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XINMIN SECONDARY SCHOOL

SEKOLAH MENENGAH XINMIN

END OF YEAR EXAMINATION 2010 Subject Level Date Duration Setter Vetter : : : : : : Social Studies 2192/01 Secondary 3 Express 6 Oct 2010 1 hour 30 minutes Mdm Karen Ang & Mr Tan Boon Hai Mr Nicholas Wong

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES 1. Write your name and index number in the spaces provided on the cover page and on every piece of the writing paper. 2. Section A: You must answer all parts of Question 1. 3. Section B: Answer one question. 4. Write your answers on the writing papers provided. 5. The number of marks for each part-question is shown in brackets. 6. You are advised not to spend more than 45 minutes on each section. 7. At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together. 8. Detach this cover page from the question paper and secure it in front of your work.

NAME [REG. NO.] CLASS PARENTS SIGNATURE For Examiners Use Section A 1 2 (a) (a) (b) (c) (b) (d)

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Section B 3 4 (a) (a) TOTAL This paper consists of 5 pages, including this cover page. (b) (b)

Section A (Source-based Case Study) Question 1 is compulsory for all candidates. Study the Background Information and the sources carefully, and then answer all the questions. You may use any of the sources to help you answer the questions, in addition to those sources which you are told to use. In answering the questions you should use your knowledge of the topic to help you interpret and evaluate the sources.

(a)

Study Source A. What is the message of the cartoonist? Explain your answer, referring to details of the cartoon. [5]

(b)

Study Sources B and C. How similar are these two sources? Explain your answer. [7]

(c)

Study Source D. How helpful is this source in helping you to understand the effectiveness of ASEAN? Explain your answer. [6]

(d)

Study Source E. How far does this source prove that ASEAN is not able to fulfil its aims? Explain your answer. [7]

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How effective is the ASEAN in fulfilling its aims?

BACKGROUND INFORMATION Read this carefully. It may help you to answer some of the questions. ASEAN was first formed in 1967 with five member countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. As of 2010, ASEAN has ten member countries including Brunei, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar and Cambodia. Its aims are to promote economic, social and cultural development of the region, to protect the peace and stability of the region and to provide opportunities for members to discuss and resolve conflicts peacefully. Some of its initiatives include the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) launched in 1992, which aims to bring about regional economic integration by removing all import taxes among member countries by 2015. The ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) was also set up in 1994 to maintain peace by promoting political and security dialogue among countries in the region. Study the following sources to find out how effective ASEAN is in fulfilling its aims.

Source A: A cartoon titled ASEAN Ministers Work Hand in Hand, appearing in an independent news magazine in February 2009.

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Source B: An adapted extract from an article written by a Singaporean who was a former Secretary-General of ASEAN. It appeared on 8 Sep 2009 in a magazine published by the Singapore civil service. Very often, ASEAN is seen as a slow moving boat navigating in an irksome manner through the complex systems of government of Southeast Asia. ASEAN colleagues enjoy small talk and jokes as they relax after a long meeting. It is a mistake to think that they are not concerned with the urgency of the issues at hand. In fact, the unhurried way of ASEAN colleagues at meetings is often a tactic in itself a way to buy time as the proposal on the table might be too drastic for them.

Source C: A view expressed by a member of an opposition party in Singapore, on a blog in 2007. ASEAN has successfully brought together in peaceful dialogue the leaders of 10 countries with vastly different ethnicities, languages, political systems, histories and levels of economic development. Without this platform for dialogue, it would have been very possible that the newly independent nations of Southeast Asia in the 1970s might have erupted in regional conflict just
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like Europe in the last two World Wars and Africa from the 1960s until now. So yes, ASEAN may really be a talkshop, but that is probably the primary reason for its success. However, the past successes of ASEAN are no guarantee of its relevance and utility in the future. .

Source D: Part of a lecture given by the director of a Singapore research institute on 26 Feb 2010. Indeed, with the six-party talks stalled, the ARF is the only forum outside the UN where North Korea and the U.S. sit together, with ample opportunity for bilateral discussions. It is the only framework, again outside the UN, where Russia and the United States, China, India and Japan, and North and South Korea, with ASEAN at its core, gather together to build mutual confidence and undertake dialogue and consultations on the most vital regionalsecurity issues of our time. They also cooperate in many practical endeavours that call for regional cooperation.

Source E: A view given by an American researcher on ASEANs role in conflict prevention in Southeast Asia, published by New York University in April 2010. While it has value as a venue for dialogue and for relationship- and confidence-building, the ARF has not played a large dispute resolution role it was not even used as the forum to discuss North Korean nuclearization, notwithstanding the membership of all relevant states.

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Section B (Structured-essay Questions) Answer one question. 2. Managing Healthcare: Case Studies of Singapore and Britain

How far is government assistance the most effective way to manage the rising cost of ( healthcare in Singapore? Explain your answer. a [12] ) ( Which measure is better in helping Britain in tackling challenges in the National Health b Service (NHS) increasing efficiency or managing government spending? Explain your ) answer. [13]

3.

Conflict in Sri Lanka and Northern Ireland

How far is the language policy the most significant cause of conflict between the ( Sinhalese and Tamils in Sri Lanka? Explain your answer. a [12] ) ( Which factor plays a more crucial role in the cause of the Catholic-Protestant conflict in b Northern Ireland divided loyalties or government policies? Explain your answer. [13] )

4.

Bonding Singapore

How far is having one common identity the most effective strategy in managing ( Singapores ethnic diversity? Explain your answer. a [12] ) ( Which is the more difficult challenge facing Singapore as a multi-ethnic society b managing perceptions of different racial groups or threats from external forces? Explain ) your answer. [13]

End of Paper

Copyright acknowledgements Source A: Lay, Harn. 2009. Asean Ministers Working Hand in Hand. The Irrawaddy. Retrieved 16 Sep 2010. (http://www.irrawaddy.org/cartoon.php?art_id=15168). Source B: Ong, Keng Yong. 2010. Looking At The Big Picture. Challenge Magazine, Sep-Oct 2010. Singapore Public Service Division. Retrieved 17 Sep 2010. (http://beta.challenge.gov.sg/2010/09/looking-at-the-big-picture-by-ong-kengyong/).

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Source C: Giam, Gerald. 2009. Huh? ASEAN? Does It Really Matter To Us? The (http://theonlinecitizen.wordpress.com/2007/01/29/huh-asean-does-it-really-matter-to-us/#more-205). Source D: K Kesavapany. 2010. Lecture: ASEAN Regionality in Regional Integration. Bangkok. (http://www.iseas.edu.sg/aseanstudiescentre/asco07-10.pdf). Source E: Wainwright, Elsina. April 2010. Conflict Prevention in Southeast Asia and the South Pacific. New York University: Centre on International Cooperation. Retrieved 3 Sep 2010. (http://www.cic.nyu.edu/global/docs/wainwright_conflict_asia.pdf) Online Citizen.

Sec 3E SS EOY 2010: Levels of Response Marking Scheme (LORMs) 1 Level 1 2 (a) Study Source A. What is the message of the cartoonist? Explain your answer, referring to details of the cartoon. [5] Marks Descriptors 1 Describes the cartoon or invalid inference 2-3 Sub-message(s) Award 2m for answers with insufficient/no source evidence, otherwise award 3m. E.g. The cartoonists message is that ASEAN leaders are not really cooperating although they seem to present a united front. This is evident from the source which depicts the different ASEAN ministers standing in front of the ASEAN logo, presumably linked together in a show of unity. However if one looks closely, only their coat sleeves are linked and not their hands. This implies that they are only cooperating on the surface. 3 4-5 Overall message(s)cartoonists criticism of ASEAN as an organisation Award 4m for answers with insufficient source evidence, otherwise award 5m. E.g. The cartoonists message is that ASEAN is an ineffective organisation as the ASEAN leaders are not really cooperating although they seem to present a united front. He does this by poking fun at the different ASEAN ministers who are drawn standing in front of the ASEAN logo, presumably linked together in a show of unity. However if one looks closely, only their coat sleeves are linked and not their hands. This implies that they are only putting on a show of regional unity and cooperation for the world and are not truly working together.

(b)
Level 1

Study Sources B and C. How similar are these two sources? Explain your answer.

[7]

Marks 1-2

Descriptors Similarity OR Difference, based on source type and/or provenance

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2 3-4 Similarity, based on source content Award 3m for answers for higher quality/quantity. Both are similar as they acknowledge that ASEAN is viewed as a talkshop by some. Source B: ASEAN is seen as a slow moving boat navigating in an irksome manner through the complex systems of government of Southeast Asia. ASEAN colleagues enjoy small talk and jokes as they relax after a long meeting. Source C: ASEAN may really be a talkshop OR Both are similar as they say that the talking is what makes ASEAN work. Source B: It is a mistake to think that they are not concerned with the urgency of the issues at hand. In fact, the unhurried way of ASEAN colleagues at meetings is often a tactic in itself a way to buy time as the proposal on the table might be too drastic for them. Source C: So yes, ASEAN may really be a talkshop, but that is probably the primary reason for its success. 3 5-6 Similarity/Difference in tone Award 4m for answers with insufficient evidence, otherwise award 5m Source B: Author is defending ASEANs slow and relaxed way of discussing important issues. It is a mistake to think that they are not concerned with the urgency of the issues at hand. In fact, the unhurried way of ASEAN colleagues at meetings is often a tactic in itself. Source C: Author uses a tone of caution despite the overall positive assessment of ASEANs effectiveness: However, the past successes of ASEAN are no guarantee of its relevance and utility in the future. 4 7 Difference in purpose Source B: aims to convince Singaporeans that ASEAN is relevant so that they would not dismiss it, to change the common perception of it being slow and ineffective. Source C: aims to convince ASEAN leaders that they should not take ASEANs success for granted and should continue to strive to do better.

(c)

Study Source D. How helpful is this source in helping you to understand the effectiveness of ASEAN? Explain your answer. [6]

Level 1

Marks 1-2

Descriptors Helpful and/or not helpful, based on typicality, source type or provenance. E.g. This source is useful as it is written by a director of research institute.

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2 3-4 Helpful and/or not helpful, based on what the source reveals/ typicality Award 3 marks for stating helpful OR not helpful. Award 4 marks for stating helpful AND not helpful. E.g. It is somewhat helpful as it shows us that ASEAN has been effective in providing opportunities for regional cooperation and dialogue amongst countries. This can be seen in It is the only framework...where Russia and the United States, China, India and Japan, and North and South Korea, with ASEAN at its core, gather together to build mutual confidence and undertake dialogue and consultations on the most vital regional-security issues of our time. (source content) E.g. It is not very helpful, because although it may be true that ASEAN is effective in providing opportunities for regional cooperation and dialogue, that does not mean that it is as effective in fulfilling its other aims, for example that of regional economic integration. (typicality) 3 5 Not helpful, based on one-sidedness of source. E.g. This source is not entirely helpful as it seems overly positive in its assessment of ASEANs effectiveness. It praises ASEANs success in being the only forum outside the UN where the US and North Korea have bilateral discussions, and where various powerful countries with interests in Asia would gather for discussions. As it does not take into account ASEANs possible limitations and weaknesses, I would be sceptical about depending solely on it to understand ASEANs effectiveness. 4 6 Helpful/not helpful, based on lack of reliability by cross-referencing to other sources and/or contextual knowledge

E.g. Source D is not entirely helpful as it praises ASEANs effectiveness in providing opportunities for cooperation and discussion, as it is the only forum outside the UN where the US and North Korea have bilateral discussions, and where various powerful countries with interests in Asia would gather for discussions. However this claim is refuted by Source E which states that the ARF has not played a large dispute resolution role it was not even used as the forum to discuss North Korean nuclearization. Since such an important security issue was not even discussed at the ARF, it shows that there are not enough opportunities that the ARF provide for discussion and cooperation. Sources supporting: B, C Sources refuting: A, E

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(d)

Study Source E. How far does this source prove that ASEAN is not able to fulfil its aims? Explain your answer. [7]

Level 1

Marks 1-2

Descriptors Answers based on source type/provenance, unexplained E.g. No because it is an American source, so it cannot know what is actually happening in Southeast Asia.

3-4

Yes, because of what it shows Award 3m for insufficient evidence, otherwise award 4m. E.g. Yes, it proves that ASEAN is not able to fulfil its aims. This is because it claims that ASEAN is not able to facilitate the resolution of disputes which affect regional security, as seen in ARF has not played a large dispute resolution role it was not even used as the forum to discuss North Korean nuclearization. If such an important security issue was left out of the discussion agenda, then ASEAN would not have been able to fulfil its aim of enhancing regional security and stability.

5-6

Proves OR Does not prove, based on valid cross-referencing Award 5m for weak cross-references, otherwise award 6m. No, it does not. This is because it claims that ASEAN is not able to facilitate the resolution of disputes which affect regional security, as seen in ARF has not played a large dispute resolution role it was not even used as the forum to discuss North Korean nuclearization. If such an important security issue was left out of the discussion agenda, then ASEAN would not have been able to fulfil its aim of enhancing regional security and stability. This is refuted by Source C, which states that Without this platform for dialogue, it would have been very possible that the newly independent nations of Southeast Asia in the 1970s might have erupted in regional conflict, showing that ASEAN has indeed fulfilled its aim of promoting regional peace and security. Thus Source E cannot be taken to prove that ASEAN is not able to fulfil its aims. OR Yes it does. This is because it claims that there is no real discussion in ASEAN about issues affecting regional security, as seen in ARF has not played a large dispute resolution role it was not even used as the forum to discuss North Korean nuclearization. If such an important security issue was left out of the discussion agenda, then ASEAN would not have been able to fulfil its aim of enhancing regional security and stability. Furthermore, this is supported by Source A, which shows that ASEAN leaders are not in real cooperation although they seem to present a

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united front. He does this by poking fun at the different ASEAN ministers who are drawn standing in front of the ASEAN logo, presumably linked together in a show of unity. However if one looks closely, only their coat sleeves are linked and not their hands. Thus, Source E can be taken to prove that ASEAN is not fulfilling its aims. 4 6-7 Proves AND does not prove, based on valid cross-referencing. Award 6m for weak cross-references, otherwise award 7m. E.g. Both sides of L3.

Section B 3. Governance in Singapore (a) How far is government assistance the most effective way to manage the rising cost of healthcare in Singapore? Explain your answer. [12]

Leve l L1

Marks 1-2

Descriptors Writes about government subsidies but without focus on the question Award 1 mark for one detail, to a maximum of 2 marks. e.g. Government assistance is given to public hospitals depending on the class of ward you are staying in. (1m) Describes the given factor OR/AND Identifies/Describes the other factors Award 3 marks for describing the given factor OR identifying/describing the other factors. Award 4 marks for doing both. Government assistance is the most effective way to manage the rising costs of healthcare in Singapore. This is because the government gives different rates of subsidies to the different classes of wards in hospitals. For example Class C wards receive the most in subsidies, of up to 80% subsidy rate. The individual only has to pay 20% of the medical bills. OR Encouraging self-reliance is another effective way in managing rising healthcare costs in Singapore. To encourage Singaporeans to be responsible for their own health, Medisave and was introduced. Medisave is a savings account where a certain amount of money from the worker CPFs contribution is channeled into the Medisave account and this amount of money can be used to pay hospital bills when needed. OR There are other measures to manage rising healthcare costs in Singapore. Schools and workplaces have programmes to emphasize the need to maintain good health. For example, regular physical exercises and a well-

L2

3-4

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balanced diet are encouraged in schools. OR Working with organisations is another measure to manage rising healthcare costs in Singapore. For example, voluntary welfare organisations are given grants to run community hospitals and nursing homes to cater to specific groups of people with special needs. L3 5-6 Explains the given factor OR other factor(s) Award 5 marks for an explanation of the given factor, and an additional mark for any supporting detail, to a maximum of 6 marks Government assistance is the most effective way in the management of healthcare in Singapore. This is because it is the responsibility and duty of the government to provide safety nets to ensure that healthcare remains affordable for most Singaporeans, especially the lower-income group who cannot afford to pay for the cost of medical care. For example, the government gives different rates of subsidies to the different classes of wards in hospitals. For example Class C wards receive the most in subsidies, of up to 80% subsidy rate. The individual only has to pay 20% of the medical bills. In addition, lower-income patients who cannot afford to pay the their hospital bills can also apply for a Medifund subsidy. All these measures ensure that every Singaporean will receive a decent level of healthcare regardless of their financial status, thus helping Singaporeans to manage the rising costs of healthcare.(6m) OR Encouraging self-reliance is another effective way in managing rising healthcare costs in Singapore. This is because by encouraging people to save money in their Medisave accounts, they are better able to pay for the rising cost of healthcare without the need to fork out large amounts of cash. Medisave is a savings account where a certain amount of money from the worker CPFs contribution is channeled into the Medisave account and this amount of money can be used to pay hospital bills and certain expensive medical treatments when needed. Because the people share the costs of healthcare with the government, it lightens the governments healthcare expenditure, in turn reducing the tax burden on working Singaporeans. (6m) (Other examples include Medishield) OR There are other measures to manage the rising costs of healthcare in Singapore. This is because with a healthy lifestyle, Singaporeans can achieve good health and thus reduces the need for medical treatment. Schools and workplaces have programmes to emphasize the need to maintain good health. For example, regular physical exercises and a wellbalanced diet are encouraged in schools. When Singaporeans take responsibility to stay healthy and fit, the demand for healthcare decreases and eases the pressure on rising healthcare costs and resources, making it effective. (6m) OR
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Working with organisations is another measure to manage the rising costs of healthcare in Singapore. This is because it is not possible for the government to provide assistance for everyone, thus this is where organisations come in to lend community support, especially for the poor and needy. For example, community hospitals like Ren Ci Hospital provide rehabilitative care for patients who had previous undergone surgery at the government hospitals, and nursing homes care for elderly dependents. While they receive grants from the government, their operating costs are to a large extent funded by donations by the public. This keeps patients bills low and reduces government healthcare expenditure as well. As a result, this helps both the government and patients cope with the rising cost of healthcare. (6m) L4 L5 7 8-10 Explains the given factor AND identifies/ describes other factor(s) Explains the given factor, AND explains other factor(s) Award 8 marks for an explanation of given factor and another factor, up to a maximum of 9 marks. Award 10 marks for more than one additional factor explained. L5 + reaches a balanced conclusion based on a relative importance of the explained factors Award 11 marks to answers which have an explanation of why the given factor is more or less important compared to another factor. Award 12 marks for any comparisons with another alternative factor. Encouraging self-reliance is the most effective way of managing healthcare costs in Singapore as through this way, Singaporeans are responsible for their own healthcare, this in turn will ensure that resources for healthcare will not be strained, thus government assistance and working with external organisations will be kept at its most optimal level, ensuring the assistance will be given to the most needy instead, therefore enabling costs to be managed effectively.

L6

11-12

3b)

Which measure is better in helping Britain in tackling challenges in the National Health Service (NHS) increasing efficiency or managing government spending? Explain your answer.

Note: Candidates are only required to explain the given factors. Any other factors are irrelevant. Lev Marks Descriptors el L1 1-2 Writes about topic without focus on the given factors Award 1 mark for 1 each detail, to a maximum of 2 marks. Great Britain is a welfare state so the Government looks after its citizen from `cradle to grave. She ensures every citizen has a minimum standard of welfare job, home & healthcare. Healthcare is a public good provided by the Government by the National Health Service (NHS) (2m) Describes the factor(s) but without explaining them Award 3 marks for one factor and 4 marks for more than one factor described

L2

3-4

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E.g. Increasing efficiency is crucial in helping Britain tackle challenges in the NHS. In the 1980s, Britain experienced an increase in demand for healthcare with the growing number of the elderly. Population growth had slowed down causing the taxpayers base to reduce overtime. This process, coupled with the increase in dependencies, had meant that the NHS had insufficient resources to meet the demand. OR E.g. Managing government spending is crucial in helping Britain tackle challenges in the NHS. AS Britain was under the welfare system, the government is expected to make healthcare free of charge to everyone. The government does this by collecting taxes to pay for healthcare expenditure. Over the years, the British governments biggest challenge in managing NHS was to control its spending on healthcare.

L3

5-7

Explains one factor Award 5 marks for an explanation of one given factor, and additonal marks for supporting detail, to a maximum of 7 marks E.g. Increasing efficiency is crucial in helping Britain tackle challenges in the NHS. In the 1980s, Britain experienced an increase in demand for healthcare with the growing number of the elderly. Population growth had slowed down causing the taxpayer base to reduce overtime. This process meant that the NHS had insufficient resources like doctors, nurses and surgery facilities to meet the increasing demand. Thus, Margaret Thatcher introduced the policy of privatisation to increase the efficiency within the NHS by reducing costs and government subsidies to the hospitals . Privatisation would spur the NHS hospitals to be more efficient as they would now have to consider ways to cut out wastage of resources. One example was by contracting out non-medical services such as laundry and cleaning involving the use of private contractors. This process helped the NHS to concentrate on providing medical services. It therefore enabled it to allocate its resources more wisely to meet the healthcare needs of British citizens more proficiently, making it crucial in tackling the challenges in the NHS. (7m) OR E.g. Managing government spending is crucial in helping Britain tackle challenges in the NHS. As Britain adopts the welfare system, the government is expected to make healthcare free of charge to everyone. This poses a challenge as it placed a tremendous financial strain on the government. Therefore in the 1980s Margaret Thatcher tried to manage NHS better by cutting back on welfare benefits such as healthcare. She sought to create a system that would make the individual more responsible for his own healthcare. Managing government spending by cutting subsidies is effective because it would force the British people to exercise more responsibility over their healthcare. It would therefore relieve some of the British governments financial burden in funding the enormous healthcare expenditure in the NHS. ( 7m)

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L4

8-11

Explains two factors Award 8 marks for two given factors explained, up to a maximum of 11 marks. 8-9 marks for only 1 illustrated example and weak links to issue. 10-11 marks for more than 2 illustrated examples and strong links to issue. L4, plus reaches a balanced conclusion based on the relative significance of the factors L4 + In conclusion, increasing efficiency is a better measure in helping Britain to tackle challenges in the NHS as this ensures that the money spent on healthcare will not be wasted and maximised to meet healthcare needs. Furthermore, the British government has more autonomy in increasing efficiency rather than managing government spending as the British people had come to accept the NHS as the most important public good provided by the government, as seen in the public outcry generated when the government reduced welfare benefits for the people. Moreover, with increased efficiency in the NHS hospitals, more resources would then be made available to better meet patients healthcare needs, thus enhancing the NHS capability to provide quality service.

L5

12-13

3. (a)

Conflicts in Multi-ethnic Societies How far is the language policy the most significant cause of conflict between the Sinhalese and Tamils in Sri Lanka? Explain your answer. [12]

Leve l L1

Marks 1-2

Descriptors Writes about the topic but without focus on the question Award 1 mark for one detail, to a maximum of 2 marks E.g. Tension between the Sinhalese and the Tamils began during British colonial rule which favoured the Tamil minority in terms of jobs and education. When Sri Lanka became independent in 1948, the new government which was made up mainly of Sinhalese, introduced policies which favoured the Sinhalese. (2m) Describes the given factor OR/AND Identifies/ Describes the other factors Award 3 marks for describing the given factor OR identifying /describing the other factors Award 4 marks for doing both E.g. The language policy is the most significant cause of the conflict in Sri Lanka. In 1956, Sinhala was declared as the countrys official language, this meant that only Sinhala was used as the language of administration in Sri Lanka. Tamils in the government service were given three years to learn

L2

3-4

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Sinhala or be dismissed. A peaceful demonstration against this policy was disrupted by supporters of the Sinhala language. Rioting occurred and over a hundred deaths resulted. L3 5-6 Explains the given factor or other factor(s) Award 5 marks for an explanation of the given factor, and an additional mark for any supporting detail, to a maximum of 6 marks E.g. The language policy is the cause of conflict in Sri Lanka as the policy discriminated against Sinhalese and caused a further division between the 2 ethnic groups. Under British rule, English-educated Tamils could enter the government service and be promoted, occupying some of the most powerful positions although they were the minority. The Sinhalese on the other hand were disadvantaged as they could not read or write English well. Thus in 1956, the Sinhalese-dominated government of Sri Lanka declared Sinhala as the countrys official language. Tamils in the government service were given three years to learn Sinhala or be dismissed. This made the Tamils upset as they found it difficult to find jobs or be promoted. A peaceful demonstration against this policy was disrupted by supporters of the Sinhala language, leading to rioting and over a hundred deaths. Thus the language policy is a significant cause of the conflict as it led to anger among the Tamils, leading to increased tension and fighting between the two groups.(6m) OR E.g. Another cause of conflict is the issue of citizenship rights. When Sri Lanka gained independence in 1948, the Sri Lankan government granted citizenship only to those who were born in Sri Lanka or those whose fathers and grandfathers were born there. As a result, many Indian Tamils found themselves stateless. This led to dissatisfaction among many Tamils who were brought from India by the British to work on the tea plantations in Sri Lanka. Although some of them returned to India, a large proportion remained in Sri Lanka. They continued to contribute to the economy. However, in return they remained stateless, and were even denied basic rights such as education, jobs, housing and voting. Although there were attempts to address the problem, about 100 000 Tamils remained stateless. This group of stateless Tamils became dissatisfied with the Sinhalese-dominated government, sowing the seeds of discord. When the Tamils demands for an independent state called Tamil Elam was not met, conflict became more likely as a last resort to demand and obtain their basic rights. (6m) OR E.g. Another cause of conflict was the resettlement of poor Sinhalese peasants in the 1950s. Under the resettlement policy of the 1950s, the poor Sinhalese peasants were transferred from the densely-populated southwestern and central areas into Tamil areas. The policy aimed to provide land for the landless Sinhalese peasants to live on and cultivate padi. To the Tamils, the policy was discriminatory and created much resentment as they viewed it as the Sinhalese trying to take away their land. Sinhalese settlers were offered homes and land of the Tamils who had traditionally lived in these areas. Moreover, Buddhist monks and the Sri Lanka Army which were mostly Sinhalese, also came to occupy their lands. The Tamils also felt
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unhappy as they felt that this policy was an attempt to weaken their way of life. With Tamils and Sinhalese living in close proximity, this also created more opportunities for conflicts to occur between the two.(6m) OR E.g. Another cause of conflict was the unfair university admission criteria policy. Before 1970, university admission was based on merit and examinations were in English. This benefited the English-educated Tamils as they scored well in the examinations. After 1970, university admission was no longer based on merit. Instead, Tamil students had to score higher marks than the Sinhalese students to enter popular university courses like engineering and medicine. A fixed number of places were also reserved for Sinhalese. This move angered Tamil youths as they now had to fight harder to obtain a place in the university, which would subsequently help them secure a better job. In fact, due to the new admission criteria, the percentage of Tamil students entering universities after college fell In comparison, more Sinhalese youths were able to enter universities. This unfair treatment only created more tension between the Sinhalese and Tamils. This also led some Tamil youths to support the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam (LTTE) which believed that resort to violence was the only way to demand and obtain Tamil rights, fuelling the conflict further. (6m)

L4 L5

7 8-10

L6

11-12

Explains the given factor AND identifies/ describes other factor(s) Explains the given factor, AND explains other factor(s) Award 8 marks for an explanation of given factor and another factor, up to a maximum of 9 marks. Award 10 marks for more than one additional factor explained. L5 + reaches a balanced conclusion based on a relative importance of the explained factors Award 11 marks to answers which have an explanation of why the given factor is more or less important compared to another factor. Award 12 marks for any comparisons with another alternative factor. E.g. L5 + In conclusion, the university admission criteria policy is the biggest cause of the conflict as the other issues linked to the conflict have had been resolved to some extent, For example, in 2003, Sri Lanka has passed a new Bill to grant citizenship to any person of Indian origin who had permanently lived in Sri Lanka since 1964 and the Tamil language is also declared as a national language. However the unfair university admission criteria is still practised today. And since education is the key for citizens to increase their social and economic standing, this policy further divides the 2 ethnic groups in terms of long-term repercussions compared to the other causes which had already been resolved.

(b) Which factor plays a more crucial role in the cause of the Catholic-Protestant conflict
Northern Ireland divided loyalties or government policies? Explain your answer. [13] Note: Candidates are only required to explain the given factors. Any other factors are irrelevant.
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Leve l L1 Marks 1-2 Descriptors Writes about the topic but without focus on the given factors Award 1 mark for each detail, to a maximum of 2 marks E.g. The Catholics and Protestants see themselves as two different groups. The lack of common identity further prevented understanding and cooperation between the Catholics and Protestants. The religious differences between the two groups have also created tension between them. (2m) Describes the factor(s) but without explaining them Award 3 marks for one factor and 4 marks for more than one factor described E.g. Divided loyalties play a crucial role in causing the conflict in Northern Ireland. Protestants were loyal to Great Britain and supported the continued union of Northern Ireland with the United Kingdom. On the other hand, Catholics pledge their loyalty to Ireland. OR E.g. Government policies play a crucial role in causing the conflict in Northern Ireland. One example of a discriminatory policy is the provision of public housing by city councils. These public houses are partly paid by the government which is largely consisted of Protestants. Very often, large Catholic families in need of housing have to wait a long time to get a house. In some towns, more houses would be given to Protestants than Catholics. This meant that the Catholics would have to wait for many years before they could be given their own houses.

L2

3-4

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19
L3 5-7 Explains one factor Award 5 marks for an explanation of one given factor, and additonal marks for supporting detail, to a maximum of 7 marks E.g. Divided loyalties play a crucial role in causing the conflict in Northern Ireland as people see themselves belonging to different countries and this immensely hampered social cohesion. Protestants were loyal to Great Britain and supported the continued union of Northern Ireland with the United Kingdom. Many of them do not wish to see the country to form a union with the Republic of Ireland as they fear that they would be discriminated by the Catholic majority if that happened. On the other hand, Catholics pledge their loyalty to Ireland and objected to being part of Great Britain. Moreover the Catholics still resent the history of English conquest where Catholics were either killed or treated harshly. As each group pledged its allegiance to a different country, it has prevented social cohesion and heightened the hatred and distrust between the two communities, causing the conflict. (7m)

OR E.g. Government policies play a crucial role in causing the conflict in Northern Ireland as the governments policies were mainly biased against the Catholics causing anger among them. One example of a discriminatory policy is the provision of public housing by city councils. These public houses are partly paid by the government which is largely consisted of Protestants. Very often, large Catholic families in need of housing have to wait a long time to get a house. In some towns, more houses would be given to Protestants than Catholics. This meant that the Catholics would have to wait for many years before they could be given their own houses. This unfairness made the Catholics very angry and caused resentment among the Catholics towards the Protestant-dominated goverrment, contributing the conflict. Furthermore, there were unequal employment opportunities for the Catholics. It is generally more difficult for Catholics to find jobs, especially in the government sector. The Catholics feel that although they may be as academically qualified than the Protestants, they do have the same job opportunities, thus they were not able to have an equal standard of living as the Protestants. This discriminatory policy further drives a wedge between the two groups, leading to greater hostility and anger between them. (7m) (another example for illustration for government policies can be lack of voting rights)

L4

8-11

Explains two or more factors Award 8 marks for two given factors explained, up to a maximum of 11 marks 8-9 marks for only 1 illustrated example and weak links to issue. 10-11 marks for more than 2 illustrated examples and strong links to issue. L4, plus reaches a balanced conclusion based on the relative significance of the factors

L5

12-13

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L4 + In conclusion, divided loyalties play a more crucial role is it is the root of the cause of conflict in Northern Ireland. From the start, divided loyalties had already divided Northern Ireland into two groups. One could also argue that the unfair government policies were a result of this divided loyalty as the Protestant-dominated government was prejudiced against the Catholic minority from the start.

4.

Bonding Singapore

How far is having one common identity the most effective strategy in managing ( Singapores ethnic diversity? Explain your answer. a [12] ) Leve l L1 Marks 1-2 Descriptors Writes about the topic but without focus on the question Award 1 mark for one detail, to a maximum of 2 marks E.g. Singapore is a multi-racial society. Hence it is important that each race must try to understand one another to make Singapore a safe and harmonious place to live in. (2m) Describes the given factor OR/AND Identifies/ Describes the other factors Award 3 marks for describing the given factor OR identifying /describing the other factors Award 4 marks for doing both E.g. Having one common identity is an important way for managing ethnic diversity in Singapore. The policy of multi-racialism promotes equality amongst the races, with no special right granted to any particular racial or religious groups, building a common identity among Singaporeans. OR E.g. Common space refers to the time and place where people come together. Such space provide opportunities for people from different ethnic groups to come together to interact. For example, the common space provided by public housing is one way to promote social cohesion in an ethnically diverse country. OR E.g. Protecting the interests of the minority group is another way to manage ethnic diversity in Singapore. The minority groups, that are the Malays and the Indians, must never be made to feel that their rights and interests are ignored or disregarded. The policy of minority representation gives minority a say in governance.
XMSS/EOY/3E/SS/2010

L2

3-4

21
L3 5-6 Explains the given factor or other factor(s) Award 5 marks for an explanation of the given factor, and an additional mark for any supporting detail, to a maximum of 6 marks E.g. Having one common identity is an important way for managing ethnic diversity in Singapore as Singaporeans, regardless of their race or religion, will be able to see themselves as one people belonging to Singapore. The policy of multi-racialism promotes equality amongst the races, with no special right granted to any particular racial or religious groups. Everyone has equal opportunities to succeed, regardless of their background. Favouring a certain group of people because of their race or religion is prohibited by the constitution. Since everyone is seen as a valued member of the Singapore society, a sense of national identity is created. People are seen as one nation which helps to promote racial harmony and no racial issues will arise as a result of discontentment, therefore ensuring that ethnic diversity is managed well. (6m) ( Another example can be common practices) OR E.g. Protecting the interests of the minority groups is another way to manage ethnic diversity in Singapore as it ensures that the needs of minorities will not be neglected. One example is to ensure they have a say in governance. The Presidential Council of Minority Rights (PRMC) and the Group Representation Constitution (GRC) are two examples of how representation from the minority groups can be achieved. The PCMR consists of members of groups from the minority racial or religious groups to ensure that no racial or religious group is disadvantaged as a result of a law that is passed in parliament. The GRC ensures that at least one of the candidates in the team contesting in the General Election is from the minority racial communities. In this way, whichever party wins the election, a minority member who is part of the team will be a member of the parliament. Thus, the member can raise the concerns and needs of the minority groups in the parliament. Such measures ensure that ethnic minority opinions are heard and valued, thus minimising any possibility of resentment which may arise from biased policies. This ensures peace and harmony among different races. (6m) (Another example includes self-help groups) OR E.g. Another way to manage ethnic diversity is through developing common space. Common space refers to the time and place where people come together. This helps manage ethnic diversity as it provides opportunities for people from different ethnic groups to come together to interact and understand one anothers cultural and religious practices and beliefs. For example, in 1989, the ethnic integration policy was introduced. It puts a limit on the proportion of races in every neighbourhood and block and ensures that there is even distribution of different races in all the public housing estates. Living together in the same neighbourhood provides opportunities for people from different ethnic groups to interact and promote harmony in an ethnically diverse country. Therefore developing common space creates platforms for Singaporeans to interact and appreciate one anothers cultural
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and religious differences, fostering racial harmony. (Other examples include National Service, Educational Grassroots organisations) institutions,

L4 L5

7 8-10

L6

11-12

Explains the given factor AND identifies/ describes other factor(s) Explains the given factor, AND explains other factor(s) Award 8 marks for an explanation of given factor and another factor, up to a maximum of 9 marks. Award 10 marks for more than one additional factor explained. L5 + reaches a balanced conclusion based on a relative importance of the explained factors Award 11 marks to answers which have an explanation of why the given factor is more or less important compared to another factor. Award 12 marks for any comparisons with another alternative factor. E.g. L5 + Building a common identity is the most important way in managing ethnic diversity. This is because building a common identity through helps all Singaporeans see themselves as one people. When all racial groups are according equal opportunities, they would be more willing to interact with other races harmoniously through the common spaces created.

(b)

Which is the more difficult challenge facing Singapore as a multi-ethnic society managing perceptions of different racial groups or threats from external forces? Explain your answer. [13] Marks 1-2 Descriptors Writes about the topic but without focus on the given factors Award 1 mark for each detail, to a maximum of 2 marks E.g. Perceptions of different racial groups can be a challenge to a multiethnic society as in the case of political approaches of the state government of Singapore. (2m) Describes the factor(s) but without explaining them Award 3 marks for one factor and 4 marks for more than one factor described E.g. Differences in the perception of different racial groups is a difficult challenge facing Singapore as a multi-ethnic society. For example, racial riots broke out in 1964. This was due to the different political approaches between PAP in Singapore and the UMNO party in Kuala Lumpur. The PAP called for all races to be treated equally while UMNO wanted special privileges for the Malay community. As a result UMNO launched an antiPAP campaign in the Utusan Melayu, a Malaysian newspaper. They accused the PAP of neglecting the Malay community, for example in the resettlement programme. OR E.g. Threats from external forces can also be a challenge to Singapore as

Leve l L1

L2

3-4

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a multi-ethnic society. IN 2001, Singapore experienced the threat of transnational terrorism. 34 Jemaah Islamiah were arrested under the Internal Security Act for their involvement in terrorist-related activities from 2001 and 2002. Explains one factor Award 5 marks for an explanation of one given factor, and additonal marks for supporting detail, to a maximum of 7 marks E.g. I agree that differences in the perception of different racial groups is a difficult challenge facing Singapore as a multi-ethnic society. This is because lack of understanding among the different racial groups can create suspicion and unhappiness among the people. For example, racial riots broke out in 1964. This was due to the different political approaches between PAP in Singapore and the UMNO party in Kuala Lumpur. The PAP called for all races to be treated equally while UMNO wanted special privileges for the Malay community. As a result UMNO launched an anti-PAP campaign in the Utusan Melayu, a Malaysian newspaper. They accused the PAP of neglecting the Malay community, for example in the resettlement programme. This led to the Malays in Singapore feeling dissatisfied with the Chinese majority. The tension eventually resulted in rioting between the Chinese and Malays during the Muslim procession to celebrate Prophet Muhammads birthday. Thus the differing perceptions of the different racial groups is a difficult challenge as it led to the outbreak of violence which resulted in loss of lives and destruction of property. (7m)

L3

5-7

OR E.g. Threats from external forces like transnational terrorism can also be a challenge to a multi-ethnic society like Singapore as these acts can test the social bonds in Singapore if not handled properly. This is because race and religion may be used by terrorist groups to create ill feelings among the different ethnic groups here. For example, 34 Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) members were arrested in Singapore between 2001 to 2002. In the aftermath, there were mixed reactions among the different racial communities, as some people associated the Muslim community with the JI group. Leaders of the various religious communities had to speak out to allay the suspicions and distrust among the people. As external threats like transnational terrorism have the potential to sow discord and suspicion among the different religious communities in Singapore, it is a difficult challenge to tackle. L4 8-11 Explains two or more factors Award 8 marks for two given factors explained, up to a maximum of 11 marks 8-9 marks for only 1 illustrated example and weak links to issue. 10-11 marks for more than 2 illustrated examples and strong links to issue. L4, plus reaches a balanced conclusion based on the relative significance of the factors L4 + In conclusion, threats from external forces play a greater challenge to
XMSS/EOY/3E/SS/2010

L5

12-13

24
Singapore today. This because transnational terrorism has the most potential to wreck havoc in Singapore due to its insidious nature. Terrorist groups often use racial and religious agenda to further their own causes, which can result in tension and conflict among different racial and religious groups. Despite the regions governments best efforts to stamp out the JI group, it still remains a serious challenge to Singapores racial harmony as the JI has splintered and still continues to recruit followers bent on spreading their extremist and warped idea of Islam. Conversely, potential differences in the perceptions of different racial groups has been effectively managed all these years with the Singapore governments continued effort to ensure that policies are fair and do not discriminate against any racial group. This is seen in the absence of any racial riots in Singapore since the 1960s. Thus, threats from external forces are the more difficult challenge.

XMSS/EOY/3E/SS/2010