c;_r :c;rr
2mp cr:c; cr:c;: cr:c; cr:c cr:c;r cr:c;_r cr:c;_r cr:c;rr
2fp ;r:c; ;r:c;: ;r:c; ;r:c ;r:c;r ;r:c;_r ;r:c;_r ;r:c;rr
1cp ::.c ::.c;: ::.c; ::.c ::.c;r ::.c;_r ::.c;_r ::.c;rr
Imperfect 3ms :c; :c :c; :c :c; :c; :c;_ :c;r
3fs :c;r :cr :c;r :cr :c; r :c; r :c;_r :c;rr
2ms :c;r :cr :c;r :cr :c; r :c; r :c;_r :c;rr
2fs :c;r : c,;r :c;r :cr :.c; r : c; r :c;_r : c; r r
1cs :c;_x :c_x :c;_x :c_x :c;x :c;_x :c;_x :c;r_x
3mp :c; :c,; :c; :c :.c; :c; :c;_ :c;r
3fp r_::.c;r r_::.cr r_::.c;r r_::.cr r_::.c; r r_::.c; r r_::.c;_r r_::.c;rr
2mp :c;r :c,;r :c;r :cr :.c; r :c; r :c;_r :c;rr
2fp r_::.c;r r_::.cr r_::.c;r r_::.cr r_::.c; r r_::.c; r r_::.c;_r r_::.c;rr
1cp :c;: :c: :c;: :c: :c;: :c;: :c;_: :c;r:
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Imperative 2ms :c; :cr :c; :c;r :c;rr
2fs :c; : c,;r :c; :.c;r :c;rr
2mp :c; :c,;r :c; :.c;r :c;rr
2fp r_::.c; r_::.cr r_::.c; r_::.c;r r_::.c;rr
Infinitive
Construct :c; :cr :c; :c;r :c;rr
Infinitive :c :c;: :c; :c;r :c;rr
Absolute :cr :c;
Active ms :c; :c;: :c;: :c;r:
Participle fs r_ :_.c; r_ :._c;: r_:.__c;: r_ :_.c;r:
mp c : c; c:c;: c:c;: c : c; r :
fp r:c; r:c;: r:c;: r:c;r:
Passive ms :c_; :_c;: :_c: :_c;_: :_c;_:
Participle fs r_:c; r_:_c;: r_ :._c: r_ :._c;_: r_ :_.c;_:
mp c:c; c :_ c; : c:_c: c:_c;_: c:_c;_:
fp r:c; r:_c;: r:_c: r:_c;_: r:_c;_:
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4
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I-Guttural Verbs
Qal (1) Qal (2) Niphal Hiphil Hophal
Perfect 3ms : :_ v ;t_r :t_v: : :_ v_ r ::_v_r
3fs r):<v rt,r r_:t_v: r).:_v_r r):_v_r
2ms _r).:_ v _r;>t_r _r:> t_ v : _r).:_v_r _r).:_v_r
2fs r) :_ v r;t_r r:t_v: r):_v_r r):_v_r
1cs r). :_ v r;>t_r r:> t_ v : r).:_v_r r).:_v_r
3cp ::<v ;t,r :t_v: :.:_v_r ::_v_r
2mp c r) :_ v cr;t_r cr:t_v: c r) :_ v_ r c r) :_ v_ r
2fp ;r):_v ;r;t_r ;r:t_v: ;r):_v_r ;r):_v_r
1cp :).:_ v :;.t_r ::> t_ v : :).:_v_r :).:_v_r
Imperfect 3ms : :_ v ;t_r :t_v : :_ v : :_ v_
3fs : :_ v r ;t_rr :t_vr : :_ v r : :_ v_ r
2ms : :_ v r ;t_rr :t_vr : :_ v r : :_ v_ r
2fs ) : v r ;t_rr :t<v r ).:_ v r ) :_ v_ r
1cs ::_v_x ;t_r_x :t_vx : :_ v x ::_v_x
3mp : : v ;t_r :t<v :. :_ v : :_ v_
3fp r_:).:_ v r r_:;>t_rr r_::> t_ v r r_:). :_ v r r_:). :_ v_ r
2mp ::vr ;t_rr :t<v r :.:_ v r ::_v_r
2fp r_:).:_ v r r_:;>t_rr r_::> t_ v r r_:). :_ v r r_:). :_ v_ r
1cp : :_ v : ;t_r: :t_v: : :_ v : : :_ v_ :
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Imperative 2ms : :_ v ;t_r :t_vr ::_vr
2fs ) : v ;tr :t<v r ).:_vr
2mp ::v ;tr :t<v r :.:_vr
2fp r_:).:_ v r_:;>t_r r_::>t_vr r_:).:_vr
Infinitive : :_ v ;t_r :t_vr : :_ v r
Construct
Infinitive ::_ v ;t_r :t_v: ::_vr
Absolute :t_vr
Active ms : : v ;tr : :_ v :
Participle fs r)._ : v r>tr r)_ :_ v :
mp c) : v c;tr c) :_ v :
fp r: : v r;tr r: :_ v :
Passive ms ::_v ;t_r :_t_v: :_:_v_:
Participle fs r):_v rt_r r_:> t_ v : r)_.:_ v_ :
mp c):_ v c;t_r c :_ t_ v : c)_ :_ v_ :
fp r::_v r;t_r r:_t_v: r:_ :_ v_ :
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4
1
9
I-x Verbs
Qal (1) Qal (2) Qal (2)
Perfect 3ms ~c_x ::_x ~:_x
3fs r_c<x r_::,x r_:,x
2ms _r:.c_x _ r :. :_ x _r:.:_x
2fs r:c_x r : :_ x r::_x
1cs r:.c_x r :. :_x r:.:_x
3cp ~c<x ::,x ~:,x
2mp cr:c_x c r : :_ x cr::_x
2fp ;r:c_x ;r::_x ;r::_x
1cp ::.c_x ::.:_x ::.:_x
Imperfect 3ms ~c_x : :x ~:x
3fs ~c_xr : :x r ~:xr
2ms ~c_xr : :x r ~:xr
2fs ~cxr : :x r ~:xr
1cs ~c_xx ::x ~:x
3mp ~cx ::x ~:x
3fp r_::.c_xr r_::.:xr r_::.:xr
2mp ~cxr ::xr ~:xr
2fp r_::.c_xr r_:.c_xr r_::.:xr
1cp ~c_x: ::x: ~:x:
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Imperative 2ms ~c_x ::_x ~:_x
2fs ~cx : : x ~:x
2mp ~cx ::x ~:x
2fp r_::.c_x r_::.:_x r_::.:_x
Infinitive ~c_x ::_x ~:_x
Construct
Infinitive ~c_x ::_x ~:_x
Absolute
Active ms ~cx ::x ~:x
Participle fs r.cx r :. : x r.:x
mp c~cx c : : x c~:x
fp r~cx r: : x r~:x
Passive ms ~c_x ::_x ~:_x
Participle fs r_c_x r_::_x r_:_x
mp c~c_x c ::_ x c~:_x
fp r~c_x r::_x r~:_x
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4
2
1
II-Guttural Verbs
Qal Niphal Piel (vd) Piel (cl) Pual (vd) Pual (cl) Hithpael (vd) Hithpael (cl)
Perfect 3ms ~r_a ~r:: cr: a cr: ~a cr:rr _arr
3fs r__r_a r__r:: r_:_r: r_:a r_:r: r_:a r_:_r:rr r_:,arr
2ms _r.r_a _r.r:: _r:.r: _ r :.~a _r:.r: _ r :.~a _r:.r:rr _ r :.~_arr
2fs rr_a rr:: r:r: r:~a r:r: r:~a r:r:rr r:~_arr
1cs r.r_a r.r:: r : .r: r :.~a r : .r: r :.~a r : .r:rr r :.~_arr
3cp ~_r_a ~_r:: :_r: :a :r: :a :_r:rr :,arr
2mp crra crr:: cr:r: cr:~a cr:r: cr:~a cr:r:rr cr:~_arr
2fp ;rra ;rr:: ;r:r: ;r:~a ;r:r: ;r:~a ;r:r:rr ;r:~_arr
1cp :.r_a :.r:: ::.r: ::.~a ::.r: ::.~a ::.r:rr ::.~_arr
Imperfect 3ms ~r: ~r_a cr: _: c r : ~: c r : r _ar
3fs ~r:r ~r_ar cr: r _:r c r : r ~:r c r : r r _arr
2ms ~r:r ~r_ar cr: r _:r c r : r ~:r c r : r r _arr
2fs ~_r:r ~_rar :_r: r :<:r :r:r ::r :_ r : r r :,arr
1cs ~r:_x ~r_a_x cr:_x _:_x cr:_x ~:_x cr:r_x _ar_x
3mp ~_r: ~_ra :_r: :<: :r : :: :_r:r :,ar
3fp r_:.r:r r_:.r_ar r_::.r: r r_::._:r r_::.r:r r_::.~:r r_::.r:rr r_::._arr
2mp ~_r:r ~_rar :_r: r :<:r :r:r ::r :_r:rr :,arr
2fp r_:.r:r r_:.r_ar r_::.r: r r_::._:r r_::.r:r r_::.~:r r_::.r:rr r_::._arr
1cp ~r:: ~r_a: cr:: _:: cr:: ~:: c r : r : _ar:
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Imperative 2ms ~ra ~r_ar cr: _a cr:rr _arr
2fs ~_ra ~_r_ar :_r: :<a :_r:rr :,arr
2mp ~_ra ~_r_ar :_r: :<a :_r:rr :,arr
2fp r_:.ra r_:.r_ar r_::.r: r_::._a r_::.r:rr r_::>_arr
Infinitive ~ra ~r_ar cr: _a cr:rr _arr
Construct
Infinitive ~r_a ~r:: cr: _a cr:rr _arr
Absolute
Active ms ~ra cr:: _:: cr:r: _ar:
Participle fs r_.ra r_:._r:: r_ :_.~_:: r_:_ .r:r: r_ :._ar:
mp c~_ra c :_ r : : c :<:: c :_ r : r : c :<ar:
fp r~_ra r:_r:: r:<:: r:_r:r: r:<ar:
Passive ms ~r_a ~_r:: c_r:: _::
Participle fs r_ra r._r:: r_:._r:: r_ :.::
mp c~ra c~_r:: c :_ r : : c:_::
fp r~ra r~_r:: r:_r:: r:_::
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4
2
3
III-r/v Verbs
Qal Niphal Piel Pual Hiphil Hophal
Perfect 3ms r:_c r:c: r:c r:c r:cr r:c_r
3fs r_r:,c r_r:c: r_r:c r_r:c r_r.:cr r_r:c_r
2ms _rr.:_c _rr.:c: _rr.:c _rr.:c _rr.:cr _rr.:c_r
2fs rr.:_c rr.:c: rr.:c rr.:c rr.:cr rr.:c_r
1cs r r.:_c r r.:c: r r.:c r r.:c r r.:cr r r.:c_r
3cp r:,c r:c: r:c r:c r.:cr r:c_r
2mp crr:c c r r : c : c r r : c c r r : c crr:cr crr:c_r
2fp ;rr:c ;rr:c: ;rr:c ;rr:c ;rr:cr ;rr:c_r
1cp :r.:_c :r.:c: :r.:c :r.:c :r.:cr :r.:c_r
Imperfect 3ms r:c r:_c r:c r:c r : c r:c_
3fs r:cr r:_cr r:cr r:cr r : c r r:c_r
2ms r:cr r:_cr r:cr r:cr r : c r r:c_r
2fs r : c r r :,cr r : c r r : c r r.: c r r : c_ r
1cs r:c_x r:_c_x r:c_x r:c_x r:cx r:c_x
3mp r:c r:,c r:c r:c r. : c r:c_
3fp r_:r .: c r r_:r .:_ c r r_:r .: c r r_:r. : c r r_:r. : c r r_:r .: c_ r
2mp r:cr r:,cr r:cr r:cr r.: c r r:c_r
2fp r_:r .: c r r_:r .:_ c r r_:r .: c r r_:r. : c r r_:r. : c r r_:r .: c_ r
1cp r:c: r:_c: r:c: r:c: r:c: r:c_:
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Imperative 2ms r:c r:_cr r:c r:cr
2fs r:c r :,cr r:c r.:cr
2mp r:c r:,cr r:c r.:cr
2fp r_:r.:c r_:r.:_cr r_:r .:c r_:r .:cr
Infinitive r:c r:_cr r:c r:cr
Construct
Infinitive r:_c r:c: r:c r:cr
Absolute r:_cr
Active ms r:c r:c: r:c:
Participle fs rr.:c rr.:c: r_r_.:c:
mp c r : c c r : c : c r : c :
fp rr:c rr:c: rr : c :
Passive ms r:_c r_:c: r_:c: r_:c_:
Participle fs r_r:c rr.:c: rr.:c: rr.:c_:
mp cr:c c r_ : c : c r_ : c : c r_ : c_ :
fp rr:c rr_:c: rr_:c: rr_:c_:
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4
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5
III-x Verbs
Qal Niphal Piel Pual Hiphil Hophal Hithpael
Perfect 3ms x_ x_ : x_ x : : x x : x_ x_ : x x : r x_x:_r xx:rr
3fs r_xx,: r_xx:: r_xx: r_xx_: r_x.x : r r_xx:_r r_xx:rr
2ms _rx_.x_ : _rx.x :: _rx. x : _rx.x_ : _rx.x : r _ rx_.x :_ r _rx.x : r r
2fs rx_ x_ : rx x :: rx x : rx x_ : rxx:r rx_x:_r rx x : r r
1cs rx_.x_ : rx. x :: rx.x : rx.x_ : rx. x : r rx._ x :_ r rx.x : r r
3cp xx,: xx:: xx: xx_: x.x : r xx:_r xx:rr
2mp c rx_ x : c rx x :: c rx x : c rx x_ : c rx x : r c rx_x:_r c rx x : r r
2fp ;rx_x: ;rxx:: ;rxx: ;rxx_: ;rxx:r ;rx_x:_r ;rxx:rr
1cp :x_.x_ : :x. x : : :x.x : :x.x_ : :x.x : r :x._ x :_ r :x.x : r r
Imperfect 3ms x_ x : x x_ : x x : x_ x_ : x x : x_ x : x x : r
3fs x_ x : r x x_ : r x x : r x_ x_ : r x x : r x_ x : r x x : r r
2ms x_ x : r x x_ : r x x : r x_ x_ : r x x : r x_ x : r x x : r r
2fs x x : r x x<:r x x : r x x_ : r x.x : r x x : r x x : r r
1cs x_x:_x xx_:_x xx:_x x_x_:_x x x : x x_x:_x x x : r_ x
3mp x x : xx<: x x : x x_ : x.x : x x : xx: r
3fp r_:x_.x : r r_:x._ x_ : r r_:x._ x : r r_:x._ x_ : r r_:x_.x : r r_:x._ x : r r_:x._ x : r r
2mp xx:r xx<:r xx:r xx_:r x.x : r xx:r xx:r r
2fp r_:x_.x : r r_:x._ x_ : r r_:x._ x : r r_:x._ x_ : r r_:x_.x : r r_:x._ x : r r_:x._ x : r r
1cp x_ x : : x x_ : : x x : : x_ x_ : : x x : : x_ x : : x x : r :
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Imperative 2ms x_ x : xx_:r x x : xx:r xx:rr
2fs x x : x x<:r x x : x.x : r x x : r r
2mp xx: xx<:r xx: x.x : r xx:rr
2fp r_:x._ x : r_:x._ x_ : r r_:x._ x : r_:x._ x : r r_:x._ x : r r
Infinitive x x : xx_:r x x : x x : r xx:rr
Construct
Infinitive xx_ : x x : : x x : xx:r xx:rr
Absolute xx_:r
Active ms x x : x x : : x x : : x x : r :
Participle fs rxx : rx x : : rx x : : rx x : r :
mp c x x : c x x : : c x x : : c x x : r :
fp rx x : rx x : : rx x : : rx x : r :
Passive ms xx_: x_ x : : x_ x_ : : x_ x :_ :
Participle fs r_xx: r_x_x:: r_x_x_:: rx x :_ :
mp c xx : c x_ x : : c x_ x_ : : c x_ x :_ :
fp rxx: rx_ x : : rx_ x_ : : rx_ x :_ :
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4
2
7
III-r Verbs
Qal Niphal Piel Pual Hiphil Hophal Hithpael
Perfect 3ms r_:_a r_::: r_:: r_:: r_::r r_::_r r_::rr
3fs r_r:<a r_r::: r_r:: r_r:: r_r::r r_r::_r r_r::rr
2ms _ r.:_a _ r.::: _ r.:: _ r.:: _ r.::r _ r.::_r _ r.::rr
2fs r:_a r::: r : : r : : r::r r::_r r ::rr
1cs r.:_a r.::: r.:: r.:: r.::r r.::_r r.::rr
3cp :_a ::: :: :: ::r ::_r ::rr
2mp c r : a c r : : : c r : : c r : : cr::r cr::_r c r ::rr
2fp ;r:a ;r::: ;r:: ;r:: ;r::r ;r::_r ; r ::rr
1cp :.:_a :.::: :.:: :.:: :.::r :.::_r :.::rr
Imperfect 3ms r:: r:_a r_:: r_:: r_:: r_::_ r_::r
3fs r::r r:_ar r_::r r_::r r_::r r_::_r r_::rr
2ms r::r r:_ar r_::r r_::r r_::r r_::_r r_::rr
2fs ::r :_ar : : r : : r : : r : :_ r : : r r
1cs r::_x r:_a_x r_::_x r_::_x r_::x r_::_x r_::r_x
3mp :: :_a :: :: :: ::_ ::r
3fp r_:.::r r_:_ >:_ar r_:_ .::r r_:_ .::r r_:_ .::r r_:_ .::_r r_:._::rr
2mp ::r :_ar ::r ::r ::r ::_r ::rr
2fp r_:.::r r_:_ >:_ar r_:_ .::r r_:_ .::r r_:_ .::r r_:_ .::_r r_:._::rr
1cp r::: r:_a: r_::: r_::: r_::: r_::_: r_::r:
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Imperative 2ms r:a r:_ar r:: r::r r::rr
2fs :a :_ar :: ::r ::rr
2mp :a :_ar :: ::r ::rr
2fp r_:.:a r_:.:_ar r_:._:: r_:_ .::r r_:_ .::rr
Infinitive r:a r:_ar r:: r::r r::rr
Construct
Infinitive r:_a r::: r:: r::r
Absolute r:_ar r::
Active ms r:a r_::: r_::: r_::r:
Participle fs r_:a r_::: r_::: r_::r:
mp c : a c : : : c : : : c : : r :
fp r:a r::: r::: r::r:
Passive ms :_a r::: r_::: r_::_:
Participle fs r_:a r_::: r_::: r_::_:
mp c : a c : : : c : : : c : :_ :
fp r:a r::: r::: r::_:
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4
2
9
I-: Verbs
Qal (1) Qal (2) Qal (Irreg.) Niphal Hiphil Hophal
Perfect 3ms : :_ : v c_ : ;r_: : x : : x r : x_ r
3fs r_::<: r_vc<: r_:r<: r_ : x : r_ :. x r r_:x_r
2ms _ r :. :_ : _ r v.c_: _ r. r_ : _ r :. x : _ r : .x r _ r :. x_ r
2fs r : :_ : r v.c_: r r_ : r : x : r : x r r : x_ r
1cs r :. :_ : r v.c_: r.r_ : r :.x : r :.x r r :. x_ r
3cp ::<: vc<: :r<: : x : :. x r :x_r
2mp c r : : : c r v c : c r r : c r : x : c r : x r c r : x_ r
2fp ;r::: ;rvc: ;rr: ; r : x : ;r:xr ;r:x_r
1cp ::. :_ : :v.c_: :.r_ : ::.x : ::. x r ::.x_ r
Imperfect 3ms : s v c ; r : x_ : : x : x
3fs : s r v c r ;rr : x_ : r : x r : x r
2ms : s r v c r ;rr : x_ : r : x r : x r
2fs : s r v c r : r r : x<: r :. x r : x r
1cs : s_ x vc_x ;r_x : x_ :_ x : x x : x_ x
3mp : s v c : r : x<: :. x : x
3fp r_::. s r r_ : v.cr r_:. r r r_::.x_ : r r_::. x r r_::.x r
2mp :sr vcr :rr : x<: r :. x r : x r
2fp r_::. : r r_ : v.cr r_:. r r r_::.x_ : r r_::. x r r_::.x r
1cp : s : v c : ;r: : x_ : : : x : : x :
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Imperative 2ms : : : v c ;r : x_ : r : x r
2fs : : : v c : r : x<:r :. x r
2mp ::: vc :r : x<:r :. x r
2fp r_::. : : r_ : v.c r_:.r r_::.x_ : r r_::. x r
Infinitive : : : r v.c r r : x_ : r : x r
Construct v c : ;r:
Infinitive ::_ : vc_ : ;r_: : x_ : r : x r
Absolute :x :
Active ms : : : v c : ;r: : x :
Participle fs r_ :._ : : r v.c: r :. r : r_ :._ x :
mp c : : : c v c : c : r : c : x :
fp r: : : rv c : r: r : r: x :
Passive ms ::_: vc_: ;r_: :_ x : :_ x_ :
Participle fs r_::: r_vc: r_:r: r_ :._ x : r_ :._ x_ :
mp c :: : c vc : c :r : c :_ x : c :_ x_ :
fp r::: rvc: r:r: r:_ x : r:_ x_ :
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4
3
1
I- Verbs
Qal (1) Qal (2) Niphal Hiphil Hophal
Perfect 3ms :c_ c~_ :c: :cr :cr
3fs r_:c< r_c< r_:c: r_:.cr r_:cr
2ms _r:.c_ _rc.~_ _r:.c: _r:.cr _r:.cr
2fs r:c_ rc~_ r:c: r:cr r:cr
1cs r:. c_ r c.~_ r:.c: r:.cr r:.cr
3cp :c< c< :c: :.cr :cr
2mp c r : c c r c~ cr:c: cr:cr cr:cr
2fp ;r:c ;rc~ ;r:c: ;r:cr ;r:cr
1cp ::. c_ :c.~_ ::.c: ::.cr ::.cr
Imperfect 3ms :c c~ :c_ : c :c
3fs :cr c~r :c_r :cr :cr
2ms :cr c~r :c_r :cr :cr
2fs :cr c r :c<r :.cr :cr
1cs :cx c~x :c_x :cx :cx
3mp :c c :c< :. c :c
3fp r_::.cr r_:c.~ r r_::.c_r r_:: .cr r_::.cr
2mp :cr cr :c<r :.cr :cr
2fp r_::.cr r_:c.~ r r_::.c_r r_:: .cr r_::.cr
1cp :c: c~: :c_: :c: :c:
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Imperative 2ms :c c~ :c_r :cr
2fs :c c :c<r :.cr
2mp :c c :c<r :.cr
2fp r_::.c r_:c.~ r_::.c_r r_:: .cr
Infinitive r_:_.c rc. :c_r :cr
Construct
Infinitive :c_ c~_ :c_r :cr
Absolute
Active ms :c c :c:
Participle fs r_:_.c rc. r_:_.c:
mp c : c c c c : c:
fp r:c rc r:c:
Passive ms :_c: :_c:
Participle fs r_:.c: r_:.c:
mp c:_c: c:_c:
fp r:_c: r:_c:
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4
3
3
Biconsonantal Verbs
Qal (-class) Qal ( -class) Qal (-class) Hiphil Hophal
Perfect 3ms c c_ c x_a c;r c;r
3fs r_:. r_:_.c r_x._a r_:.;r r_:;r
2ms _r:.; _r:.c _rx_.a _ r.:;_r _r:.;r
2fs r:; r:c rx_a r:;_r r:;r
1cs r :.; r :.c rx._a r.:;_r r :.;r
3cp :. :._c x_.a :.;r :;r
2mp cr:; c r : c crx_a c r:;_ r cr:;r
2fp ;r:; ;r:c ;rx_a ;r:;_r ;r:;r
1cp ::.; ::.c :x._a :.:;_r ::.;r
Imperfect 3ms c;_ c c_ x:_ c;_ c;
3fs c;_r c c_ r x:_r c;_ r c;r
2ms c;_r c c_ r x:_r c;_ r c;r
2fs :.;_r :.c_r x.:_r :.;_r :;r
1cs c;_x c c_ x x:_x c;_ x c;x
3mp :.;_ :.c_ x.:_ :.;_ :;
3fp r_:._:;r r_:_ .: c r r_:x.:_r r_:._:;r r_::.;r
2mp :.;_r :.c_r x.:_r :.;_r :;r
2fp r_:._:;r r_:_ .: c r r_:x.:_r r_:._:;r r_::.;r
1cp c;_: c c_ : x:_: c;_ : c;:
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Imperative 2ms c; c c xa c;_r
2fs :.; :.c x.a :.;_r
2mp :.; :.c x.a :.;_r
2fp r_::.; r_::.;_r
Infinitive c; c c xa c;_r
Construct cc
Infinitive c; cc xa c;_r
Absolute
Active ms c c_ c x_a c; :
Participle fs r_: r_:_c r_x_a r_:;:
mp c : c :_ c cx_a c :; :
fp r: r:_c rx_a r:;:
Passive ms c; c c xa c:
Participle fs r_:.:
mp c::
fp r::
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Geminate Verbs
Qal (1) Qal (2) Niphal Piel Hiphil Hophal Hithpael
Perfect 3ms ::_c c r :c_: ::r :cr :cr : : s r r
3fs r_::<c r_:. r r_a.c_: r_::r r_a.cr r_a.cr r_::srr
2ms _ r.ac _ r.:r _ r.ac: _ r :.:r _ r.ac_r _ r.acr _ r :. : s r r
2fs rac r: r rac: r::r rac_r racr r : : s r r
1cs r.ac r.:r r.ac: r :.:r r.ac_r r.acr r :. : s r r
3cp ::<c :. r a.c_: ::r a.cr a.cr : : s r r
2mp crac c r: r crac: c r : : r crac_r cracr c r : : s r r
2fp ;rac ; r: r ;rac: ;r::r ;rac_r ;racr ;r::srr
1cp :.ac :.:r :.ac: ::.:r :.ac_r :.acr ::. : s r r
Imperfect 3ms :c_ c r :c : : r :c_ :c : : s r
3fs :c_r c r r :cr ::rr :c_r :cr : : s r r
2ms :c_r c r r :cr ::rr :c_r :cr : : s r r
2fs a.c_r :. r r a.cr : : r r a.c_r a.cr : : s r r
1cs :c_x c r x :c_x ::r_x :c_x :cx : : s r_ x
3mp a.c_ :. r a.c ::r a. c_ a.c : : s r
3fp r_:_ .a_cr r_:_ .: r r r_:_ .acr r_::.:rr r_: ._:cr r_:_ .acr r_::. : s r r
2mp a.c_r :. r r a.cr ::rr :.c_r a.cr : : s r r
2fp r_:_ .a_cr r_:_ .: r r r_:_ .acr r_::.:rr r_: ._:cr r_:_ .acr r_::. : s r r
1cp :c_: c r : :c: ::r: :c_: :c: : : s r :
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Imperative 2ms :c c r :cr ::r :c_r : : s r r
2fs a.c :. r a.cr : : r a.c_r : : s r r
2mp a.c :. r a.cr ::r a.c_r ::srr
2fp r_:: .c r_::.r r_:_ .acr r_::.:r r_: ._:c_r r_::.: s r r
Infinitive :c c r :cr ::r :c_r : : s r r
Construct
Infinitive ::_c c:_ r :cr ::r :c_r : : s r r
Absolute
Active ms ::c c r ::r: : : s r :
Participle fs r_::c r_:r r_ :._:r: r_ :_.: s r :
mp c::c c : r c : : r : c : : s r :
fp r::c r: r r::r: r: : s r :
Passive ms ::_c :_c:
Participle fs r_::c r_:._c:
mp c::c cac:
fp r::c rac:
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