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TBE EFFECTS 0F TBE TAPEB-PR0BLENS TINE-BELAY INTERvENTI0N

T0 TEACB SIuBT W0RBS 0SINu AN IP0B




by
Naiy Beth Linusay Pummel


A thesis submitteu to the faculty of
The 0niveisity of 0tah
in paitial fulfillment of the iequiiements foi the uegiee of


Nastei of Science


Bepaitment of Euucational Psychology
The 0niveisity of 0tah
Becembei 2u11



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anu by Chailes A. Wight, Bean of The uiauuate School.










ABSTRACT

The cuiient stuuy is an extension of the ieseaich liteiatuie using time-uelay
tapeu-woius inteivention to teach sight woius. An iPou Touch ueliveieu the time-
uelay tapeu-woius inteivention to seconu giaue stuuents who hau been iuentifieu
as at iisk foi ieauing uifficulties. This stuuy utilizeu a iesponse to inteivention
mouel in oiuei to iuentify at-iisk stuuents by scieening an entiie seconu giaue
using cuiiiculum-baseu measuiements. The inteivention consisteu of baseline,
inteivention, anu maintenance phases. Bata weie collecteu to monitoi stuuent
piogiess of leaining sight woius. In auuition, geneialization uata weie collecteu
using measuies of oial ieauing fluency. Bata weie analyzeu by calculating
peicentage of nonoveilapping uata points anu effect sizes baseu on accuiacy.





TABLE 0F C0NTENTS

ABSTRACT........................................ iii
LIST 0F TABLES ....................................... vi
LIST 0F FIu0RES ...................................... vii
INTR0B0CTI0N...................................... 1

Reauing ........................................ 1
Reauing Fluency ................................. S
Response to Inteivention anu Cuiiiculum-Baseu Assessment ........ S
Components of Effective Acauemic Inteiventions ................. 8
Reseaich-valiuateu Inteiventions ........................... 1u
Technology anu Acauemic Inteiventions ..................... 22
Statement of Puipose................................ 26
Reseaich Questions................................. 27
NETB0BS........................................ 28
Paiticipants ..................................... 28
Nateiials ..................................... S2

PR0CEB0RES...................................... S6
Besign ....................................... S6
Bepenuent Neasuies ............................... 41
Bata Collection ................................. 42
Bata Analysis .................................. 4S
RES0LTS.......................................... 48
Pioceuuial Integiity .............................. 48
Analysis by Question ............................... S1
BISC0SSI0N ........................................ 7S
Najoi Finuings .................................. 74
Limitations .................................... 82

v
Implications foi Futuie Reseaich ....................... 8S
APPENBICES
A. LETTER T0 PARENTS ................................ 87
B. PARENTAL PERNISSI0N B0C0NENT ........................ 89
C. ASSENT T0 PARTICIPATE ................................ 9S
B. C0NSENT C0vER LETTER ............. .................. 96
E. W0RB LIST EXANPLES .................................. 99
F. ST0BENT TREATNENT ACCEPTABILITY ....................... 1u1
REFERENCES ................................................... 1uS





LIST 0F TABLES

Table Page
1. Aveiage Accuiacy of Implementation pei Paiticipant ..................... 49
2. Inteiiatei Reliability between Expeiimentei anu Paiticipant .............. S1
S. Nean Accuiacy Peicentages by Phase .................................. S2
4. Tieatment Acceptability - Stuuent Rating Results!................. 7u
S. Tieatment Acceptability - Teachei Rating Results!........................ 7





LIST 0F FIu0RES

Figuie Page
1. Nultiple-Baseline Besign Acioss Paiticipants....................... S
2. Repeateu Neasuies Acioss Inteivention Sessions foi Paiticipant 1 ....... SS
S. Repeateu Neasuies Acioss Inteivention Sessions foi Paiticipant 2 .......... SS
4. Repeateu Neasuies Acioss Inteivention Sessions foi Paiticipant S .......... S6
S. Repeateu Neasuies Acioss Inteivention Sessions foi Paiticipant 4 .......... S6
6. ueneialization Bata .......................................... 6S





INTR0B0CTI0N

Reauing, wiiting, anu aiithmetic aie wiuely accepteu as the coie components
of euucation. The acquisition of skill in these aieas is unquestionably essential foi
suivival in the 21
st
centuiy. At each passing giaue, ieauing skills become evei moie
ciitical as the stuuent is iequiieu to ieau mateiial acioss all content aieas to gain
infoimation. If a stuuent has not become competent as a ieauei, the stuuent will
stiuggle to leain the subject mattei anu succeeu in school. Thiiu giaue has long
been vieweu as the point in euucation wheie a stuuent no longei leains to ieau but
ieaus to leain. Accoiuing to a 2uu7 iepoit fiom the National Assessment of
Euucational Piogiess, SS% of fouith giaueis have not achieveu basic levels of
ieauing. Theiefoie, we can assume that the one-thiiu of fouith giaueis who have
not achieveu basic levels of ieauing will also stiuggle to acquiie essential
infoimation in othei acauemic aieas as well.

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Reauing is an essential skill that stuuents must acquiie in oiuei to be
successful in school anu beyonu. The National Centei foi Euucational Statistics
(2uu9) iepoiteu that Su million auults have below-basic levels of English liteiacy
anu 6S million ieau at a basic level. Thus, 44% of auults in Ameiica coulu
2

benefit fiom English liteiacy instiuction. Leaining to ieau is challenging anu
multiuimensional. The National Institute foi Liteiacy (2uu9) has iuentifieu five key
components of ieauing that incluue phonemic awaieness, phonics, fluency,
vocabulaiy, anu compiehension. Phonemic awaieness involves teaching chiluien
how to manipulate phonemes in spoken syllables anu woius. Reseaich has shown
that phonemic awaieness anu lettei knowleuge aie the two best pieuictois of how
well chiluien will leain to ieau uuiing theii fiist 2 yeais of instiuction (National
Reauing Panel, 2uu6). Phonics, oi the alphabetic piinciple, is the ability to associate
sounus with letteis anu use the sounus to foim woius (Shapiio, 2uu4). Subskills of
the alphabetic piinciple incluue uecouing, sight woiu iecognition, sounuing out
woius, woiu analysis, anu iecognizing woiu patteins (The 0niveisity of Texas
Centei foi Reauing anu Language Aits, 2uu4).
Beginning ieaueis iely on lettei-by-lettei uecouing, associating a lettei with
a specific sounu anu blenuing that sounu with the sounu of the next lettei(s) to foim
a woiu. Repeateu association with a woiu's pionunciation anu visual iepiesentation
will leau the ieauei to piocess lettei clusteis anu entiie woius as units. As this
piocess becomes moie iapiu, iepeateu exposuie to the woiu allows the ieauei to
stoie woius as whole spelling units that can be accuiately anu automatically
iecognizeu as "sight woius." Pioficient ieauing iequiies uecouing, the piocess
leauing to woiu iecognition, fluency, the ability to ieau quickly anu accuiately, anu
compiehension, the ability to ueiive meaning fiom text (Ravthon, 2uu8).
!
!


S
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Reauing fluency is the combination of accuiacy anu iate of ieauing. Both of
these aspects of ieauing must be consiueieu in oiuei to ueteimine a ieauei's skill
level. Rate alone can only assess how quickly a stuuent ieaus a passage but uoes not
assess how many woius the ieauei has ieau coiiectly. Conveisely, a stuuent may
ieau accuiately but at a slow iate (Basbiouck & Tinual, 1992). Fluency iequiies
automaticity, which is the ability to associate letteis with sounus anu to iecognize
sight woius anu spelling patteins. Balf of all wiitten woius in the English language
aie composeu of just 1uu sight woius anu theii vaiiants (Fiy, 198u). Theiefoie, the
ability to accuiately anu quickly iecognize these fiequently useu woius is an
impoitant skill foi eaily ieaueis to accomplish. The iapiu ieauing of high fiequency
woius anu uecouable woius is ciitical foi ieauing compiehension (Chaiu, Ketteilin-
uellei, Bakei, Boablei, & Apichatabutia, 2uu9; Rasinski, 2uuu; Shapiio, 2uu4; The
0niveisity of Texas Centei foi Reauing anu Language Aits, 2uu4). If all of a stuuent's
attention is fully captivateu by uecouing woius, they will have no attention capacity
foi compiehension. Theiefoie, the automaticity of uecouing is an impoitant
component of fluency. Pikulski anu Chaiu (2uuS) view fluency as an essential pait of
the uevelopmental piocess of builuing uecouing skills in oiuei to uevelop a causal
anu iecipiocal ielationship with compiehension.

"#./0'.#!10!2'1#34#'1&0'!$'%!5+33&,+*+678$.#%!9..#..6#'1!
Slavin et al. (1991) stateu, "once a chilu is acauemically hanuicappeu (oi
significantly behinu his oi hei peeis foi any ieason), neithei mainstieaming noi


4
special oi iemeuial euucation is likely to biing the chilu up to age appiopiiate
achievement noims" (p. S7S). They pioposeu that the key focus of euucation shoulu
emphasize pievention, anu eaily, intensive, anu continueu inteivention to keep
stuuent achievement within noimal limits. Response to inteivention (RTI) is the
pioactive appioach of iuentification anu seivice ueliveiy uesigneu to taiget stuuents
with behavioial oi acauemic uifficulties as soon as they begin to stiuggle. The focus
of RTI is to uelivei seivices that aie matcheu to the neeus of the stuuent anu to
fiequently monitoi stuuent piogiess in oiuei to accuiately ueteimine the stuuent's
iesponse to the inteivention (}ustice, 2uu6; Rathvon, 2uu8). Beno (1986) suggesteu
that placement in special euucation must be baseu on eviuence of the stuuent's
impiovement iathei than the agieement of piofessionals alone. Reseaicheis have
long acknowleugeu that commeicially uevelopeu stanuaiuizeu anu noim-
iefeienceu tests of achievement aie inauequate foi making uecisions iegaiuing
inuiviuual euucational placement anu piogiams (Beno, 198S). Ciitics of the
tiauitional uisciepancy mouel of ieauing uisability iuentification aigue that many
chiluien aie misuiagnoseu with a ieauing uisability when if fact they woulu succeeu
given the appiopiiate oppoitunities. RTI in contiast pioviues a mouel of
iuentification that is uesigneu to uiffeientiate between stuuents who have
expeiiential-baseu anu cognitive-baseu ieauing uifficulties (}ustice, 2uu6).
Buins anu vanBeiBeyuen (2uu6) uefine RTI as "the systematic use of uata-
baseu uecision making to most efficiently allocate iesouices to enhance leaining
outcomes foi all chiluien" (p. S). In oiuei to ueteimine a stuuent's level of acauemic
achievement within the RTI mouel, assessments aie utilizeu at both the classioom


S
anu inuiviuual level. Benchmaik measuies aie useu to evaluate classioom
peifoimance in ieauing in oiuei to infoim instiuctional piactices anu set goals.
Inuiviuual stuuent piogiess in the RTI mouel is assesseu thiough the use of piogiess
monitoiing, commonly iefeiieu to as cuiiiculum-baseu measuiement (CBN)
(Shapiio, 2uu4). CBN evaluates inuiviuual stuuent's peifoimance on specific
inuicatois of piogiess in ieauing. CBN is a set of stanuaiuizeu, fluency-baseu
pioceuuies uesigneu to measuie a stuuent's piogiess towaius inteivention goals oi
giaue-level stanuaius. Neasuiement pioceuuies aie biief, can be auministeieu
fiequently, anu aie baseu on the stuuent's own instiuctional cuiiiculum (Rathvon,
2uu8). CBN is conuucteu a minimum of thiee times pei yeai oi on a ioutine basis
(Basbiouck & Tinual, 2uu6). CBN measuies must be sensitive to instiuctional
change ovei time in oiuei to evaluate stuuent piogiess (Shapiio, 2uu4).
Cuiiiculum-baseu measuies weie uevelopeu with a specific set of
chaiacteiistics in minu. Cuiiiculum-baseu measuiements must be ieliable anu valiu,
simple anu efficient, easily unueistoou anu inteipietable, anu inexpensive.
Reliability anu valiuity ieseaich on CBN ievealeu, "a simple uatum like the numbei
of woius ieau alouu coiiectly anu incoiiectly fiom a basal text ieliably anu valiuly
uisciiminates giowth in ieauing pioficiency thioughout the elementaiy school
yeais" (Beno, 198S, p. 224). Theiefoie, it was positeu that the numbei of woius ieau
coiiectly anu incoiiectly in 1 minute can be useu to monitoi giowth in ieauing anu
can be useu as a measuie of ieauing achievement (Beno, 198S).
The chaiacteiistics of CBN allow foi many auvantages ovei stanuaiuizeu
assessments. These auvantages incluue incieaseu communication among


6
piofessionals, incieaseu sensitivity of measuies, an impioveu uatabase of stuuent
giowth, anu peei iefeiencing options. Inuiviuual stuuent uata can be iepiesenteu on
a giaph which allows foi the quick visual assessment of stuuent peifoimance by
multiple piofessionals. These uata aie useu to infoim piofessionals anu guiue
euucational uecision-making. The sensitivity of CBN measuies allows euucatois to
evaluate a stuuent's giowth ovei ielatively shoit peiious of time (i.e., uays oi
weeks). In contiast, tiauitional stanuaiuizeu assessments aie not sensitive enough
to pieuict change within such iestiicteu time peiious. Bue to the ease of
auministeiing CBN, school anu uistiict noims can be easily obtaineu in auuition to
noims of laigei populations that have been collecteu thiough ieseaich (Beno,
198S). Cuiiiculum-baseu measuiements can be auministeieu quickly anu pioviues
an estimate of the stuuent's giowth ovei time to pieuict whethei goal attainment is
likely to occui with the given inteivention (Beno, 1986; }ustice, 2uu6). Cuiiiculum-
baseu measuiements have been shown to be effective in evaluating changes in
stuuent peifoimance in euucational piogiams. School psychologists anu teacheis
can use CBN to test hypotheses iegaiuing piogiam mouifications anu to iuentify
moie effective tieatments (Beno, 1986).
Theie aie two types of CBN foi ieauing, oial ieauing fluency anu maze
fluency. 0ial ieauing fluency focuses on two components of fluency, iate anu
accuiacy (Basbiouck & Tinual, 1992; Basbiouck & Tinual, 2uu6). In oial ieauing
fluency, the stuuent is given a passage of text, known as an oial ieauing piobe, that
is wiitten at an enu-of-yeai competency level. The stuuent is alloweu 1 minute anu
instiucteu to ieau the passage alouu. The numbei of woius ieau coiiectly (woius


7
coiiect pei minute, WCPN) is the scoie. Reseaich has shown that oial ieauing
fluency is a poweiful inuicatoi of oveiall ieauing competence, is highly coiielateu
with ieauing compiehension anu is the best pieuictoi of yeai-enu ieauing
achievement (Beno, 198S; uoou, Kaminski, & Bill, 2uu2; Basbiouck & Tinual, 2uu6;
Rathvon, 2uu8; Schilling, Cailisle, Scott, & Zeng, 2uu7). In maze fluency, the stuuent
is given a passage in which eveiy seventh woiu has been ueleteu anu ieplaceu with
a choice of thiee woius. The stuuent ieaus the passage silently foi a specifieu
amount of time anu ciicles one ieplacement woiu fiom each clustei of options. The
coiiect numbei of ieplacements is scoieu (Rathvon, 2uu8).
Common components of RTI mouels incluue the use of incieasingly intensive
tieis of inteivention, ieseaich-baseu instiuction anu inteivention, a pioblem-
solving appioach foi matching inteiventions with stuuents neeus, anu systematic
uata-collection anu monitoiing to ueteimine if stuuents aie making auequate
piogiess. The Tiei 1 level is synonymous with the geneial euucation classioom
which shoulu employ an eviuence-baseu cuiiiculum that allows foi auequate
instiuctional time anu oppoitunities foi the stuuents to piactice. Scieening foi
acauemic anu behavioial pioblems anu systematic piogiess monitoiing aie
conuucteu at the Tiei 1 level foi all stuuents. Although the Tiei 1 level employs a
high-quality eviuence-baseu ieauing cuiiiculum, some stuuents will fail to make
auequate piogiess (Rathvon, 2uu8). This failuie to make auequate piogiess will be
eviuent thiough examination of the piogiess monitoiing uata. Theiefoie, once the
pioblem has been iuentifieu, the stuuent can begin ieceiving inteivention suppoit at
the Tiei 2 level.


8
Acauemic suppoit at the Tiei 2 level can be auministeieu in a small gioup
setting oi thiough inuiviuualizeu inteiventions (Rathvon, 2uu8). The goal of Tiei 2
instiuction is to acceleiate the pace of the stuuent's ieauing uevelopment so they
may achieve giaue-level competencies in ieauing by the enu of the acauemic yeai
(}ustice, 2uu6). Piogiess monitoiing is conuucteu moie fiequently at the Tiei 2 level
to monitoi stuuent giowth anu guiue euucational uecision making. Stuuents who fail
to make auequate piogiess at the Tiei 2 level aie eithei qualifieu foi special
euucation oi ieceive intensive inuiviuualizeu instiuction at the Tiei S level (}ustice,
2uu6; Rathvon, 2uu8).
The ieauthoiization of the Inuiviuuals with Bisabilities Euucation
Impiovement Act of 2uu4 (IBEA, 2uu4) peimits local euucation agencies to use up
to 1S% of feueial funus foi eaily inteivening seivices, especially foi those taigeteu
towaiu stuuents in kinueigaiten thiough thiiu giaue who have not qualifieu foi
special euucation, but who iequiie auuitional behavioial oi acauemic suppoit to
succeeu in a geneial euucation enviionment (Rathvon, 2uu8). This allocation of
funus fuithei suppoits the basis foi pioviuing inteivention seivices at Tiei 2 anu
Tiei S levels foi stuuents who fail to make auequate piogiess within the geneial
euucation cuiiiculum but aie not bettei seiveu within special euucation.
!
506/0'#'1.!0:!;::#,1&4#!9,$%#6&,!2'1#34#'1&0'.!
Buins, vanBeiBeyuen, anu Boice (2uu8) iuentifieu five components of
effective acauemic inteiventions. The inteivention must fiist be coiiectly taigeteu
towaius the skill to be leaineu, cieate oppoitunities foi the stuuent to iesponu, as


9
well as pioviue the stuuent with immeuiate feeuback. The inteivention must use
explicit instiuction to teach the skill. Stuuents shoulu be taught within theii
instiuctional level to ensuie the stuuent is challengeu anu has the oppoitunity foi
success (Buins et al., 2uu8; Rasinski, 2uuu; Shapiio, 2uu4).
Effective inteiventions in ieauing must concentiate on the acquisition of
ieauing fluency, vocabulaiy builuing, anu compiehension (Shapiio, 2uu4). Reauing
inteiventions aie commonly taigeteu towaiu one subskill of ieauing yet still have
potential to impiove othei skills because of the inteiielateu natuie of the ieauing
piocess (Rathvon, 2uu8). To achieve success in fluency, stuuents must have
iepeateu oppoitunities to piactice while ieceiving coiiective feeuback (Nist &
}oseph, 2uu8; Shapiio, 2uu4). Belfioie, Skinnei, anu Feikis (199S) founu that
acquisition of sight woius was incieaseu when stuuents with leaining uisabilities
weie piesenteu with immeuiate coiiective feeuback ovei tiials iathei than when
stuuents weie instiucteu to consecutively iepeat theii iesponse. Nultiple stuuies
examining feeuback that was pioviueu to stuuents with Emotional anu Behavioial
Bisoiueis (EBB) hau positive effects on math anu ieauing accuiacy no mattei if it
was pioviueu as wiitten, coiiective, oi peifoimance feeuback (vannest, Baiiison,
Temple-Baivey, Ramsey, & Paikei, 2u1u). Time-uelay pioceuuies minimize stuuent
eiiois because coiiect feeuback is immeuiately pioviueu iegaiuless of whethei the
stuuent faileu to iesponu, iesponueu incoiiectly, oi iesponueu coiiectly (Stevens &
Schustei, 1999).
Pikulski anu Chaiu (2uuS) suggest incoipoiating "piactice in the iecognition
of high-fiequency vocabulaiy woius" (p. S1S) as an essential component in an


1u
instiuctional piogiam baseu on the concept of fluency. Stuuents shoulu be taught
within theii instiuctional level to ensuie the stuuent is challengeu anu has
oppoitunity foi success (Buins et al., 2uu8; Rasinski, 2uuu; Shapiio, 2uu4). Reseaich
suggests that if a chilu coiiectly iuentifies a piinteu woiu as little as foui times, they
will be able to iuentify the woiu accuiately without attenuing to the inuiviuual
letteis, sounus, oi sounu-associations (Reitsma, 198S). Piactice sessions shoulu be
biief anu occui within anu acioss instiuctional uays (Pikulski & Chaiu, 2uuS). Nist
anu }oseph (2uu8) founu that stuuents piefeiieu ieauing tasks that consisteu of all
unknown woius possibly because it took the shoitest amount of time to complete
compaieu to inteiventions that incoipoiateu known woius.
!
"#.#$3,<7=$*&%$1#%!2'1#34#'1&0'.!
0ne methou of inteivention that has been shown to inciease ieauing fluency
is a time-uelay inteivention such as time-uelay tapeu-woius (TBTW) inteivention,
oi vaiiations, tapeu-woius (TW), oi tapeu-pioblems (TP) inteivention. Time-uelay
inteiventions have commonly been useu to teach acauemic skills (e.g., Casey, 2uu8;
Fieeman & NcLaughlin, 1984; NcCallum, Skinnei, & Butchins, 2uu4; Touu, 2u1u)
but have also been shown to be effective to teach a vaiiety of othei life skills such as
puichasing items (e.g., NcBonnell, 1987; Sanuknop, Schustei, Woleiy, & Cioss,
1992), ieauing a iecipe (Schustei & uiiffen, 1991), anu spontaneous speech
(Ingenmey & van Bouten, 1991). It has also been useu with a vaiiety of inuiviuuals
incluuing stuuents with leaining uisabilities (e.g., Fieeman & NcLaughlin, 1984),
mental ietaiuation (e.g., Casey, 2uu8; NcBonnell, 1987; Sanuknop et al., 1992;


11
Steiling, Robinson, & Skinnei, 1997), emotional anu behavioial uisoiueis (e.g.,
Skinnei & }ohnson, 199S), autism (e.g., Ingenmey & vanBouten, 1991; Rogeis,
Bemmetei, & Woleiy, 2u1u), English language leaineis (Bliss, Skinnei, & Auams,
2uu6), anu stuuents in a geneial euucation classioom (e.g., NcCallum, Skinnei,
Tuinei, & Saeckei, 2uu6; Winuingstau, Skinnei, Rowlanu, Caiuin, & Feaiiington,
2uu9).
The TBTW inteivention involves stuuents listening to a iecoiuing of sight
woius oi math pioblems followeu by a coiiesponuing answei. The answei is
pioviueu at constant, piogiessive, oi vaiying time-uelays. When a constant time
uelay is useu, the tape iecoiuing pioviues the answei at a fixeu inteival of time (e.g.,
S-seconus) on all tiials. A piogiessive time-uelay uses incieasing uelays on
subsequent tiials. A vaiying time-uelay typically staits with a no-uelay oi 1-seconu
uelay tiial, then incieases by 2 oi S seconus on subsequent tiials anu finally
uecieases to a 1- oi 2-seconu time-uelay on the last tiial. The TBTW inteivention
typically utilizes a coiiesponuing woiksheet that stuuents aie instiucteu to use to
iecoiu theii answeis. Stuuents aie eithei instiucteu to ieau along with the
iecoiuing oi to "beat the tape" by stating oi wiiting the answei befoie they heai it
on the iecoiuing (Fieeman & NcLaughlin, 1984; NcCallum et al., 2uu4; NcCallum,
Schmitt, Schneiuei, Rezzetano, & Skinnei, 2u1u).
The TW inteivention was uevelopeu by Fieeman anu NcLaughlin (1984).
They positeu that the use of a tape iecoiuei might expeuite the acquisition of high
fiequency sight woius foi high school stuuents with leaining uisabilities. They
hypothesizeu that it might also allow foi inuepenuent coiiection of miscalleu woius


12
in ieauing assignments anu incieaseu iesponse iates. In auuition, the TW
inteivention woulu allow the teachei to spenu moie time anu eneigy on teaching
stiategies that iequiieu hishei physical piesence. An auuiotape with 8u woius
iecoiueu pei minute was useu to implement the inteivention. Stuuents weie
instiucteu to ieau the woius along with the tape iecoiuing. Stuuents then went to a
teachei station anu ieau the list of woius out louu to a teachei foi a 1-minute
sampling, which seiveu as the uepenuent vaiiable. Results of this inteivention
showeu that all six stuuents hau fastei oial ieauing iates anu lowei eiioi iates
compaieu to baseline. This inteivention moueleu coiiect woiu pionunciations at a
highei ieauing iate, which likely contiibuteu to the impiovements. The ieseaicheis
suggesteu that this inteivention may be also be effective at teaching vocabulaiy
woius, phonics instiuction, oi to teach ieauing in context. Noieovei, the use of a
ieusable tape foi moueling can be much moie time effective than one-on-one
instiuction to teach sight woius.
Skinnei anu }ohnson (199S) iecognizeu that although ieseaich utilizing TW
hau pioviueu eviuence in suppoit of the inteivention, the vaiiables that causeu
incieases in ieauing peifoimance hau not been iuentifieu. In theii stuuy, stuuents
with behavioial anu leaining pioblems weie exposeu to a contiol conuition anu two
TW conuitions. Stuuents completeu each inteivention conuition uaily followeu by an
assessment foi each conuition's woiu list that uiu not utilize a tape iecoiuing. In the
assessment only (A0) contiol conuition, stuuents weie given a list of 1S woius anu
askeu to ieau them alouu. The fast tapeu-woius (FTW) conuition incluueu 1S woius
iecoiueu at a iate of 1-seconu pei woiu. The slow tapeu-woius (STW) conuition


1S
incluueu 1S woius iecoiueu at a iate of S-seconus pei woiu. Stuuents ieau both the
FTW anu STW woius once along with the iecoiuing anu then inuepenuently to
assess ieauing iates. Results weie collecteu foi the numbei oi woius ieau coiiectly
anu numbei of woius ieau coiiectly pei minute. The ieseaicheis founu that both
the FTW anu STW conuitions iesulteu in gieatei incieases in accuiacy anu iate than
the A0 conuition. uiven these iesults, the authois ieasoneu that simply being
pioviueu with oppoitunities to iesponu oi piactice ieauing woius may not piouuce
gains foi stuuents with veiy low ieauing skills, such as those in this stuuy. The STW
conuition was moie effective at uecieasing ieauing eiiois foi 2 of the S stuuents.
The othei stuuent showeu no uiffeience in eiioi iates. Although not conclusive, this
suggests that allowing moie time between the piesentations of woius may be moie
effective foi some stuuents. The authois concluueu that piopei moueling of ieauing
is effective at incieasing woiu list ieauing accuiacy; howevei, moie ieseaich is
necessaiy to ueteimine the ieason foi the uisciepant iesults among stuuents.
Steiling et al. (1997) useu a TW inteivention to teach sight woius to stuuents
with mental ietaiuation. Recoiueu woius weie piesenteu with alteinating
tieatment phases at eithei 1-seconu oi S-seconu inteivals. Results showeu that both
the 1-seconu anu S-seconu inteivals piouuceu incieases in the acquisition of sight
woius. vannest et al. (2u1u) ievieweu foui stuuies that mouifieu instiuctional time
with stuuents who hau Emotional anu Behavioial Bisoiueis (EBB) anu founu that
pioviuing sufficient time uelays, pioviuing an instiuctional pause piioi to stuuent
iesponse, oi incieasing the amount of teachei-uiiecteu instiuctional time iesulteu
in an aveiage inciease in accuiacy of 62% acioss inteiventions.


14
Bliss et al. (2uu6) extenueu the ieseaich of the effectiveness of the TBTW
pioceuuie. The ieseaicheis implementeu the inteivention using a multiple-baseline
uesign acioss woiu lists to inciease sight woiu iecognition of a fifth-giaue English
language leainei. In auuition to the effectiveness of the inteivention, the TBTW
pioceuuie is also appealing to teacheis because stuuents can be taught to self-
auministei the inteivention. The ieseaicheis poseu that futuie ieseaich shoulu
collect systematic tieatment integiity uata.
Neuueniiep, Fiitz, anu Caiiiei (2u11) employeu a ieauing fluency
inteivention with fouith-giaue stuuents who weie at-iisk foi not meeting yeaily
goals in ieauing compiehension anu fluency. The inteivention utilizeu the ieseaich-
valiuateu piinciples to inciease ieauing fluency, iepeateu oppoitunities to piactice
while ieceiving coiiective feeuback (Nist & }oseph, 2uu8; Shapiio, 2uu4), which aie
also useu in TBTW pioceuuies. Results of theii stuuy inuicateu that all stuuents
maue gains in fluency compaieu to baseline. They iepoiteu that 4 out of the S
paiticipants also maue gains in ieauing compiehension at a iate that exceeueu the
expecteu giowth iate foi fouith-giaue stuuents.
NcCallum et al. (2uu4) auapteu fiom the TW inteivention to uevelop the TP
inteivention to auuiess mathematics uivision fact fluency ueficits. In auuition to
taigeting math facts, the ieseaicheis also encouiageu stuuents to wiite the coiiect
answei >#:03# it was pioviueu by the tape anu employeu a piogiessive time uelay.
Time uelays began at 1 seconu to ueciease eiiois, incieaseu by S-seconu inteivals
to piomote inuepenuence, anu then uecieaseu to encouiage automaticity. Auuio
cues seiveu as feeuback to ieinfoice coiiect iesponses anu coiiect inaccuiate


1S
iesponses. The subject was a 1u-yeai-olu Afiican Ameiican male. The stuuent
piacticeu a list of simple uivision pioblems five times pei inteivention session, each
piesenteu at a uiffeient time-uelay. A multiple-piobe-acioss-tasks uesign was useu
to evaluate the iesults. Reseaicheis founu this methou to be successful in incieasing
the stuuent's uigits coiiect pei minute while solving uivision pioblems. Thus, it was
concluueu that TP was effective at incieasing a stuuent's uivision fact fluency.
NcCallum et al. (2uu6) anu Winuingstau et al. (2uu9) extenueu the ieseaich
examining the utility of the TP inteivention as a classwiue inteivention to inciease
mathematical fact fluency. The NcCallum et al. stuuy was conuucteu with a thiiu-
giaue geneial euucation class. The mateiial was piesenteu using vaiying time-
uelays anu was implementeu classwiue. The inteivention utilizeu a multiple-
baseline-acioss-tasks uesign anu uigits coiiect pei minute (BCN) seiveu as the
uepenuent vaiiable. The stuuy was conuucteu foi S weeks anu almost uoubleu the
class's aveiage fluency foi multiplication facts. Winuingstau et al. conuucteu a
classwiue TP inteivention in a iuial seconu-giaue classioom to inciease auuition
fact fluency. The inteivention was auministeieu using a vaiieu time uelay. The
inteivention pioviueu the auuition facts ovei foui tiials. The vaiieu time uelays
incluueu a no uelay tiial followeu by two 2-seconu uelay tiials anu lastly a 1-seconu
uelay tiial. Following the piesentation of the TP, stuuents weie auministeieu a
spiint sheet in which the stuuents weie given anothei oppoitunity to iesponu to the
pioblems without the use of the iecoiuing. Stuuents weie then auministeieu an
assessment sheet that containeu 1S oi 16 pioblems, anu they hau Su seconus to
complete it. BCN seiveu as the uepenuent vaiiable to assess incieases in fluency.


16
Peicent coiiect was also calculateu to assess incieases in accuiacy. Although all
stuuents maue gains in fluency, ieseaicheis founu that inteivention effectiveness
vaiieu acioss stuuents. Fluency gains weie maintaineu at follow-up. Peicent coiiect
uata showeu that the inteivention hau little impact on stuuent accuiacy which may
be explaineu by possible ceiling effects since the class hau an aveiage accuiacy iate
ovei 9u% at baseline. Thus ieseaicheis questioneu whethei TP inteivention was
necessaiy foi this class given the high pie-inteivention accuiacy iates. Pievious
ieseaich has suggesteu that once accuiacy is establisheu, timeu assessments aie
sufficient to inciease fluency (as citeu in Winuingstau et al., 2uu9). Thus, moie
ieseaich is neeueu to ueteimine whethei TP inteivention is moie appiopiiate to
use with stuuents who have not acquiieu accuiacy with math facts. Reseaicheis also
stateu the neeu to examine the use of TP inteivention within RTI mouels of seivice
ueliveiy to pievent skill ueficits. Results fiom both stuuies showeu immeuiate anu
sustaineu incieases in fact fluency anu fuithei valiuateu the efficacy of TP
inteivention to inciease acauemic skill fluency.
NcCallum et al. (2u1u) compaieu the effectiveness of the TP inteivention on
subtiaction fact fluency with anu without the auuition of a gioup-iewaius
contingency. This inteivention was conuucteu acioss two seconu-giaue geneial
euucation classiooms that incluueu 2u Afiican Ameiican stuuents in each class of
vaiying ability levels. At the stait of the inteivention, S9 of the 4u stuuents weie
peifoiming below giaue level on subtiaction fact fluency. A CB playei anu CBs weie
useu to uelivei the TP. This stuuy utilizeu a 2-seconu time-uelay foi all pioblems
anu each pioblem was piesenteu twice in an inteivention session. Both classiooms


17
ieceiveu the same assessments anu TP pioceuuies. A gioup iewaiu contingency
was useu with only one classioom. This classioom was awaiueu a teachei chosen
iewaiu if the mean scoie hau incieaseu at least one uigit ovei the pievious uay.
While stuuents in both classiooms impioveu significantly in theii acquisition of
subtiaction fact fluency (u = 2.uS, 2.u8), the uiffeience in impiovement between the
two classiooms was not significant, inuicating that the piospect of uaily iewaius uiu
not inciease leaining iates. The authois posit this may be uue to the fact that TP has
sufficient ieinfoicement embeuueu into the inteivention. Immeuiate feeuback
following stuuent iesponse may seive as positive ieinfoicement if the stuuent's
answei was coiiect. Stuuents may also be motivateu to iace one anothei oi
themselves by attempting to beat theii pievious peifoimance. Thus it appeais that
the exteinal iewaius piesenteu to one classioom weie seconuaiy to othei iewaius
such as intiinsic motivation, competition, anu positive ieinfoicement expeiienceu
by both classiooms.
Nist anu }oseph (2uu8) compaieu the effectiveness anu efficiency of thiee
ieauing inteiventions uesigneu to impiove ieauing peifoimance. The inteiventions
incluueu tiauitional uiill anu piactice, inteispeisal tiaining, anu inciemental
ieheaisal. Efficiency of the inteivention was uefineu as the iate of woius leaineu
anu was calculateu pei session. The examinei useu a stopwatch anu began timing as
soon as the fiist woiu was piesenteu anu stoppeu timing aftei the last woiu was
ieau alouu by the stuuent. Effectiveness of the inteivention was uefineu as the
cumulative numbei of woius ieau coiiectly on the next-uay ietention piobes.
Results inuicateu that unuei the inciemental ieheaisal conuition, paiticipants as a


18
gioup ieau moie woius accuiately anu maintaineu moie woius S uays aftei the
expeiiment hau enueu. Bowevei, this conuition was the least efficient. Stuuents
ieau the most woius pei minute of instiuctional time unuei the tiauitional uiill anu
piactice conuition. Tiauitional uiill anu piactice pioceuuies, howevei, possess
possible limitations that limit viability such as high levels of inuiviuualizeu attention
fiom teacheis anu stuuents may not finu them as enjoyable as othei methous
(uiafman & Cates, 2u1u). Thus, teacheis may choose to implement pioceuuies that
uo not iequiie as much one-on-one attention but still pioviue multiple piactice
oppoitunities, pioviue feeuback, anu aie enjoyable anu engaging foi stuuents.
Covei, copy, compaie (CCC) inteivention is a self-manageu inteivention that
can be useu acioss a vaiiety of acauemic skills (Rathvon, 2uu8). Skinnei, Tuico,
Beatty, anu Rasavage (1989) uevelopeu the inteivention to inciease stuuents'
multiplication peifoimance. Buiing this inteivention, a stuuent ieviews an
instiuctional stimulus, iemoves it, makes a iesponse, anu then immeuiately checks
his answei foi accuiacy. This inteivention is appiopiiate as eithei a Tiei 1 oi Tiei 2
inteivention as it can be implementeu with a gioup of stuuents oi inuiviuually
(vannest et al., 2u1u). This methou incluues seveial components of effective
acauemic inteiventions incluuing multiple oppoitunities to iesponu, active stuuent
engagement, anu immeuiate anu coiiective feeuback (uiafman & Cates, 2u1u;
Rathvon, 2uu8). To complete this inteivention foi ieauing oi spelling, a list of woius
is wiitten in the left-hanu column of a piece of papei. The stuuent stuuies the fiist
woiu, coveis it with an inuex caiu anu then wiites it fiom memoiy. The stuuent


19
then compaies theii wiitten woiu with the coiiect woiu anu evaluates his oi hei
iesponse (Rathvon, 2uu8).
Conley, Beiby, Robeits-uwinn, Webei, anu NcLaughlin (2uu4) compaieu the
effectiveness of the pictuie-woiu matching methou to the CCC methou to teach sight
woiu iecognition. Five kinueigaiten stuuents, iuentifieu by theii teachei as
uisplaying uelays in ieauing, weie paiticipants in the stuuy. Stuuents iuentifieu
moie woius in isolation aftei being taught with the CCC methou anu iesults weie
maintaineu at 1-week follow-up. In contiast, stuuents taught using the pictuie-
matching methou misiuentifieu woius once the pictuies weie iemoveu which
suggests the pictuies act as uistiacteis. vannest et al. (2u1u) ievieweu thiee stuuies
to assess the effectiveness of CCC anu founu that it incieaseu iates of coiiect
iesponuing anu accuiacy with a mean of 7S% foi stuuents with EBB. Fuitheimoie,
when CCC was paiieu with a veibal iesponse, accuiacy anu fluency incieaseu foi 2
boys with behavioi uisoiueis. These inteiventions pioviue fuithei eviuence foi the
utility of CCC as an acauemic inteivention foi sight woius.
Poncy, Skinnei, anu }aspeis (2uu7) compaieu the effectiveness of TP anu CCC
at incieasing a stuuent's math fact fluency anu accuiacy. The stuuent was a 1u-yeai-
olu giil with moueiate mental ietaiuation whose teachei hau iequesteu seivices to
inciease hei accuiacy anu fluency in basic auuition facts. The stuuent was taught to
inuepenuently complete the inteiventions. The CCC inteivention also containeu a
veibalization component. Both inteiventions weie effective at incieasing hei
accuiacy anu fluency but the TP inteivention iequiieu less time to complete. Thus,


2u
ieseaicheis concluueu that TP was supeiioi to CCC uue to the combineu efficiency
anu effectiveness of the inteivention.
uiafman anu Cates (2u1u) extenueu the ieseaich on CCC anu math facts. The
stuuy compaieu the effectiveness of CCC with a mouifieu CCC pioceuuie (NCCC)
calleu Copy, Covei, anu Compaie. The NCCC pioceuuie iequiies the stuuent to fiist
copy the pioblem anu coiiect the answei befoie engaging in the stanuaiu CCC
pioceuuie. This stuuy extenueu the ieseaich of CCC to incluue subtiaction pioblems
anu sought to ueteimine which pioceuuie was most effective, efficient, anu
uesiiable to teacheis anu stuuents. Inteiventions weie implementeu within two
seconu-giaue geneial euucation classiooms. Results inuicateu that both pioceuuies
weie effective at incieasing fluency, but that subtiaction fluency scoies weie
significantly highei unuei the CCC pioceuuie. Stuuents piefeiieu the CCC pioceuuie
while teacheis piefeiieu the NCCC pioceuuie. These iesults fuithei valiuateu the
use of CCC to enhance acauemic fluency skills anu pioviueu eviuence foi its utility in
geneial euucation classiooms.
Repeateu ieauing is anothei inteivention useu to inciease stuuents' ieauing
fluency. In this methou, stuuents aie given shoit passages that contain common
woius that most stuuents woulu iecognize with ease. The stuuent ieaus the passage
seveial times until a ueteimineu level of fluency is attaineu anu is then given
anothei passage anu the piocess is iepeateu (Nastiopieii, Leinait, & Sciuggs, 1999).
Begeny, Kiouse, Ross, anu Nitchell (2uu9) compaieu the effectiveness of iepeateu
ieauing, listening passage pieview, anu listening-only stiategies on seconu-giaue
stuuents' ieauing fluency. The inteiventions weie auministeieu in a small-gioup


21
setting anu iesults weie calculateu baseu on an inciease in WCPN. Results inuicateu
that both iepeateu ieauings anu listening passage pieview weie effective at
impioving stuuents' ieauing fluency ovei listening-only stiategies oi no
inteivention. Although ieseaich has shown iepeateu ieauing to be effective in
impioving ieauing fluency, a ieview conuucteu by Chaiu et al. (2uu9) faileu to
classify iepeateu ieauings as eviuence-baseu piactice foi stuuents with oi at-iisk foi
leaining uisabilities. Theii conclusion is laigely baseu on the small numbei of
ieseaich stuuies that meet stanuaius to be consiueieu high quality. Bespite theii
inability to classify iepeateu ieauing as eviuence-baseu piactice, the authois noteu
that ieview of meta-analyses ievealeu positive effect-sizes associateu with iepeateu
ieauing. In auuition, they contenu that the theoietical fiamewoik suiiounuing the
explanation of the iole of fluency on ieauing pioficiency pioviues suppoit, at least
intuitively, foi iepeateu ieauing as an inteivention to impiove ieauing fluency.
Anothei methou intenueu to inciease ieauing fluency is pieviewing, also
calleu listening pieviewing oi passage pieviewing. This inteivention can be useu at
the Tiei 2 oi S level of an RTI mouel (vannest et al., 2u1u). Pieviewing allows foi
pie-exposuie to text mateiials befoie the passage is actually ieau. The stuuent can
pieview the mateiial alouu, silently, oi by listening to the teachei oi a peei pieview
the mateiial (Nastiopieii et al., 1999). Listening pieviewing has been founu
supeiioi to silent pieviewing in incieasing ieauing fluency. In auuition to fluency,
this ieauing inteivention piomotes vocabulaiy acquisition anu compiehension
(Rathvon, 2uu8). vannest et al. (2u1u) ievieweu five stuuies that utilizeu
pieviewing as an inteivention foi stuuents with EBB. They calculateu the


22
effectiveness of the inteivention anu founu that accuiacy on ieauing anu spelling
lists incieaseu by 71% on aveiage.
Classwiue peei tutoiing can pioviue an efficient way to inciease the amount
of time that stuuents aie engageu in ieauing anu thus possibly impiove ieauing
fluency (Nastiopieii et al., 1999). Paitnei ieauing is an inteivention that combines
iepeateu ieauing anu listening pieviewing with peei-tutoiing. The intention of this
inteivention is to impiove ieauing fluency by pioviuing stiuctuieu oial ieauing
piactice. Weak ieaueis aie paiieu with pioficient ieaueis in oiuei to pioviue the
weakei ieauei with a fluent ieauing mouel. This inteivention has been
uemonstiateu to inciease ieauing fluency foi elementaiy anu miuule school
stuuents with anu without ieauing uisabilities (Rathvon, 2uu8).

?#,<'0*0(-!$'%!9,$%#6&,!2'1#34#'1&0'.!
Nost stuuents touay aie alieauy iegulai consumeis of technology. Accoiuing
to the 0.S. Bepaitment of Euucation (2uu4), 9u% of chiluien between the ages of S
anu 17 use computeis. Between the yeais 2uuu to 2uu2, the laigest gioup of new
Inteinet useis was chiluien 2 to S yeais olu. The use of technology can be an
effective anu efficient way foi classioom teacheis to supplement instiuction anu
implement acauemic inteiventions. Nastiopieii et al. (1999) suggesteu that
computeis coulu be useu to effectively pioviue piactice to impiove ieauing fluency
as well as measuie stuuents' ieauing abilities. The use of computeis to assist
instiuction is typically consiueieu a Tiei 2 inteivention (vannest et al., 2u1u).
Anothei stuuy examineu thiee instiuctional mouifications to teach stuuents with


2S
EBB to ieau. Reseaicheis founu that while the use of a teachei mouel was the most
effective at incieasing the numbei of woius ieau coiiectly, using a computei mouel
was moie effective than no mouel (Bawson, venn, & uuntei, 2uuu, as citeu in
vannest et al., 2u1u).
Touay, we aie well beyonu just using computeis to effectively enhance
instiuction anu leaining. Technology is moie ieauily available than evei anu the
implications foi euucation aie just beginning to suiface. Foi example, Apple now
offeis euucational apps in a vaiiety of subject aieas available foi uownloau in a
mattei of seconus to poitable uevices. Fuitheimoie, poitable uevices such as iPous
anu iPaus aie not only convenient anu usei-fiienuly, they aie also tienuy anu
uesiiable. 0SA Touay (2u11) iepoiteu that iPaus aie "giowing in populaiity |with
euucatois anu paientsj foi special-neeus stuuents because they can be easily
customizeu to each chilu's neeus, aie lightweight anu mobile, anu give the kius the
sense they'ie pluggeu into a laigei, high-tech community." Poitable technology, such
as iPous anu iPaus, uo not set stuuents with special neeus apait fiom theii peeis like
communication oi othei assistive uevices uo because they aie also useu by typically
ueveloping chiluien.
Naiks anu Nilne (2uu8) exploieu the utility of iPous as auaptive anu
emeiging technology by using them to assist stuuents with seveie intellectual anu
physical uisabilities in meeting theii inuiviuualizeu euucation piogiam (IEP) goals.
Stuuents' goals weie acauemic, behavioial, anu social in natuie. The iPous containeu
music, photogiaphs, Pictuie Caiu Symbols, viueos, spoken woiu, anu social sciipts
in viueo, textual, anu sliue show foimats. Foi example, the iPou was useu with one


24
stuuent to cieate an inuiviuualizeu social stoiy to teach piopei hanu washing. The
iPou containeu sliue show pictuies that uepicteu the stuuent peifoiming the
necessaiy steps of hanu washing. This methou of inteivention was successful at
teaching the stuuent the piopei pioceuuies foi hanu washing wheieas pievious
attempts to teach this skill weie unsuccessful. In auuition to its piactical application,
they founu this technology to be motivating anu have extiinsic value. Foi example,
the ieseaicheis founu the behavioi of stuuents with histoiies of challenging
behaviois to impiove contingent upon the oppoitunity to access the iPou uuiing
lunch iecess.
Reseaich exploiing the utility of iPous as acauemic anu behavioial
inteivention tools is in it infancy. Bloou, }ohnson, Riuenoui, Simmons, anu Ciouch
(2u11) useu an iPou Touch to implement self-moueling anu self-monitoiing
inteiventions with a 1u-yeai-olu elementaiy stuuent with emotional anu behavioial
uisoiueis. The ieseaicheis founu that the stuuent's on-task behavioi significantly
anu consistently impioveu with the use of the iPou to auministei the combineu
inteivention. In auuition, he uemonstiateu consistently low levels of uisiuptive
behavioi. Cihak, Fahienkiog, Ayies, anu Smith (2u1u) useu an iPou to uelivei a
viueo moueling inteivention to 4 elementaiy stuuents with autism. The iPou
assisteu the stuuents in peifoiming tiansitions between locations anu activities
within the school's geneial euucation setting. Results of the stuuy's ABAB uesign
inuicateu that stuuents tiansitioneu moie inuepenuently with the use of the iPou
anu that peifoimance uecieaseu aftei withuiawal of the iPou. These stuuies point to


2S
the significant anu potential utility of the iPou foi assisting stuuents with the
uevelopment of skills neeueu to access the euucation setting.
In Novembei of 2u1u, the 0. S. Bepaitment of Euucation ieleaseu theii
National Euucation Technology Plan entitleu ?3$'.:036&'(!96#3&,$'!;%+,$1&0'@!
A#$3'&'(!B0C#3#%!>-!?#,<'0*0(-. The lettei to congiess stateu, "The plan calls foi
applying the auvanceu technologies useu in oui uaily peisonal anu piofessional
lives to oui entiie euucational system to impiove stuuent leaining, acceleiate anu
scale up the auoption of effective piactices, anu use uata anu infoimation foi
continuous impiovement" (p. v). In this plan, they iuentifieu five essential aieas with
goals anu iecommenuations incluuing leaining, assessment, teaching,
infiastiuctuie, anu piouuctivity. The plan acknowleuges that the challenge foi oui
euucation system is to cieate "engaging, ielevant, anu peisonalizeu leaining
expeiiences foi all leaineis that miiioi stuuents' uaily lives anu the ieality of theii
futuies" (p. x). Noie ieseaich is neeueu to ueteimine the aieas in which technology
can be useu most appiopiiately, the stuuents who woulu benefit fiom the use of
technology, anu to uevelop usei-fiienuly, cost-effective, anu time efficient ways to
tailoi the mateiial piesenteu. It is likely that access to the technology alone woulu
inciease motivation in stuuents.
Reseaich has shown that mouifying task content to incoipoiate stuuent
inteiest incieaseu iesponse iate anu woik completion foi stuuents with EBB
(Claike, Bunlap, Fostei-}ohnson, Chilus, Wilson et al., 199S, as citeu in vannest et al.,
2u1u). Bowevei, while it takes significant piepaiation to piepaie inuiviuualizeu
woiksheets with a stuuent's favoiite caitoon chaiactei, access to technology itself


26
appeals to a numbei of chiluien anu thus may be a less time-intensive inteivention
tool. It is not only impoitant that the technology is available, but that teacheis buy
into the neeu foi anu usefulness of technology in theii classiooms, aie committeu to
using it to inciease peifoimance, anu aie suppoiteu in finuing new anu innovative
ways to utilize technology. 0veiall, teacheis aie not well equippeu to use technology
in theii piactice (as citeu in the National Euucation Technology Plan, 2u1u). Naiks
anu Nilne (2uu8) noteu that teacheis neeueu auuitional suppoit incoipoiating the
use of iPou technology into theii euucational piogiamming.

D1$1#6#'1!0:!B+3/0.#!
Reseaich in the aiea of time-uelay tapeu-woius inteiventions has piimaiily
focuseu on the use of the inteivention foi stuuents with leaining uisabilities,
behavioi uisoiueis, anu intellectual uisability but has neglecteu to ieseaich its
utility with stuuents who aie at iisk foi leaining ueficits.$The puipose of the cuiient
stuuy was to empiiically evaluate the effectiveness of using an iPou touch to uelivei
time-uelay tapeu-woius inteivention to inciease the sight woiu fluency of seconu-
giaue stuuents in the geneial euucation setting who weie at iisk foi ieauing ueficits.
Theiefoie, the cuiient inteivention was taigeteu towaius stuuents who weie in
neeu of acauemic suppoit at the Tiei 2 anu Tiei S levels of a iesponse to
inteivention mouel. Fuitheimoie, it was pioposeu that the use of an iPou touch foi
the ueliveiy of the inteivention woulu be positively accepteu by both teacheis anu
stuuents as an efficient anu effective way to supplement instiuction. $
!


27
"#.#$3,<!E+#.1&0'.!
1. Bo stuuents at iisk foi ieauing ueficits become moie accuiate at ieauing
sight woius with the use of the inteivention.
2. Bo the numbei of sessions neeueu to ieach masteiy ueciease thioughout
the couise of the inteivention.
S. As a iesult of this inteivention, uoes geneialization occui acioss ieauing
fluency piobes.
4. Is accuiacy maintaineu at follow-up.
S. Bo stuuents finu this pioceuuie acceptable as an inteivention foi ieauing
fluency.
6. Bo teacheis finu this pioceuuie acceptable as an inteivention foi ieauing
fluency.





NETB0BS

B$31&,&/$'1.!
Paiticipants of this stuuy weie ieciuiteu uuiing the 2u1u-2u11 acauemic
school yeai. It was conuucteu in an uiban elementaiy school in 0tah. The
expeiimentei was also completing an inteinship as the school's school psychologist.
Peimission to conuuct the stuuy was soliciteu by the expeiimentei anu gianteu by
both the school uistiict anu the 0niveisity of 0tah Institutional Review Boaiu.
Paiticipants of the stuuy must have been in the seconu giaue anu must have been
ieceiving only stanuaiu geneial euucation classioom cuiiiculum anu inteiventions.
English must be theii fiist language. Stuuents ieceiving special euucation seivices
weie not eligible foi paiticipation in this stuuy.
Seconu-giaue stuuents weie chosen as paiticipants foi this stuuy because
euucatois anu euucational ieseaicheis have long accepteu thiiu giaue as the point
in time wheie stuuents aie no longei leaining to ieau, but ieauing to leain.
Theiefoie, seconu giaue iepiesents a pivotal stage of ieauing uevelopment, in that if
fluency is not achieveu, stuuents will stiuggle to ueiive meaning fiom text anu will
likely stiuggle in multiple acauemic aieas. In auuition, the cuiient stuuy taigeteu
stuuents who weie ieceiving the geneial euucation classioom cuiiiculum anu
inteiventions but weie still uemonstiating lowei than expecteu peifoimance anu
achievement. These stuuents likely woulu have continueu to uemonstiate
29

inauequate peifoimance anu not ieceiveu necessaiy iemeuiation until the
uisciepancy between theii estimateu potential anu theii actual peifoimance
uiffeieu consiueiably (typically two giaue levels below). Thus, the intention of this
stuuy was to taiget the type of stuuents who tenu to "fall between the ciacks" anu
implement moie intensive inteivention. Paiticipants weie selecteu baseu upon the
following ciiteiia.
To ueteimine eligibility foi this stuuy beyonu the afoiementioneu conuitions,
AINSweb ieauing cuiiiculum-baseu measuiement (R-CBN) uata weie analyzeu.
The entiie seconu giaue hau been assesseu in the aiea of oial ieauing fluency (0RF)
using AINSweb R-CNB piobes in the fall of 2u1u. The R-CBN has been
uemonstiateu to be a simple yet valiu measuie of stuuents' ieauing skills anu
compiehension. The 0RF R-CBN is a stanuaiuizeu set of passages anu
auministiation pioceuuies that aie inuiviuually auministeieu as a test of accuiacy
anu fluency with connecteu text. 0RF is uesigneu to iuentify chiluien who may neeu
auuitional instiuctional suppoit anu to monitoi piogiess towaiu instiuctional goals
(Shinn, & Shinn, 2uu2; uoou et al., 2uu2). The fall benchmaik foi seconu-giaue
stuuents was S2 woius coiiect pei minute (WCPN). Stuuents who scoieu within the
2S
th
peicentile, 4u WCPN oi below, compaieu to theii classioom peeis weie eligible
to paiticipate in this stuuy. Twenty stuuents met these ciiteiia.
A lettei (Appenuix A) anu paiental peimission uocument (Appenuix B) weie
sent home to the paients iequesting peimission foi theii chilu to paiticipate in the
stuuy. The lettei explaineu that only 4 stuuents woulu be selecteu to paiticipate in
the stuuy. Eleven stuuents ieceiveu paiental peimission anu thus completeu fuithei
Su

scieening. These 11 stuuents completeu an initial list of S2 sight woius. In oiuei to
meet this step of eligibility, the stuuent must have scoieu Su% oi less coiiect (< 16
woius coiiect). 0nly 4 stuuents (S boys, 1 giil) met the final step of eligibility anu
weie incluueu in the stuuy. Thus, it was not possible to contiol foi genuei oi to
select paiticipants ianuomly. Assent was obtaineu fiom all paiticipants (Appenuix
C). Paiticipants weie assigneu paiticipant numbeis ianuomly. Paiticipant 1 anu
Paiticipant S weie yokeu acioss tieatment phases. Paiticipant 2 anu Paiticipant 4
weie subsequently yokeu acioss tieatment phases.
The school in which this stuuy was conuucteu began using a iesponse-to-
inteivention mouel appioximately 1 yeai piioi to the stait of this expeiiment. Thus,
AINSweb uata fiom the wintei of fiist giaue aie iepoiteu foi each paiticipant. In
auuition, the school uses a uiffeientiation stiategy foi ieauing anu math instiuction.
In this mouel, the stuuents ieceive the ieauing oi math lesson in theii geneial
euucation classioom thiough whole gioup instiuction. Stuuents aie testeu on topic
tests eveiy 1 to S weeks. A stuuent's masteiy of a topic then ueteimines in which
small gioup that stuuent will ieceive the uiffeientiation lesson. Stuuents who have
masteieu the topic ieceive lessons in eniichment. Stuuents who fall below masteiy
in the given topic aie placeu in a uiffeientiation gioup that ueliveis instiuction at
theii level. Biffeientiation instiuction is ueliveieu by geneial euucation teacheis,
Tiei 2 aiues, paient volunteeis, anu iesouice teacheis. All stuuents ieceive
uiffeientiation foi the same amount of time each uay acioss all school uays, but the
level of uiffeientiation instiuction foi each stuuent vaiies by week. When
uiffeientiation suppoits aie not enough, stuuents who neeu auuitional suppoit may
S1

also ieceive Tiei 2 suppoit ueliveieu by Tiei 2 aiues in a small gioup setting.
Backgiounu infoimation, acauemic uata, anu suppoits foi each paiticipant aie
uiscusseu.
Paiticipant 1 was a male of Pacific Islanu uescent with a }une biithuay,
inuicating he was one of the youngei stuuents in his class. AINSweb uata inuicateu
that he has been below giaue level in oial ieauing fluency since at least wintei of
fiist giaue when R-CBN uata weie fiist collecteu. Paiticipant 1 ieceives
uiffeientiateu instiuction in his geneial euucation classioom. In auuition, he has
also ieceiveu Tiei 2 suppoit to assist in his uevelopment of uecouing anu phonics.
Paiticipant 2 was a Caucasian female with a Nay biithuay, inuicating that she
was one of the youngei stuuents in hei class. AINSweb uata inuicateu that hei 0RF
ability fell in the aveiage iange on R-CBN uuiing the wintei of hei fiist-giaue yeai.
Bowevei, by the spiing of hei fiist-giaue yeai, she hau faileu to show auequate
piogiess anu hei scoies fell below the 2S
th
peicentile in the spiing anu fall of 2u1u.
Paiticipant 2 ieceiveu uiffeientiateu instiuction in hei geneial euucation classioom.
She also ieceiveu small gioup phonics lessons. Auuitional suppoits that weie
offeieu to Paiticipant 2 by hei teachei incluueu sight woiu lists anu books on hei
ieauing level sent home each night.
Paiticipant S was a Caucasian male with a Becembei biithuay, inuicating that
he was one of the oluei stuuents in his class. AINSweb uata inuicate that his 0RF
ability has been below the 1u
th
peicentile since the wintei of his fiist-giaue yeai
when R-CBN uata weie fiist collecteu. Be ieceiveu uiffeientiateu instiuction in
ieauing in his geneial euucation classioom anu woikeu with Tiei 2 aiues to inciease
S2

his phonics anu uecouing skills. In auuition, Paiticipant S was iefeiieu by his
geneial euucation teachei foi an evaluation foi special euucation aftei the stuuy was
completeu. In auuition, it was latei uiscoveieu that this stuuent hau been pieviously
iuentifieu as a stuuent with a leaining uisability while attenuing kinueigaiten at a
pievious school. Implications aie uiscusseu fuithei in the Results section.
Paiticipant 4 was a Caucasian male with a }une biithuay, inuicating he was
one of the youngei stuuents in his class. AINSweb uata inuicate that his 0RF
ability has been below the 1u
th
peicentile since the wintei of his fiist-giaue yeai.
Paiticipant 4's teachei inuicateu that he hau maue piogiess fiom a guiueu ieauing
level of B at the beginning of the yeai to an I ieauing level in Naich 2u11. Be
ieceiveu uiffeientiateu instiuction in his classioom anu ieceiveu suppoit fiom Tiei
2 aiues. In auuition, Paiticipant 4 has woikeu with a volunteei tutoi two moinings a
week foi Su minutes woiking on vocabulaiy, ieauing on his level, anu spelling.
Paiticipation fiom teacheis was also obtaineu in the foim of a consent covei
lettei (Appenuix B). The expeiimentei askeu teacheis well in auvance of the stuuy if
they woulu be inteiesteu anu willing to allow theii stuuents to paiticipate. Teacheis
weie maue awaie of the scieening anu eligibility piocesses anu weie tolu that only
4 stuuents woulu be able to paiticipate. Teacheis weie also askeu to complete an
acceptability questionnaiie at the enu of the stuuy.

F$1#3&$*.!
Nateiials foi the cuiient stuuy incluueu an 8 uB iPou touch which was blank
except foi the pieiecoiueu tiacks of inteivention lists, two sets of heauphones, a
SS

splittei, anu sight woiu woiksheets that coiiesponueu with each tiack. Nateiials
weie kept in the office wheie the inteivention took place. Woiksheets weie
oiganizeu using manila folueis, labeleu with each list numbei, in a file cabinet. Each
paiticipant hau a manila foluei labeleu with hishei paiticipant numbei. It also
incluueu a tiacking sheet inuicating which list the paiticipant was to complete anu
theii completeu inteivention lists.
Sight woius weie obtaineu fiom the New Instant Woiu List (Fiy, 198u). This
list consists of the Suu most fiequently useu woius in the English wiitten language.
Woius weie uiviueu ianuomly into 2u lists of 1S woius each. Thiee woiksheets (A,
B, C) weie constiucteu foi each of the 2u lists. The oiuei of woius was ianuomizeu
on woiksheets A, B, anu C to contiol foi an oiuei of leaining effect (Appenuix E).
The lists of woius weie ianuomizeu using the website www.ianuom.oiglists which
automatically ianuomly ieoiueis any list of woius. Each veision (A, B, C) of each
woiksheet was copieu on full sheets of papei (8 V x 11 in.) anu labeleu at the top
(List # Foim A; List # Foim B; List # Foim C). All veisions of a woiu list weie
stapleu togethei in the coiiesponuing oiuei. Woiksheets also incluueu a heauei,
iight justifieu, anu titleu with Paiticipant # anu Bate anu a footei, iight justifieu,
labeleu with _____1S.
An 8 uB iPou touch that hau pieiecoiueu tiacts of each veision of each woiu
list was useu to uelivei the time-uelay tapeu-woius pioceuuie. The expeiimentei
iecoiueu each tiack using the voice Nemos application. Each veision of each woiu
list was iecoiueu at uiffeiing time inteivals. Theiefoie, woiksheets 1-2uA weie
iecoiueu with a 1-seconu (s) time-uelay, woiksheets 1-2uB weie iecoiueu with a 4-
S4

seconu time-uelay anu woiksheets 1-2uC weie iecoiueu with a 2-seconu time-
uelay. The iPou touch was not useu uuiing scieening oi baseline assessments;
insteau, woiksheets weie useu in isolation foi this poition of the stuuy.
Nateiials neeueu to iecoiu tiacks onto the iPou touch incluueu an 8 uB iPou
touch, a miciophoneheauphone combination, each veision of each woiu list, anu
iWoik 'u9 Keynote. The expeiimentei uevelopeu a template on Keynote foi each
time-uelay in oiuei to ensuie that each item was iecoiueu at the exact time-uelay
acioss woiu lists. Then, the expeiimentei typeu the woius coiiesponuing with a
given woiu list anu time-uelay into the appiopiiate template. This alloweu the
expeiimentei to simply state the numbei oi woiu as it was uisplayeu on the scieen
while iecoiuing onto the iPou touch. To iecoiu anu label each tiack using an iPou
touch anu miciophoneheauphone combination, follow the steps below.
1. Attach the miciophoneheauphone combination to the iPou Touch.
2. Select voice Nemos.
S. Piess the iecoiu icon on the bottom left poition of the iPou scieen.
4. Piess play on Keynote anu begin iecoiuing.
S. When finisheu iecoiuing, piess the iecoiu button again to stop iecoiuing.
6. Now piess the icon with S hoiizontal lines locateu on the bottom iight
poition of the scieen to go to the voice Nemos inuex.
7. Choose the voice Nemo that you wish to label.
8. Piess the aiiow on the iight anu then again.
9. 0nuei Label, choose Custom anu type the coiiesponuing label (e.g., List 1
Foim A).
SS

This inteivention coulu also be iun using an iPou Classic anu iTalk iecoiuing
uevice. To iecoiu tiacks using an iPou Classic anu iTalk follow the steps below.
1. Plug the iTalk iecoiuing uevice into the bottom of the iPou.
2. Click on the "Nenu" button anu use youi fingei to scioll clockwise along the
tiackpau until "Extias" has been highlighteu. To choose "Extias," piess the
ciicle button on the face of the iPou.
S. Again, scioll clockwise along the tiackpau until "voice Nemos" has been
highlighteu anu piess the ciicle button to select "voice Nemos."
4. "Recoiu Now" shoulu be highlighteu as the fiist option on the voice Nemos
page. Select "Recoiu Now" by clicking on the ciicle button.
S. To begin iecoiuing, highlight anu select "Recoiu."
0nce iecoiuing, the usei can choose one of two options: to pause iecoiuing oi to
stop anu save the iecoiueu memo. 0nce saveu, the iPou ietuins the usei to the voice
Nemo page. To go back at any time, piess the "Nenu" button. To ensuie the usei is
iecoiuing the sight woius with the appiopiiate time-uelay the usei can use the
Keynote methou explaineu above oi keep time with the countei pioviueu on the
scieen of the iPou uevice. To uo the lattei, fiist say the coiiesponuing numbei of the
sight woiu on the woiu list (e.g., "numbei thiee"), wait the appiopiiate amount of
seconus (1, 2, oi 4), anu then say the sight woiu (e.g., "which").




PR0CEB0RES
!
G#.&('!
The stuuy was conuucteu using a multiple-baseline with iepeateu-measuies
uesign yokeu acioss paiticipants. Subjects in this stuuy weie the paiticipants
pieviously uesciibeu. The iepeateu measuies weie the accuiacy iates acioss time-
uelays foi each session of the inteivention. Nultiple-baseline uesigns aie fiequently
useu in euucational anu behavioial ieseaich to assess the effectiveness of an
inteivention. Nuiphy anu Biyan (198u) stateu that multiple-baseline uesigns aie
"paiticulaily well suiteu to the piactical uemanus opeiating in typical euucational
anu tieatment settings" (p. S26). Nultiple-baseline uesigns pioviue eviuence that a
paiticulai change has occuiieu uue to the piesence of an inteivention. When
conuucting a multiple-baseline uesign, only two settings oi subjects aie neeueu to
pioviue meaningful iesults, but piioi ieseaich has suggesteu that thiee oi foui
ieplications pioviue a moie convincing uemonstiation of inteivention effects
(Beisen & Bailow, 1976; Wolf & Risley, 1971; as citeu in Nuiphy & Biown, 198u).
Thiee baseline piobes weie ianuomly selecteu fiom the inteivention
woiksheets (2, 4, anu 14). The same baseline piobes weie given to each paiticipant
in the same oiuei. Baseline uata weie collecteu ovei six sessions within 9
calenuai uays. Buiing each baseline session, stuuents weie given a woiksheet with
1S sight woius anu the numbei of coiiect iesponses (iesponses ieau alouu within 2
S7

seconus) was iecoiueu foi each uay as peicent coiiect. To achieve the peicent
coiiect, the numbei of woius ieau coiiectly was uiviueu by 1S anu multiplieu by
1uu. Neithei the iPou noi coiiective feeuback was useu uuiing the baseline phase.
0nce paiticipants weie selecteu, the baseline phase began. Paiticipants 1, S,
anu 4 began the baseline phase at the same time. Paiticipant 2 was ill on the fiist
uay of baseline uata collection anu thus began the next uay. Baseline uata weie
collecteu foi each paiticipant on thiee occasions. Bata collection occasions,
howevei, weie not necessaiily consecutive oi the same foi each paiticipant.
Paiticipants 1 anu S completeu the baseline sessions on the same thiee occasions
within 6 calenuai uays. Aftei baseline uata hau been collecteu foi these paiticipants,
the inteivention phase began. Paiticipants 2 anu 4 completeu the baseline sessions
on thiee occasions within 9 calenuai uays. Paiticipants 2 anu 4 began the
inteivention phase 2 weeks aftei the baseline phase was completeu because of the
school uistiict's wintei holiuay bieak.
Piioi to the stait of the inteivention, at the conclusion of the inteivention,
anu 4 to S weeks postinteivention, paiticipants weie scieeneu on measuies of oial
ieauing fluency known as Bynamic Inuicatois of Basic Eaily Liteiacy Skills (BIBELS
TN
). Reauing fluency measuies such as BIBELS
TN
aie not only effective in iuentifying
stuuents who have uifficulty leaining to ieau but also to assess the effectiveness of
inteiventions uesigneu to piomote ieauing (Schilling et al., 2uu7). Auministiation of
the B0RF measuies will follow the uiiections outlineu by uoou et al. (2uu2):
1. Place the ieauing passage in fiont of the stuuent.
S8

2. Place the examinei copy on clipboaiu anu position so that the stuuent
cannot see what you iecoiu.
S. Say these specific uiiections to the stuuent:
!"#$%#&'#$(&)*+%!(point)!,-)&",-(.&/0&1,-&2#)&%)-345&/&6+""&)#""&1,-&)*#&
6,'(&%,&1,-&3$7&4##8&'#$(+72.&9*#7&/&%$15&:%),8;&/&<$1&$%4&1,-&),&)#""&
<#&$=,-)&6*$)&1,-&'#$(5&%,&(,&1,-'&=#%)&'#$(+72.&>)$')&*#'#!(point to
the fiist woiu of the passage)H!?#2+7.!!
4. Stait youi stopwatch when the stuuent says the fiist woiu of the passage.
The title is not counteu. If the stuuent fails to say the fiist woiu aftei S
seconus, tell them the woiu anu maik it as incoiiect, then stait youi
stopwatch.
S. The maximum time foi each woiu is S seconus. If the stuuent uoes not
pioviue the woiu within S seconus, say the woiu anu maik the woiu as
incoiiect.
6. Follow along on the examinei copy of the piobe. Put a slash (I) ovei
woius ieau incoiiectly.
7. At the enu of G$C'&2+#, place a biacket ( R ) aftei the last woiu pioviueu
by the stuuent, stop anu ieset the stopwatch, anu say
>),8. (iemove the passage)
BIBELS
TN
uata weie collecteu on thiee occasions pei paiticipant. Scoiing foi
B0RF also followeu the guiuelines as outlineu in uoou et al. (2uu2). In oiuei to
achieve a moie accuiate 0RF scoie, two BIBELS
TN
passages weie auministeieu to
S9

each paiticipant at each phase uuiing the stuuy anu the oveiall WCPN foi each
phase was aveiageu.
Befoie each paiticipant began the inteivention phase, the expeiimentei
inuiviuually taught himhei the pioceuuies of the inteivention. Paiticipants each
hau theii own foluei, which was labeleu with theii paiticipant numbei. The insiue
covei of each paiticipant's foluei containeu a uata sheet that tiackeu which woiu
list the paiticipant was to woik on foi that uay. The expeiimentei completeu this
uata sheet aftei each inteivention session so the infoimation was coiiect foi the
next session. Paiticipants weie taught how to use the uata sheet to ueteimine which
woiu list to choose. They weie instiucteu to look at the next empty line anu choose
the numbei wiitten next to the "L"; this was the woiulist they weie to woik on foi
that uay. They weie then taught how to finu the coiiect woiksheets within a labeleu
foluei in a file cabinet. Each woiu list hau its own foluei labeleu as List 1, List 2, List
S, anu so on. All veisions of a woiu list weie stapleu togethei in the oiuei they weie
to be completeu.
Paiticipants weie then taught how to finu the coiiesponuing tiacks on the
iPou touch. The expeiimentei uemonstiateu how to tuin the iPou on, unlock the
scieen, finu the menu, go back to a pievious scieen, finu the voice Nemos, scioll,
play, etc. The expeiimentei then hau each paiticipant uemonstiate that they knew
how to coiiectly use the iPou. Even though some of the paiticipants iepoiteu nevei
having useu an iPou, only one uemonstiation session was neeueu to teach them how
to use it. Paiticipants weie tolu to uouble-check theii accuiacy in choosing each
tiack by making suie they heaiu the iPou ieau the title of each woiksheet in fiont of
4u

them. If paiticipants maue in eiioi in selecting the coiiect woiksheet oi tiack
uuiing the inteivention, the expeiimentei iecoiueu the uata anu assisteu the
paiticipant in coiiecting the eiioi.
Paiticipants weie then taught to iesponu oially anu how to scoie theii
answei when the tiack was playing. Paiticipants weie instiucteu to ieau the woiu
alouu, louu enough foi the expeiimentei to easily heai, anu to iesponu as quickly as
they coulu. If the paiticipant "beat" the iPou, they weie to ciicle the woiu on the
woiksheet. If the stuuent uiu not ieau the woiu befoie it was heaiu on the iPou oi
ieau the woiu incoiiectly, they weie to uiaw a line thiough the woiu on the
woiksheet anu continue on to the next pioblem. Although paiticipants weie taught
to collect theii own uata, a heauphone splittei was useu in oiuei to allow the
expeiimentei to collect uata anu insuie ieliability of paiticipant iesponses.
Buiing each session of the inteivention phase, the paiticipants weie given
one list of woius piesenteu thiee times at each of thiee uiffeient time-uelays. Each
time-uelay hau a coiiesponuing woiksheet. Thus, each woiu list hau thiee
coiiesponuing woiksheets. The oiuei of woius was ianuomizeu on each woiksheet
in oiuei to contiol foi an oiuei of leaining effect (Appenuix E). Woius weie
ianuomizeu using the website http:ianuom.oiglists. The fiist veision (A) was
piesenteu with a 1-seconu time-uelay. This biief time-uelay was intenueu to
pievent eiiois by pioviuing the paiticipant with the coiiect pionunciation of the
woiu almost immeuiately (NcCallum et al., 2uu4). The seconu veision (B) was
piesenteu with a 4-seconu time-uelay. This longei time-uelay was intenueu to allow
the stuuent moie time to iesponu anu thus to piomote inuepenuence of ieauing.
41

Lastly, the paiticipant completeu veision (C) piesenteu at a 2-seconu time-uelay.
This veision was intenueu to inciease automaticity. Inteiventions that pioviue
stuuents with iepeateu oppoitunities to piactice anu pioviue coiiective feeuback,
such as time-uelay tapeu-woius pioceuuies, have been founu to inciease sight woiu
acquisition, impiove ieauing fluency, anu minimize stuuent eiiois (Belfioie et al.,
199S; Nist & }oseph, 2uu8; Shapiio, 2uu4; Stevens & Schustei, 1999).
Paiticipants weie iequiieu to achieve masteiy, which was uefineu as at least
8u% coiiect on veision C of a woiu list, befoie continuing onto the next woiu list at
the next inteivention session. Foi example, when masteiy was achieveu on woiu list
1, the paiticipant pioceeueu onto woiu list 2 at the following inteivention session. If
masteiy has not been achieveu by the fouith attempt of a woiu list, the paiticipant
will automatically move onto the next woiu list in oiuei to pievent a buinout effect.
!
G#/#'%#'1!F#$.+3#.!
Peicentage of woius ieau coiiectly seiveu as the main uepenuent vaiiable in
this stuuy. The numbei of woius ieau coiiectly weie collecteu, uiviueu by 1S, anu
multiplieu by 1uu to achieve the peicent coiiect. To be scoieu as coiiect, the
paiticipant must have ieau the woiu alouu within the 2-seconu time-uelay befoie
the woiu was piesenteu by the iPou touch. By ieauing the woiu alouu within 2
seconus the paiticipant uemonstiateu automaticity of the wiitten woiu. A woiu was
scoieu as incoiiect if the paiticipant faileu to ieau the wiitten woiu alouu within
the given time inteival. Bata of woius ieau coiiectly within 1 anu 4 seconus weie
also collecteu but uiu not seive as the uepenuent vaiiable.
42

G$1$!50**#,1&0'!
8$.#*&'#!G$1$!!
!The expeiimentei collecteu baseline uata on thiee occasions pei paiticipant.
At each baseline assessment, the paiticipant was given a woiksheet with 1S sight
woius. The expeiimentei saiu a numbei alouu (1, 2, S, etc.) anu the paiticipant was
instiucteu to ieau the coiiesponuing woiu alouu as quickly as possible. Responses
ieau alouu within 2 seconus weie scoieu as coiiect. The numbei coiiect anu
peicent coiiect weie iecoiueu foi each baseline assessment. To achieve peicent
coiiect, the numbei of woius ieau coiiectly was uiviueu by 1S anu multiplieu by
1uu.

2'1#34#'1&0'!G$1$!!
!Buiing the inteivention phase, the paiticipants collecteu theii own uata by
maiking coiiect anu incoiiect iesponses on theii woiksheets. Although paiticipants
weie taught to self-auministei the inteivention, the expeiimentei was piesent at
each session to ensuie ieliability of the uata. A splittei was useu so that both the
paiticipant anu the expeiimentei weie able to heai the tiack on the iPou touch. The
expeiimentei then iecoiueu whethei the paiticipant ieau the woiu coiiectly befoie
it was heaiu on the iPou touch. When a uisciepancy was founu, the uata collecteu by
the expeiimentei weie useu foi uata analysis. Coiiect iesponses foi each of the
thiee time-uelays weie iecoiueu as numbei coiiect anu peicent coiiect. Although
uata weie collecteu at each of the thiee time-uelays, only the iesponses fiom the 2-
seconu time-uelay weie useu foi uata analysis. The 2-seconu time-uelay is the most
4S

accuiate measuie of oial ieauing fluency since it accounts foi both accuiacy anu
iate.

?3#$16#'1!)&%#*&1-!!
!Thioughout the inteivention, tieatment fiuelity uata weie also collecteu.
These uata weie collecteu by the expeiimentei in an attempt to show how this
inteivention can be successfully anu inuepenuently conuucteu by stuuents. Bata
weie collecteu baseu upon the piecision with which the paiticipants conuucteu
stuuy pioceuuies, foi example, whethei the paiticipant selecteu the coiiect
woiksheets anu chose the coiiect coiiesponuing tiacks on the iPou foi each
inteivention session. The expeiimentei answeieu eithei a "yes" oi "no" to five
questions anu the peicentage (|yes(yes + no)j x 1uu) of "yes" iesponses is iepoiteu
foi each question acioss paiticipants. Inteiiatei ieliability uata weie also collecteu
baseu on the coiielation between the expeiimentei anu paiticipant uata.
Paiticipants weie taught to take theii own uata uuiing the inteivention. Bowevei, to
ensuie the accuiacy of the uata, the expeiimentei also iecoiueu uata foi each
paiticipant. These uata weie compaieu to assess the level of ieliability in stuuent-
collecteu uata.

F$&'1#'$',#!G$1$!!
!Naintenance uata weie collecteu 4 to S weeks postinteivention foi each
paiticipant. Paiticipants 1 anu 2 completeu the maintenance phase 4 weeks
postinteivention. Paiticipants S anu 4 weie ill uuiing theii intenueu maintenance
44

phase collection uate. Thus they completeu the maintenance phase 4 V anu S weeks
postinteivention (iespectively). Naintenance piobes consisteu of thiee lists of
pieviously taught woius ianuomly selecteu by the expeiimentei. All paiticipants
completeu inteivention woiu lists 1 thiough 4. Theiefoie, thiee woiu lists (1, 2, anu
4) weie ianuomly selecteu among those foui lists anu auministeieu to each stuuent.
Naintenance uata weie collecteu on one occasion by the expeiimentei in similai
fashion to baseline uata. The paiticipant was given a list that containeu 1S
pieviously taught woius. The expeiimentei saiu each numbei alouu (1, 2, S, etc.)
anu the paiticipant ieau the coiiesponuing woiu alouu as quickly as possible.
Responses ieau alouu within 2 seconus weie scoieu as coiiect. The numbei coiiect
anu peicent coiiect weie iecoiueu foi each list.

I#'#3$*&J$1&0'!G$1$!!!
ueneialization uata weie also collecteu using B0RF piobes. Piioi to the stait
of the inteivention, paiticipants weie scieeneu on the BIBELS
TN
measuies of oial
ieauing fluency using the stanuaiuizeu pioceuuies foi auministiation anu scoiing
as outlineu in uoou et al. (2uu2) anu as pieviously mentioneu. Paiticipants weie
also scieeneu using B0RF measuies on the last uay of the inteivention anu when
maintenance uata weie collecteu. Scoies foi each B0RF piobe pei geneialization
session weie iecoiueu as woius coiiect pei minute (WCPN). The aveiage numbei
of WCPN pei geneialization session was compaieu to ueteimine oveiall
geneialization effects. Reseaich has shown that oial ieauing fluency is a poweiful
inuicatoi of oveiall ieauing competence, is highly coiielateu with ieauing
4S

compiehension, anu is the best pieuictoi of yeai-enu ieauing achievement (Beno,
198S; uoou et al., 2uu2; Basbiouck et al., 2uu7; Schilling et al., 2uu7).

?3#$16#'1!9,,#/1$>&*&1-!!
!Tieatment acceptability uata weie collecteu fiom the paiticipants anu
teacheis at the conclusion of the stuuy. The Tieatment Acceptability - Teachei
Rating Foim (see Appenuix B) was uistiibuteu to teacheis anu a simplifieu veision,
Tieatment Acceptability - Stuuent Rating Foim (Appenuix F), was uistiibuteu to the
stuuents' teacheis aftei the last inteivention session. Tieatment acceptability foims
weie collecteu 4 weeks postinteivention uuiing the maintenance phase. Teachei
iesponses will be baseu on a S-point Likeit-type scale with iesponses ianging fiom
(1) uisagiee to (S) agiee. Stuuent acceptability scoies will iange fiom a iesponse of
(1) not tiue foi me to (2) veiy tiue foi me. !

G$1$!9'$*-.&.!
The numbei of woius ieau coiiectly was collecteu anu iecoiueu foi each
baseline session, foi each of the thiee time-uelays pei woiu list uuiing the
inteivention, anu uuiing the maintenance phase. Woius ieau coiiectly weie
conveiteu into peicent coiiect. Peicent coiiect on baseline measuies will be
compaieu to peicent coiiect on inteivention measuies anu the peicent coiiect on
inteivention measuies will be compaieu to peicent coiiect on maintenance
measuies.
The piopoition of nonoveilapping uata points (PNB) was useu to estimate
46

inteivention gains fiom baseline. This was computeu using an online iesouice
known as ChaitBog2.u at www.inteiventioncential.oig. PNB is calculateu by
ueteimining the piopoition of uata points in a tieatment phase that exceeu the most
extieme value in a baseline conuition (Sciuggs & Nastiopieii, 2uu1). In the case if
the cuiient stuuy, the inteivention sought to inciease the paiticipants' sight woiu
accuiacy. Thus, the piopoition of inteivention uata points that exceeueu the highest
baseline uata point weie uiviueu by the total numbei of uata points in the
inteivention phase.
Sciuggs anu Nastiopieii (2uu1) iecommenu using PNB as a methou to
analyze single-subject ieseaich uesigns ovei the tiauitional effect sizes (ES) because
"the majoi pioblems with ES calculations of single-paiticipant uata incluue possible
noninuepenuence of uata anu the small numbei of obseivations commonly founu in
single-paiticipant ieseaich" (p. 2Su). Sciuggs anu Nastiopieii (1998) suggesteu the
following guiuelines in ueteimining tieatment effectiveness using PNB: tieatments
with PNB scoies above 9u aie veiy effective; PNB scoies between 7u to 9u aie
effective; PNB scoies between Su to 7u aie have questionable effectiveness; anu
PNB scoies below Su aie iegaiueu as ineffective.
Effect sizes weie calculateu foi inteivention anu maintenance phases baseu
upon the mouel outlineu in Busk anu Seilin (1992). They state that the benefit to
using effect sizes in single-subject ieseaich is that "the ieseaichei is able to go
beyonu the 'contioveisial' technique of visual inspection to uemonstiate empiiically
the magnituue of outcome effect" (p. 2u8). In theii chaptei, Busk anu Seilin outline
47

thiee appioaches foi analyzing single-subject ieseaich uata baseu on the
assumptions maue iegaiuing the uata.
The cuiient stuuy utilizeu the fiist appioach, the No Assumptions mouel,
which makes "no assumptions conceining population uistiibutional foim oi equality
of inteimeasuie vaiiances anu covaiiance" (p. 197). Accoiuing to this appioach,
effect sizes aie calculateu foi each subject by "uiviuing the uiffeience in phase
means by the baseline stanuaiu ueviation" (p. 197). Cohen (1992) iepoits that effect
sizes of u.2u aie small, u.Su aie meuium, anu effect sizes of u.8u oi moie aie laige.
Busk anu Seilin (1992) outlineu the following foimula:

(mean of inteivention phase - mean of baseline phase)
stanuaiu ueviation of baseline phase

The aveiage numbei of inteiventions sessions neeueu to ieach masteiy on
woiu lists will be iepoiteu anu uiscusseu. Pieinteivention, postinteivention anu
maintenance uata fiom BIBELS
TN
oial ieauing fluency measuies weie compaieu to
assess whethei the effects of the inteivention geneializeu to othei measuies of oial
ieauing fluency. Tieatment acceptability uata fiom paiticipants anu teacheis aie
also iepoiteu as uesciiptive statistics.








RES0LTS

The puipose of the cuiient stuuy was to empiiically evaluate the
effectiveness of using an iPou touch to uelivei time-uelay tapeu-woius inteivention
to inciease the sight woiu accuiacy of seconu-giaue stuuents in the geneial
euucation setting who weie at iisk foi ieauing ueficits. Buiing each inteivention
session, paiticipants weie piesenteu with a woiksheet that containeu 1S sight
woius. Thiee veisions weie constiucteu foi each woiksheet that piesenteu the
woius in a uiffeient oiuei. Each woiksheet hau a coiiesponuing tiack on the iPou
touch that piesenteu the coiiect answeis at vaiying time-uelays. veision A
woiksheets weie piesenteu with a 1-seconu time-uelay, veision B woiksheets weie
piesenteu at a 4-seconu time-uelay, anu veision C at a 2-seconu time-uelay. It was
also hypothesizeu that the use of an iPou touch foi the ueliveiy of the inteivention
woulu be positively accepteu by both teacheis anu stuuents as an efficient anu
effective way to supplement instiuction.
!
B30,#%+3$*!2'1#(3&1-!
Tieatment fiuelity anu inteiiatei ieliability uata weie collecteu thioughout
the inteivention foi each paiticipant. Bata weie collecteu by the expeiimentei in an
attempt to show how this inteivention can be successfully anu inuepenuently
conuucteu by stuuents. Bata weie collecteu baseu upon the piecision in which the
49

paiticipants conuucteu stuuy pioceuuies anu the accuiacy with which they scoieu
theii iesponses.
Table 1 iepoits tieatment fiuelity uata in oiuei to show how the pioceuuies
of the inteivention can be successfully anu inuepenuently conuucteu by stuuents.
Accuiacy iates vaiy acioss paiticipants foi selecting coiiect woiksheets anu coiiect
tiacks on the iPou. As uiscusseu pieviously, woiksheet packets weie kept in labeleu
manila folueis in a file cabinet. Paiticipants hau to fiist check theii uata sheet to see
which woiksheets they weie to woik on. Then, paiticipants weie to choose the
coiiect woiksheet packet fiom the file uiawei.


Table 1.
94#3$(#!9,,+3$,-!0:!26/*#6#'1$1&0'!/#3!B$31&,&/$'1!
Paiticipant
Paiticipant Selecteu
Coiiect Woiksheets
Paiticipant Selecteu
Coiiect Tiack on iPou
Completeu All
Thiee Time-uelays
1 9S.7S% 97.92% 1uu%
2 8u% 97.78% 1uu%
S S8.SS% 86.11% 1uu%
4 1uu% 9S.S% 1uu%
Nean 8S.u2% 94.SS% 1uu%
$

Su

Paiticipants 1 anu 4 hau high iates of accuiacy in choosing the coiiect packet
of woiksheets each uay. Paiticipant S hau the most uifficulty anu neeueu the most
guiuance anu instiuction fiom the expeiimentei. All paiticipants hau high iates of
accuiacy in selecting the coiiect tiacks. Typically, paiticipants uiu well at selecting
the iight list numbei, but woulu make a caieless eiioi anu, foi example, select Foim
B insteau of Foim A. The coiiection of this eiioi was assisteu by the iPou as it ieau
the title to each woiksheet befoie beginning the inteivention. Thus, the paiticipants
coulu ieau the title along with the iPou to assuie they hau the coiiect one.
Although paiticipants maue occasional pioceuuial eiiois, the expeiimentei
took the uata, anu then aleiteu the paiticipant to theii eiioi anu assisteu in
coiiecting it when neeueu. All paiticipants completeu thiee time-uelays each
session. Nean accuiacy peicentages acioss paiticipants show that paiticipants hau
the most uifficulty in selecting the coiiect woiksheets. This eiioi coulu easily be
avoiueu if this inteivention was useu in the classioom by teachei assistance in
selecting the coiiect woiksheets. As the uata show, paiticipants weie highly
accuiate in caiiying out the pioceeuing steps.
Inteiiatei ieliability was assesseu by conuucting a Peaison's coiielation (3)
foi each paiticipant (Table 2). The Peaison's piouuct-moment coiielation
coefficient measuies the lineai uepenuence between two vaiiables. Cohen (1992)
uesciibeu a coiielation of .1u as a small effect, .Su as a meuium effect, anu .Su as a
laige effect. Thus, the coiielation coefficients all iepiesent stiong coiielations
between expeiimentei anu paiticipant uata. This inuicates that stuuents can
inuepenuently anu ieliably collect theii own inteivention uata.
S1

$
Table 2.
2'1#33$1#3!"#*&$>&*&1-!>#1C##'!;K/#3&6#'1#3!$'%!B$31&,&/$'1!!!

Paiticipant
Numbei of Bata
Points pei Ratei
Peaison's
Coiielation

Significance
1 n = 72u 3 = .928 / = .uuu
2 n = 67S 3 = .87u / = .uuu
S n = S4u 3 = .92u / = .uuu
4 n = 67S 3 = .777 / = .uuu
Note. The numbei of uata points vaiies pei paiticipant uue to absenteeism uuiing the stuuy.
Coiielation is significant at the / < u.u1 level.


9'$*-.&.!>-!E+#.1&0'!
Six ieseaich questions weie foimulateu to assess the effectiveness anu
acceptability of the inteivention. The following infoimation auuiesses each ieseaich
question inuiviuually. Bata anu giaphic iepiesentation aie pioviueu wheie
appiopiiate.

"#.#$3,<!E+#.1&0'!L'#!
G0!.1+%#'1.!$1!3&.M!:03!3#$%&'(!%#:&,&1.!>#,06#!603#!$,,+3$1#!$1!3#$%&'(!.&(<1!
C03%.!C&1<!1<#!+.#!0:!1<#!&'1#34#'1&0'N!!Accuiacy will be evaluateu in seveial ways.
Table S iepiesents the aveiage accuiacy peicentages pei phase acioss paiticipants.
S2


Table S.
F#$'!9,,+3$,-!B#3,#'1$(#.!>-!B<$.#!

Paiticipant

Baseline

Inteivention

Naintenance
1 S1.uu 9S.86 84.SS
2 4u.uu 8u.87 66.67
S S7.67 6S.Su SS.67
4 SS.SS 74.67 62.SS

Nean Peicentages
Acioss Phases

4u.Su 78.7S 62.2S


uains in accuiacy fiom baseline to inteivention phases weie obseiveu foi each
paiticipant to vaiying uegiees. Thiee paiticipants maintaineu aveiage accuiacy
iates above baseline thiough maintenance. Paiticipant S, howevei, uemonstiateu
maintenance accuiacy iates commensuiate with baseline uata. Inteiestingly,
paiticipants 1, 2, anu 4 all maue similai incieases in accuiacy fiom baseline to
inteivention. Each maue aveiage incieases ianging fiom 4u to 42%. Paiticipant S
also maue gains in accuiacy but to a lessei extent. Be incieaseu his aveiage accuiacy
at baseline by 27% uuiing inteivention.
Figuie 1 iepiesents the stuuy's multiple-baseline uesign acioss paiticipants.
Each paiticipant's peicent accuiacy pei session acioss baseline, inteivention, anu
S


Figuie 1.$Nultiple-Baseline Besign Acioss Paiticipants
S

maintenance phases is iepoiteu. The uata iepoiteu aie the 2-seconu time-uelay.
This time-uelay was the best inuicatoi of oveiall fluency, accuiacy, anu iate of
ieauing. A v-shapeu tienu was obseiveu in S paiticipants' baseline uata. Since all
paiticipants completeu the same thiee baseline woiulists in the same oiuei, this
tienu is likely explaineu by uiffeiences in uifficulty among woiulists.
As pieviously explaineu, woiulists weie composeu by ianuomizing the oiuei
of the Suu woius in the New Instant Woiu List (Fiy, 198u). Thus, the oveiall
uifficulty of woiulists was not contiolleu. Theiefoie, it coulu be assumeu that
baseline list 1 anu baseline list S weie significantly easiei oi containeu moie easily
iecognizable oi familiai woius than baseline list 2. Since the uata uo not ieflect an
incieasing tienu line anu baseline piobes weie not iepeateu, it is not likely that the
tienu in uata ieflect piactice effects. visual inspection of the uata also inuicates that
gains in accuiacy weie maue foi all paiticipants acioss the majoiity of inteivention
sessions. Noie uetaileu uiscussion of inuiviuual paiticipant uata follows.
!
2'%&4&%+$*!B$31&,&/$'1!G$1$!
The uata in Figuies 2 - S iepiesent each paiticipant's peicent accuiacy
acioss time-uelays. Buiing the inteivention, paiticipants always completeu Foim A
of a woiulist fiist. Foim A coiiesponueu with a 1-seconu time-uelay. This time-uelay
was intenueu to pioviue immeuiate feeuback so that paiticipants uiu not have time
to piactice ieauing the woiu incoiiectly. Foim B was always completeu seconu anu
coiiesponueu with a 4-seconu time-uelay. This time-uelay was intenueu to inciease
inuepenuence in ieauing the woiu. Subsequently, Foim C was completeu last anu
SS


Figuie 2. Repeateu Neasuies Acioss Inteivention Sessions foi Paiticipant 1.



Figuie S. Repeateu Neasuies Acioss Inteivention Sessions foi Paiticipant 2.


S6


Figuie 4. Repeateu Neasuies Acioss Inteivention Sessions foi Paiticipant S.



Figuie S.$Repeateu Neasuies Acioss Inteivention Sessions foi Paiticipant 4.
!
!

S7

coiiesponueu with a 2-seconu time-uelay. This time-uelay was consiueieu the most
accuiate measuie of fluency. Aveiage peicent accuiacy is iepoiteu foi each
paiticipant acioss Foims A, B, anu C.
B$31&,&/$'1!OH!!The uata in Figuie 2 iepiesent Paiticipant 1's peicent accuiacy
acioss each time-uelay pei inteivention session. As iepoiteu in Figuie 1, Paiticipant
1 hau an aveiage peicent accuiacy uuiing baseline of S1%. Bis aveiage peicent
accuiacy on Foim A of the inteivention was 68.S1%. 0n Foim B, Paiticipant 1
scoieu an aveiage peicent coiiect of 9u.S7. Scoies weie expecteu to have incieaseu
on Foim B since paiticipants hau heaiu the woiu ieau coiiectly by the iPou touch
on Foim A anu weie given moie time to sounu out the woiu anu iesponu.
Paiticipant 1 scoieu an aveiage peicent coiiect of 9S.88 on Foim C. Repeateu
measuies uata inuicate that Paiticipant 1 became moie accuiate at ieauing sight
woius thiough the inteivention uespite the ueciease in time-uelay on Foim C,
inuicating that his level of oveiall ieauing fluency incieaseu.
The peicentage of nonoveilapping uata points weie calculateu to be 1uu%.
The inteivention effect size foi Paiticipant 1 was calculateu to be 1.86. These uata
inuicate that the time-uelay tapeu-woius inteivention was veiy effective foi
Paiticipant 1. These iesults suggest that multiple oppoitunities to iesponu anu
immeuiate anu coiiective feeuback weie the coiiect inteivention pioceuuies
neeueu to inciease his ieauing fluency.
B$31&,&/$'1!PH!!The uata in Figuie S iepiesent Paiticipant 2's peicent accuiacy
acioss each time-uelay pei inteivention session. As iepoiteu in Figuie 1, Paiticipant
2 hau an aveiage peicent accuiacy uuiing baseline of 4u%. Bei aveiage peicent
S8

accuiacy on Foim A of the inteivention was 6u%. 0n Foim B, Paiticipant 2 scoieu
an aveiage peicent coiiect of 8u.4. Scoies weie expecteu to have incieaseu on Foim
B since paiticipants hau heaiu the woiu ieau coiiectly by the iPou touch on Foim A
anu weie given moie time to sounu out the woiu anu iesponu. Paiticipant 2 scoieu
an aveiage peicent coiiect of 8u.87 on Foim C, inuicating that she maue gains in
fluency acioss time-uelays.
Peicentage of nonoveilapping uata points weie calculateu anu founu to be
1uu% foi Paiticipant 2 with an inteivention effect size of 2.u4. Thus, these uata
inuicate that the time-uelay tapeu-woius pioceuuie using an iPou touch was a veiy
effective inteivention foi Paiticipant 2.
B$31&,&/$'1!QH!!The uata in Figuie 4 iepiesent Paiticipant S's peicent accuiacy
acioss each time-uelay pei inteivention session. As iepoiteu in Figuie 1, Paiticipant
S hau an aveiage peicent accuiacy uuiing baseline of S7.67%. Bis aveiage peicent
accuiacy on Foim A of the inteivention was 42.67%. 0n Foim B, Paiticipant S
scoieu an aveiage peicent coiiect of 68.42. Scoies weie expecteu to have incieaseu
on Foim B since paiticipants hau heaiu the woiu ieau coiiectly by the iPou touch
on Foim A anu weie given moie time to sounu out the woiu anu iesponu.
Paiticipant S scoieu an aveiage peicent coiiect of 6S.S on Foim C.
Peicentage of nonoveilapping uata points weie calculateu to be 8S.S% foi
Paiticipant S. An inteivention that ieceives a PNB between 7u anu 9u is consiueieu
to be effective. The inteivention effect size foi Paiticipant S was calculateu to be
1.67 anu is consiueieu to be a laige effect size.
S9

B$31&,&/$'1!RH!!The uata in Figuie S iepiesent Paiticipant 4's peicent accuiacy
acioss each time-uelay pei inteivention session. As iepoiteu in Figuie 1, Paiticipant
4 hau an aveiage peicent accuiacy uuiing baseline of SS.SS%. Bis aveiage peicent
accuiacy on Foim A of the inteivention was 48.9S%. 0n Foim B, Paiticipant 4
scoieu an aveiage peicent coiiect of 72. Scoies weie expecteu to have incieaseu on
Foim B since paiticipants hau heaiu the woiu ieau coiiectly by the iPou touch on
Foim A anu weie given moie time to sounu out the woiu anu iesponu. Paiticipant 4
scoieu an aveiage peicent coiiect of 74.67 on Foim C.
The peicentage of nonoveilapping uata points foi Paiticipant 4 was 8u% anu
theiefoie, is consiueieu to be an effective inteivention. The inteivention effect size
foi Paiticipant 4 was 2.S8. Thus, this inteivention was founu to be an effective
methou at incieasing his ieauing fluency.
The mean peicentage of nonoveilapping uata points foi all paiticipants was
calculateu at 9u.82S%. The mean effect size foi all paiticipants was calculateu to be
1.987S. These uata inuicate that the time-uelay tapeu-woius inteivention is
effective at incieasing stuuent's sight woiu accuiacy.

"#.#$3,<!E+#.1&0'!?C0!
G0!1<#!'+6>#3!0:!.#..&0'.!'##%#%!10!3#$,<!6$.1#3-!%#,3#$.#!1<30+(<0+1!1<#!
,0+3.#!0:!1<#!&'1#34#'1&0'N!!!Sessions neeueu to ieach masteiy vaiieu foi each
paiticipant. Biscussion of each paiticipant's piogiession to masteiy of a woiulist is
pioviueu. Paiticipant 1 ieacheu masteiy on the fiist session of each inteivention
woiulist. Thus, the sessions neeueu to ieach masteiy weie consistent thioughout
6u

the inteivention. Be uiu iepeat one woiulist (List S) aftei he hau masteieu it uue to
expeiimentei eiioi. It is inteiesting to note that he scoieu 1uu% on all foims of that
woiulist uuiing the seconu session. This inuicates that he maintaineu masteiy of
that woiu list until the following inteivention session.
Paiticipant 2's sessions neeueu to ieach masteiy weie most consistent
thioughout the miuule of the inteivention. She masteieu List 1 in two sessions, lists
2 to 9 in one session each, List 1u in two sessions anu List 11 in thiee sessions. This
may iepiesent changes in uifficulty of woius acioss woiulists foi this paiticipant.
This pattein may also suggest that she neeueu one session to become familiai with
the inteivention anu its pioceuuies, then uevelopeu a ueteimination to woik haiu
uuiing the miuule of the inteivention anu then might have lost ueteimination oi
inteiest in the inteivention towaius the enu. 0n aveiage, she masteieu a woiulist in
1.S6 sessions.
Paiticipant S's sessions to masteiy stayeu ielatively consistent thioughout
the inteivention with an aveiage of S sessions pei woiulist. Be masteieu List 1 in
foui sessions, Lists 2 anu S in thiee sessions, anu hau not yet masteieu List 4 in two
sessions when the inteivention enueu. Paiticipant 4's masteiy was the most
spoiauic of all. Be masteieu List 1 in two sessions, List 2 in thiee sessions, List S in
one session, List 4 in 2 sessions, List S in 1 session, List 6 in thiee sessions, List 7 in
two sessions, anu List 8 in one. 0n aveiage, he ieacheu masteiy on a woiulist in 1.88
sessions.
uiven these uata, each paiticipant vaiieu in sessions to masteiy acioss the
inteivention. It appeais that, in geneial, theie was not a leaining effect uue to the
61

pioceuuies of the inteivention. Rathei, each paiticipant piogiesseu at hishei own
inuiviuual iate.
!
"#.#$3,<!E+#.1&0'!?<3##!
9.!$!3#.+*1!0:!1<&.!&'1#34#'1&0'S!%0#.!(#'#3$*&J$1&0'!0,,+3!$,30..!3#$%&'(!
:*+#',-!/30>#.N!!!ueneialization is "the occuiience of ielevant behavioi unuei
uiffeient, non-tiaining conuitions" (Stokes & Baei, 1977, p. SSu). In theii aiticle,
Stokes anu Baei outlineu nine categoiies of geneialization. The cuiient stuuy
pioceuuies most closely aligneu with the geneialization categoiy of ?3$&'!$'%!T0/#H!
This categoiy uesciibes ieseaich techniques that welcome the piesence of
geneialization but uo not necessaiily employ techniques to tiain paiticipants to
geneialize to othei settings, iesponses, expeiimenteis, oi time. ueneialization may
be uocumenteu, oi measuieu, but is not actively puisueu. Accoiuing to Stokes anu
Baei, these "stuuies have consiueiable impoitance, foi they begin to uocument the
extent anu limits of geneialization of paiticulai opeiant inteivention techniques.
While not being examples of the piogiamming of geneialization, they aie a sounu
fiist step in any seiious analysis of geneialization" (p. SS1).
In the piesent stuuy, paiticipants weie taught to ieau sight woius by using
an iPou anu weie pioviueu with multiple oppoitunities to piactice anu given
immeuiate coiiective feeuback. Paiticipants ieau sight woius that weie aiiangeu in
list foimat. They weie not specifically tiaineu oi ieinfoiceu to ieau woius in a
connecteu text foimat. ueneialization piobes containeu text in a connecteu text
foimat that may oi may not have containeu sight woius tiaineu uuiing the
62

inteivention. In auuition, the piobes unuoubteuly containeu novel oi untiaineu
woius foi the paiticipants to ieau. Thus, geneialization to othei measuies of
ieauing fluency was not actively puisueu.
ueneialization was assesseu using BIBELS
TN
measuies of oial ieauing
fluency (0RF). Reauing fluency measuies such as BIBELS
TN
aie not only effective in
iuentifying stuuents who have uifficulty leaining to ieau but also to assess the
effectiveness of inteiventions uesigneu to piomote ieauing (Schilling et al., 2uu7).
0ial ieauing fluency uata weie collecteu at baseline, at the enu of the inteivention,
anu at maintenance. Buiing each of these uata sessions, the paiticipant was
piesenteu with two oial ieauing fluency piobes, one at a time. As uesciibeu above,
the paiticipant has 1 minute to ieau the passage anu the numbei of coiiectly ieau
woius is calculateu. The aveiage woius coiiect pei minute (WCPN) fiom the two
piobes weie calculateu anu is iepiesenteu in Figuie 6. A uiscussion is pioviueu foi
each inuiviuual paiticipant.
Paiticipant 1 scoieu an aveiage of SS WCPN uuiing the baseline phase. At
the enu of the inteivention, his aveiage WCPN incieaseu to 44. At maintenance, this
level was not maintaineu; howevei, Paiticipant 1 still scoieu highei on WCPN at
maintenance (41) compaieu to baseline. The iemaining paiticipants incieaseu theii
aveiage WCPN thioughout the inteivention anu incieases weie sustaineu thiough
maintenance.

6S


Figuie 6. ueneialization Bata

Paiticipant 2 scoieu an aveiage of 2u WCPN at baseline. At the conclusion of
the inteivention, he scoieu an aveiage of SS WCPN anu SS WCPN at maintenance.
Paiticipant S scoieu an aveiage of 11 WCPN at baseline. Bis scoie incieaseu to an
aveiage of 1S WCPN at the enu of the inteivention anu 18 at maintenance.
Paiticipant 4 also maue gains fiom baseline thiough the maintenance phase. Be
scoieu an aveiage of 17 at baseline, 2S at the enu of the inteivention, anu 28 at
maintenance.
These uata suppoit the hypothesis that the time-uelay tapeu-woius
inteivention is effective at incieasing ieauing fluency on inteivention piobes as well
as othei measuies of ieauing fluency. This finuing is impiessive since paiticipants
weie not specifically tiaineu to ieau sight woius in a connecteu text foimat, but
64

iathei weie always instiucteu to ieau the woius in an isolateu, list foimat.$
Fuitheimoie, geneialization piobes containeu new woius that weie not tiaineu
uuiing the inteivention. This effect is likely uue to the time-uelay pioceuuies
employeu with coiiective feeuback.
This inteivention was uesigneu to allow paiticipants the oppoitunity to
piactice ieauing sight woius anu, in auuition, pioviueu paiticipants with immeuiate
anu coiiective feeuback. Feeuback was auministeieu by the iPou using vaiying
time-uelays. The fiist time-uelay (1 seconu) pioviueu the coiiect ieauing of the
woiu almost immeuiately. The intent of this time-uelay was to pievent the
paiticipant fiom ieauing the woiu incoiiectly anu piacticing it eiioneously. The
seconu time-uelay (4 seconus) alloweu the paiticipants moie time to piactice the
woius inuepenuently using phonetics, if neeueu. This time-uelay may have alloweu
the paiticipant to make a ueepei connection with the woiu anu establish memoiy of
it uue to the incieaseu time alloweu to sounu it out anu piactice ieauing it.
The final time-uelay pioviueu feeuback within a shoit enough amount of
time (2 seconus) foi the paiticipant to ieau the woiu fluently, but also pioviueu
feeuback in oiuei to enhance the paiticipant's confiuence that they ieau the woiu
coiiectly oi pioviueu coiiection if they hau ieau it incoiiectly. Results suggest that
this succession of tiials with coiiective feeuback is effective at enhancing a stuuent's
woiu ieauing ability to tiaineu anu novel woius. uiven the geneialization iesults, it
is possible that these tiials enhanceu the stuuents' oveiall ieauing ability iathei
than just ieinfoicing theii ability to ieau the tiaineu woius.
6S

The ability to quickly anu accuiately ieau woius, oi the uemonstiation of
ieauing fluency, has implications foi ieauing compiehension. Reseaich states that
the iapiu ieauing of high fiequency woius anu uecouable woius is ciitical foi
ieauing compiehension (Chaiu et al. 2uu9; Rasinski, 2uuu; Shapiio, 2uu4; The
0niveisity of Texas Centei foi Reauing anu Language Aits, 2uu4). In the cuiient
stuuy, gains in fluency weie obseiveu foi all paiticipants on the BIBELS
TN
0RF
piobes compaieu to baseline. Thus, since gains in sight woiu accuiacy geneializeu
to ieauing connecteu text, it is possible that the inteivention also positively affecteu
the stuuents' ieauing compiehension abilities.
Results of the cuiient stuuy inuicateu that the time-uelay tapeu-woius
inteivention was effective at incieasing stuuents' sight woiu accuiacy of tiaineu
woius. ueneialization iesults suggesteu that the inteivention was effective at
piomoting geneialization to othei measuies of oial ieauing fluency. Although this
ielationship is piomising, auuitional factois neeu to be consiueieu. The school
uistiict in which this stuuy was conuucteu hau implementeu a uistiict-wiue
iesponse to inteivention (RTI) effoit at the beginning of the 2uu9 - 2u1u school
yeai. Thus, in confoiming to these piactices, the school utilizeu cuiiiculum-baseu
measuiements anu weekly anu monthly topic tests in auuition to ieseaich-valiuateu
cuiiiculum to monitoi stuuent piogiess on concepts. Tiei 2 aiues pioviueu suppoit
to stuuents who uemonstiateu the neeu foi auuitional instiuction. As pieviously
mentioneu, each paiticipant hau ieceiveu Tiei 2 suppoit in ieauing at times befoie
anuoi uuiing the inteivention.$$
66

uiven this uistiict-wiue effoit to implement eviuence-baseu cuiiiculum anu
inteivention suppoits, it may be impossible to concluue that the gains in
geneialization aie solely attiibutable to the cuiient inteivention. Bowevei, these
inteivention suppoits hau been in place well befoie the stuuy began which suggests
that the cuiient level of inteivention pioviueu was not sufficient foi these stuuents.
Auuitionally, in oiuei to contiol foi thieats to inteinal valiuity incluuing cuiiiculum,
auuitional inteiventions, oi teaching techniques, this inteivention was conuucteu
using a multiple-baseline uesign with baselines staggeieu acioss paiticipants. All
paiticipants uemonstiateu incieases in oial ieauing fluency fiom baseline
iegaiuless of when they staiteu oi enueu the inteivention. In auuition, no
paiticipants hau the same classioom teachei which iules out the influence of
teachei oi classioom enviionment effects.
!
"#.#$3,<!E+#.1&0'!)0+3!
2.!$,,+3$,-!6$&'1$&'#%!$1!:0**0C7+/N Naintenance uata aie piesenteu in
Figuie 1. Effect sizes foi each paiticipant weie calculateu as outlineu in Busk anu
Seilin (1992) that compaieu maintenance uata to baseline uata. Thiee paiticipants
(1, 2, anu 4) achieveu maintenance effect sizes that aie consiueieu veiy laige. The
maintenance effect size foi Paiticipant 1 was calculateu to be 1.4S. Paiticipant 2
eaineu a maintenance effect size of 1.SS. The maintenance effect size foi Paiticipant
4 was calculateu to be 1.67. The mean effect size foi these thiee paiticipants was
1.48. These effect sizes aie consiueieu to be veiy laige accoiuing to Cohen (1992).
67

Although these effect sizes aie smallei than the iepoiteu inteivention effect sizes,
they iepiesent laige gains in ieauing fluency.
Paiticipant S, on the othei hanu, uiu not maintain accuiacy at follow-up. An
effect size was calculateu using maintenance uata anu founu to be -u.12, which
inuicates that gains weie lost at follow-up. The expeiimentei offeis two possible
explanations foi the lack of sustaineu effectiveness. The fiist explanation is an
inaccuiate match between Paiticipant S's neeus anu skill level to the puipose of the
inteivention. When scieening paiticipants, a neeus assessment was not conuucteu.
Bowevei, thioughout the couise of the inteivention, it appeaieu as though this
paiticipant's lack of skill was not only a ueficit in fluency, but also in the alphabetic
piinciple. Be uemonstiateu gieat uifficulty attempting to sounu-out woius, even
uuiing the 4-seconu time-uelay. An inteivention taigeting the builuing blocks of
ieauing, phonemic awaieness anu the alphabetic piinciple, may have been moie
likely to maintain effectiveness.
A seconu possible explanation is that the follow-up uata aie not
iepiesentative of Paiticipant S's tiue inteivention gains. Naintenance uata weie
collecteu by auministeiing thiee, ianuomly selecteu, pieviously taught, woiulists.
Lists 1 thiough 4 weie the only woiulists that each paiticipant hau piacticeu. The
thiee ianuomly chosen woiulists weie lists 1, 2, anu 4. Caieful inspection of the
uata, howevei, shows that Paiticipant S only ieacheu masteiy on woiulists 1, 2, anu
S. All othei paiticipants hau ieacheu masteiy on all maintenance woiulists. Thus, if
Paiticipant S's maintenance effect sizes weie iecalculateu excluuing his scoie of
68

2u% accuiate on List 4, his effect size woulu be u.SS, which woulu be consiueieu a
meuium effect size accoiuing to Cohen (1992).
Auuitional vaiiables that complicate the inteipietation of iesults incluue
attenuance anu iefeiial foi special euucation. 0ut of all the paiticipants, Paiticipant
S misseu the most inteivention sessions uue to absence fiom school. Be only
completeu 12 out of the possible 16 sessions. Fuitheimoie, aftei the conclusion of
the inteivention, this stuuent was iefeiieu by his geneial euucation teachei foi an
evaluation foi special euucation. Bis oveiall cognitive ability was founu to be in the
aveiage iange with woiking memoiy in the well-below aveiage iange. Bis acauemic
achievement scoies also fell in the well-below aveiage iange anu he qualifieu as a
stuuent with a specific leaining uisability in ieauing.
Fuitheimoie, aftei the ieseaich stuuy was completeu, the expeiimentei, who
also seiveu as the school psychologist intein, was ieviewing Paiticipant S's stuuent
uata on the computei uatabase. Buiing the seaich, the school psychologist intein
founu uocumentation that the stuuent hau been iefeiieu anu founu eligible as a
stuuent with a leaining uisability at a pieviously attenueu school when he was in
kinueigaiten. Neithei the school's piincipal noi special euucation teachei weie
awaie of this infoimation. The paient's hau nevei aleiteu the school oi questioneu
the school about the implementation of seivices. Inteiestingly, conveisations
between the school psychologist anu the mothei also inuicateu that she uiu not
know hei chilu hau a leaining uisability. Infoimation about the ieasons suiiounuing
the file tiansfei, oi lack theieof, weie not known.

69

"#.#$3,<!E+#.1&0'!)&4#!
G0!.1+%#'1.!:&'%!1<&.!/30,#%+3#!$,,#/1$>*#!$.!$'!&'1#34#'1&0'!:03!3#$%&'(!
:*+#',-N!!Paiticipants weie askeu to complete the Tieatment Acceptability - Stuuent
Rating Foim at the conclusion of the stuuy. The tieatment acceptability iating foim
was auapteu fiom Touu (2u1u). The six questions weie simply wiitten, but stuuents
coulu also ask theii teachei foi help ieauing the questions if neeueu. A 2-point
Likeit-type scale was useu in which paiticipants iesponueu to each question with
eithei 2=veiy Tiue foi Ne oi a 1=Not Tiue foi Ne. Neans weie calculateu to
examine acceptability of inteivention pioceuuies. !
0veiall, paiticipants' iatings ieflecteu high acceptability. Two paiticipants
iateu all questions as a 2, inuicating the highest level of satisfaction with the
inteivention. 0ne paiticipant noteu, "sometimes" in iesponse to the statement "It
was easy to finu the iight woiksheets". Although the stuuent uiu not ciicle a iating,
this iesponse was calculateu as a iating of 1. Table 4 contains the mean acceptability
iatings foi paiticipants.
Questions 1 can be inteipieteu as a measuie of effectiveness. All paiticipants
felt that the iPou inteivention helpeu them ieau bettei. Questions 2, S, anu 6 can be
inteipieteu as acceptability questions. All paiticipants felt favoiably about the
inteivention anu believeu that othei stuuents woulu enjoy it as well. Questions S
anu 4 can be inteipieteu as pioceuuial questions. The majoiity of paiticipants
thought the iPou was easy to use, but only half of the paiticipants thought it was
easy to finu the coiiect woiksheets. Thus, oiganization of the inteivention mateiials
woulu be an impoitant consiueiation in ieplicating this inteivention.
7u


Table 4.
?3#$16#'1!9,,#/1$>&*&1-!U!D1+%#'1!"$1&'(!"#.+*1.!
Statement Nean Rating
1. The iPou helpeu me ieau bettei. 2.u
2. I enjoyeu ieauing with the iPou. 2.u
S. It was easy to finu the iight tiack on the iPou. 1.7S
4. It was easy to finu the iight woiksheets. 1.S
S. 0thei stuuents woulu like using the iPou to help them ieau bettei. 2.u
6. I woulu like to continue using the iPou foi ieauing. 2.u
0veiall Nean Acceptability Rating 1.87S
Note. The Stuuent Rating Foim was iateu on a 2-point Likeit-type scale wheie 1 = "Not Tiue foi Ne",
2 = "veiy Tiue foi Ne".

"#.#$3,<!E+#.1&0'!D&K!
G0!1#$,<#3.!:&'%!1<&.!/30,#%+3#!$,,#/1$>*#!$.!$'!&'1#34#'1&0'!:03!3#$%&'(!
:*+#',-N!!Foui teacheis paiticipateu in iating the acceptability of this inteivention.
Nine questions weie auministeieu to ueteimine effectiveness. The teachei
tieatment acceptability iating foim was also auapteu fiom Touu (2u1u). Responses
weie iateu on a S-point Likeit-type scale ianging fiom 1 = Bisagiee to S = Agiee.
Nean iesponses aie iepoiteu in Table S.!
The iatings in Table S inuicate that oveiall, all 4 teacheis founu this
inteivention to be acceptable. Inuiviuual iesponses vaiieu fiom question to question
7

!

Table S.
?3#$16#'1!9,,#/1$>&*&1-!U!?#$,<#3!"$1&'(!"#.+*1.!
!
Statement
Nean
Rating
1. This inteivention is easy to implement. 4.7S
2. This inteivention was effective at impioving sight woiu fluency 4
S. I woulu use this inteivention with othei stuuents. 4.2S
4. This inteivention coulu easily be auapteu to othei subject matteis. S.7S
S. This inteivention coulu easily be implementeu in my classioom. S.S
6. Stuuents weie successful at inuepenuently iunning the inteivention. 4.2S
7. I woulu like to continue this inteivention with my stuuents. 4.7S
8. I woulu iecommenu this inteivention to othei teacheis. 4.S
9. 0veiall, I was satisfieu with the inteivention. 4.S
0veiall Nean Acceptability Rating 4.2S
Note. The Teachei Rating Foim was iateu on a S-point Likeit-type scale wheie 1 = "Bisagiee", S =
"Neithei Bisagiee noi Agiee", anu S = "Agiee".
7

with almost all of iatings between S (Neithei Agiee noi Bisagiee) anu S (Agiee).
0ne statement, "This inteivention coulu easily be implementeu in my classioom,"
ieceiveu a iating of 2 (Somewhat Bisagiee) fiom one teachei. This iesponse may
ieflect any numbei of factois such as peiceiveu time neeueu to iun the inteivention,
lack of inteiest in the inteivention, oi lack of mateiials (iPou) in the classioom.
Inteiestingly, at the conclusion of this inteivention, the piincipal iepoiteu to the
expeiimentei that the seconu-giaue team iequesteu iPous be oiueieu foi theii
classiooms.





BISC0SSI0N

This stuuy empiiically evaluateu the effectiveness of using an iPou touch to
uelivei a time-uelay tapeu-woius inteivention in oiuei to inciease the sight woiu
fluency of seconu-giaue geneial euucation stuuents. The time-uelay tapeu-woius
inteivention has been founu to be effective at incieasing the sight woiu accuiacy of
stuuents with leaining uisabilities, behavioi uisoiueis, anu intellectual uisability
(Bliss et al., 2uu6; Fieeman & NcLaughlin, 1984; Steiling et al., 1997). The
paiticipants of the cuiient stuuy weie founu to be at iisk foi ieauing uifficulties
accoiuing to benchmaik uata of cuiiiculum baseu measuiements (CBN).
Cuiiiculum-baseu measuiement is a set of stanuaiuizeu, fluency-baseu
pioceuuies uesigneu to measuie a stuuent's piogiess towaius inteivention goals oi
giaue-level stanuaius (Rathvon, 2uu8). It has been shown to be effective in
evaluating changes in stuuent peifoimance in euucational piogiams (Beno, 1986).
The cuiient inteivention taigeteu stuuents who weie in neeu of acauemic suppoit
at the Tiei 2 anu Tiei S levels of a iesponse to inteivention (RTI) mouel. Response
to inteivention is a pioactive appioach of iuentification anu seivice ueliveiy
uesigneu to taiget stuuents with behavioial oi acauemic uifficulties as soon as they
begin to stiuggle. The focus of RTI is to uelivei seivices that aie matcheu to the
neeus of the stuuent anu to fiequently monitoi stuuent piogiess in oiuei to
74

accuiately ueteimine the stuuent's iesponse to inteivention (}ustice, 2uu6; Rathvon,
2uu8).
F$V03!)&'%&'(.!
Theie aie five majoi finuings fiom this ieseaich stuuy. Fiist, all 4
paiticipants uemonstiateu significant gains in theii sight woiu fluency fiom
baseline to inteivention phases. Seconu, gains in fluency geneializeu to gains on
othei measuies of oial ieauing fluency foi all paiticipants. Thiiuly, S of the 4
paiticipants uemonstiateu gains in sight woiu fluency above baseline at follow-up
assessment appioximately 4 weeks latei. Fouith, tieatment integiity anu
coiielation uata showeu that paiticipants weie able to complete inteivention
pioceuuies with fiuelity anu ieliably collect theii own inteivention uata. Lastly,
suivey uata fiom teacheis anu paiticipants founu that both view this inteivention as
effective anu acceptable.
!
D&(<1!W03%!)*+#',-!I$&'.!!
!The effectiveness of this inteivention to inciease sight woiu fluency was
measuieu using analysis of means, peicentage of nonoveilapping uata (PNB) points,
anu effect sizes (ES). The PNB foi paiticipants 1 - 4 weie 1uu%, 1uu%, 8S.S%, anu
8u%, iespectively. Effect sizes foi paiticipants weie 1.86, 2.u4, 1.67, anu 2.S8,
iespectively. Nean inteivention effect size was 1.98. These uata inuicate that the
time-uelay tapeu-woius inteivention was highly effective at incieasing the sight
woiu accuiacy of stiuggling ieaueis. This stuuy fuithei extenus the ieseaich
7S


liteiatuie on time-uelay tapeu-woius inteivention to a new subgioup of stuuents,
those who aie just beginning to stiuggle. Fuitheimoie, it can effectively anu
efficiently be implementeu into a iesponse-to-inteivention mouel.
This inteivention incluueu seveial essential components of effective
acauemic inteiventions. In oiuei to be effective, inteiventions must be coiiectly
taigeteu towaius the skill to be leaineu, cieate oppoitunities foi the stuuent to
iesponu, as well as pioviue the stuuent with immeuiate feeuback. The inteivention
must use explicit instiuction to teach the skill. Stuuents shoulu be taught within
theii instiuctional level to ensuie the stuuent is challengeu anu has the oppoitunity
foi success (Buins et al., 2uu8; Rasinski, 2uuu; Shapiio, 2uu4).
The time-uelay tapeu-woius pioceuuie is effective at incieasing sight woiu
accuiacy because it incluues many components of effective acauemic inteiventions.
Fiist, the inteivention is specifically taigeteu towaius ieauing fluency, the skill to be
leaineu, in that it piomotes the immeuiate anu accuiate iecall of a wiitten woiu.
This is achieveu uue to the piogiession of time-uelays useu by the iPou to piesent
the woiu. The time-uelays allow the stuuent to piactice the woius with "help"
thiough immeuiate feeuback, then inuepenuently, anu to then uemonstiate ieauing
fluency of the wiitten woiu by ieauing it within 2 seconus of its piesentation.
Seconuly, this inteivention cieates multiple oppoitunities to iesponu.
Stuuents piactice the same list of woius thiee times pei inteivention session.
Thiiuly, it simultaneously anu explicitly teaches the coiiect way to ieau. This is
achieveu thiough the piesentation of the woiu at the initial time-uelay. This
piesentation piecluues stuuent eiiois in ieauing the woiu by pioviuing the coiiect
76


ieauing of a wiitten woiu almost immeuiately. Thus, the tenuency foi a stuuent to
piactice ieauing a woiu incoiiectly is pieventeu.
Lastly, this inteivention pioviues stuuents with immeuiate anu coiiective
feeuback. This is an essential component of acauemic inteiventions as it pioviues
stuuents with feeuback iegaiuing the accuiacy of theii peifoimance, allows them
anothei oppoitunity to heai the coiiect pionunciation of a woiu, anu coiiects theii
eiioi when they ieau a woiu incoiiectly.
In contiast to the components of effective acauemic inteiventions just
uiscusseu, the stuuents' inuiviuual instiuctional levels weie not uiiectly assesseu oi
auuiesseu in this inteivention. Bowevei, this component was likely auuiesseu
inuiiectly since the lists containeu woius of vaiying uifficulty. Theiefoie, on any
given list, a stuuent was likely to encountei a vaiiety of woius that iangeu fiom veiy
easy (e.g., the, in, a) to uifficult (e.g., woulu, laige, countiy). Easy, high-fiequency
woius that the stuuent was likely to know peimitteu the stuuent with oppoitunities
foi success while moie uifficult, high-fiequency woius challengeu the stuuent anu
alloweu them to expanu theii sight woiu vocabulaiy.
!
I#'#3$*&J$1&0'!10!L1<#3!F#$.+3#.!0:!L3$*!"#$%&'(!)*+#',-
ueneialization was assesseu using BIBELS
TN
measuies of oial ieauing
fluency (0RF). Reauing fluency measuies such as BIBELS
TN
aie effective at assessing
the effectiveness of inteiventions uesigneu to piomote ieauing (Schilling et al.,
2uu7). Each paiticipant was scieeneu using two 0RF piobes at baseline, at the enu
of the inteivention, anu at maintenance. The aveiage scoie foi each phase was
77


iepoiteu. Bata inuicateu that inteivention gains in ieauing fluency geneializeu to
gains in othei measuies of 0RF foi all paiticipants. Although possible confounuing
factois neeu to be consiueieu, such as the fact that the uistiict hau iecently auopteu
an RTI mouel of seivice ueliveiy, this finuing suggests that paiticipants weie able to
geneialize the skills leaineu to novel woius anu useu theii knowleuge of the leaineu
sight woius in oiuei to moie quickly anu accuiately ieau passages of connecteu
text. This finuing is unique in that paiticipants weie not tiaineu to ieau woius in
context anu connect them togethei to fluently ieau a passage. Insteau, all
inteivention measuies weie conuucteu using a list foimat that iequiieu paiticipants
to ieau isolateu woius.
In auuition, inteivention effects extenueu to novel woius. Thus, not only uiu
the inteivention inciease sight woiu accuiacy of tiaineu woius, but extenueu to
untiaineu woius containeu in the 0RF passages. Accoiuing to Stokes anu Baei
(1977), stuuies such as the piesent stuuy "have consiueiable impoitance, foi they
begin to uocument the extent anu limits of geneialization of paiticulai opeiant
inteivention techniques. While not being examples of the piogiamming of
geneialization, they aie a sounu fiist step in any seiious analysis of geneialization"
(p. SS1).
Fuithei, since the cuiient stuuy uiu not tiain paiticipants to geneialize theii
ieauing skills to othei woius oi measuies, incieases in geneialization to untiaineu
woius anu woius in paiagiaph foimat may be explaineu by possible incieases in the
paiticipant's self-efficacy ielating to ieauing ability anu acauemic competency. It is
likely that stuuents, such as the ones in the cuiient stuuy, who have expeiienceu
78


iepeateu uifficulty with acauemic concepts uevelop negative attituues anu
inteinalizations iegaiuing theii ability to leain anu peifoim. This inteivention
pioviueu stuuents with immeuiate anu coiiective feeuback without negative
implications foi incoiiect peifoimance. It also pioviueu them with multiple
oppoitunities to iesponu. Thus, they weie not penalizeu in any way foi not knowing
how to ieau a woiu anu weie pioviueu with the piactice they neeueu to
competently ieau sight woius. Theiefoie, as paiticipants piogiesseu thiough each
inteivention session anu weie able to ieau moie woius fluently, they likely became
moie confiuent in theii oveiall ability to ieau woius.
Fuitheimoie, gains in 0RF on BIBELS
TN
piobes continueu to inciease even
aftei the inteivention enueu foi S of the paiticipants. These gains in geneialization
aie significant because ieseaich states that the iapiu ieauing of high fiequency
woius is ciitical foi ieauing compiehension (Chaiu et al. 2uu9; Rasinski, 2uuu;
Shapiio, 2uu4; The 0niveisity of Texas Centei foi Reauing anu Language Aits,
2uu4). Theiefoie, since gains in fluency geneializeu to ieauing connecteu text, we
can posit that it also incieaseu paiticipants' ieauing compiehension abilities.

I$&'.!&'!D&(<1!W03%!)*+#',-!W#3#!G#60'.13$1#%!$1!)0**0C7X/!!
!Follow-up assessments weie conuucteu 4 to S weeks postinteivention foi
each paiticipant. Naintenance uata weie collecteu by auministeiing thiee
pieviously taught woiu lists to each paiticipant. Woius that weie ieau coiiectly
within 2-seconus weie scoieu as coiiect. Thiee paiticipants uemonstiateu aveiage
accuiacy iates above baseline. Effect sizes weie calculateu anu founu to be 1.4S,
79


1.SS, anu 1.67 foi Paiticipants 1, 2 anu 4, iespectively. Nean follow-up effect size
was 1.48 foi these S paiticipants, thus inuicating that the time-uelay tapeu-woius
inteivention is effective in maintaining majoi gains in sight woiu fluency at follow-
up.

?3#$16#'1!2'1#(3&1-
Bata weie collecteu to uemonstiate that the time-uelay tapeu-woius
inteivention coulu be inuepenuently anu successfully iun by stuuents. Bata
collecteu incluueu accuiacy of implementation checklists, which weie iepoiteu
using mean accuiacy iates. !Coiielation coefficients weie also calculateu to show
that stuuents coulu ieliably collect theii own uata. Bata showeu that paiticipants
accuiately selecteu the iight inteivention woiksheets at an aveiage iate 8S.u2
peicent. 0n aveiage, they selecteu the iight tiack on the iPou 94.SS% of the time. All
paiticipants completeu all thiee time-uelays 1uu% of the time. Coiielation
coefficients calculateu to uemonstiate inteiiatei ieliability between the
expeiimentei anu the paiticipant showeu that oveiall, paiticipants weie ieliable at
collecting theii own uata. Coiielations weie calculateu at u.928, u.87u, u.92u, anu
u.777 foi Paiticipants 1 - 4, iespectively. These values weie significant at the / < .u1
value but aie still quite laige coiielations, which suggests consistency in iatings
between the expeiimentei anu paiticipants.



8u


;::#,1&4#!$'%!9,,#/1$>*#!!
Bata weie collecteu fiom both the paiticipants anu the seconu-giaue
teacheis. Stuuent acceptability iatings weie collecteu using a 2-point Likeit-type
scale wheie a iating of 2 inuicateu "veiy tiue foi me." The oveiall mean acceptability
iating fiom the paiticipants was 1.87S. The paiticipants founu the inteivention
enjoyable anu effective anu peiceiveu that it woulu be the same foi othei stuuents
theii age. Paiticipants stateu they hau the most uifficulty caiiying out the
pioceuuies of the inteivention (e.g., finuing the iight woiksheet oi tiack on the
iPou). 0iganizational auaptations can easily be maue to assist stuuents in
completing all steps of this inteivention inuepenuently.
Similai to the iatings collecteu fiom paiticipants, teacheis iateu the
inteivention favoiably. Teachei iatings weie collecteu fiom the 4 seconu-giaue
teacheis using a S-point Likeit-type scale wheie a iating of 1 = "Bisagiee," S =
"Neithei Agiee noi Bisagiee," anu S = "Agiee." An oveiall mean acceptability iating
of 4.2S was calculateu. Teacheis inuicateu that the inteivention was effective at
incieasing sight woiu fluency (6 = 4) anu that they woulu like to continue using the
inteivention with theii stuuents (6 = 4.7S). Fuitheimoie, the school piincipal
iepoiteu to the expeiimentei that the seconu-giaue teacheis iequesteu iPous be
puichaseu foi theii classiooms.
Impoitant factois to consiuei when uesigning an inteivention incluue
teachei acceptability, ease of implementation, anu effectiveness. Thus, iuentifying
eviuence-baseu inteiventions that have ieceiveu teachei acceptability is of high
impoitance to school psychologists anu consultants. Fuitheimoie, this inteivention
81


was uesigneu specifically foi ease of implementation in that it iequiies a veiy
minimal amount of teachei guiuance, mateiials aie few, may be piepaieu aheau of
time, anu incluue many that aie ieauily available in classiooms alieauy. When
inteiventions aie easy to auministei, the likelihoou that they will be caiiieu out with
fiuelity incieases, which then incieases the likelihoou that it will be effective.
The use of technology in classiooms, incluuing iPous, is becoming moie anu
moie common. Access to poitable uevices in the classioom incieases ease of
implementation anu ieuuces piepaiation foi teacheis. Stuuents touay aie familiai
with populai technology, such as iPous, anu thus opeiate them with ease anu finu
them motivating to use. The uiiections foi the time-uelay tapeu-pioblems
inteivention aie simple anu may be summaiizeu as simply as "Tiy anu beat the
iPou. If you uo anu you ieau it coiiectly, ciicle the woiu. If you uon't, just cioss it off
anu go on to the next one. Complete all thiee lists." Paiticipant iatings fiom the
cuiient stuuy suggesteu that half of the paiticipants hau uifficulty selecting the
coiiect woiksheet. This is an auaptation that coulu easily be maue in the classioom.
The teachei woulu simply keep the uata anu hanu the appiopiiate woiksheet to the
stuuent each uay. As pieviously uiscusseu, ieseaich has shown that this
inteivention has been effective at incieasing sight woiu fluency of stuuents with
vaiying of uisabilities (Belfioie et al., 199S; Nist & }oseph, 2uu8; Shapiio, 2uu4;
Stevens & Schustei, 1999).



82


A&6&1$1&0'.!
0ne limitation of the cuiient stuuy is that a neeus assessment was not
conuucteu foi paiticipants in oiuei to iuentify theii level of ieauing acquisition.
Paiticipants weie scieeneu on measuies of oial ieauing fluency anu theiefoie, since
those scoies weie well-below giaue level, those paiticipants weie eligible foi the
stuuy. Scieening uiu not take into account that some stuuents may not have
masteieu the moie elementaiy ieauing skills of phonemic awaieness anu phonics.
Although it is not uefinite, it seems this limitation possibly affecteu 1 paiticipant in
the cuiient stuuy. In the examinei's opinion, obtaineu by obseivation thioughout
the stuuy, Paiticipant S hau ueficits in phonics that may have inhibiteu the potential
of the inteivention anu possibly impeueu his ability to maintain the gains he uiu
achieve uuiing the inteivention at follow-up. This paiticipant hau inteivention
effect sizes of 1.67 anu a PNB of 8S.S%; both statistics inuicate the inteivention was
effective. Bowevei, at maintenance, his follow-up effect size was -u.12. Alteinative
explanations foi these iesults aie available, howevei.
As uiscusseu in the Results section, Paiticipant S was the only paiticipant
that uiu not achieve masteiy on List 4, one of the inteivention lists useu as a follow-
up assessment. Thus, incluuing this scoie may leau to an inaccuiate iepiesentation
of the maintaineu tieatment effects. With this scoie excluueu fiom the maintenance
uata analysis, Paiticipant S's maintenance effect size woulu be u.SS, which is
consiueieu a meuium effect. Auuitional factois complicate Paiticipant S's
peifoimance ovei the couise of the stuuy anu at follow-up. Foi example, Paiticipant
S was iefeiieu foi an evaluation foi special euucation seivices following this
8S


inteivention. Be was evaluateu anu founu eligible to ieceive seivices as a stuuent
with a specific leaining uisability. In auuition, it was uiscoveieu that this stuuent
hau pieviously been iefeiieu, evaluateu, anu founu eligible as a stuuent with a
leaining uisability at a pieviously attenueu school while in kinueigaiten. Bowevei,
foi unknown ieasons, this stuuent's file was not tiansfeiieu anu seivices weie not
implementeu at his cuiient school. This paiticipant also completeu the least amount
of inteivention sessions uue to absences.
Anothei limitation of this stuuy is the thieat to inteinal valiuity. Thieats to
inteinal valiuity aiise when alteinative inteipietations of the vaiiables that aie
iesponsible foi change, othei than the tieatment, exist (Kazuin, 1981). Bue to the
simultaneous suppoits anu inteiventions ieceiveu by the stuuents, thieats to
inteinal valiuity exist. The school in which this stuuy was conuucteu is a school that
began to auopt a iesponse to inteivention mouel appioximately 1 yeai piioi to the
stait of the inteivention. Theiefoie, they have woikeu uiligently to assuie that a
motivating anu challenging cuiiiculum is in place foi all stuuents. They also
peiiouically piogiess monitoi stuuents to make suie they aie meeting giaue-level
benchmaiks. All stuuents ieceive uiffeientiateu ieauing anu math instiuction in
small gioups uaily wheie instiuction is ueliveieu at theii level. Stuuents who neeu
auuitional suppoit aie iuentifieu anu woik moie intensively with Tiei 2 aiues to
mastei skills. All stuuy paiticipants ieceiveu Tiei 2 inteivention suppoits in the aiea
of ieauing uuiing the stuuy. Thus, we may not be able to attiibute all of the
inteivention anu maintenance gains to the cuiient stuuy. Bowevei, these
inteivention suppoits hau been in place well befoie the stuuy began, which suggests
84


that the cuiient level of inteivention pioviueu was not sufficient foi these stuuents.
In auuition, all paiticipants hau a uiffeient classioom teachei which iules out
possible teachei anu classioom enviionment effects as thieats to inteinal valiuity.
Anothei possible limitation in the uesign of this inteivention is the possible
neeu foi an auult to be piesent to ensuie ieliability of the uata. Inteiiatei ieliability
uata foi the cuiient stuuy weie iathei high, but that accuiacy may not tiansfei if the
stuuent was solely iesponsible foi his oi hei own uata. It is possible that stuuents'
woulu be tempteu to cheat anu maik moie answeis iight. It is also possible that
stuuents woulu become caieless in theii uata keeping. This expeiimentei obseiveu
seveial instances wheie ciicling each woiu became almost automatic foi some
paiticipants, especially as they became moie fluent in the woiulist. It was as if they
ciicleu the woiu to uenote that they hau finisheu the item, without iegaiu as to
whethei they ieau it coiiectly oi not. 0ften times, but not always, they woulu go
back anu maik it incoiiect once they heaiu it ieau on the iPou. Possible
mouifications foi this limitation coulu incluue iecipiocal peei-tutoiing oi an
auuitional timeu assessment of the woiulist, auministeieu by the teachei, once a
week oi as lists aie masteieu.
To pioviue moie expeiimental contiol, this inteivention was conuucteu in a
sepaiate office apait fiom the stuuents' classiooms. Theiefoie, the iesults of this
stuuy may not geneialize to the classioom. Bau the expeiimentei ian this stuuy in
the classioom, it is possible that inteivention effects woulu not have been so stiong
uue to uistiactions oi othei factois. It is also possible that iesults may have been
gieatei uue to social piessuie foi peeis to peifoim. In auuition, this stuuy was
8S


mainly conuucteu by the piimaiy expeiimentei, howevei, a ieseaich assistant
eaining ieseaich cieuit uiu auministei some inteivention assessments. To ensuie
the accuiacy of implementation, the ieseaich assistant was always supeiviseu by
the piimaiy expeiimentei. Fuitheimoie, since the paiticipants weie taught to self-
auministei the inteivention, a change in expeiimentei was seen as ielatively
insignificant.

26/*&,$1&0'.!:03!)+1+3#!"#.#$3,<!
The futuie investigation of the time-uelay tapeu woius inteivention shoulu
capitalize on the efficiency of the inteivention in othei acauemic aieas, giaue levels,
anu tieis of instiuction. Foi example, this inteivention coulu be employeu with
kinueigaiteneis to teach lettei sounus. It coulu be useu at the elementaiy level as an
inteivention to inciease spelling accuiacy. It coulu be utilizeu at the seconuaiy level
to teach uefinitions in biology oi anatomy.
The potential uses in a iesponse to inteivention mouel shoulu be fuithei
exploieu. Bow coulu this inteivention be utilizeu school- oi classioom-wiue at the
Tiei 1 level. The cuiient stuuy ian the inteivention with stuuents inuiviuually.
Bowevei, this moue of ueliveiy is not sustainable oi efficient in a typical school
setting. Coulu it be uesigneu to effectively supplement instiuction as a Tiei 2 small
gioup inteivention. Fuitheimoie, iesponse to inteivention mouels shoulu not only
function to pioviue inteivention to stiuggling stuuents, but also to stuuents who
neeu eniichment. Bow coulu this inteivention be useu to eniich the acauemic
expeiience of auvanceu leaineis.
86


Possibly the most impoitant implication foi futuie ieseaich is how to
efficiently uisseminate this inteivention into the hanus of euucatois. The
uevelopment of this inteivention, iecoiuing the tapeu-pioblems anu typing the
coiiesponuing woiksheets, takes commitment anu time. Nost teacheis alieauy
woik above anu beyonu theii contiacteu time, eithei at school oi at home, uonating
theii time anu iesouices. Nost woulu not have the auueu eneigy neeueu to set up an
inteivention such as this to use in theii classioom. Futuie enueavois to uevelop
softwaie oi applications on the inteinet in which euucatois coulu easily anu
ielatively inexpensively uownloau oi puichase tiacks with coiiesponuing
woiksheets aie neeueu. This woulu allow foi this effective inteivention to be useu
by many moie teacheis in oiuei to suppoit stiuggling ieaueis whose futuie
uespeiately uepenus on the acquisition of ieauing.












APPENBIX A

LETTER T0 PARENTS










88




Beai Paient,

Youi chilu's paiticipation in a ieseaich stuuy is iequesteu. The ieseaich
stuuy is being conuucteu at youi chilu's school by Naiy Beth Pummel, the school
psychologist intein, who is a giauuate stuuent fiom the Bepaitment of Euucational
Psychology at the 0niveisity of 0tah. The ieseaich stuuy is uesigneu to impiove
youi chilu's ability to ieau sight woius accuiately anu quickly. Youi chilu will
piactice ieauing lists of commonly useu woius while simultaneously listening to an
iPou which will allow youi chilu to know whethei oi not heshe has ieau the woiu
coiiectly.
Youi consent to allow youi chilu to paiticipate in this stuuy is completely
voluntaiy. Choosing not to allow youi chilu to paiticipate oi withuiawing consent
will not affect hishei ielationship with school peisonnel oi the ieseaichei. 0nly
.-2)$*+21#&+* will be chosen to take pait in this stuuy. Theiefoie, gianting
peimission uoes not guaiantee youi chilu's paiticipation in the stuuy.
Please iefei to the incluueu Paiental Peimission Bocument foi moie
infoimation about the stuuy. Please contact the ieseaichei with any questions oi
conceins about the stuuy. Shoulu you choose to allow youi chilu to paiticipate in
this stuuy, please complete the foim anu ietuin it to youi chilu's teachei in a sealeu
envelope auuiesseu with 6++&S$8/),$B#+"$>2CC#5. Please ietuin the peimission
foim by ;)'1/,T$L#4#CU#)$V
)1
. Shoulu you choose not to allow youi chilu to
paiticipate in the ieseaich stuuy, please check the box in the Refusal to Consent
section anu ietuin it to youi chilu's teachei in a sealeu envelope auuiesseu with
6++&S$8/),$B#+"$>2CC#5 by$;)'1/,T$L#4#CU#)$V
)1
.



Sinceiely,




Naiy Beth Pummel

uiauuate Stuuent
Bepaitment of Euucational Psychology
0niveisity of 0tah
maiybeth.pummelutah.euu












APPENBIX B

PARENTAL PERNISSI0N B0C0NENT


9u

>/)#&+/5$>#)C'**'-&$L-42C#&+$

B6OW0?:%9L$
Youi chilu is being askeu to take pait in a ieseaich stuuy. Befoie you agiee to
paiticipation, it is impoitant foi you to unueistanu the iationale anu uetails of the
stuuy. Please ieau the following infoimation caiefully. The puipose of the stuuy is to
assess the effectiveness of incieasing sight woiu fluency by using an iPou to uelivei
coiiective feeuback.

3!%LX$>?:O7L%?7$
The stuuy will be appioximately 8 to 1u weeks in length anu will be conuucteu at
youi chilu's school. The inteivention will take place thiee uays pei week anu take
appioximately 1u minutes pei uay to complete. Buiing the inteivention, youi chilu
will be piesenteu with a list of woius that aie fiequently useu in the English wiitten
language. Youi chilu will be piesenteu with the same list thiee times. With each
piesentation of the list, the chilu will be pioviueu with the coiiect pionunciation of
the woiu as piesenteu by an iPou at each of thiee uiffeient time-uelays. Youi chilu
will be instiucteu to "beat the iPou" by ieauing each woiu alouu befoie it is
piesenteu by the iPou. 0nce youi chilu ieaches 8u% accuiacy on the list, heshe will
be given a new list of woius the next uay.
At the enu of the stuuy, youi chilu will be askeu to complete a questionnaiie that
will allow us to unueistanu how chiluien peiceiveu this inteivention. Beshe will be
given statements such as "The iPou helpeu me ieau bettei" anu askeu to select
eithei "not tiue foi me" oi "veiy tiue foi me". Youi chilu's teachei will also be askeu
to complete a questionnaiie that will allow us to unueistanu how teacheis
peiceiveu this inteivention. They will be given statements such as "This
inteivention was effective at impioving sight woiu fluency" anu "I woulu like to
continue using this inteivention with my stuuents" anu askeu to select a iesponse to
inuicate whethei they agiee oi uisagiee with the statement. The statements aie
uiiecteu at the teachei's oveiall peispective anu aie not uiiecteu towaiu inuiviuual
stuuent's peifoimance.

?=3W3$
The potential iisks foi paiticipating in this stuuy aie minimal. 0ne foieseeable iisk
associateu with this stuuy is the misseu classioom instiuctionactivity time.
Paiticipation in this stuuy will iequiie youi chilu to miss appioximately 1u minutes
of iegulai classioom time each uay.
Although it is not anticipateu, theie is a iisk of loss of confiuentiality that coulu
iesult fiom inauveitent uisclosuie of stuuy ielateu uata.
$
B797;=!3$
We cannot guaiantee any uiiect benefit to youi chilu foi taking pait in this stuuy.
Bowevei, theie aie potential benefits foi paiticipation. 0ne benefit may incluue an
inciease in youi chilu's ability to coiiectly iuentify sight woius. Youi chilu may also
expeiience an inciease in hishei ability to ieau quickly anu accuiately. In tuin, this
may also iesult in an inciease in ieauing compiehension anu oveiall achievement in
91

ieauing.
!
O:9;=L79!=6A=!X$
Youi chilu's infoimation anu uata will be kept confiuential. Bata anu iecoius will be
stoieu in a lockeu filing cabinet in the ieseaichei's woik space. All infoimation anu
uata obtaineu will be useu solely foi ieseaich puiposes. 0nly the ieseaichei anu
membeis of hei ieseaich team will have access to this infoimation. In publications,
youi chilu's name will be ieplaceu with a geneiic label such as Paiticipant 1.

>7?3:9$!:$O:9!6O!$
Please contact the ieseaichei, Naiy Beth Pummel, with all questions, conceins, oi
complaints iegaiuing this stuuy. The ieseaichei can be contacteu via email at
maiybeth.pummelutah.euu. If you feel youi chilu has been haimeu as a iesult of
paiticipation in this ieseaich stuuy, please contact Naiy Beth Pummel who can be
ieacheu Nonuay thiough Fiiuay 8 AN to S PN at the phone numbei oi email listeu
above.

=&*+'+2+'-&/5$?#('#Y$B-/)1S$Contact the Institutional Review Boaiu (IRB) if you
have questions iegaiuing youi chilu's iights as a ieseaich paiticipant. Also, contact
the IRB if you have questions, complaints oi conceins which you uo not feel you can
uiscuss with the investigatoi. The 0niveisity of 0tah IRB may be ieacheu by phone
at (8u1) S81-S6SS oi by e-mail at iibhsc.utah.euu.

?#*#/)4"$>/)+'4'M/&+$61(-4/+#S You may also contact the Reseaich Paiticipant
Auvocate (RPA) by phone at (8u1) S81-S8uS oi by email at
paiticipant.auvocatehsc.utah.euu.

@:A%9!6?X$>6?!=O=>6!=:9$
Youi consent to allow youi chilu to paiticipate in this stuuy is voluntaiy. Refusal to
paiticipate oi the uecision to withuiaw youi chilu fiom the stuuy at any time will
not iesult in any penalty oi loss of benefits to which youi chilu is otheiwise entitleu.
In auuition, this will not affect youi chilu's ielationship with the ieseaichei oi
school peisonnel.

O:3!3$69L$O:8>7936!=:9$!:$>6?!=O=>69!3$
Theie is no cost to paiticipate in this stuuy. Paiticipants will not be compensateu foi
paiticipation.

92

>5#/*#$4-CM5#+#$+"'*$.-)C$/&1$)#+2)&$+-$,-2)$4"'51Z*$+#/4"#)$'&$/$*#/5#1$
#&(#5-M#$/11)#**#1$Y'+"$6++&S$8/),$B#+"$>2CC#5E$
$
O:9379!$
By signing this consent foim, I confiim I have ieau the infoimation in this paiental
peimission foim anu have hau the oppoitunity to ask questions. I will be given a
signeu copy of this paiental peimission foim. I voluntaiily agiee to allow my chilu to
take pait in this stuuy.



Chilu's Name
$

Paientuuaiuian's Name


Paientuuaiuian's Signatuie Bate


Relationship to Chilu


Name of Reseaichei oi Staff


Signatuie of Reseaichei oi Staff Bate




?7;%36A$!:$O:9379!$
____ I have ieau the infoimation in the paiental peimission foim anu have ueciueu
to N0T allow my chilu to paiticipate in the ieseaich stuuy.



$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
APPENBIX C

ASSENT T0 PARTICIPATE
94

Assent to Paiticipate in a Stuuy



>2)M-*#$-.$+"#$?#*#/)4"$
We aie asking you to take pait in a ieseaich stuuy. We want to leain how to help
stuuents, like you, ieau moie quickly.


3+21,$>)-4#12)#*$
The ieseaichei will meet with you thiee uays a week. Each time will be about 1u
minutes. The entiie stuuy will be about 8-1u weeks long. You will be given a
woiksheet anu shown how to use an iPou. The woiksheet will have a list of woius.
You will tiy to ieau the woius fastei than the iPou can ieau them.
At the enu of the stuuy, you will be askeu to complete a suivey. It will ask you
questions about how you likeu the stuuy. It will also ask if you feel it helpeu you be a
bettei ieauei.

?'*P*$
If you choose to take pait in this stuuy, you will miss some class time. It will be
about 1u minutes each uay. 0thei chiluien may notice you leaving anu ask you why.
You may be embaiiasseu to tell them.

B#&#.'+*$$
You will help us leain how to help kius ieau moie quickly. Reauing may become
easiei foi you. You may be able to ieau moie quickly.

65+#)&/+'(#$>)-4#12)#*$/&1$@-52&+/),$>/)+'4'M/+'-&$
If you uon't want to be in this stuuy, you uon't have to. Being in this stuuy is up to
you. No one will be upset if you uon't want to paiticipate. You can change youi minu
latei if you want to stop. Please talk about this with youi paients. We will also ask
youi paients to give theii peimission too. But even if youi paients say "yes" you can
still say "no".


O-&.'1#&+'/5'+,$
All of youi iecoius foi the stuuy will be kept lockeu up. No one but the expeiimentei
can see them. Insteau of using youi name on the woiksheets you will be given a
numbei. 0nly you anu the expeiimentei will know which numbei is youis.


>#)*-&$+-$O-&+/4+$
You can ask any questions about the stuuy. If you have a question latei that you
uiun't think of now, you can call me oi ask me next time. Ny name is Naiy Beth
Pummel. Ny phone numbei is 8u1-719-718u.
9S



O-&*#&+$
Signing my name means that I agiee to be in this stuuy. Ny paients anu I will be
given a copy of this foim aftei I have signeu it.





Piinteu Name of Chilu


Signatuie of Chilu Bate



Piinteu Name of Peison 0btaining Assent


Signatuie of Peison 0btaining Assent Bate



$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
APPENBIX B
$
$
C0NSENT C0vER LETTER
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
97

!"#$7..#4+*$-.$+"#$!/M#1N>)-U5#C*$!'C#NL#5/,$=&+#)(#&+'-&$+-$
!#/4"$3'Q"+$D-)1*$%*'&Q$/&$'>-1$

The puipose of this ieseaich stuuy is to empiiically evaluate the effectiveness of
using an iPou to uelivei time-uelay tapeu-woius inteivention to inciease the sight
woiu accuiacy of seconu-giaue stuuents in the geneial euucation setting who aie at
iisk foi ieauing ueficits. We aie uoing this stuuy to investigate the effectiveness anu
acceptability of using high inteiest technology to uelivei acauemic inteiventions.

I woulu like to ask foi youi paiticipation in this ieseaich stuuy. Paiticipation in this
stuuy will incluue youi peimission to allow youi stuuents out of class to complete
the inteivention sessions anu to complete a questionnaiie. The estimateu time out
of class pei stuuent is 1u minutes pei uay, thiee uays pei week foi appioximately 8-
1u weeks. The completion of the questionnaiie will be iequesteu aftei the
inteivention sessions have been completeu. The uata collecteu fiom the
questionnaiie will be vieweu by the piimaiy investigatoi, ieseaich assistant, anu
faculty sponsoi. The questionnaiie will not ask that you uisclose any iuentifying
infoimation such as youi name. The uata collecteu will be iepoiteu anonymously in
publications as collecteu fiom the teachei. !

The iisks foi paiticipation in this stuuy aie minimal. The only foieseeable iisks aie
the loss of class oi instiuctional foi stuuents anu the time neeueu to complete the
questionnaiie. The questionnaiie will not ask foi iuentifying infoimation such as
youi name, anu theiefoie the iisk of loss of confiuentiality is not a concein.

We cannot guaiantee any benefit foi paiticipation in this stuuy. Bowevei, potential
benefits may incluue an inciease in the stuuent's ability to coiiectly iuentify sight
woius anu the exposuie to an acauemic inteivention that can be auministeieu
inuepenuently anu effectively by stuuents.

If you have any questions, conceins, oi complaints oi if you feel you have been
haimeu by this ieseaich please contact Naiy Beth Pummel, Bepaitment of
Euucational Psychology, 0niveisity of 0tah at (8u1) 719-718u oi by email at
maiybeth.pummelutah.euu.

Contact the Institutional Review Boaiu (IRB) if you have questions iegaiuing youi
iights as a ieseaich paiticipant. Also, contact the IRB if you have questions,
complaints, oi conceins which you uo not feel you can uiscuss with the investigatoi.
The 0niveisity of 0tah IRB may be ieacheu by phone at (8u1) S81-S6SS oi by e-mail
at iibhsc.utah.euu.

It shoulu take appioximately S to 1u minutes to complete the questionnaiie.
Paiticipation in this stuuy is voluntaiy. You can choose not to take pait anu you can
also choose not to finish the questionnaiie oi omit any question you piefei not to
answei without penalty oi loss of benefits.

98

By ietuining this questionnaiie, you aie giving youi consent to paiticipate. Thank
you foi youi paiticipation.

Tieatment Acceptability - Teachei Rating Foim
Bisagiee
Somewhat
Bisagiee
Neithei
Agiee noi
Bisagiee
Somewhat
Agiee
Agiee
This inteivention
is easy to
implement
1 2 S 4 S
This inteivention
was effective at
impioving sight
woiu fluency
1 2 S 4 S
I woulu use this
inteivention with
othei stuuents
1 2 S 4 S
This inteivention
coulu be easily
auapteu to othei
subject matteis
1 2 S 4 S
This inteivention
coulu easily be
implementeu in
my classioom
1 2 S 4 S
Stuuents weie
successful at
inuepenuently
iunning the
inteivention
1 2 S 4 S
I woulu like to
continue this
inteivention with
my stuuents
1 2 S 4 S
I woulu
iecommenu this
inteivention to
othei teacheis
1 2 S 4 S
0veiall, I was
satisfieu with the
inteivention
1 2 S 4 S














APPENBIX E

W0RB LIST EXANPLES


1uu


A'*+$G$[$;-)C$6$$
1. once
2. uiu
S. sounu
4. a
S. stoiy
6. point
7. about
8. away
9. kinu
1u. because
11. so
12. stait
1S. big
14. tuin
1S. example


A'*+$G$[$;-)C$B$
1. big
2. uiu
S. kinu
4. example
S. tuin
6. a
7. so
8. stoiy
9. because
1u. once
11. away
12. sounu
1S. about
14. point
1S. stait


A'*+$G$[$;-)C$O$
1. point
2. away
S. because
4. big
S. a
6. about
7. so
8. example
9. uiu
1u. kinu
11. sounu
12. tuin
1S. stait
14. stoiy
1S. once
$
$
$
$


$
$
$
$
$
$
$
APPENBIX F

ST0BENT TREATNENT ACCEPTABILITY
1u2




$
Tieatment Acceptability - Stuuent Rating Foim
Not Tiue
foi Ne
veiy Tiue
foi Ne
The iPou helpeu
me ieau bettei
1 2
I enjoyeu ieauing
with the iPou
1 2
It was easy to finu
the iight tiack on
the iPou
1 2
It was easy to finu
the iight
woiksheets
1 2
0thei stuuents
woulu like using
the iPou to help
them ieau bettei
1 2
I woulu like to
continue using the
iPou foi ieauing
1 2




REFERENCES

Auapting to the iPau, calleu euucation's 'equalizei'. (2u11, Septembei 11). XD9!
?0%$-H!Retiieveu on Septembei 17, 2u11, fiom http:www.usatouay.com.

Begeny, }. C., Kiouse, B. E., Ross, S. u., & Nitchell, R. C. (2uu9). Incieasing elementaiy-
ageu stuuents' ieauing fluency with small-gioup inteiventions: A compaiison
of iepeateu ieauings, listening passage pieview, anu listening only stiategies.
Y0+3'$*!0:!8#<$4&03$*!;%+,$1&0'S!OZ(S), 211-228.

Belfioie, P. }., Skinnei, C. B., & Feikis, N. A. (199S). Effects of iesponse anu tiial
iepetition on sight-woiu tiaining foi stuuents with leaining uisabilities.
Y0+3'$*!0:!9//*&#%!8#<$4&03!9'$*-.&.S!PZ(S), S47-S48.

Bliss, S. L., Skinnei, C. B., & Auams, R. (2uu6). Enhancing anu English language
leaining fifth-giaue stuuent's sight-woiu ieauing with a time-uelay tapeu-
woius inteivention. D,<00*!B.-,<0*0(-!"#4&#CS!Q[(4), 66S-67u.

Bloou, E., }ohnson, }. W., Riuenoui, L., Simmons, K., & Ciouch, S. (2u11). 0sing an
iPou Touch to teach social anu self-management skills to an elementaiy
stuuent with emotionalbehavioial uisoiueis. ;%+,$1&0'!$'%!?3#$16#'1!0:!
5<&*%3#'S!QR(S), 299-S21.

Buins, N. K., & vanBeiBeyuen, A. N. (2uu6). 0sing iesponse to inteivention to
assess leaining uisabilities: Intiouuction to the special seiies. 9..#..6#'1!:03!
;::#,1&4#!2'1#34#'1&0'S!QP(1), S-S.

Buins, N. K., vanBeiBeyuen, A. N., & Boice, C. B. (2uu8). Best piactices in ueliveiy of
intensive acauemic inteiventions. In A. Thomas & }. uiimes (Eus.), 8#.1!
/3$,1&,#.!&'!.,<00*!/.-,<0*0(-!(S
th
eu., pp. 11S1-1162). Bethesua, NB:
National Association of School Psychologists.

Busk, P. L., & Seilin, R. C. (1992). Neta-analysis foi single-case ieseaich. In T. R.
Kiatochwill & }. R. Levin (Eus.), D&'(*#!,$.#!3#.#$3,<!%#.&('!$'%!$'$*-.&.@!\#C!
%&3#,1&0'.!:03!/.-,<0*0(-!$'%!#%+,$1&0' (pp. 187-212). Billsuale, N}: Eilbaum.

Casey, S. B. (2uu8). A compaiison of within- anu acioss-session piogiessive time
uelay pioceuuies foi teaching sight woius to inuiviuuals with cognitive
uelays. 8#<$4&03!9'$*-.1!?0%$-S!](S4), 162-171.
1u4

Chaiu, B. }., Ketteilin-uellei, L. R., Bakei, S. K., Boablei, C., & Apichatabutia, C.
(2uu9). Repeateu ieauing inteiventions foi stuuents with leaining
uisabilities: Status of the eviuence. ;K,#/1&0'$*!5<&*%3#'S!^[(S), 26S-281.

Cihak, B., Fahienkiog, C., Ayies, K. N., & Smith, C. (2u1u). The use of viueo moueling
via a viueo iPou anu a system of least piompts to impiove tiansitional
behaviois foi stuuents with autism spectium uisoiueis in the geneial
euucation classioom. Y0+3'$*!0:!B0.&1&4#!8#<$4&03!2'1#34#'1&0'.S!OP(2), 1uS-
11S.

Claike, S., Bunlap, u., Fostei-}ohnson, L., Chilus, K. E., Wilson, B., & White, R., et al.
(199S). Impioving the conuuct of stuuents with behavioial uisoiueis by
incoipoiating stuuent inteiests into cuiiiculai activities. 8#<$4&03$*!
G&.03%#3.S!P_, 221-2S7.

Cohen, }. (1992). A powei piimei. B.-,<0*0(&,$*!8+**#1&'S!OOP(1), 1SS-1S9.

Conley, C. N., Beiby, K. N., Robeits-uwinn, N., Webei, K. P., & NcLaughlin, T. F.
(2uu4). An analysis of initial acquisition anu maintenance of sight woius
following pictuie matching, anu covei, copy, anu compaie teaching methous.
Y0+3'$*!0:!9//*&#%!8#<$4&03!9'$*-.&.S!Q^(S), SS9-SSu.

Bawson, L., venn, N. L., & uuntei, P. L. (2uuu). The effects of teachei veisus
computei ieauing mouels. 8#<$4&03$*!G&.03%#3.S!P[S!1uS-11S.

Beno, S. L. (198S). Cuiiiculum-baseu measuiement: The emeiging alteinative.
;K,#/1&0'$*!5<&*%3#'S![P(S), 219-2S2.

Beno, S. L. (1986). Foimative evaluation of inuiviuual stuuent piogiams: A new iole
foi school psychologists. D,<00*!B.-,<0*0(-!"#4&#CS!O[(S), SS8-S74.

Fieeman, T. }., & NcLaughlin, T. F. (1984). Effects of a tapeu-woius tieatment
pioceuuie on leaining uisableu stuuents' sight-woiu oial ieauing. A#$3'&'(!
G&.$>&*&1-!E+$31#3*-S!^(1), 49-S4.

Fiy, E. (198u). The new instant woiu list. ?<#!"#$%&'(!?#$,<#3S!QR(S), 284-289.

Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, B. (199S). Foimative evaluation of acauemic piogiess: Bow
much giowth can we expect. D,<00*!B.-,<0*0(-!"#4&#CS!PP(1), 27-48.

uoou, R. B., & Kaminski, R. A. (Eus.). (2uu2). G-'$6&,!2'%&,$103.!0:!8$.&,!;$3*-!
A&1#3$,-!DM&**. (6
th
eu.). Eugene, 0R: Institute foi the Bevelopment of
Euucational Achievement.

uoou, R. B., Kaminski, R. A., & Bill, S. (2uu2). BIBELS oial ieauing fluency. In R. B.
uoou & R. A. Kaminski (Eus.), G-'$6&,!2'%&,$103.!0:!8$.&,!;$3*-!A&1#3$,-!DM&**.!
1uS

(6
th
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