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Verication of regular linear time properties

Prof. Dr. Joost-Pieter Katoen, Dr. Taolue Chen, and Ir. Mark Timmer

September, 21, 2012

Problem 1

1. An NFA that accepts the set of minimal bad prexes:

q

0

q

1

q

2

q

3

(a b) c

(a b c) (a c)

a

b c

(b c)

a

c a

2. First we apply the TS / construction, which yields:

s

0

, q

1

s

3

, q

2

s

1

, q

2

s

4

, q

2

s

5

, q

3

1

A counterexample to TS [= P

safe

is given by the following initial path

fragment in TS /:

= s

0

, q

1

s

3

, q

2

s

1

, q

2

s

4

, q

2

s

5

, q

3

transition system TS:

= s

0

s

3

s

1

s

4

s

5

with trace () = a, ba, ca, b, ca, ca, b

Since

reaches q

3

(a nal state of /), trace () BadPref(P

safe

).

Hence, Traces

n

(TS) BadPref(P

safe

) ,= . By Lemma 3.25, this is

equivalent to TS ,[= P

safe

.

Problem 2

1. L

1

= A, B

q

0

q

1

q

2

q

3

q

4

A, B

A B

A

B

A, B

B

B

2. L

2

= /((AB + C)

((AA + B)C)

+ (A

C)

)

q

0

q

4

q

1

q

2

q

3

A C A

B

B

A

A B

C

q

5

q

6

A C

C

A

Note: We allow more than one initial state! Formally, the automaton

outlined above is given by

/

2

= (q

0

, . . . , q

6

, A, B, C, , q

0

, q

5

, q

3

, q

6

)

where is dened as shown in the picture.

2

Problem 3

Proof sketch: Use a product construction and distinguish three phases which

have to be repeated in an innite successful run innitely often:

1. Wait for the rst component to visit a nal state;

2. Wait for the second component to a visit nal state;

3. Signal that phase 1 and phase 2 have been completed.

Let /

i

= (Q

i

, ,

i

, Q

0,i

, F

i

) for i = 1, 2. Then, we dene / = (Q, , , Q

0

, F),

where

Q = Q

1

Q

2

1, 2, 3

: Q 2

Q

such that

((q

1

, q

2

, 1), A) =

(

1

(q

1

, A) F

1

)

2

(q

2

, A) 1

(

1

(q

1

, A) F

1

)

2

(q

2

, A) 2

((q

1

, q

2

, 2), A) =

1

(q

1

, A) (

2

(q

2

, A) F

2

) 2

1

(q

1

, A) (

2

(q

2

, A) F

2

) 3

((q

1

, q

2

, 3), A) =

1

(q

1

, A)

2

(q

2

, A) 1

Q

0

= Q

0,1

Q

0,2

3

F = Q

1

Q

2

3

We have to prove that /

(/) = /

(/

1

) /

(/

2

):

Let = A

1

A

2

A

3

. . . /

of / of the form

(p

0

, q

0

, i

0

)

A

1

(p

1

, q

1

, i

1

)

A

2

such that i

k

= 3 for innitely many k 0. But then, p

i

F

1

and

q

j

F

2

for innitely many i, j by construction. Hence, the runs p

0

A

1

p

1

A

2

p

2

. . . and q

0

A

1

q

1

A

2

q

2

. . . are accepting runs for in /

1

and /

2

, respectively. Therefore /

(/

1

) /

(/

2

).

3

Let = A

1

A

2

A

3

. . . /

(/

1

) /

(/

2

). Then, there exist accepting

runs p

0

A

1

p

1

A

2

p

2

. . . and q

0

A

1

q

1

A

2

q

2

. . . of in /

1

and /

2

,

such that p

i

F

1

and q

j

F

2

for innitely many i, j. We obtain the

induced run of / on as follows:

(p

0

, q

0

, i

0

)

A

1

(p

1

, q

1

, i

1

)

A

2

(p

2

, q

2

, i

2

)

We need to prove that i

k

= 3 for innitely many k 0.

Therefore, let i

k

= 3 for some k 0 (this happens at least once, as

it happens in every initial state). We prove that there exists a k

> k

such that i

k

= 3:

As p

n

F

1

innitely often, there exists a fragment p

k

, p

k+1

, . . . , p

k+l

such that p

k+l

F

1

, l > 0 and p

j

/ F

1

for j = k+1, . . . , k+l1. By

construction, i

k+l

= 2.

Analogously, q

n

F

2

for innitely many n. Thus there exists a

fragment q

k+l

, q

k+l+1

, q

k+l+2

, . . . , q

k+l+o

with o > 0 such that q

j

/ F

2

for j = k+l+1, . . . , k+l+o1 and q

k+l+o

F

2

. Then, by construction,

i

k+l+o

= 3. To conclude the proof, set k

= k+l+o.

4

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