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080120044 METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENT LAB

THE KAVERY ENGINEERING COLLEGE


Mecheri, Salem-636453

Department of Mechanical Engineering


080120044- METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENT LAB

Name
Reg No

: : : :

Branch
Year & Semester

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080120044 METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENT LAB

INDEX
Ex.No Name of the Experiment Page No. Marks Awarded

CYCLE - I

CYCLE - II

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VERNIER CALIPER Examples

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CALIBRATION AND MEASUREMENT OF COMPONENTS USING VERNIER CALIPER Exp No: Date:

AIM: To measure the dimensions of the given component using vernier caliper. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Vernier caliper Sample component FORMULA USED: MD=MSR+ (VSCXLC) MD-Measured Dimension MSR-Main Scale Reading VSC-Vernier Scale Coincide LC-Least Count PROCEDURE: Vernier caliper is cleaned with a cloth. The clamping screws are loosened. With the help of slip gauges as standard, calibrate the gauges The given component is fixed in both the two jaws. The component should be perfectly held. The outside diameter of component is noted. Then the inside diameter of the component is measured with the help of knife face. The thickness is measured with the external jaws.

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The length of the component is measured by adjusting the movable jaws. The procedure is repeated for all the components. At least three readings should be taken and then average will give the accurate measurement

OBSERVATION: CALIBRATION OF VERNIER CALLIPER S.NO Slip gauge inserted (mm) Vernier scale reading Least count = 0.02 mm Actual value in Error in

Component-I 1 Inner diameter 2 Outer diameter 3 4 5 Thickness Depth Total length

MSR VSR Main scale Vernier scale (mm) coincide (mm) reading(mm)

MSR+(VSR x LC) Measured Average(mm) (mm) (mm) Dimension (mm)

(mm)

MEASUREMENT

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MODEL CALCULATION: Main scale reading Vernier scale coincides Measured dimension = = =MSR+(VSCXLC) mm

MODEL GRAPH: Graph to be drawn for Actual reading vs Indicated reading for Vernier caliper.

Indicated Reading

Actual Reading

RESULT: The measured dimensions are given as below Inner diameter Outer diameter (mm) (mm) Thickness(mm) Length(mm)

Component-I

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MICROMETER

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CALIBRATION AND MEASUREMENT OF COMPONENT USING MICROMETER Exp No: Date: AIM: To determine the diameter of a cylindrical component to an accuracy of 0.01mm using micrometer to and check the result with digital micrometer. TOOLS REQUIRED: PROCEDURE: 1. The micrometer is checked for zero error. 2. With the help of slip gauges as standard, calibrate the gauges
3. The given component is held between the faces of the anvil and spindle.

Outside micrometer. Cylindrical component.

4. The spindle is moved by rotating the thimble until the anvil and spindle touches the cylindrical surface of the component. 5. Fine adjustment is made by ratchet .the main scale reading and thimble scale reading are noted. 6. Two are more reading are taken at different places of the component. 7. The readings are tabulated and calculated.

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OBSERVATION: CALIBRATION OF MICROMETER Least count = 0.02 mm Actual value in (mm)

Micrometer reading S.NO Slip gauge inserted (mm) MSR (mm) 1 2 3 4 5 Thimble Scale Reading (mm) MSR+(TSR x LC) (mm)

Error in (mm)

MEASUREMENT OF THE COMPONENT:

S.NO 1 2 3 4 5

Position of component

MSR in mm

VSD in DIV

VSR in mm

Output value in mm

Actual vlaue in mm

MODEL GRAPH:
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Graph to be drawn for Actual reading vs Indicated reading for Micrometer.

Indicated Reading

Actual Reading

RESULT: The diameter of the given cylindrical component is ____________ mm.

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DIAL GAUGE

CALIBRATION AND CHECKING DIMENSION OF THE COMPONENT USING


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DIAL GAUGE Exp No: Date:

AIM: To check the height of the machined component with standard dimensioned component using dial gauge. TOOLS REQUIRED: Slip gauge set Dial gauge with stand Surface plate Vernier caliper

PROCEDURE: 1. The slip gauges are built up to the given weight of the component. 2. Dial gauge with stand is placed on the surface plate. 3. The built up gauge is placed under the plunger. 4. The indicator is set to zero. 5. The built up gauge is removed. 6. The given machined component is placed under the plunger. 7. The variation in the height of the component is noted from the reading of the dial.

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TABULATION: Calibration and Measurement

component height =____ mm.

Sl. No 1 2 3 4 5

Standard Dimension (mm)

Dial reading on build up slip gauge (Div)

Dial reading on component (Div)

Variation in height ( Div)

RESULT: The height of the machined component is checked with standard dimensioned component (slip gauges) using dial gauge. The variation in height is ________________ mm.

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SINE BAR

MEASUREMENT OF TAPER ANGLE USING SINE BAR


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Exp no: Date: AIM: To determine the taper of the given part using Sine bar.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
FORMULA USED:

Sine bar Slip gauge Work piece

PROCEDURE: 1. Clean the surface plate, Sine bar and Slip gauges using fine cotton Cloth. 2. 3. Place the Job in the smooth flat surface. Place the sine bar in such a manner that the Lower surface of the Sine bar was uniformly touches the surface whose angle to be measured. Calculate the angle using the Formula.

4.

Where, h = Vertical height of the slip gauge L = Length of the sine bar (200 mm ) OBSERVATION: USING VERNIER HEIGHT GAUGE:
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Test specimen

Vernier Height Gauge Reading (mm) H1 (mm) H2 (mm)

Difference H2-H1

sin

1 2

USING SLIP GAUGE: Test specimen Length of Sine Bar (L) in mm Height of Slip Gauges inserted, mm Taper Angle ( )

1 2

MODEL CALCULATION:

RESULT: Thus the angle in the work pieces were Determined using Sine bar Angle measured in work piece = ---------

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VERNIER BEVEL PROTRACTOR

MEASUREMENT OF ANGLE USING VERNIER BEVEL PROTRACTOR Exp no:


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Date: AIM: To measure the angles of given specimen using bevel protractor.

APPARATUS REQUIRED: Surface Plate, Dial Gauge, Slip Gauge, Bevel protractor, specimen

PROCEDURE:

1. Initially bevel protractor is adjusted as per requirements. 2. Specimen is placed between the blades. 3. Reading noted directly from main scale and Vernier scale 4. For measuring, taper angle of sine bar, protractor is fixed to height gauge. 5. The protractor is corresponding adjusted. 6. Noted reading is tabulated.

RESULT: Thus angle of given specimens was determined.

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GEAR TOOTH VERNIER

MEASUREMENTS OF GEAR TOOTH


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DIMENSIONS Date: Exp No: AIM: To measure the thickness of gear tooth by using Gear Tooth Vernier. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Gear tooth vernier Vernier caliper Gear

FORMULA USED: Depth= (Zm/2)(1+2/Z-COS(90/Z) Width=Zm x sin (90/Z) Outer diameter of gear =(Z+2)m Where, Z-no of gear tooth , PROCEDURE: 1. Find the zero error in the horizontal scale and vertical scale of the given gear tooth vernier. 2. Find outer diameter of the given gear by using vernier caliper. 3. Count the no of tooth on the given gear. 4. Calculate the depth of pitch circle from the top circle. 5. Calculate the module (m) of the gear. 6. Similarly calculate the theoretical width by substituting and no of gear tooth in the formula. 7. The vertical gear tooth vernier is made of point the calculate the depth value. 8. Now the gear tooth, i.e. kept in between in the two jaws of the gear tooth Vernier.
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m-module

080120044 METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENT LAB

9. Observe the main scale reading and Vernier scale coincidence of the horizontal scale. 10. Repeat the observation of different position of the same tooth and calculate the average. OBSERVATION: Least count: Horizontal scale=0.02mm scale =0.02mm Vertical

MODEL CALCULATION: Module = outer dia/(Z+2) Depth = (Zm/2)(1+2/Z-COS(90/Z)) Width = Zm x sin (90/Z) Deviation =theoretical value-actual value

RESULT: Thus the thickness of the gear tooth of the given spur gear is calculated using gear tooth Vernier. Depth of the gear tooth = Width of the gear tooth =
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mm mm
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Theoretical value Actual value

= =

mm mm

TOOL MAKERS MIXCROMETER

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MEASUREMENT OF THREAD PARAMETERS TOOL MAKERS MICROSCOPE Date: Exp No: AIM: To determine the major, minor diameter and flank angle for the particular screw. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Tool makers microscope Work piece PROCEDURE: 1. Determination of the relative position of two or more points on a piece of work. This is measured by measuring the travel of the work table necessary to transfer a second point to the position previously occupied by the first and so on. 2. Measurement of angles: Angles pre measured by successively setting fiducially line simply in the focal plane of the eyepiece along with arm of the image of the angle, or through indicating the angle and noting from a protractor scale the angle through which the line has been turned. 3. Comparison of thread forms with respect to outlines on a glass template situated at the focal plane of the microscope eyepiece and measurement of discrepancies there from. 4. Comparison of the enlarged projected image with a tracing drawn on exact number if times full size and
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affixed to the projection screen.

OBSERVATION: Observations Major Diameter Minor Diameter Pitch Angle Initial Reading Final Reading Actual Reading

MODEL CALCULATION: ACTUAL READING = FINAL READING INITIAL READING

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RESULT: Thus the all dimensions of the given particular screw were measured by using tool makers microscope.

MEASUREMENT SET UP

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MEASUREMENT OF STRAIGHTNESS AND FLATNESS USING AUTO COLLIMATOR Date: Exp No: AIM: To measure the straightness and Flatness given specimen using two axis auto collimator. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Collimator unit, Base, plain reflector, optical Scanner PROCEDURE: 1. Testing square with auto collimator. 2. Level auto collimator unit on a stand a table. 3. Straighten the light. 4. Observe measuring graphical through the eye below. 5. The smallest discussion of linear scale is measured. 6. Bring plain reflector in front of the auto collimator to get reflector. 7. Depending upon the verification in surface. 8. Using micrometer provided for eye piece we can measure the frequency up in lose. FORMULAE: Deviation = Sin (A-B) Where angle in rad & Distance A-B in mm

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TABULATION S.No Distance from Ref (A-B) MSR(Min) Micrometer sec Result Degree Deviations (mm)

MODEL CALCULATION Deviation = Sin (A-B)

Graph: Deviation Vs Distance from reference

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RESULT:

Thus the straightness and Flatness are determined using autocollimator.

PROFILE PROJECTOR

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MEASUREMENT OF THREAD PARAMETERS PROFILE PROJECTOR Date: Exp no AIM: To calibrate the profile projector using given samples which dimensions is measured by micrometer as standard. PROCEDURE: 1. Switch ON the main. The induction glows, then the instrument is ON. 2. Switch ON the toggle switch. For cooling fan below the light house. 3. Toggle switch 2 for light source ON. 4. Select the capacity of the length for precision operation measured and fix that flow the projection head. 5. Place the object (balls) on the glass table. To get the clear image rotate the arm wheel provided at the right side.
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6. After getting the clear image locate the cross wire of the initial point on the image which to be measured, and then the cross wire moved to the final point. Note down the micrometer reading. This is done by using micrometer. 7. Now find the difference between initial and final readings that gives the actual reading.

TABULATION: Observations Major Diameter Minor Diameter Pitch Angle Initial Reading Final Reading Actual Reading

MODEL CALCULATION: ACTUAL READING = FINAL READING INITIAL READING

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RESULT: Thus the dimension of given samples are measured by using profile projector.

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FLOATING CARRIAGE MICROMETER

MEASUREMENT OF THREAD PARAMETERS FLOATING CARRIAGE MICROMETER (BENCH MICROMETER) Date: Exp no:
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AIM: To measure the major diameter of screw thread using floating carriage micrometer. PROCEDURE: 1. Clear all the parts with tissue paper or soft cloth. Put the base (A) on the form elevation table on surface plate level the machine with the help of screw (E) in such a way that the floating top remains steady at any position without gravitational motion. 2. Put floating top (O) on the carriage with two balls between the two stopper fins on one side V groove of carriage (B) and floating top (C). Put one ball on other V groove on other side of floating top between the stopper pins. 3. Insert the micrometer(F) provided with machine in one side of the floating top nearer to observer and tight lever(Y) and screw provided on floating top (C). Insert the O indicator (C) on the other side of the V groove on floating and tight the lever and screw. 4. Now the machine is ready to take the readings. MEASUREMENT AND CALCULATION: Major diameter measurement The dia of the setting master on a cylinder should be nearly same as the dia of the thread gauge. The advantage of using setting master is it gives similarly of contact of anvils and radius error in measurement the setting is held between the centers. The master cylinder is then replaced by the threaded work piece on threaded gauge and then second reading is taken. D-Diameter of setting master. R1 - Micrometer reading over setting master.
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R2 - Micrometer reading of threaded work piece or gauge. Then, Major diameter D+ different between R1 and R2 The +or is determined by relative size of master and work piece.

TABULATION:

RESULT: Thus the major diameter of the screw thread is measured by using floating carriage Micrometer.

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MECHANICAL COMPARATOR

CHECKING DIMENSIONAL TOLERANCES OF THE COMPONENTS USING MECHANICAL COMPARATOR Date:


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Exp no: AIM: To check the height of the machined component with standard dimensioned component using dial gauge. TOOLS REQUIRED: Slip gauge set Dial gauge with stand Surface plate Vernier caliper

PROCEDURE: 1. The slip gauges are built up to the given Height of the component. 2. Dial gauge with stand is placed on the surface plate. 3. The built up gauge is placed under the plunger. 4. The indicator is set to zero. 5. The built up gauge is removed. 6. The given machined component is placed under the plunger. 7. The variation in the height of the component is noted from the reading of the dial.

TABULATION:
=____ mm. THE KAVERY ENGINEERING COLLEGE

component height Page 34

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Sl. No

Dial reading on built up slip gauges in div.

Dial reading on component in div.

Variation of height In mm

RESULT: The height of the machined component is checked with standard dimensioned component (slip gauges) using dial gauge. The variation in height is ________________ mm .
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TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT
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Date: Exp no: AIM:

To measure the temperature using copper constantan thermo couple.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. Thermo couple 2. Temperature measuring setup. 3. Ice cubes. PROCEDURE:

1. Connect the thermocouple supplied at the impute terminal if copper constantan Thermocouple is used. Copper wire must be connected to the terminal and constantan wire to ve terminal. 2. Immerse the junction of thermocouple in ice and adjust the meter reading at 0 C using potentiometer. 3. Immerse the junction of thermocouple in boiling at 98 C by using potentiometer marked max. 4. Repeat the procedure for 2 to 3 times.

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TABULATION:
SL.NO 1 2 3 4 5 ACTUAL TEMPERATURE C INDICATED TEMPERATURE C

GRAPH: Indicated Temperature Vs Actual Temperature

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RESULT: Thus the temperature is measured using thermocouple. MEASUREMENT OF DISPLACEMENT USING LVDT Date: Exp no: AIM: To measure the displacement using LVDT.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. LVDT 2. Micrometer PROCEDURE:

1. Plug the power chard to AC main 230v/50Hx & Switch on the instrument. 2. Plate RED/CAL switch at read position. 3. Balance the amplifier with the help of zero knobs. Without connecting LVDT to instruments. 4. Replace the RED/CAL switch at CAL position.
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5. Adjust the calibration point by rotating CAL knob so display should read 10.00 (i.e.) maximum ranges. 6. Again keep the RED/CAL switch at read position and connect the LVDT cable to instruments. 7. Mechanical zero by rotating the micrometer. Display will read zero this is full balancing. 8. Give displacement with micrometer and observe the digital reading. 9. Plot the graph of micrometer reading.

TABULATION Push side Sl.no Micrometer Reading


1

Pull Side Error Micrometer Reading (mm) Indicated Reading (mm) Error

Indicated Reading (mm)

(mm)

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MODEL GRAPH:

Output

Error

Standard Input Standard Input

Result: Thus displacement has been measured using LVDT. FORCE MEASUREMENT BY USING LOAD CELL

Date: Exp no: AIM:

To measure the force using load cell.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
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1. Proving Ring 2. Load cell 3. Force indicator 4. screw jack 5. Dial gauge.

PROCEDURE:

1. Ensure that proving ring along with load all is perfectly in vertical position. 2. Check and ensure that the axis of screw jacks perfectly aligned with load cell. 3. Ensure that load cell with socket is connected to the rear side of the load indicator. 4. Apply a small load without any slip in the system. 5. Note down the reading of dial gauge of force indicator.

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SL.NO

ACTUAL LOAD APPLIED (KG)

DEFLECTION (DIV)

ERROR

% OF ERROR

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RESULT:

Thus the force measurement has been measured using load cell. Graph: Deflection Vs Applied load TORQUE MEASUREMENT Date: Exp no:

AIM:

To measure the torque using shear type load cell.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. Torque measurement equipment 2. Stand 3. lever 4. stain gauge 5. Weight.

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FORMULA USED:

Calculated Torque = Load x Distance (kg-m)

PROCEDURE:

1. Fix the main frame of transducers rigidity. 2. Connect the cantilever beam with weight pan. 3. Connect transducer wire socket to rear side of indicator. 4. Connect digital indicator at 230V, AC supply. 5. Set zero on indicator, by zero adjust pan provides indicator. 6. Now apply the load gradually and note down reading in upward & downward trend.

DISTANCE: 0.5 METER

SL.NO 1 2 3 4

ACTUAL LOAD APPLIED (KG)

DEFLECTION (DIV)

ERROR

% OF ERROR

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DISTANCE: 1 METER

SL.NO 1 2 3 4 5

ACTUAL LOAD APPLIED (KG)

DEFLECTION (DIV)

ERROR

% OF ERROR

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MODEL CALCULATION:

Calculated Torque =Load x Distance (kg-m)

GRAPH: Observed torque Vs Calculated torque

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RESULT:

Thus measurement of torque using shear type load cell has been carried out.

MEASUREMENT OF VIBRATION PARAMETERS USING VIBRATION SET UP Date: Exp no:

AIM: To study the various parameters involved in the vibrations of a given system. To plot the characteristic curves of the given specimen

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APPARATUS REQUIRED: o Vibration exciter o Vibration pick-up o Vibration analyzer o Power amplifier o Oscillator

PROCEDURE: 1. Connect power amplifier output to vibration exciter. 2. Place the vibration pick up on vibration exciter spindle. 3. Connect vibration pick up cable to vibration analyzer sensor socket. 4. select the range 0-100 by two way switch. 5. Note down the displacement, velocity and acceleration from vibration analyzer. 6. Similarly noted above parameters in frequency range of 0-1000 Hz.

TABULATION Indicator reading S.N o Freque ncy (Hz) Accelerati on (m/sec2) Velocit y (cm/sec ) Displacem ent (mm) Actual reading Velocity (cm/sec) Displace ment (mm)

1 2 3

100 200 300


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4 5 6

400 500 600

RESULT: Various parameters of vibration such as displacement, velocity and acceleration are studied and the following characteristic curves were plotted. 1. Displacement Vs Frequency 2. Velocity Vs Frequency 3. Acceleration Vs Frequency

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