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The examples of the previous sections were limited to members under axial

loading and connections under transverse loading. Most structural members and

machine components are under more involved loading conditions. Even in the case of

members under axial or transverse loading, the normal and shearing stresses on

planes which are not perpendicular to the axis of the involved members, obey

complex and difficult mathematical and physical matters. This is why, before going

further, we have to understand several important basic elements concerning the

theory of elasticity. They will help us to go deeper inside the investigated mechanical

elements or machine components and to find reasonable answers to the problems of

Strength of Materials.

8.1 PLANE STATE OF STRESS

Every elastic body is spatial and, in general, every external loads system is

spatial. Hence, strictly speaking, any strength of materials problem (or elasticity

problem) is a spatial problem. For its solution, we have to consider all the

components of stress, strain and displacement. However, if the body has a particular

shape and the external loads are distributed in a particular manner, we may consider

the spatial problem as a plane one and neglect some of the components.

This will greatly simplify the mathematical aspect of solution while the results

may still be applied in engineering design with sufficient accuracy.

Let us now consider a thin plate of uniform thickness, subjected to loads acting

within the plate middle plane as shown in Fig. 8.1. In such a case the thin plate is said

to be in a plane stress condition.

Fig. 8.1

Strength of Materials

From the thin plate we isolate an infinitely small element in shape of a prism

(Fig. 8.2). For convenience the plate dimension (or that of the infinitely small

element considered) in the Oz direction is taken to be unity.

The problem which arises consists in the determination of stresses at the

arbitrary point O of the plate, on planes which are perpendicular to the plate middle

plane. In other words, we have to determine the normal and shearing stresses on

arbitrary planes BCBC inclined with angle with respect to the Oy axis, as

shown in Fig. 8.2. We assume the elementary area of the rectangular surface BCB

C

to be equal to dA. While the stresses acting on surface BCB

stresses at O, the error involved is small and vanishes as sides OB and OC approach

zero.

On the other hand, due to the action of the external loads P

1

, P

2

,...,P

n

, normal

and shearing stresses develop on the faces OBO

, OCO

and BCB

of the

element shown in Fig. 8.2. These stresses are in fact a direct consequence of the

interaction between the element and the surrounding material of the plate. For

convenience, the element OBCO

manner.

In Fig. 8.3, since the plane

BC approaches point O, the stress

acting on BC will become the stress

acting on the inclined plane

considered passing through the

point O. Now assuming to know

the values of stresses acting on the

planes OB and OC (i.e.

y

,

yx

,

x

,

xy

), we shall determine the stresses

and on the inclined plane BC.

From the summation of moments about point D (Fig. 8.3) we write:

Fig. 8.2

Fig. 8.3

144

Basic elements of the theory of elasticity

0 sin

2

cos d cos

2

sin d 0

BC

A

BC

A M

xy yx D

.

This leads to a relation already known:

yx xy

.

From the mechanical equilibrium of all forces projected on and directions

respectively we have:

F

0 cos sin d sin cos d sin sin d cos cos d d A A A A A

yx xy y x ;

F

. 0 sin sin d cos cos d cos sin d sin cos d d + + A A A A A

yx xy y x

We may write therefore:

( ) ( )

'

+ +

. sin cos cos sin

; cos sin 2 sin cos

2 2

2 2

xy y x

xy y x

(8.1)

Using the relations

2

2 cos 1

sin

2

;

2

2 cos 1

cos

2

,

(8.1) becomes

( )

'

+

+

. 2 cos

2

2 sin

; 2 sin

2

2 cos 1

2

2 cos 1

xy

y x

xy y x

(8.1

)

or

'

+

+

. 2 cos 2 sin

2

; 2 sin 2 cos

2 2

xy

y x

xy

y x y x

(8.1

)

A simple analysis of relations (8.1

and on surface BCB

inclined with angle (and thus the normal and the shearing

stresses at point O about a surface parallel to BCB

could ask: which are the values of angle that make these quantities ( and )

maximum or minimum? These values may be found by differentiating (8.1

) with

respect to and setting the derivatives equal to zero.

145

Strength of Materials

+

0 2 cos 2 2 sin

2

2

d

d

x

xy

y x

0 2 cos 2 sin

2

2

d

d

,

_

xy

y x

. (8.2)

We find that

y x

xy

2

2 tg

. (8.3)

Equation (8.3) gives us two values of (

1

and

2

=

1

+

2

stress has extreme values. This is why, the equation (8.3) is always written as

y x

xy

,

2

2 tg

2 1 . (8.3

)

In other words, the two values of (

1

and

2

) do give us two perpendicular

directions in the plane about which the normal stress has extreme values (a

maximum value

1

with respect to one direction and a minimum value

2

with respect

to the other one). The two extreme stresses

1

and

2

are thus perpendicular to each

other. They may be obtained by substituting from (8.3) into the expression of

from (8.1

). This gives

( )

( )

( )

( )

'

+

+

+ +

+

. 4

2

1

2

; 4

2

1

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

xy y x

y x

xy y x

y x

(8.4)

or

( )

( )

2 2

2 1

4

2

1

2

xy y x

y x

,

+ t

+

. (8.5)

The two extreme normal stresses are called principal stresses, while the

corresponding directions (given by

1

and

2

) are called principal directions.

Returning now to the second equation of (8.1

to and setting the derivative equal to zero, we have

0 2 sin 2 2 cos

2

2

d

d

+

xy

y x

. (8.6)

We thus find two perpendicular directions (

3

and

4

=

3

+

2

stress has extreme values (a maximum value

3

with respect to one direction and a

146

Basic elements of the theory of elasticity

minimum value

4

with respect to the other one). The two directions are given by

equation:

xy

x y

,

2

2 tg 0

d

d

4 3

. (8.7)

Substituting these values of into the second equation of (8.1

) we get to

( )

2 2

4 3

4

2

1

xy y x ,

+ t

, (8.8)

or

( )

2 1 4 3

2

1

,

t

. (8.9)

Since

4 3

2 1

2 tg

1

2 tg

,

,

, (8.10)

the shearing stress reaches its extreme values on planes inclined at 45 with the

planes for which the normal stress reaches its extreme values

1

and

2

.

It is to be noted that the extreme condition (8.2) coincides with

0 2 cos 2 sin

2

xy

y x

.

In other words, on planes coinciding with the principal directions, the shearing stress

is zero.

Returning now to the original thin plate of Fig. 8.2, we may facilitate the

visualization of the

stress condition at point

O by considering an

infinitely small cube of

different orientations,

centered at O and the

stresses exerted on each

of the lateral faces of the

cube, (Fig. 8.4). For a

certain orientation of the

cube B

1

B

2

B

3

B

4

(given by

the two perpendicular

directions 1 and 2) the

stresses acting on the

lateral faces of the cube

reduce to the principal normal stresses

1

and

2

, while the corresponding shearing

stresses become zero (Fig. 8.4).

Fig. 8.4

147

Strength of Materials

Rotating this cube by 45

o

within the plate plane, we get to the cube C

1

C

2

C

3

C

4

on whose lateral faces act both the extreme values of the shearing stress (

2

2 1

max

t

) and the normal stresses denoted by

3

and

4

. In other words, on

planes corresponding to the action of the extreme shearing stresses, the normal

stresses do not become zero.

8.2 SPATIAL STATE OF STRESS

Consider now a body subjected to several external loads P

1

,

P

2

,,P

i

,

P

n

in

mechanical equilibrium (Fig. 8.5).

To understand the stress condition created by these loads at some arbitrary point

O within the body, we isolate an infinitely small element in form of a parallelepiped,

with its edges parallel to the coordinate axes and having the lengths dx, dy and dz

(Fig. 8.6a). We sketch this element at a larger scale (Fig. 8.6b).

Generally speaking, the stress components acting on the element faces are

functions of x, y and z. Thus, the stress components on a pair of parallel faces are not

equal but differ by a differential quantity.

Fig. 8.5

a. b.

Fig. 8.6

148

Basic elements of the theory of elasticity

For instance, if the average normal stress component on a face is

x

, then, that on the

parallel face, due to the variation of x, will be

dx

x

x

x

+

.

Applying the same reasoning like in the preceding section, one could find a certain

spatial orientation of the element considered, so that the shearing stresses on the

element faces to be zero and, hence, the corresponding normal stresses to become the

principal stresses

1

,

2

and

3

(Fig. 8.7).

One could demonstrate that the principal stresses

1

,

2

and

3

(where 3 2 1

) may be computed as the real roods of equation

0

3 2

2

1

3

+ I I I

, (8.11)

'

z y x

I + +

1 ;

(8.12)

2 2 2

2 yz xz xy z y z x y x

I + +

;

z zy zx

yz y yx

xz xy x

I

3 .

We get to this result letting dx, dy and dz approach zero (Fig. 8.6b), so that the

element in form of a parallelepiped is contracted to point O.

Using the same analogy we may also reach to the expressions of the extreme

shearing stresses:

( )

2

2 1

2 1

,

t ;

( )

2

3 1

3 1

,

t ;

( )

2

3 2

3 2

,

t

.

(8.13)

Fig. 8.7

149

Strength of Materials

These shearing stresses correspond to the planes passing through each of the principal

axes of stress and bisecting the right angle between the other two principal axes of

stress. Thus we see that:

the magnitude of the largest shearing stress is equal to half the difference

between the largest and the smallest principal stresses;

the largest shearing stress acts on the plane bisecting the angle between these

two principal stresses and passing through the line of action of the third

principal stress.

8.3 MONOAXIAL (UNIAXIAL) STATE OF STRESS

With the above presented concepts in mind, we may now return to the

monoaxial state of stress. This is in fact a plane state of stress for which

0

y

and

0

yx xy

.

Let us consider again the case of a member under axial loading (Fig. 8.8).

From this member we detach an infinitely small element in shape of a prism and, for

convenience, we represent it in plane, separately (Fig. 8.8b). This element is in fact

the one represented in Fig. 8.3, making

y =

yx =

xy

= 0. We note therefore that the

conditions of stress in the member may be described as shown in Fig. 8.8b. The only

stresses exerted on the face OC of the prism (which is perpendicular to the x axis) are

the normal stresses

x

. However, on planes inclined with an angle , normal and

shearing stresses (, ) develop. We thus conclude that the same loading condition

may lead to different interpretations of the stress condition at a given point,

depending upon the orientation of the plane BC (Fig. 8.8b). Using equation (8.3)

y x

xy

2

2 tg

1,2 ,

with

0

y xy

, we find that

a. b.

Fig. 8.8

150

Basic elements of the theory of elasticity

0

1

;

2 2

1 2

+

.

In other words, the two principal directions are parallel to the axes Ox and Oy. The

corresponding principal stresses

1

and

2

are (Eq. 8.5):

( )

x

x

xy y x

y x

,

4

2

2

1

2 2

1

2

2 1

t + t

+

,

which finally gives:

'

.

x

0

;

2

1

(8.14)

In the same time, using equation (8.9), the maximum shearing stress is given by

2 2

2 1 x

max

t

t

, (8.15)

acting on a plane inclined at 45

o

with Oy axis ( = 45

o

, Fig. 8.8).

8.4 PURE SHEAR STATE

Let us assume that a pure state of stress exists at an arbitrary point O of a body

subjected to several external loads in mechanical equilibrium. In such a case

x

=

y =

0, the pure state of stress being

defined by the stress components

xy

=

yx

as shown in Fig. 8.9. Using

equation (8.3

)

y x

xy

,

2

2 tg

2 1 ,

with

x

=

y

= 0, we find that

Fig. 8.9

151

Strength of Materials

'

4

3

2 4

4

2

1

The principal stresses are given by:

( )

xy xy y x

y x

,

t + t

+

2 2

2 1

4

2

1

2

.

In other words, this means that a pure shear state is equivalent to a state of

stress consisting in a tensile stress

1

and a compressive stress

2

of the same

magnitude (

1

=

xy

;

2

= -

xy

). The principal stresses

1

and

2

act on planes inclined at

45

o

and 135

o

with Ox axis as shown in Fig. 8.9.

8.5 GENERALIZED HOOKES LAW

First of all we have to recall that, for a member in tension or compression

which undergoes small deformations, involving only the straight-line portion of the

corresponding stress-strain diagram, the Hookes law may be written in its simple

form as follows:

E

. (8.16)

As mentioned in the preceding sections, E is called the modulus of elasticity of the

material involved. In other words, the validity of such a law means that the stress is

directly proportional to the strain .

In the same manner, for values of the shearing stress () which do not exceed

the proportional limit in shear (in case of members subjected to shear) the Hookes

law for shearing stress and strain may be written as

G

, (8.17)

where G is called the shear modulus of the material involved.

If a rectangular coordinate system Oxyz is being used, the quantities in the

above two relations may become

x

,

y

,

z

,

x

,

y

,

z

,

xy

,

xz

,

yz

,

xy

,

xz

,

yz

and

152

Basic elements of the theory of elasticity

'

.

;

;

;

;

;

yz yz

xz xz

xy xy

z z

y y

x x

G

G

G

E

E

E

(8.18)

Let us now consider a body (made of a homogeneous isotropic material)

subjected to several external loads in mechanical equilibrium P

1

, P

2

,, P

k

, P

n

(Fig.

8.10a).

We assume that the most general state of stress occurs within the body, due to

the action of the external loads.

This means that, if we isolate

an elementary parallelepiped from

the body, with its edges parallel to

the coordinate axes, normal and

shearing stresses develop on each

face of such a parallelepiped (Fig.

8.10b). For convenience, the

variation of stresses from one face to

the other parallel face has been

neglected.

Let us now consider first only the effect of the stress component

x

(Fig. 8.11).

a. b.

Fig. 8.10

Fig. 8.11

153

Strength of Materials

We recall that

x

causes a normal strain

E

x

x

in the Ox direction and strains equal

to

E

x

E E E

x

x z

x

x y

x

x

; ;

. (8.19)

Similarly, the stress component

y

, if applied separately will cause a strain

E

y

in the

Oy direction and strains

E

y

in the other two directions. Finally, the stress

component

z

causes a strain

E

z

E

z

in the Ox and

Oy directions. We write

E E E

y

z

y

y

y

y x

; ; ; (8.20)

E E E

z

z

z

y

z

z x

; ;

. (8.21)

Combining the results obtained, we may write that the components of strain

corresponding to a multiaxial loading of the parallelepiped involved (the state in

which only the normal stresses

x

,

y

and

z

act, being all different from zero is

referred to as a multiaxial loading Fig. 8.12) are

( ) [ ]

( ) [ ]

( ) [ ]

'

+ + + +

+ + + +

+ + +

.

1

;

1

;

1

y x z

z

y

x

z z z z

z x y

z

y

x

y y y y

z y x

z

y

x

x x x x

E E E E

E E E E

E E E E

(8.22)

154

action of

x

action of

y

action of

z

Basic elements of the theory of elasticity

These relations are referred to as the

generalized Hookes law. They are valid

only as long as the stresses do not exceed

the proportional limit, and as long as the

deformations involved remain small.

It is important to mention again that a positive value for a normal stress

component signifies tension, while a negative value signifies compression.

We are now in the position to complete the generalized Hookes law

corresponding to the state of stress of the parallelepiped sketched in Fig. 8.10b, by

adding the shearing strains

xy

,

xz

, and

yz

as follows (Fig. 8.13):

G G G

yz

yz

xz

xz

xy

xy

; ;

. (8.23)

We conclude therefore that relations (8.22) and (8.23) represent the complete

form of the generalized Hookes law for a homogeneous isotropic material.

For a plane state of stress (

z

= 0,

xz

=

yz

= 0) the generalized Hookes law

becomes:

[ ]

[ ]

[ ] ;

1

;

1

;

1

x z

x y y

y x x

E

E

E

G

xy

xy

.

(8.24)

A simple examination of the relations (8.22) and (8.23) might lead us to

believe that three distinct constants E, G and must first be determined

experimentally, if we are to predict the deformation caused in a given material by an

arbitrary combination of stresses. Actually, only two of these constants need to be

determined experimentally for any given material. But this will be discussed later,

when a relation among E, G and will be found.

Fig. 8.12

155

Strength of Materials

8.6 STRAIN ENERGY

Consider a solid deformable body subjected to several external loads P

1

,

P

2

,,

P

k

,

P

n

in mechanical equilibrium (Fig. 8.14). If the loads applied increase slowly from

zero up to their nominal values, the loads application points A, B, K, N displace to

Fig. 8.13

156

Basic elements of the theory of elasticity

different positions A', B', K', N' respectively, an external work L being done in this

way (Fig. 8.14).

The work done by the applied loads P

1

,

P

2

,,P

k

,

P

n

must result in the increase of

some energy associated with the deformation of the body. This energy is referred to

as the strain energy of the body involved. We denote this energy by U. If the

deformations of the body do not exceed the elastic limit of the material, then, the

storaged strain energy U will be completely released to the surrounding environment

when the external loads P

1

,

P

2

,, P

k

,

P

n

are removed. In such a case U is called the

elastic strain energy. On the other hand, we may consider that the whole performed

external work is completely transformed into strain energy. We write therefore

U L

. (8.25)

8.6.1 ELASTIC STRAIN ENERGY UNDER AXIAL LOADING

Consider a straight rod BC of length , fixed at one end and subjected to an

axial external force P as shown in Fig.

8.15. We assume that the rod material

obeys the Hookes law and the

proportional limit is not exceeded. We

do also assume that the force P is

applied statically (P does slowly

increase from zero up to its nominal

value, as shown in Fig. 8.16).

Since the material does not exceed the proportional limit, during the

application of force P, the axial force N in the rod will increase directly proportional

to the horizontal displacement u of point C as shown in Fig. 8.17a.

Fig. 8.14

Fig. 8.15

157

Strength of Materials

When N reaches the value P, the

displacement u reaches the final value

of the rod elongation . In the same

manner the normal stress in the rod,

during the application of force P, does

slowly increase and directly

proportional to the normal strain , as

shown in Fig. 8.17b.

The work done by force P, as the rod elongates is equal to the hachured area

located under the force deformation diagram (Fig. 8.17a). We may write therefore:

0

2

d

P

u N L

. (8.26)

The elastic strain energy under axial loading is

V

A A A P

L U

2 2 2 2 2

, (8.27)

where

A V

represents the volume of the rod. Since the Hookes law is valid (

E

), we may also write

V

E

V

E

V U

2 2 2

2

. (8.28)

Work and energy are expressed in the same units, obtained by multiplying

units of length by units of force. Thus, if the International System metric units are

used, work and energy are expressed in

m N

, this unit being called a joule (J).

Returning now to the relations (8.27) and (8.28), we observe that the strain

energy depends upon the dimensions of the rod involved. To eliminate the effect of

size and to direct our attention to the properties of the material we shall define the

concept of elastic strain energy per unit volume. This quantity is referred to as the

elastic strain-energy density and is denoted by D

U

.

We write therefore

E V

U

U

D

2 2

2

. (8.29)

In this way the elastic strain energy absorbed by an infinitely small element of

material of volume dV is

Fig. 8.16

a. b.

Fig. 8.17

158

Basic elements of the theory of elasticity

V

E

V V U U

D

d

2

d

2

d d

2

. (8.30)

Thus, the total strain energy U

t

of a body under axial loading is

V V V

D t

V

E

V V U U d

2

d

2

d

2

. (8.31)

8.6.2 SHEARING STRESSES ELASTIC STRAIN ENERGY

If a material is subjected to plane shearing stresses (Fig. 8.18) the elastic strain

energy may be computed in a similar manner.

For such a case, the elastic strain energy density may be written therefore as

G

U

D

2 2

2

. (8.32)

Thus, the total elastic strain energy U

t

of a body under shearing stresses is

V V

t

V

G

V U d

2

d

2

2

. (8.33)

where V is the volume of the body involved.

8.6.3 STRAIN ENERGY FOR A GENERAL STATE OF STRESS

In the preceding sections we have determined the expression of the elastic

strain energy of a body under normal and shearing stresses. Let us now consider a

body subjected to several external loads in mechanical equilibrium (Fig. 8.19a).

Fig. 8.18

159

Strength of Materials

We do also assume that the most general state of stress develops in the body due to

the action of the external loads. Now we shall isolate an elementary parallelepiped

from the body (Fig. 8.19b). In such a case the general state of stress is characterized

by the six stress components

x

,

y

,

z

,

xy

,

xz

, and

yz

(for convenience, in Fig. 8.19b,

the stresses have been represented only on the visible faces of the elementary

parallelepiped considered). If the body behaves linear elastically, the elastic-strain

energy density for a general state of stress may be obtained by adding the expressions

given within the preceding sections. In this way, the elastic strain-energy density may

be expressed as follows:

2 2 2 2 2 2

yz yz

xz xz

xy xy

z z

y y

x x

D

U

+ + + + + . (8.34)

Recalling the expressions representing the Hookes law for a homogeneous,

elastic and isotropic body:

( ) [ ]

( ) [ ]

( ) [ ]

'

+

+

+

.

1

;

1

;

1

y x z z

z x y y

z y x x

E

E

E

G G G

yz

yz

xz

xz

xy

xy

; ;

and substituting for the strain components

x

,

y

,

z

,

xy

,

xz

,

yz

into (8.34), we obtain

the elastic strain-energy density as follows:

a. b.

Fig. 8.19

160

Basic elements of the theory of elasticity

[ ] ( ) ( )

2 2 2 2 2 2

2

1

2

1

yz xz xy z y z x y x z y x D

G E E

U

+ + + + + + +

. (8.35)

If the principal axes are used as coordinate axes, the shearing stresses become

zero and (8.35) reduces to

( ) ( )

3 2 3 1 2 1

2

3

2

2

2

1

2

1

+ + + +

E E

U

D

. (8.36)

Thus, the total elastic strain energy (U

t

) of a body under the most general stress

condition may be written as

V

D t

V U U d

, (8.37)

where V is the volume of the body involved and U

D

the elastic strain-energy density

mentioned above.

8.6.4 ELASTIC STRAIN-ENERGY DENSITY ASSOCIATED WITH A

CHANGE IN VOLUME. ELASTIC STRAIN-ENERGY DENSITY

ASSOCIATED WITH A DISTORTION (A CHANGE IN SHAPE)

Due to the action of the external loads a solid body changes both its volume and

its shape. In this way we may separate the elastic-strain energy density at a given

point of the body into two components:

a component U

v

associated with a change in volume of the material at that

point;

a component U

S

associated with a change in shape (a distortion) of the material

at the same point.

A given state of stress may be obtained by superposing two states of stress as shown

in Fig. 8.20, where

1

,

2

,

3

are the principal stresses and

ave

(or

) is the average

value of the principal stresses:

+ +

3

3 2 1

ave

. (8.38)

a. b. c.

Fig. 8.20

161

Strength of Materials

The state of stress described in Fig. 8.20b tends to change the volume of the element,

but not its shape, since all the faces of the element are subjected to the same stress

ave

(or

). The state of stress described in Fig. 8.20c tends to change the shape of the

element.

Recalling (8.36), the elastic-strain energy density associated with the state of

stress described in Fig. 8.20b may be written as

( ) ( ) + + + +

3 2 3 1 2 1

2

3

2

2

2

1

2

1

E E

U

V

( ) ( ) + + + +

E E

2

3

2

2

2

1

2

1

( )

( )

,

_

+ +

2

3 2 1

2 2 2

3

2 1

2

3

2

2 1 3 3

2

3

E E E E

( )

2

3 2 1

6

2 1

+ +

E

. (8.39)

In the same manner, the elastic strain-energy density associated with the state of

stress described in Fig. 8.20c, may be written as:

( ) ( ) ( )

2

3

2

2

2

1 3 2 3 1 2 1

2

3

2

2

2

1

6

2 1

2

1

+ +

+ + + +

E E E

U U U

V D S ,

which finally gives

( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]

2

3 2

2

3 1

2

2 1

6

1

+ +

+

E

U

S (8.40)

or

( )

3 2 3 1 2 1

2

3

2

2

2

1

3

1

+ +

+

E

U

S . (8.41)

8.6.5 RELATION AMONG E, G AND

Consider a rectangular plate of uniform thickness, made of a homogeneous and

isotropic material (Fig. 8.21). The plate is assumed to be in a plane stress condition,

being subjected to tension about Ox axis ( 0

+

x ) and to compression about Oy axis

( 0

y ) as shown in the figure.

162

Basic elements of the theory of elasticity

Recalling now the

pure shear state

properties described in

section 8.4, the stress

condition mentioned above

is equivalent to a pure shear

state at 45

o

, as shown in Fig.

8.21.

Since the elastic-strain energy densities associated with the two states of stress

have the same value, we may write

II I D D

U U

, (8.42)

where

( ) ( ) + + + +

3 2 3 1 2 1

2

3

2

2

2

1

2

1

E E

U

I D

( ) ( ) [ ] ( ) ( ) + +

0 0

2

0

2

0 2 1

2

2

2

1

2

1

2

1

E E E E

( )

+ + 1

2

0

2

0

2

0

E E E

,

and (8.35)

[ ] ( ) ( )

G G G E E

U

xy

yz xz xy z y z x y x z y x DII

2 2 2

1

2

1

2

0

2

2 2 2 2 2 2

+ + + + + + + .

We may write therefore:

( )

G E 2

1

2

0

2

0

+

.

It thus follows that

( ) +

1 2

E

G

. (8.43)

This relation may be used to determine one of the constants E, G or from the other

two.

Fig. 8.21

163

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