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# 3.

## FIRST MOMENTS AND SECOND MOMENTS OF AN

AREA
Many engineering formulas and applications such as those relating to strength
of beams, columns, shafts, etc., involve the use of different mathematical expressions
which describe, from the mathematical point of view, the shape and dimensions of
the cross sections. These mathematical expressions are called: geometrical
characteristics.
geometrical characteristic is represented by the cross-sectional area A of the member.
A higher value of the cross-sectional area A of the member means a higher strength of
For structural elements in bending,
torsion etc. there are also other
geometrical characteristics involved
within the strength calculus: the static
moments (first moments of an area) and
the moments of inertia (second moments
of an area).
Fig. 3.1
3.1 FIRST MOMENTS OF AN AREA. CENTROID OF AN
AREA
Consider an area A located in the zOy plane (Fig.3.2). Denoting by z and y the
coordinates of an element of area dA, we define the first moment of area A with
respect to z axis as the integral:

A
z
A y S d
. (3.1)
Similarly, the first moment of area A with respect to the y axis is defined as the
integral:

A
y
A z S d
. (3.2)
We note that each of these integrals may be positive, negative or zero,
depending upon the position of the coordinate axes. The first moments of area, S
z
and
S
y
, are expressed in mm
3
, cm
3
, m
3
, etc.
Strength of Materials
Since in almost all cases the area A
of Fig.3.2 is assimilated to the cross-
sectional area of a beam, a shaft etc., it is
presented as being located in the zOy
plane, the Ox axis being directed along
the beam, shaft etc.
The centroid of area A is defined as
the point G of coordinates z
G
and y
G
(Fig.3.2), which satisfy the relations:
Fig. 3.2

'

.
d
;
d
G z
z A
G
G y
y
A
G
y A S
A
S
A
A y
y
z A S
A
S
A
A z
z
(3.3)
Comparing (3.1) and (3.2) with (3.3), we note that the first moments of area A may be
expressed as the products of the area and the coordinates of its centroid:

;
G y
z A S

.
G z
y A S
(3.4)
When an area possesses an axis of
symmetry, the first moment of the area
with respect to that axis is zero. Indeed,
considering the area A of Fig.3.3, which
is symmetric with respect to the Oy axis,
we observe that to every element of area
dA of abscissa z corresponds an element
of area dA of abscissa -z. It follows that
the integral in (3.2) is zero and, thus,
S
y
=0.
Fig. 3.3
It does also follow from the first of the relations (3.3) that z
G
= 0. Thus, if an area A
possesses an axis of symmetry, its centroid G is located on that axis. If an area
possesses two axes of symmetry (Fig.3.4) the centroid G coincides with its geometric
center.The coordinate axes passing through the centroid of a given area are called
centroidal (or central) axes.
It is to be observed that the integrals involved in relations (3.1) and (3.2) are
actually double integrals, which have to be calculated with the well known
mathematical methods (Fig. 3.5).

; d d d
) (

A D
z
y z y A y S

A D
y
y z z A z S
) (
d d d
.
58
First moments and second moments of an area
Fig. 3.4 Fig. 3.5
3.2 SECOND MOMENTS OF AN AREA
Consider again an area A located in the zOy plane (Fig. 3.6) and an element of area dA of coordinates z and y.
The second moment, or moment of
inertia, of area A with respect to the Oz
axis, and the second moment, or the
moment of inertia, of area A with respect
to the Oy axis are defined, respectively,
as:
; d
2

A
z
A y I

. d
2

A
y
A z I
(3.5)

While each of the above integrals is
actually a double integral, it is possible in
many applications to select elements of
area dA
Fig. 3.6
in the shape of thin horizontal or vertical strips, and thus reduce the computation to
simple integration. This will be illustrated later.
We now define the centrifugal moment of inertia (or the product of inertia) of
area A with respect to Oz and Oy axes (Fig. 3.6) as the integral:

. d

A
zy
A zy I
(3.6)
Relations (3.5) show that the moments of inertia of an area are positive
quantities and are expressed in mm
4
, cm
4
, m
4
etc. On the other hand, relation (3.6)
shows that the centrifugal moment of inertia may be positive, negative or zero,
depending upon the locations of the area relative to the involved axes. It is positive if
the area lies principally in the first or third quadrants and negative if the area lies
principally in the second or fourth quadrants.
We define the polar moment of inertia of area A with respect to point O (Fig.
3.6) as the integral:
59
Strength of Materials

, d
2

A
p
A r I
(3.7)
where r is the distance from O to the element dA. While this integral is again a double
integral, it is possible in the case of a circular area to select elements of area dA in the
shape of thin circular rings, and thus reduce the computation of I
p
to a simple
integration. This will be illustrated later. It is to be noted that the polar moment of
inertia is also a positive quantity, being expressed in mm
4
, cm
4
, m
4
etc.
An important relation may be established between the polar moment of inertia
I
p
of a given area and the moments of inertia I
z
and I
y
of the same area. Noting that
r
2
= z
2
+ y
2
(Fig. 3.6) we write:

,
_

A A A A
p
A y A z A y z A r I d d d d
2 2 2 2 2
or
y z p
I I I +
. (3.8)
If an area has an axis of symmetry,
this axis together with any axis
perpendicular to it will form a set of axes
for which the centrifugal moment of
inertia is zero. Consideration of the
symmetrical section shown in Fig. 3.7
will disclose that, for any differential area
dA, there is a symmetrically placed equal
differential area dA. With respect to the
Oy axis of symmetry, the z coordinates of
dA and dA are equal but of opposite sign,
whereas their y coordinates are equal and
of the same sign regardless of the
position of the Oz axis.
Fig. 3.7
Hence the sum of the products zydA for each such pair of symmetrically
placed elements dA and dA will be zero. It follows, therefore, that the value of

A
A zyd
for the entire area will be zero if either or both reference axes are axes of
symmetry.
3.3 PARALLEL - AXIS THEOREM (STEINERS RELATIONS)
Consider the moments of inertia I
z
and I
y
and the centrifugal moment of inertia
I
zy
of an area A with respect to two arbitrary perpendicular axes Oz and Oy (Fig. 3.8).
We assume to know the quantities I
z
, I
y
and I
zy
, where
60
First moments and second moments of an area
;
2

A
z
A y I d

;
2

A
y
A z I d

.

A
zy
A zy I d
Let us now consider another
coordinate system z
1
O
1
y
1
, translated with
quantities a and b with respect to the axes
Oy and Oz of the first coordinate system.
The problem which arises consists in
determining the quantities
1
z
I
,
1
y
I
and
Fig. 3.8
1 1
y z
I
of the same area A but with respect to the axes of the new coordinate system.
We write:
( ) ( ) +

A A A
z
A b by y A b y A y I d d d
2 2 2 2
1
2
1

; 2 2
2 2 2
A b bS I A b A y b A y
z z
A A A
+ +

d d d
( ) ( ) +

A A A
y
A a az z A a z A z I d d d
2 2 2 2
1
2
1

; 2 2
2 2 2
A a aS I A a A z a A z
y y
A A A
+ +

d d d
( )( ) ( ) +

A A A
y z
A ab ay zb zy A a z b y A y z I d d d
1 1
1 1

. abA aS bS I A ab A y a A z b A zy
z y zy
A A A A
+ +

d d d d
Thus, the mathematical connection between the moments of inertia
z
I
, y
I
and zy
I
of an area A and the same quantities
1
z
I
,
1
y
I
and
1 1
y z
I
calculated with respect
to the translated coordinate system z
1
O
1
y
1
, is described by the following relations:

'

+
+
+
,
2
2
1 1
1
1
2
2
abA aS bS I I
A a aS I I
A b bS I I
z y zy y z
y y y
z z z
(3.9)
where
a is the distance between axes Oy and O
1
y
1
,
b is the distance between axes Oz and O
1
z
1
,
S
z
, S
y
are the static moments (first moments) of area A with respect to axes Oz
and Oy.
If the point O is the centroid of area A, it follows from relations (3.4) that S
z
=
S
y
= 0 and we may write:
61
Strength of Materials

'

+
+
+
.
;
;
1 1
1
1
2
2
abA I I
A a I I
A b I I
zy y z
y y
z z
(3.10)
Relations (3.10) are known as Steiners formulas.
For example, the first relation of (3.10) expresses that the moment of inertia
1
z
I

of an area with respect to an arbitrary Oz
1
axis is equal to the moment of inertia I
z
of the same area with respect to the centroidal Oz axis parallel to the Oz
1
, plus the
product b
2
A of area A and the square of the distance b between the two axes. This
result is also known as the parallel-axis theorem. It makes it possible to determine the
moment of inertia of an area with respect to a given axis, when its moment of inertia
with respect to a centroidal axis of the same direction is known. Conversely, it makes
it possible to determine the moment of inertia I
z
of an area A with respect to a
centroidal axis Oz, when the moment of inertia
1
z
I
of A with respect to a parallel axis
is known, by subtracting from
1
z
I
the product b
2
A. We should note that the parallel-
axis theorem may be used only if one of the two axes involved is a centroidal axis.
3.4 MOMENTS OF INERTIA OF SIMPLE SURFACES
a) Rectangular area
For the rectangular area A shown in
Fig. 3.9, determine the moments of
inertia I
z
, I
y
and I
zy
with respect to the
centroidal Oz and Oy axes.
As mentioned before:

A
z
A y I d
2
.
We select as an element of area (dA)
a horizontal strip of length b and
thickness dy (Fig.3.9). We write:
dA = bdy.

Fig. 3.9
It follows that:
.
12 24
2
8 8 3
1
3
d d
3 3 3 3
2
2 3 2
2
2 2
bh h b h h
b
by
y b y A y I
h
h h
h A
z

1
1
]
1

,
_

62
First moments and second moments of an area
Thus, the moment of inertia I
z
of a rectangular area with respect to the centroidal Oz
axis is:

12
3
bh
I
z
. (3.11)
In the same manner, it follows that :

12
3
hb
I
y
. (3.12)
Since Oz and Oy are axes of symmetry, we have:

. 0
zy
I

b) Circular area
For the circular area shown in Fig. 3.10 determine the polar moment of inertia I
p
and the moments of inertia I
z
, I
y
and I
zy
.
Fig. 3.10 Fig. 3.11
We select as an element of area (dA) a ring of radius r and thickness dr,
(Fig.3.11). The polar moment of inertia of area A is:

32
0
16 2 4
2 d 2 d 2 d
4 4
0
2
4 2
0
3
2
0
2 2
d d r
r r r r r A r I
d
d d
A
p

,
_

.
Thus
32
4
d
I
p

. (3.13)
Due to the symmetry of the circular area, we have I
z
= I
y
.
Recalling (3.8), we write:
63
Strength of Materials

32
4
d
2I 2I I I I
y z y z p

+
and, thus
64
4
d
I I
y z

. (3.14)
c) Triangular area
Determine the moments of inertia for a triangle of base b and altitude h with
respect to an axis coinciding with its base and a centroidal axis parallel to its base.
Select the differential element as shown in Fig. 3.12.
From similar triangles, we have
( )
h
y h b
m

## . The moment of inertia with respect

to z
1
axis is obtained from:
( )

h h
A
z
y
h
y h b
y y m y A y I
0
2
0
2 2
d d d
1
.
12 4 3 4 3
3 3 3 4 3
bh bh bh h
h
b bh

We have thus obtained:
Fig. 3.12

12
3
1
bh
I
z
. (3.15)
To determine the centroidal moment of inertia z
I
, we transfer the known value of
1
z
I
, from the base axis z
1
to the parallel axis z. Since the transfer distance is
3
h
as
shown in Fig. 3.12, we write:

2 3
2
1
bh h
I I
z z

,
_

+
.
It follows that

36 18 12 2 3
3 3 3
2
1
bh bh bh bh h
I I
z z

,
_

. (3.16)
64
First moments and second moments of an area
3.5 MOMENTS OF INERTIA OF COMPLEX SURFACES
(COMPOSITE AREAS)
To determine of the moments for inertia of a complex surface the following steps
have to be covered:
- the complex surface (area) A has to be divided into several component parts
of areas A
1
, A
2
...;
- determination of the centroidal point G of the complex area;
- since the integral representing the moment of inertia of area A may be
subdivided into integrals extending over A
1
, A
2
..., the moment of inertia of
A with respect to a given axis will be obtained by adding the moments of
inertia of areas A
1
, A
2
... , with respect to the same axis. Before adding the
moments of inertia of the component areas, however, the parallel-axis
theorem should be used to transfer each moment of inertia to the desired
axis. This is shown in the following example.
Determine the moments of inertia I
z
, I
y
and I
zy
of area A shown in Fig. 3.13, with respect to
the centroidal axes.
Fig. 3.13 Fig. 3.14
We first divide the complex area A into the two rectangular areas A
1
and A
2
(Fig 3.14) and
denote their centroids and their own centroidal axes by G
1
,G
2
, z
1
, y
1
, z
2
, y
2
respectively.
We may now determine the coordinates z
G
and y
G
of the centroid G of the composite area A,
using, for example, the coordinate system z
1
G
1
y
1
as follows:

; 5 , 1
5 , 1 4 4
4 5 , 1 3
2
a
a a a
a a a
A
A y
i
i
i
i i
G
y
+

(i = 1,2)
65
Strength of Materials

a
a a a
a a
a
a
A
A z
z
i
i
i
i i
G
75 , 0
5 , 1 4 4
5 , 1 4
2
5 , 1
2
2

+

,
_

.
Recalling the formulas (3.11) and (3.12) and using the parallel-axis theorem we may write
the moments of inertia of the composite area A as follows:

( )
( ) ( )
( )
4 2
3
2 2
3
33 , 23 5 , 1 4 5 , 1 5 , 2
12
4 5 , 1
4 5 , 1
12
4
a a a a a
a a
a a
a a
I
z
+

+ +

;

( )
( )
( )
; 2 , 10
5 , 1 4 75 , 0
2
5 , 1
2
12
5 , 1 4
4 75 , 0
12
4
4
2 3
2
3
a
a a a
a
a
a a
a a a
a a
I
y

+ +

,
_

( ) ( )
. 43 , 7
5 , 1 4 652 , 0
2
5 , 1
2 565 , 1 5 , 2 0 4 652 , 0 565 , 1 0
4
2
a
a a a
a
a a a a a a I
zy

+ + +
1
]
1

,
_

## 3.6 MOMENTS OF INERTIA WITH RESPECT TO INCLINED

AXES
In some cases, it is necessary to
determine the moments of inertia with
respect to axes that are inclined to the
usual axes. The moments of inertia in
such cases can be obtained by formal
integration, but a general formula is
usually easier to use.
The problem may be stated as
follows: assuming the values I
z
, I
y
and
I
zy
with respect to the Oz and Oy axes
to be known, determine the values of
Fig. 3.15
1
z
I
,
1
y
I
and
1 1
y z
I
with respect to the Oz
1
and Oy
1
axes inclined at an angle with
Oz and Oy axes, as shown in Fig. 3.15.
The coordinates for a typical differential area dA are given by z and y with
respect to the y and z axes, and by y
1
and z
1
relative to the z
1
and y
1
axes. The relation
between these coordinates can be obtained by projecting the coordinates z and y on
the z
1
and y
1
axes. This gives (Fig. 3.15):

'

+
. sin cos
; sin cos
1
1

z y y
y z z
(3.17)
66
First moments and second moments of an area

By definition, the values of
1
z
I
and
1
y
I
are:

A
z
A y I d
2
1
1 ;

A
y
A z I d
2
1
1 ;

A
y z
A y z I d
1 1
1 1 .
Replacing the values of z
1
and y
1
from (3.17) we have:
( ) ( ) +

A A A
z
A z yz y A z y A y I d sin sin cos 2 cos d sin cos d
2 2 2 2 2 2
1
1

2 2
sin 2 sin cos
y zy z
I I I +
;
( ) ( )

+ + +
A A A
y
A y zy z A y z A z I d sin sin cos 2 cos d sin cos d
2 2 2 2 2 2
1
1

2 sin sin cos
2 2
zy z y
I I I + +
;
( )( ) +

A A
y z
A z y y z A y z I d sin cos sin cos d
1 1
1 1

( ) ( )
2 2
sin cos cos sin +
zy y z
I I I
.
We, thus, obtain:

( ) ( )

'

+
+ +
+
. sin cos cos sin
; cos sin 2 cos sin
; cos sin 2 sin cos
2 2
2 2
2 2
1 1
1
1

zy y z y z
zy y z y
zy y z z
I I I I
I I I I
I I I I
(3.18)
If the relations

2
2 cos 1
sin
2

,
2
2 cos 1
cos
2

## are substituted in (3.18), we may write:

'

+
+
+

+
+

2 cos 2 sin
2
; 2 sin
2
2 cos 1
2
2 cos 1
; 2 sin
2
2 cos 1
2
2 cos 1
1 1
1
1
zy
y z
y z
zy y z y
zy y z z
I
I I
I
I I I I
I I I I
or
67
Strength of Materials

'

+
+

. 2 cos 2 sin
2
; 2 sin 2 cos
2 2
; 2 sin 2 cos
2 2
1 1
1
1

zy
y z
y z
zy
y z y z
y
zy
y z y z
z
I
I I
I
I
I I I I
I
I
I I I I
I
(3.19)
When the values of I
z
, I
y
and I
zy
are known, relations (3.19) permit the values of
1 1 1 1
and ,
y z y z
I I I
with respect to the Oz
1
and Oy
1
axes, inclined at an angle to the Oz
and Oy axes, to be determined without further integration. In a sense, these relations
do for inclined axes what the Steiners formula does for parallel axes.
A simple analysis of relations (3.19) tells us that
1 1 1 1
and ,
y z y z
I I I
are functions
of angle . One could ask: which are the values of angle that make these quantities
(
1 1 1 1
and ,
y z y z
I I I
) maximum or minimum? The angles defining the maximum and the
minimum moments of inertia, also called the principal moments of inertia, may be
found by differentiating (3.19) with respect to and setting the derivative equal to
zero:

'

. 0 2 2 cos 2
2
2 sin 2
d
d
; 0 2 2 cos 2
2
2 sin 2
d
d
1 1
1
1 1
1
y z zy
y z
y
y z zy
y z
z
I I
I I
I
I I
I I
I

(3.20)
We find that:

y z
zy
I I
I
tg

2
2
. (3.21)
Equation (3.21) gives us two values of (
2
and
1 2 1

+
) for which
1
z
I
and
1
y
I

have extreme values. This is why the equation (3.21) is always written as:

y z
zy
I I
I
tg

2
2
2 , 1

. (3.22)
The extreme conditions for
1
z
I
,
1
y
I
(3.20 ) - mean in fact that the product of
inertia
1 1
y z
I
equals zero. In the same time, a second differentiation of (3.20) shows
that:

2
2
2
2
d
d
d
d
1 1

y z
I I
, (3.23)
68
First moments and second moments of an area
which means that a maximum value of
1
z
I
implies a minimum value of
1
y
I
and vice
versa.
Substituting for from equation (3.21) into (3.19) we obtain the extreme
values of quantities
1
z
I
and
1
y
I
, called the principal moments of inertia:
( )
2 2
2 , 1
4
2
1
2
zy y z
y z
I I I
I I
I + t
+

(3.24)
with respect to the axes Oz
1
and Oy
1
, rotated with angle
1
.
In this way we found two
perpendicular directions given by
1
and
2
1 2

+
for which the moments of
inertia of the original area have extreme
values (a maximum value I
1
with respect
to one of these directions and a
minimum value I
2
with respect to the
other direction). Usually, the axis of
maximum is denoted by 1 while the axis
of minimum by 2.
Fig. 3.16
It is important to be mentioned again that the product of inertia of the original
area with respect to the coordinate system 1O2 (Fig. 3.16) is zero.
Axes 1 and 2 are called principal axes.
One could demonstrate that if I
zy
< 0 the axis of maximum is placed in the first
zy
> 0, the axis of maximum is placed in the second quadrant.
3.7 RADIUS OF GYRATION. ELLIPSE OF INERTIA
The term radius of gyration is used to describe another mathematical
expression and occurs most frequently in column formulas. Radius of gyration is
usually denoted by the symbol i and is defined as:

A
I
i , (3.24)
where I is the moment of inertia and A the area.
Thus, we have:

A
I
i
z
z
;
A
I
i
y
y
;

A
I
i
1
1
;
A
I
i
2
2
.
(3.25
)

69
Strength of Materials
The following is a geometric interpretation of this relation. Assume the area of Fig. 3.2 to be squeezed into a long
narrow strip as shown in Fig. 3.17.
Each differential element of area
dA will then have the same distance i
z
from the Oz axis. The moment of inertia
is given by:

A
z
A
z
A i A y I d d
2 2

. d
2 2
A i A i
z
A
z

Fig. 3.17
The strip may be placed on either side of the reference axis, since if i
z
is negative,
squaring it will automatically make it plus. Also, part of the strip may be at a distance
i
z
from one side of the reference axis and the remainder of the strip at equal distance
i
z
from the other side of the axis.
In view of this discussion, the radius of gyration is frequently considered to be
the uniform distance from the reference axis at which the entire area may be assumed
to be distributed. For an area whose dimensions perpendicular to a reference axis are
negligibly small compared with its distance from that axis, the radius of gyration is
practically equivalent to the centroidal location of the area.
The ellipse of equation

0 1
2
1
2
2
2
2
+
i
y
i
z
(3.26)
represents the centroidal principal ellipse of inertia with respect to a certain area A.
Sample problems
1. For the area shown in Fig. 3.18 determine: (a) the centroidal point G of the area A; (b) the
moments of inertia I
z
, I
y
and I
zy
with respect to the centroidal reference system zGy; (c) the
principal axes of inertia 1 and 2; (d) the principal moments of inertia I
1
and I
2
; (e) the
1
and i
2
and (f) draw the ellipse of inertia.
Solution
70
First moments and second moments of an area
We first divide the area A of the whole
surface into three rectangular areas with centroidal
points G
1
, G
2
and G
3
(Fig. 3.18). We observe that
the centroid of the second rectangular area G
2
coincides with the centroid G of the whole area A.
Thus, axes z
2
and y
2
coincide with the centroidal
axes G
z
and G
y
of the whole area A.
Recalling (3.11) and (3.12) and using the
parallel-axis theorem we may write the moments of
Fig. 3.18

4 8
3
2
3
10 9038 , 0
12
30 240
2 30 165 5 , 82
12
165 30
mm I
y

+ +

1
]
1

;
( )
4 8
10 1026 , 1 2 165 30 5 , 82 135 mm I
zy
.
The principal directions of inertia are given by
. 81 , 59
2
; 19 , 30
9038 , 0 1573 , 2
1026 , 1 2
2
2
1 2 1 2 , 1

+

y z
zy
I I
I
tg
Since I
zy
> 0, the principal axis of maximum is placed in the second quadrant (Fig. 3.18).
The principal moments of inertia are:
( ) + t
+

2 2
2 , 1
4
2
1
2
zy y z
y z
I I I
I I
I
( ) ( )
2 8 2 8 8
8 8
10 1026 , 1 4 10 9038 , 0 10 1573 , 2
2
1
2
10 9038 , 0 10 1573 , 2
+ t
+
.
We finally have:

'

. 10 262 , 0
; 10 799 , 2
4 8
2
4 8
1
mm I
mm I
The principal centroidal radii of inertia are:

; 94 , 127
240 30 2 165 30
10 799 , 2
8
1
1
mm
A
I
i
+

71
Strength of Materials

. 14 , 39
240 30 2 165 30
10 262 , 0
8
2
2
mm
A
I
i
+

The principal centroidal ellipse of inertia has been represented in Fig. 3.18.
2. For the composite area of Fig. 3.19, composed of two U-shaped profiles, determine the same
quantities like in the previous example.
Solution
We first divide the area A of the whole surface
into two areas 1 and 2 (the two U shapes) having
the centroidal points at G
1
and G
2
(Fig. 3.19).
From the appropriate tables containing the
geometrical characteristics of rolled-steel shapes
(APPENDIX III) we may get all the necessary
data:

'

; 10 3 , 42
; 10 3600
; 10 248
: 1
2 2
1
4 4
1
4 4
1
mm A
mm I
mm I
y
z

'

. 10 3 , 42
; 10 248
; 10 3600
: 2
2 2
2
4 4
2
4 4
2
mm A
mm I
mm I
y
z
Fig 3.19
In these tables we may also find the location
of the centroidal point with respect to the U-
shaped section (22,3 mm - Fig. 3.19).
Using the coordinate system z
1
G
1
y
1
, we
can compute now the position of the
centroidal point G of the entire area as
follows:
( )
; 85 , 48
10 3 , 42 2
10 3 , 42 3 , 22 120
2
2
mm
A
A y
y
i
i i
G

( )
. 15 , 71
10 3 , 42 2
10 3 , 42 3 , 22 120
2
2
mm
A
A z
z
i
i i
G

+

We have thus located the centroidal reference coordinate system of the composite area: zGy
(Fig.3.19).
Recalling again the formulas (3.11) and (3.12) and using the parallel axis theorem we may
write the moments of inertia of the composite area as follows:
( ) + + +
2 2 4 2 2 4
10 3 , 42 85 , 48 3 , 22 120 10 3600 10 3 , 42 85 , 48 10 248
z
I
; 10 668 , 58
4 6
mm
72
First moments and second moments of an area
( ) + + +
2 2 4 2 2 4
10 3 , 42 3 , 22 15 , 71 120 10 248 10 3 , 42 15 , 71 10 3600
y
I
; 10 30 , 81
4 6
mm
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) + + + + 3 , 22 15 , 71 120 85 , 48 3 , 22 120 0 10 3 , 42 15 , 71 85 , 48 0
2
zy
I

. 10 4 , 29 10 3 , 42
4 6 2
mm
The principal directions of inertia are given by

( )

6
6
2 , 1
10 30 , 81 668 , 58
10 4 , 29 2
2
2
y z
zy
I I
I
tg

'

. 47 , 124
; 47 , 34
2
1

Since I
zy
> 0, the principal axis of maximum is placed in the second quadrant (Fig 3.19). The
principal moments of inertia are
( )
2 2
2 , 1
4
2
1
2
zy y z
y z
I I I
I I
I + t
+
.
We finally have

'

. 10 48 , 38
; 10 48 , 101
4 6
2
4 6
1
mm I
mm I
The principal centroidal radii of inertia are:
; 52 , 109
10 3 , 42 2
10 48 , 101
2
6
1
1
mm
A
I
i

. 44 , 67
10 3 , 42 2
10 48 , 38
2
6
2
2
mm
A
I
i

The principal centroidal ellipse of inertia is shown in Fig. 3.19.
PROBLEMS TO BE ASSIGNED
P.3
For the areas shown in the figures below, locate the centroids of the areas and then determine:
the second moments of the involved areas ( I
z
, I
y
and I
zy
) with respect to the centroidal axes;
the principal axes of inertia 1 and 2 ;
the principal moments of inertia I
1
and I
2
;
the principal radii of inertia i
1
and i
2
, and, finally, draw the ellipse of inertia.
73
Strength of Materials
Fig. P.3.1 Fig. P.3.2 Fig. P.3.3
Fig. P.3.4 Fig. P.3.5 Fig. P.3.6
Fig. P.3.7 Fig. P.3.8 Fig. P.3.9 Fig. P3.10
74